A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is the predominant proteolytic activity in the enamel matrix. The enzyme has a high specificity for dental enamel matrix protein AMELOGENIN.
The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Liquid components of living organisms.
An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.
An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
Plagioclase is Ab83-86 An5-15 Or7-2. Ca-phosphate (merrillite and Cl-apatite). Chromite: Cr# (100× molar Cr/[Cr + Al]) = 82. ... Numerous pockets with chromite, plagioclase and phosphate (merrilite and Cl-apatite). Kamacite, with deformed Neumann bands, ...
The most common phosphate is the apatite group; common species within this group are fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F), chlorapatite ( ... The phosphate minerals are characterized by the tetrahedral [PO4]3− unit, although the structure can be generalized, and ... Other important mineral groups include the native elements, sulfides, oxides, halides, carbonates, sulfates, and phosphates. ... phosphates, and organic compounds. Most non-silicate mineral species are rare (constituting in total 8% of the Earth's crust), ...
... , Mg2PO4(OH)·3H2O, is a rare, hydrated, magnesium phosphate mineral. It was first described by Kapustin et al., and ... It is associated with collinsite, magnesite, dolomite, hydrotalcite, apatite, magnetite, and forsterite. Anthony J W, Bideaux R ...
Some forms contain calcium phosphate and others have calcium carbonate. See Cordua, W.S. "Apatite Ca5(PO4, CO3)3(F, Cl, OH) ... apatite containing calcium phosphate in the primary biomineralized layer; and a complex mixture in the innermost layer, ... The Lingulida and Discinida, combined in the Lingulata, have shells made of chitin and calcium phosphate. A three-part scheme, ... "Brachiopoda". Marine Species Identification Portal : Brachiopoda of the North Sea Brachiopods "Apatite" is strictly defined in ...
Apatite formed through phosphate modification of exposed rocks underwater. Other minerals include anhydrite, celestite, ... Several different layers of phosphate modification have been observed during the Albian alone and this process may have begun ... After the drowning, crusts formed by ferromanganese and by phosphate-modified rocks developed on exposed surfaces at Resolution ... some of which were later modified by phosphate. Resolution Guyot was informally known as Huevo Guyot before it was renamed ...
The deposit also contains lesser phosphate mineralisation associated with apatite. Panda Hill was first developed for niobium ... The Panda Hill Carbonatite is an apatite and pyrochlore bearing sovite carbonatite located in the Mbeya District of Tanzania. ... Zablon, Andrew (10 December 2013). "Tanzania to map its phosphate deposits". East African Business Week. Retrieved 25 February ...
Some sulfides and phosphates (mainly apatite) may also be present. Alkali feldspar granites generally occur with other alkali- ...
The teeth consist of easily fossilized calcium phosphate, an apatite. When a shark dies, the decomposing skeleton breaks up, ... scattering the apatite prisms. Preservation requires rapid burial in bottom sediments. Among the most ancient and primitive ...
Apatite (phosphate carbonate) *enamel (Vertebrate teeth). *Vertebrate bone. *conodonts. Astrobiology[edit]. It has been ... In terms of taxonomic distribution, the most common biominerals are the phosphate and carbonate salts of calcium that are used ... The aim of biomimetics is to mimic the natural way of producing minerals such as apatites. Many man-made crystals require ... Among metazoans, biominerals composed of calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate or silica perform a variety of roles such as ...
Other rocks found on Lo-En are chalk, limestone, manganese crusts, phosphate and sandstone. The geologic history of Lo-En ... Minerals contained in the rocks include apatite, biotite, clinopyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite and plagioclase. Strong alteration ... The previously emplaced limestones also underwent phosphate reactions as they were exposed on the seafloor, and some of the ... some of which were later modified by phosphate. The name "Lo-En" is a reference to the hibiscus tree. The seamount was formerly ...
"Fission Track Dating of Phosphate Minerals and the Thermochronology of Apatite". Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. 48 (1 ... Others include potassium-argon and argon-argon dating in apatite, and (U-Th)/He dating zircon and apatite. Radiometric dating ... Potassium-Argon/Argon-Argon dating is applied in thermochronology in order to find the age of the minerals, such as apatite. ... Farley, K. A. (2000-02-10). "Helium diffusion from apatite: General behavior as illustrated by Durango fluorapatite". Journal ...
Apatite - a major source of slow release of phosphate in acidic soils. Carbonate - contains liming materials used to solve ... Microbial solubilization of rock phosphate through fungi has been found to be able to break down inorganic phosphate into ... "Mycorrhizal Fungi Stimulate Uptake of Soluble and Insoluble Phosphate Fertilizer from a Phosphate-Deficient Soil". The New ... Rock phosphate is mined from clay deposits that contain phosphorus. It can be found on across South Africa, Canada, sea beds, ...
The calcium phosphate mineral apatite is a common accessory minerals of S-type granites. It is typically spatially associated ... For example, apatite occurs in S-type granites in greater modal abundance and as larger, discrete crystals than in the I-type ... Figure 6 is a plane polarized light photomicrograph showing apatite crystals (clear) included in a brown biotite grain from ... Accessory minerals commonly observed in S-type granites include zircon, apatite, tourmaline, monazite and xenotime. Monazite is ...
Weathering supergene enrichment of an apatite rich carbonatite in Ontario has produced a significant eluvial phosphate ore ... Supergene Phosphate Enrichment in Carbonatite-Derived Eluvial Sediments: Agrium Phosphate Mine, Kapuskasing, Ontario, Canada, ...
... is a hexagonal colorless crystal in the chemical class phosphates and the group apatite. It is found in certain parts ... The phosphate group in alforsite forms a regular tetrahedron. It is found crystallizing in the massive metasedimentary rock, ... Alforsite is a barium phosphate chloride mineral with formula: Ba5(PO4)3Cl. It was discovered in 1981, and named to honor ... Alforsite is a constituent of the apatite group of minerals. It crystallizes in the hexagonal crystal system with a point group ...
In 1871, he discovered apatite in the township of Loughborough, Ontario. In 1872, he reported phosphate deposits in Ottawa ... Vennor resigned from the Geological Survey of Canada in 1881, giving the reason that he had interests in land for phosphate ...
Struvite stones are composed of a combination of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) and calcium carbonate-apatite. ... can be sustained only when ammonia production is increased and the urine pH is elevated to decrease the solubility of phosphate ...
The anion can replace phosphate PO3− 4 in synthetic variants of the minerals apatite and brownmillerite. The manganate(V) anion ... doi:10.1006/jssc.1999.8394 Grisafe, D.A. and Hummel, F.A. (1970): "Pentavalent ion substitutions in the apatite structure, part ... substituted apatites A10((B, Mn)O4)6F2, A = Ba, Sr, Ca; B= P, V". Journal of Solid State Chem.istry, volume 146, issue 2, pages ...
Thus, the presence of apatite in rock-sections is established by covering a bare rock-section with ammonium molybdate solution ... A turbid yellow precipitate forms over the crystals of the mineral in question (indicating the presence of phosphates). Many ...
The Ca/P ratio is often used in the discussion of calcium phosphate phases. Stoichiometric apatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 has a Ca/P ... The sites occupied solely by phosphate anions in stoichiometric hydroxyapatite, are occupied by phosphate or hydrogen phosphate ... "Calcium phosphate apatites with variable Ca/P atomic ratio I. Synthesis, characterisation and thermal stability of powders". ... Naturally occurring apatites can, however, also have brown, yellow, or green colorations, comparable to the discolorations of ...
Phosphorus occurs in minerals of the apatite family which are the main components of the phosphate rocks. Arsenic makes up 1.5 ... Phosphate fertilizer helps feed much of the world. Arsenic was historically used as a Paris green pigment, but is not used this ... Phosphate deficiency is a problem known as hypophosphatemia. A typical 70 kg human contains 480 g of phosphorus. Arsenic ... Phosphorus in the form of phosphates occur in compounds important to life, such as DNA and ATP. Humans consume approximately 1 ...
... is a phosphate mineral belonging to the apatite, phosphate group, with formula CaBe(PO4)(F,OH). It forms monoclinic ... It is found in many parts of the world, often in pegmatites and associated with other apatite minerals. It was first described ...
... is relatively new phosphate minerals along with amblygonite, turquoise and apatite that are used as gemstones. ... Frost, R.L.; Xi, Y (2012). "Molecular structure of the phosphate mineral brazilianite NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4-A semi-precious jewel" ( ... Brazilianite, whose name derives from its country of origin, Brazil, is a typically yellow-green phosphate mineral, most ... Brazilianite, NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 is a hydrous sodium aluminium phosphate that forms through the metasomantic alteration of ...
It is most often formed from the weathering of phosphate rocks such as apatite, monazite, and xenotime. There have been no ... Libethenite is a rare copper phosphate hydroxide mineral. It forms striking, dark green orthorhombic crystals. It was ...
The specimens of G. minimus are made of apatite, comprising 56% calcium oxide, 39% phosphate, 3.5% fluoride, and 1.5% organic ... Davis and Semken could not rule out the possibility that the apatite was introduced after deposition, since the shell of an ... animal similar to Bellerophon in the same sediments had been replaced with apatite. No amino acids could be recovered. The ...
... is considered as a secondary phosphate since it is formed by the alteration of a primary phosphate. It occurs in ... association with dufrenite, apatite, fluellite, wavellite, variscite and leucophosphite. The mineral can be found in the ... Minyulite is a rare phosphate mineral with a chemical formula of KAl2(OH,F)(PO4)2·4(H2O). It occurs as groups of radiating fine ... Simpson, E.S., and Le Mesurier, C.R.(1933)Minyulite: a new phosphate mineral from Dandaragn. Journal of the Royal Society of ...
The shells are usually made up of apatite (calcium phosphate), however rare cases have calcite or aragonite shells. Paleozoic ...
... is a mineral belonging to the apatite group of phosphates, with the chemical formula Pb5(VO4)3Cl. It is one of the ... Vanadinite is in the apatite group of phosphates, and forms a chemical series with the minerals pyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3Cl) and ... Whereas most chemical series involve the substitution of metallic ions, this series substitutes its anion groups; phosphate ( ... 2000). "Vanadinite". Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF). IV (Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates). Chantilly, VA, US: Mineralogical ...
"Comprehensive stable isotope investigation of marine biogenic apatite from the late Cretaceous-early Eocene phosphate series of ... The name Ocepeia derives from the initials of Office Chérifien des Phosphates (O.C.P.), the national Moroccan phosphate mining ... All specimens of Ocepeia come from the Ouled Abdoun Basin of Morocco, a phosphate basin. Research on Ocepeia has been carried ... Fossil Vertebrates from the Phosphate Basins of Morocco, research from the team of Dr. Nathalie Bardet and Dr. Emmanuel ...
In terms of taxonomic distribution, the most common biominerals are the phosphate and carbonate salts of calcium that are used ... The aim of biomimetics is to mimic the natural way of producing minerals such as apatites. Many man-made crystals require ... Among metazoans, biominerals composed of calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate or silica perform a variety of roles such as ... Cohen, P. A.; Schopf, J. W.; Butterfield, N. J.; Kudryavtsev, A. B.; MacDonald, F. A. (2011). "Phosphate biomineralization in ...
A component of bones (see apatite), cells, in energy processing, in DNA and ATP (as phosphate) and many other functions Red ... meat, dairy foods, fish, poultry, bread, rice, oats.[19][20] In biological contexts, usually seen as phosphate[21] ... "Aspects Regarding Fluoride Treatment for Reinforcement and Remineralization of Apatite Crystals". Journal of Hard Tissue ...
The most common phosphate is the apatite group; common species within this group are fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F), chlorapatite ( ... Phosphates. Main article: Phosphate minerals. The phosphate minerals are characterized by the tetrahedral [PO4]3− unit, ... phosphates, and organic compounds. Most non-silicate mineral species are rare (constituting in total 8% of the Earth's crust), ... phosphate), AsO4 (arsenate), and VO4 (vanadate). The non-silicates have great economic importance, as they concentrate elements ...
Some of the mineral apatite in Florida used to produce phosphate for U.S.A. tobacco crops contains uranium, radium, lead-210 ...
By far the most common phosphate is apatite which is an important biological mineral found in teeth and bones of many animals. ... The phosphate class includes the phosphate, arsenate, vanadate, and antimonate minerals. तत्त्व क्लास[सम्पादन]. The elemental ... The phosphate mineral group actually includes any mineral with a tetrahedral unit AO4 where A can be phosphorus, antimony, ...
Ma, Qi-Ying; Traina, Samuel J.; Logan, Terry J.; Ryan, James A. (1993). "In situ lead immobilization by apatite". Environmental ... deficiency induced by precipitation with iron and aluminum phosphates at low soil pH and precipitation with calcium phosphates ...
Distorted phosphate tetrahedra link the sheets, and there is some doubt about the exact position of the hydrogen ions in the ... Other associated minerals are apatite, azurite, chalcedony, chrysocolla, cornetite, cuprite, malachite, pyromorphite, tenorite ... Pseudomalachite is a phosphate of copper with hydroxyl, named from the Greek for "false" and "malachite", because of its ...
Citrate is a vital component of bone, helping to regulate the size of apatite crystals.[24] ... fructose 6-phosphate, into glycolysis. Citrate acts by augmenting the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of ATP, another ... "Strongly bound citrate stabilizes the apatite nanocrystals in bone". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (52 ...
... and apatite (calcium phosphate) ),[2] fills pore spaces and cavities of specimens, particularly bone, shell or wood.[3] The ...
Among the other important minerals of calcium are gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), anhydrite (CaSO4), fluorite (CaF2), and apatite ([Ca5(PO ... As an example of the wide range of solubility of calcium compounds, monocalcium phosphate is very soluble in water, 85% of ... as dicalcium phosphate with a solubility of 2.0 mM and the hydroxyapatite of bones in an organic matrix is tricalcium phosphate ... and apatite are also sources of calcium. The name derives from Latin calx "lime", which was obtained from heating limestone. ...
Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals with high concentrations of OH−, F−, Cl− or ions, respectively, in the crystal. ... 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Apatite. Webmineral *↑ National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. The story of fluoridation; 2008- ... Much bone material is in a relatively rare form of apatite. In this form most of the OH groups are absent, and there are many ... Apatite is characteristic of biological systems. It is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro- ...
... these typically contain calcium oxalate either alone or in combination with calcium phosphate in the form of apatite or ... With less blood phosphate partitioned into saliva, more tends to be excreted in urine.[115] (Most saliva phosphate is fecally ... Struvite stones (triple phosphate/magnesium ammonium phosphate) have a 'coffin lid' morphology by microscopy.[59] ... calcium phosphate stones have the greatest density, followed by calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate stones. ...
Schmittner KE, Giresse P (1999). "Micro-environmental controls on biomineralization: superficial processes of apatite and ... Not to be confused with phosphate soda or phosphonate.. A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid. The phosphate ... In mineralogy and geology, phosphate refers to a rock or ore containing phosphate ions. Inorganic phosphates are mined to ... to distinguish it from phosphates bound in various phosphate esters. Inorganic phosphate is generally denoted Pi and at ...
05 Apatite*, 05 Apatite-(CaOH), 05 Apatite-(CaCl), 05 Apatite-(CaF), 05 Apatite-(SrOH), 05 Apatite-(CaOH)-M, Carbonate- ... The phosphate class of minerals is a large and diverse group, however, only a few species are relatively common. Phosphate ... Phosphate minerals are those minerals that contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate (PO43−) anion along with the freely ... It is the major resource mined to produce phosphate fertilizers for the agriculture sector. Phosphate is also used in animal ...
Apatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH, F, Cl, Br)2. *Tetracalcium phosphate (CAS#1306-01-0): Ca4(PO4)2O ... Tricalcium phosphate (tribasic calcium phosphate or tricalcic phosphate, sometimes referred to as calcium phosphate or calcium ... Calcium phosphate is a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with inorganic phosphate anions ... Dicalcium phosphate (dibasic calcium phosphate), E341(ii) (CAS# 7757-93-9): CaHPO4 (mineral: monetite) and a dihydrate CaHPO4(H ...
In 1925-1926, significant deposits of apatite were discovered in the Khibiny Mountains,[46] and the first apatite batch was ... which is the largest producer of phosphates in Europe; OAO Olcon, one of the leading producers of iron ore concentrates in ... including apatites and nephelines; copper, nickel, and iron ores; mica; kyanites; ceramic materials,[8] as well as rare-earth ... largely due to its strategic position and the discovery of the vast apatite deposits in the 1920s. As a result, the ecology of ...
Some of the mineral apatite in Florida used to produce phosphate for U.S.A. tobacco crops contains uranium, radium, lead 210 ...
... monocalcium phosphate is very soluble in water, 85% of extracellular calcium is as dicalcium phosphate with a solubility of 2.0 ... Among the other important minerals of calcium are gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), anhydrite (CaSO4), fluorite (CaF2), and apatite ([Ca5(PO ... Inadequate amounts of calcium, vitamin D, or phosphates can lead to the softening of bones, known as osteomalacia.[48] ... and tricalcium phosphate. The last is also used as a polishing agent in toothpaste and in antacids. Calcium lactobionate is a ...
A calcium phosphate-rich passivation layer gradually forms over the surface of the glass, preventing further leaching. ... Heat treatment of Bioglass reduces the volatile alkali metal oxide content and precipitates apatite crystals in the glass ... 5) Mineralization in which the calcium phosphate layer gradually transforms into crystalline hydroxyapatite, that mimics the ... 4) Precipitation in which an amorphous calcium phosphate layer is deposited on the gel. ...
The teeth consist of easily fossilized calcium phosphate, an apatite. When a shark dies, the decomposing skeleton breaks up, ... scattering the apatite prisms. Preservation requires rapid burial in bottom sediments. Among the most ancient and primitive ...
When EuroChem was founded, the purchased assets included several nitrogen plants and a phosphate mine with Soviet-era equipment ... including an apatite and shtaffelite ores processing complex). Modern terminal was launched in Sillamae (Estonia), and Murmansk ... EuroChem is Russia's largest manufacturer of nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers and one of largest fertilizer producers ... of waste water from its own Phosphorit phosphate plant nearby. The company is also reportedly building EuroChem Northwest 2, a ...
... phosphate) Triplite (Y: 1813) 8.BB.10 [560] [561] [562] (IUPAC: di(manganese(II),iron(II)) fluoro phosphate) Triploidite ( ... apatite, britholite) 9.AH.25 Tritomite-(Ce) (IMA1987 s.p.) 9.AH.25 [575] [576] [577] Tritomite-(Y) (IMA1966 s.p., 1961) 9.AH.25 ... dilead copper hydro phosphate sulfate) Tsumgallite ("O(OH)" group: IMA2002-011) 4.FD.10 [639] [640] [no] (IUPAC: hydrogallium ... dizinc hydro phosphate) Tarkianite (IMA2003-004) 2.DB.30 [111] [112] [113] (IUPAC: (copper,iron) tetra(rhenium,molybdenum) ...
Growth and crystal structure of a strontium phosphate orthoborate metaborate closely related to the apatite-type crystal ... The borate phosphates have a higher ratio of cations to number of borates and phosphates, as compared to the borophosphates. ... Borate phosphates are mixed anion compounds containing separate borate and phosphate anions. They are distinct from the ... Borate phosphates are of research interest for their optical, electrooptical or magnetic properties. Huang, Shengshi; Yu, ...
Fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) is mined along with other apatites for its phosphate content and is used mostly for production of ...
In this process, apatites (nearly always fluorapatite) are reduced in the presence of carbon (coke) and silica (gravel). This ... This process also has intermediate reactions, and as such, the phosphate rock created has impurities. One such impurity-and the ... Gravity delivers the apatite ore, carbon (coke) and silica (gravel) to the submerged-arc furnace through feed chutes situated ...
Some of the mineral apatite[definition needed] in Florida used to produce phosphate for American tobacco crops contains uranium ...
05 Apatite*, 05 Apatite-(CaOH), 05 Apatite-(CaCl), 05 Apatite-(CaF), 05 Apatite-(SrOH), 05 Apatite-(CaOH)-M, Carbonate- ... Phosphate rock has high concentration of phosphate minerals, most commonly of the apatite group. It is the major resource mined ... Phosphate minerals contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate (PO43−) anion along sometimes with arsenate (AsO43−) and ... The largest use of minerals mined for their phosphate content is the production of fertilizer. Phosphate minerals are often ...
Apatite containing carbonate, the usual species present in vertebrate tissues and in phosphorites, however,... ... Carbonate Apatite Apatite Structure Apatitic Phase Carbonate Substitution Apatitic Mineral These keywords were added by machine ... Low Temperature Carbonate Phosphate Materials or the Carbonate - Apatite Problem: A Review. ... Catherine H., Skinner W. (1989) Low Temperature Carbonate Phosphate Materials or the Carbonate - Apatite Problem: A Review. In ...
... A. Kensche,1 S. Pötschke,1 C. Hannig,1 G. ... After oral exposure, slabs were incubated in HCl (pH values 2, 2.3, and 3) for 120 s and kinetics of calcium and phosphate ...
After oral exposure, slabs were incubated in HCl (pH values 2, 2.3, and 3) for 120 s and kinetics of calcium and phosphate ... On the whole, the phosphate release reducing effect of the calcium phosphate and apatite based products appeared inferior to ... Influence of Calcium Phosphate and Apatite Containing Products on Enamel Erosion. A. Kensche,1 S. Pötschke. ,1 C. Hannig. ,1 G ... Influence of Calcium Phosphate and Apatite Containing Products on Enamel Erosion,. The Scientific World Journal,. vol. 2016. , ...
Apatite, represents a complex combination of hexagonal hemihedral forms produced by the pyramidal selection. The nine forms ... This crystal of Calcium Phosphate, Apatite, represents a complex combination of hexagonal hemihedral forms produced by the ... pyramid, crystal, prism, crystallography, hexagonal, basal, pinacoid, Calcium, phosphorus, hemihedral, phosphate. Galleries. ...
... Locality type:. Prospect. ... Click here to view Apatite data. Locality Data:. Click here to view Pearson prospect (Stauffer Phosphate deposit No. 36), Maury ... 6 (Unnamed Phosphorus-Phosphates prospect), Maury Co., Tennessee, USA. 10.6km (6.6 miles) ⓘUnnamed Phosphorus-Phosphates ... ⓘUnnamed Phosphorus-Phosphates prospect [1], Giles Co., Tennessee, USA. 7.4km (4.6 miles) ⓘMonsanto Mines, Williamson Co., ...
The resulting glass-ceramic included Nasicontype-CaTi4(PO4)6, titanium phosphates, such as (TiO)2P2O7 and Ti(PO3)3, and TiO2 ( ... anatase) with apatite crystal, which was induced by incorporation of fluorine. In the glass-ceramic, dissolution by acid- ... T. Kasuga et al., "Preparation of Apatite-Containing Calcium Phosphate Glass-Ceramics", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 330- ... Apatite Formation on HA/TCP Ceramics in Dynamic Simulated Body Fluid Authors: You Rong Duan, Z.R. Zhang, Chao Yuan Wang, Ji ...
... Locality ... Click here to view Apatite data. Locality Data:. Click here to view Hookers Prairie Mine, Central Florida Phosphate Mining ... ⓘStuart Tract Prospect (C. F. Hardee Phosphate Complex; C. F. Industries; Hardee Mine), Land Pebble Phosphate Mining District, ... ⓘPolk County Prospect (Debris and Matrix T/A Minerals Polk County Mine; Old Achan Imc; Transammonia), Land Pebble Phosphate ...
Preparation & Characterization of Solid Solutions of Phosphate & Vanadate Apatites of Calcium. Authors: Gupta, S K. Rao, P V R ...
... ... Using these methods they identified calcium phosphate both within osteoblast mitochondrial granules and intracellular vesicles ...
This agreement was based on results from an evaluation of remedial alternatives that identified the apatite permeable reactive ... Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area should include apatite ... 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test:. High-Concentration Calcium-. Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection. for In Situ Strontium- ... 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: High-Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 ...
Variety of apatite and phosphate mineral specimens including vanadinite, pyromorphite, fluorapatite, eosphorite, wavellite, ... Below is a gallery of Apatite and Phosphate minerals for sale from John Betts - Fine Minerals in New York City, NY. Included in ... John Betts - Fine Minerals , Home Page , Minerals For Sale , Apatite Group and Phosphate Minerals For Sale. ... Famous localities for apatite and phosphates include: Linopolis, Brazil; Yates Mine, Canada; North Geronimo Mine, Arizona; Los ...
... Ritts, Wen Wang ... developed a liquid recipe primarily containing sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4) and sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4), ... In order to have better understanding of the influence of the raw materials of calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), including both ... The chemical composition, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the raw materials and resulting calcium phosphate ...
Processing of an apatite-mullite glass-ceramic and an hydroxyapatite/phosphate glass composite by selective laser sintering. ... The glass-ceramic was selected from the range of apatite-mullite materials in the SiO2⋅Al2O3⋅CaO⋅CaF2⋅P2O5 series, due to their ... The hydroxyapatite and phosphate glass combination was chosen to allow an alternative production approach to be investigated. ... It was though possible to produce parts from the hydroxyapatite and phosphate glass combination across a much wider range of ...
The powder phase of calcite or vaterite combined with dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) was mixed with 0.8 mol/L of Na2HPO4 ... has been known as one of the components of carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) cement. Calcite is one of the polymorph of CaCO3 with big ... Effect of Particle Size on Carbonate Apatite Cement Properties Consisting of Calcite (or Vaterite) and Dicalcium Phosphate ... Effect of Particle Size on Carbonate Apatite Cement Properties Consisting of Calcite (or Vaterite) and Dicalcium Phosphate ...
COMMENT: Quebec okays controversial Arnaud apatite [phosphate rock] mine - by Marilyn Scales (Canadian Mining Journal - March ... March 20, 2015 in Canadian Media Resource Articles, Potash/Phosphate, Quebec Mining ... lately has been the fate of the proposed Arnaud open pit apatite mine. The project is owned by Invstissement Quebec and Yara ...
An irony of the name apatite is that apatite is the mineral that makes up the teeth in all vertebrate animals as well as their ... Very gemmy crystals of apatite can be cut as gems but the softness of apatite prevents wide distribution or acceptance of ... Ca5(PO4)3(OH,F,Cl), The fluorine rich apatite. As a source of phosphorous to be used in fertilizer, rarely as a gemstone and as ... The name apatite comes from a Greek word meaning to decieve in allusion to its similarity to other more valuable minerals such ...
Apatite and Rock Phosphate Indian Bureau of Mines. Table - 3 : Details of Exploration Activities for Apatite Rock Phosphate ... Phosphate rock: origin importance environmental impacts and. Jun 24, 2016 Keywords: phosphate rock, apatite, phosphate ... Phosphate Minerals Science Direct. In most cases apatite is the common phosphate mineral, which with for example, Namibia and ... Two types of Phosphates , Organic Phosphate Fertilizer. The known phosphate deposits of the world are estimated at ...
Apatite Rock North Africa Apatite Hammer Crusher . Apatite Jaw Crusher Srfireandsecuritycoza. Crushers for apatite dashbuilding ... types of phosphate rocks in South Africa, ... Phosphate Mining and Processing in South Africa. ... Phosphates in Apatite ... ... types of phosphate rocks in South Africa, ... Phosphate Mining and Processing in South Africa. ... Phosphates in Apatite ... ... South African Apatite Phosphates. Mining Companies Of Gold Iron And Phosphates In Sout Diamond producing countries in africa ...
... With their monthly subscription services that are based to deliver a ... It is used in the manufacture of phosphorus, phosphates, and fertilizers. Crystal structure: hexagonal A usually green, ... transparent mineral consisting mainly of calcium phosphate.. But when you check GNCs online store, youll realize that they ...
Herein, we demonstrate a detailed transformation mechanism of amorphous calcium phosphate spherical particles to apatite ... While calcium phosphates have been under intense investigation, the exact steps during the crystallisation of spherical ... We propose that such transformation is a possible crystallisation mechanism and is characteristic of calcium phosphates from a ... Mineralisation of calcium phosphates in bone has been proposed to proceed via an initial amorphous precursor phase which ...
Fabrication of carbonate apatite block based on internal dissolutionprecipitation reaction of dicalcium phosphate and calcium ... Fabrication of carbonate apatite block based on internal dissolutionprecipitation reaction of dicalcium phosphate and calcium ... Fabrication of carbonate apatite block based on internal dissolutionprecipitation reaction of dicalcium phosphate and calcium ... Fabrication of carbonate apatite block based on internal dissolutionprecipitation reaction of dicalcium phosphate and calcium ...
The occurrence of apatite in the DPZ is not evenly distributed, but restricted to discrete 10 to 20 cm thick beds, located near ... In this study we characterize the significance and interpret the origin of apatite in the DPZ, through mineralogical and ... is a phosphate-bearing marine unit located at the base of the Doig Formation, in the Triassic section of the Western Canada ... and intraclastic phosphorites composed of detrital silt-sized grains and apatite coated grains in a cryptocrystalline ...
... Antonino NICOLETTI March 26, 2017. March ... Calcium phosphate apatite retention in the arterial wall necessitates precipitation on an anionic platform. Here, we explore ... Free DNA precipitates calcium phosphate apatite crystals in the arterial wall in vivo. Coscas R, Bensussan M, Jacob MP, Louedec ... demonstrates that free DNA could be involved in arterial calcification formation by precipitating calcium phosphate apatite ...
Home » U thhe dating of phosphates apatite monazite and xenotime U thhe dating of phosphates apatite monazite and xenotime ... Apatite He dating was first investigated by Zeitler et al.In this book, the author presents current state-of-the-art ...
Synthesis and Thermal-behavior of Well-crystallized Calcium-deficient Phosphate Apatite. In: Journal of Solid State Chemistry, ... Synthesis and Thermal-behavior of Well-crystallized Calcium-deficient Phosphate Apatite Primary tabs. *Détail(active tab) ... Home» Synthesis and Thermal-behavior of Well-crystallized Calcium-deficient Phosphate Apatite ...
Apatite (phosphate carbonate) *enamel (Vertebrate teeth). *Vertebrate bone. *conodonts. Astrobiology[edit]. It has been ... In terms of taxonomic distribution, the most common biominerals are the phosphate and carbonate salts of calcium that are used ... The aim of biomimetics is to mimic the natural way of producing minerals such as apatites. Many man-made crystals require ... Among metazoans, biominerals composed of calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate or silica perform a variety of roles such as ...
Purchase Structure and Chemistry of the Apatites and Other Calcium Orthophosphates, Volume 18 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E- ... Anhydrous tricalcium phosphates and whitlockite. Tetracalcium phosphate. Amorphous calcium phosphates. 2. Fluorapatite and ... A-type carbonate apatite, Ca10(PO4)6CO3. Synthetic high temperature B-type carbonate apatites. Carbonate apatites from aqueous ... Monocalcium phosphates (monohydrate and anhydrous). Octacalcium phosphate. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, brushite. Dicalcium ...
... - From Healing Crystals, a Metaphysical Crystal store selling high quality Crystal Jewelry ... Apatite - Blue Apatite Chips & Chunks "Extra" (Pakistan). NAPATCE $12.45 - $41.60 Add to cart ...
For these reasons, research is pushing into two directions: (i) Increasing the similarity of apatite coatings to real bone, and ... On the one hand biological apatite is a carbonated-HA, containing significant amounts of foreign ions, having low crystallinity ... Keywords: calcium phosphates; ion-substituted apatites; bone regeneration; plasma-assisted deposition; solubility; ... crystallinity; composition calcium phosphates; ion-substituted apatites; bone regeneration; plasma-assisted deposition; ...
Synonym(s): CALCIUM PHOSPHATE HYDROXIDE; DURAPATITE; HYDROXYLAPATITE; HYDROXYLAPATITE (CA5 (OH) (PO4) 3) ; ALVEOGRAF; APATITE, ... About HYDROXYAPATITE: Hydroxyapatite is a mineral obtained from phosphate rock.. Function(s): Abrasive; Bulking Agent; Oral ...
  • The materials used were bioactive in nature and included a glass-ceramic and a combination of hydroxyapatite and phosphate glass. (springer.com)
  • The hydroxyapatite and phosphate glass combination was chosen to allow an alternative production approach to be investigated. (springer.com)
  • It was though possible to produce parts from the hydroxyapatite and phosphate glass combination across a much wider range of parameters, producing parts which had a greater potential for possible implant production. (springer.com)
  • Mineralisation of calcium phosphates in bone has been proposed to proceed via an initial amorphous precursor phase which transforms into nanocrystalline, carbonated hydroxyapatite. (chalmers.se)
  • Hydroxyapatite is a mineral obtained from phosphate rock. (ewg.org)
  • Most commercial samples of "tricalcium phosphate" are in fact hydroxyapatite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of the "tricalcium phosphate" on the market is actually powdered hydroxyapatite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tricalcium phosphate is produced commercially by treating hydroxyapatite with phosphoric acid and slaked lime. (wikipedia.org)
  • The precipitate will either be "amorphous tricalcium phosphate", ATCP, or calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, CDHA, Ca9(HPO4)(PO4)5(OH), (note CDHA is sometimes termed apatitic calcium triphosphate). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biphasic tricalcium phosphate, BCP, was originally reported as tricalcium phosphate, but X-Ray diffraction techniques showed that the material was an intimate mixture of two phases, hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite is the name given to a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite (or hydroxyapatite ), fluoroapatite (or fluorapatite ), and chloroapatite (or chlorapatite ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • consist of calcium phosphate in several forms, the most common being hydroxyapatite and carbonate-apatite. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 9,10 Up to 70% of the remaining bone mass primarily consists of a nanocrystalline calcium phosphate-based mineral, generally described as hydroxyapatite ((Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ), HA). (rsc.org)
  • Metagenics Cal Apatite Bone Builder is a blend of calcium , phosphorus and microcrystalline hydroxyapatite concentrate (MCHC) to benefit bone health and encourage the increase of bone density. (earthturns.com)
  • Hydroxyapatite, a type of calcium phosphate that is similar to the mineral component of bone, is the most commercially popular calcium phosphate coating for biomedical implants [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Hydroxyapatite and other calcium phosphate coatings have been investigated extensively for clinical applications due to their ability to form a direct bond with living bone, a property often referred to as "bioactivity" [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Below is a gallery of Apatite and Phosphate minerals for sale from John Betts - Fine Minerals in New York City, NY. (johnbetts-fineminerals.com)
  • apatite is actually three different minerals depending on the predominance of either fluorine, chlorine or the hydroxyl group. (web.id)
  • The name apatite comes from a Greek word meaning to decieve in allusion to its similarity to other more valuable minerals such as olivine, peridot and beryl. (web.id)
  • They are exploited in the Russian Federation, Canada, South Africa, Brazil, and sedimentary apatites (iron and aluminium phosphate minerals) are generally?Get Price. (bestforpet.cz)
  • Aug 18, 2010 Metal hosting is higher in apatite minerals than in calcite. (bestforpet.cz)
  • Report presenting abstracts and major findings from physiological, biochemical, soil chemical, geological, and mineral studies of the apatite group of minerals. (unt.edu)
  • The following report covers investigations of uranium and thorium discovered within host minerals in the earth's crust, zircon, sphene, apatite, epidote, and monazite. (unt.edu)
  • Calcium phosphate is a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with inorganic phosphate anions. (openpr.com)
  • Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals with high concentrations of OH − , F − , Cl − or ions , respectively, in the crystal . (wikipedia.org)
  • It should be noted that phosphate, arsenate, and vanadate minerals with similar crystalline structures (hexagonal or pseudohexagonal monoclinic crystals) are known as the Apatite Group. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The name apatite is derived from a Greek word that means "to deceive," because it appears similar to other minerals, particularly olivine , beryl , and peridot. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Apatite is one of few minerals that are produced and used by biological systems. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • More than 200 species of phosphate minerals are recognized, and structurally they all have isolated (PO 4 ) tetrahedral units. (britannica.com)
  • An indirect geochemical approach to reconstructing temperature is based on the oxygen isotope composition ( δ 18 O) of minerals such as calcite, aragonite, and apatite ( 9 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • and calcium phosphate in the apatite group of minerals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Apatite is named after the Greek word " apát " meaning deceit because, in appearance, apatite is often mistaken for a number other minerals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most thorium in coal is contained in common phosphate minerals such as monazite or apatite. (usgs.gov)
  • Whitlockite is the most abundant of the two phosphate minerals, and generally has a higher REE content (especially the lighter REEs: La, Ce, and Nd). (asi.org)
  • Phosphate minerals are those minerals that contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate anion along with the freely substituting arsenate and vanadate. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • Phosphorite contains calcium phosphate mixed with limestone (calcium carbonates) minerals and apatite-a mineral with high phosphate and fluoride content. (cdc.gov)
  • Impure, massive apatite is called phosphorite . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Subsequent release of these P reserves into the local marine environment as Pi results in biologically induced phosphorite nucleation.Polyphosphates may be associated with biologically controlled apatite nucleation within vertebrates and invertebrates.Enzymatic polyphosphate depolymerization would increase apatite saturation to the level required for mineral nucleation, while matrix proteins would simultaneously control the progression of new biological apatite formation. (nih.gov)
  • Relationships between geological phosphorite deposition and biological apatite nucleation have often been overlooked. (nih.gov)
  • However, similarities in biological apatite and phosphorite mineralogy suggest that their chemical formation mechanisms may be similar. (nih.gov)
  • This review serves to draw parallels between two newly described phosphorite mineralization processes, and proposes a similar novel mechanism for biologically controlled apatite mineral nucleation. (nih.gov)
  • 9 for synthetic apatites, close to 1 for Kabala phosphorite , and 0. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 143 thousand tonnes, apatite & phosphorite 100 thousand tonnes, dolomite 439 thousand tonnes, limestone 230 lakh tonnes, magnesite 24 thousand tonnes and diamond 2874 carat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • others are phosphorite and apatite. (axner.com)
  • Chief among these is rock phosphate, or phosphorite. (world-nuclear.org)
  • Phosphate rock (phosphorite) is a marine sedimentary rock which contains 18-40% P 2 O 5 , as well as some uranium and all its decay products, often 70 to 200 ppmU, and sometimes up to 800 ppm. (world-nuclear.org)
  • Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the crystallization behavior and in-vitro bioactivity character of glass ceramics having 3:7 weight ratio of fluorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6F2) to potassium mica (K2Mg3AlSi3O10F2) as a function of cerium oxide addition, and compare the morphology of hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) layer formation depending on cerium oxide addition. (scientific.net)
  • The main mineral in the phosphate rock is apatite, and most commonly, fluorapatite - Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F or Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (F,OH) 2 . (world-nuclear.org)
  • The main mineral is apatite, with some fluorapatite. (world-nuclear.org)
  • Herein, we demonstrate a detailed transformation mechanism of amorphous calcium phosphate spherical particles to apatite platelet-like crystals, within the confined nanodomains of a bone-inspired nanocomposite. (chalmers.se)
  • b) dispersing the gel of amorphous calcium phosphate in an aqueous liquid to form a colloidal mixture. (google.com)
  • d) with said implant used as an anode, electrodepositing said amorphous calcium phosphate on said implant to form a substantially uniform coating. (google.com)
  • 8. An implant comprising an electrodeposited layer of an amorphous calcium phosphate coating, wherein said amorphous calcium phosphate coating has a molar ratio of calcium to phosphorous of 0.5 to 1.6. (google.com)
  • 3 . The composition of claim 1 , wherein said calcium phosphate is prepared using an amorphous calcium phosphate and a second calcium phosphate source. (google.es)
  • 4. The calcium phosphate cement composition of claim 2, wherein said amorphous calcium phosphate is a solid. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The calcium phosphate cement composition of claim 5, wherein said gel consists of said amorphous calcium phosphate and said physiologically acceptable liquid. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Under conditions in which apatite forms from an amorphous calcium phosphate precursor, these complexes aggregate and take up an extra calcium ion to form amorphous calcium phosphate, which is a fractal of Ca(2)(HPO(4))(3)(2-) clusters. (nih.gov)
  • The chemical composition, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the raw materials and resulting calcium phosphate cements and composites have been characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and Instron universal mechanical testing machine. (umsystem.edu)
  • Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) are well-established bone replacement materials that have been used in dentistry and orthopedics for more than 25 years. (mdpi.com)
  • Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) are prepared by mixing a reactive CaP raw powder with an aqueous solution [ 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Basic (apatite-based) calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), and acidic (brushite and monetite-based) CPCs are used as bone replacement materials because of their bioactivity, mouldability and ability to harden in place. (diva-portal.org)
  • To assess the baseline, the mechanical properties of two promising experimental and two commercially available apatite and brushite cements were investigated. (diva-portal.org)
  • In summary, insights into the functional properties of currently available CPCs as well as the setting process of brushite cements were gained and several new calcium phosphate-based formulations were developed to overcome some of the drawbacks of traditional CPCs. (diva-portal.org)
  • Starting from α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), the resulting paste mixture sets under mineralization of calcium-deficient HAp (CDHA) [ 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Anhydrous tricalcium phosphates and whitlockite. (elsevier.com)
  • 3. The injectable paste of claim 1 , wherein the calcium phosphate composition comprises particles of dicalcium phosphate anhydrous, tricalcium phosphate, or mixtures thereof. (google.com)
  • Tricalcium phosphate (sometimes abbreviated TCP) is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid with the chemical formula Ca3(PO4)2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystalline tricalcium phosphate can be obtained by calcining the precipitate. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-tricalcium phosphate has a crystallographic density of 3.066 g cm−3 while the high temperature forms are less dense, α-tricalcium phosphate has a density of 2.866 g cm−3 and α'-tricalcium phosphate has a density of 2.702 g cm−3 All forms have complex structures consisting of tetrahedral phosphate centers linked through oxygen to the calcium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tricalcium phosphate occurs naturally in several forms, including: as a rock in Morocco, Israel, Philippines, Egypt, and Kola (Russia) and in smaller quantities in some other countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tricalcium phosphate is used in powdered spices as an anticaking agent, e.g. to prevent table salt from caking. (wikipedia.org)
  • To overcome complicated usage and short shelf life of acidic CPCs, a ready-to-use acidic CPC was developed by mixing a monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) paste and a β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) paste with suitable amounts of citric acid. (diva-portal.org)
  • We describe here a study investigating the particular influence of phosphate ions on the stability of ACC. (scientific.net)
  • In this study, we investigated a novel method for fabrication of carbonate apatite block without ionic movement between precursor and solution by using precursor that includes all constituent ions of carbonate apatite. (elsevier.com)
  • On the one hand biological apatite is a carbonated-HA, containing significant amounts of foreign ions, having low crystallinity and a small crystals size. (mdpi.com)
  • CDHA, one possible end product of the CPC setting reaction, is the basic material of bone apatite, which is strongly substituted in its natural form by ions such as Na + , K + , Mg 2+ , HPO 4 2− , and CO 3 2− [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Preparation of other apatites with hydroxyl ions. (elsevier.com)
  • 5. The injectable paste of claim 1 , wherein the hardening-promoter comprises phosphate ions, calcium ions, fluorine ions, or mixtures thereof. (google.com)
  • 7. The injectable paste of claim 1 , wherein hardening promoter comprises phosphate ions. (google.com)
  • Calcium phosphate refers to numerous materials consisting of calcium ions (Ca2+) together with orthophosphates (PO43−), metaphosphates or pyrophosphates (P2O74−) and occasionally oxide and hydroxide ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high temperature forms each have two types of columns, one containing only calcium ions and the other both calcium and phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions for hydroxyl groups in apatite. (wikipedia.org)
  • These three forms of apatite are not readily distinguishable, as each specimen usually contains all three types of ions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In this review, we focus on elucidating the complex roles of phosphate ions and molecules within human biomineralisation pathways, primarily referring to the nucleation and crystallisation of bone mineral. (rsc.org)
  • The analysis required, besides the two solubility equilibria, the formation of surface protonation/deprotonation reactions, re-adsorption processes involving phosphate and fluoride ions as well as an ion exchange reaction (≡F + H 2 O ⇋ ≡OH + H + + F - ) to fully describe the dissolution characteristics of the two apatite systems. (degruyter.com)
  • The apatites and related calcium phosphates have been of considerable interest to biologists, mineralogists, and inorganic and industrial chemists for many years. (elsevier.com)
  • Calcium phosphate is also commonly derived from inorganic sources such as mineral rock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphate mineral , any of a group of naturally occurring inorganic salts of phosphoric acid , H 3 (PO 4 ). (britannica.com)
  • ii) injectable, ready-to-use organic-inorganic composites with partly elastomeric compression behavior were designed based on silk fibroin hydrogels and acidic calcium phosphates, and their ability for antibiotic drug delivery was assessed. (diva-portal.org)
  • Marine bacteria and diatoms have been shown to store and concentrate inorganic phosphate (Pi) as amorphous, polyphosphate granules. (nih.gov)
  • an inorganic mineral composed of calcium and phosphate that is found in the bones and teeth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Microbial solubilisation of low soluble inorganic phosphates is an important process contributing for the phosphorus available to plants in tropical soils. (scielo.br)
  • This study evaluates the ability of inoculant strains for tropical legumes to solubilise inorganic phosphates of low solubility that are found in tropical soils. (scielo.br)
  • Thus, besides the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, legume-nodulating bacteria can also contribute to the growth of plants through solubilising inorganic phosphates of low solubility. (scielo.br)
  • Therefore, the ability of legume-nodulating microorganisms to solubilise these inorganic phosphates may also be considered when selecting strains with a high potential to fix N 2 so that they can be used not only to fix nitrogen but also to increase the availability of phosphorus to plants. (scielo.br)
  • Carbonate apatite crystalline structure for better oseoconductivity than ZenGro? (bestforpet.cz)
  • Ca carbonates and Ca phosphates are usually crystalline, but silica organisms (sponges, diatoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5 . The composition of claim 1 , wherein said calcium phosphate has an average crystalline domain size of less than 100 nm. (google.es)
  • Hardening of the paste occurs rapidly at body temperature an is accompanied by the conversion of one or more of the reactants to poorly crystalline apatitic calcium phosphate. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Aug 1, 2018 Full-Text Paper (PDF): Reagents used in the flotation of phosphate ores: A ethers in apatite ?otation at Foskor, Phalaborwa (South Africa).Get Price. (bestforpet.cz)
  • In this report, 2018 has been considered as the base year and 2019 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Calcium Phosphate. (reportsnreports.com)
  • In H1 2018, apatite concentrate output was 619,000 t, up 14% year-on-year, mainly due to decreased overburden operations at the open-pit mine compared to H1 2017. (acron.ru)
  • 2018 Arianne Phosphate Inc. All rights reserved. (arianne-inc.com)
  • The powder phase of calcite or vaterite combined with dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) was mixed with 0.8 mol/L of Na 2 HPO 4 solution in 0.45 liquid to powder ratio. (scientific.net)
  • 2] A. Cahyanto, M. Maruta, K. Tsuru, S. Matsuya, K. Ishikawa, Basic properties of carbonate apatite cement consisting of vaterite and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous, Key. (scientific.net)
  • A powder mixture prepared from dicalcium phosphate anhydrous and calcite at appropriate Ca/P ratios (1.5, 1.67, and 1.8) was used as starting material. (elsevier.com)
  • Dicalcium phosphate anhydrous, monetite. (elsevier.com)
  • Oct 12, 2013 Phosphorus is essential for life, and the input of P fertilizer is critical to the production of sufficient food, feed, fiber, Apatite, a calcium phosphate mineral, is the principle P bearing component of PR. (bestforpet.cz)
  • Oil, global phosphorus reserves are also likely to peak after which production Igneous - fire-formed (fluor-chlor-hydroxl-apatite). (bestforpet.cz)
  • It is used in the manufacture of phosphorus, phosphates, and fertilizers. (kulagin.pw)
  • Apatites other than those containing calcium and phosphorus are included. (elsevier.com)
  • and (3) fine-grained rock phosphates formed at low temperatures from phosphorus-bearing organic material, primarily underwater. (britannica.com)
  • Intracellular and extracellular amorphous granules, rich in both calcium and phosphorus, have been observed in apatite-biomineralizing vertebrates, protists, and atremate brachiopods. (nih.gov)
  • Apatite is distributed widely in igneous , metamorphic , and sedimentary rocks, often in the form of cryptocrystalline fragments. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Terrestrial apatite may be igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary. (asi.org)
  • Lunar apatites are igneous, and form late during the solidification of the parent melt. (asi.org)
  • Some phosphate deposits - about 4% of total known - are igneous, created by magmatic extrusion as an alkaline chimney. (world-nuclear.org)
  • [8] Other important mineral groups include the native elements , sulfides , oxides , halides , carbonates , sulfates , and phosphates . (wikipedia.org)
  • Much bone material is in a relatively rare form of apatite. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, hydroxylapatite is the main constituent of tooth enamel, and a special form of apatite is found in bone . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A relatively unique form of apatite-in which most OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions-is a large component of bone material. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • However, the phosphates are still available in the form of apatite to act as a nutrient for other plants. (oase-livingwater.com)
  • Metamorphic apatite occurs in calc-silicate rocks and impure limestones. (britannica.com)
  • Low pressure and temperature metamorphic mineral in apatite-rich nodules in sepentine. (webmineral.com)
  • A calcium phosphate cement suitable for use in dental and bone prosthesis is disclosed, which include calcium phosphate particles having a diameter of 0.05 to 100 microns, wherein said calcium phosphate particles on their surfaces have whiskers or fine crystals having a width ranging from 1 to 100 nm. (google.com)
  • Carbonate apatites from aqueous systems. (elsevier.com)
  • Primary phosphates usually crystallize from aqueous fluids derived from the late stages of crystallization. (britannica.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein said gel is comprised of a mixture of calcium nitrate, di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate, and ammonium hydroxide having a calcium to phosphorous ratio of between 0.5 and 1.6. (google.com)
  • white, crumbly, smooth bodies composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (triple phosphate). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Struvite stones are composed of a combination of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) and calcium carbonate-apatite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Otherwise, various ammonium phosphate fertilizers can be produced by reacting the phosphoric acid with ammonia. (world-nuclear.org)
  • Octacalcium phosphate. (elsevier.com)
  • The calcium triphosphate complex also forms the basis of the crystal structure of octacalcium phosphate and apatite. (nih.gov)
  • Bustin, R.M. Significance and Distribution of Apatite in the Triassic Doig Phosphate Zone, Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. (preprints.org)
  • The Doig Phosphate Zone (DPZ) is a phosphate-bearing marine unit located at the base of the Doig Formation, in the Triassic section of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. (preprints.org)
  • Geologists have used a radiometric dating technique (known as fission track dating) with natural deposits of apatite to get a sense of historical changes in temperature in mountain-forming belts and sedimentary basins. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The resulting glass-ceramic included Nasicontype-CaTi4(PO4)6, titanium phosphates, such as (TiO)2P2O7 and Ti(PO3)3, and TiO2 (anatase) with apatite crystal, which was induced by incorporation of fluorine. (scientific.net)
  • The glass-ceramic was selected from the range of apatite-mullite materials in the SiO 2 ⋅Al 2 O 3 ⋅CaO⋅CaF 2 ⋅P 2 O 5 series, due to their potentially suitable biological and mechanical properties. (springer.com)
  • 6] R.Z. LeGeros, Apatites in biological system, Crystal Growth Charact. (scientific.net)
  • Biological apatites. (elsevier.com)
  • Synthetic, mineral and biological carbonate apatites are also considered. (elsevier.com)
  • Apatite is characteristic of biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, ionic phosphate species not only provide a fundamental building block of biological mineral, but rather exhibit several diverse roles in mediating mineral formation in the physiological milieu. (rsc.org)
  • Historically, biological apatite nucleation has been attributed to either a biochemical increase in local Pi concentration or matrix-mediated apatite nucleation control. (nih.gov)
  • Enzymatic polyphosphate depolymerization would increase apatite saturation to the level required for mineral nucleation, while matrix proteins would simultaneously control the progression of new biological apatite formation. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, the biological activities of unmodified titanium alloys, air-plasma-treated titanium alloys, and air-plasma-treated strontium-doped/undoped calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings were compared. (frontiersin.org)
  • An annual grass, Pennisetum ploystechyon (L) Schult and a perennial creeping legume Pueraria phaseoloides took up more P and grew better in an acid soil (pH 4.8) treated with a poorly soluble source of apatite. (ac.lk)
  • Typically double decomposition reactions are employed, involving a soluble phosphate and calcium salts, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite is soluble in HNO 3 or HCl. (asi.org)
  • In the reaction a limited amount of water is mixed with dry calcium phosphate precursors to produce a hydrated precursor paste. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Human biomineralisation processes are defined by the transformation of an amorphous phosphate-based precursor to highly organised nanocrystals. (rsc.org)
  • Struvite stone formation can be sustained only when ammonia production is increased and the urine pH is elevated to decrease the solubility of phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In liquid GELP medium, LMG 1222 solubilised all phosphate sources, but no legume nodulating strain could increase the solubility of Al(H 2 PO 4 ) 3 . (scielo.br)
  • The equilibrium analysis of experimental solubility data of the two apatite systems was based upon potentiometric titration data, batch experiments, and zeta-potential measurements in combination with information provided by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. (degruyter.com)
  • Rock phosphate deposits contain some 22 million tonnes of uranium, which may be South Africa, 2.3 The main mineral is apatite, with some Price. (bestforpet.cz)
  • Gurvinder Singh, Quartz India , "The coal mining region in India where the ground beneath shakes and belches fire," 4 Oct. 2019 When uranium decays to lead, a natural process that happens at a steady rate, the split leaves a tiny track in the apatite that is visible under a microscope. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Figure 2 illustrates that the uranium concentration of most fly ash (10 to 30 ppm) is still in the range found in some granitic rocks, phosphate rocks, and shales. (usgs.gov)
  • Rock phosphate deposits contain many million tonnes of uranium, which may be extracted as a by-product of making fertilisers. (world-nuclear.org)
  • Some 20,000 tonnes of uranium has already been obtained from these rock phosphate deposits, but the process became uneconomic in the 1990s. (world-nuclear.org)
  • With uranium as a minor by-product of phosphates, the potential supply is tied to the economics of phosphate production, coupled with the environmental benefits of removing uranium from the waste stream and/or product. (world-nuclear.org)
  • About 20% of US uranium came from central Florida's phosphate deposits to the mid 1990s, as a by-product, but it then became uneconomic. (world-nuclear.org)
  • Cameco and Uranium Equities Ltd are setting up a demonstration plant in the USA using a refined process - PhosEnergy - and estimate that some 7700 tU could be recovered annually as by-product from phosphate production, including 2300 tU/yr in the USA. (world-nuclear.org)
  • Sechura phosphate deposits, their stratigraphy, origin and composition. (springer.com)
  • For these reasons, research is pushing into two directions: (i) Increasing the similarity of apatite coatings to real bone, and (ii) exploring deposition by alternative plasma assisted techniques, allowing to achieve thin films, and having superior adhesion and a better control over the coating composition. (mdpi.com)
  • 17. The injectable paste of claim 1 , wherein the calcium phosphate composition comprises a growth factor, a bone morphology protein, or a pharmaceutical carrier. (google.com)
  • The oxygen isotope composition ( δ 18 O) of the phosphate and carbonate component of bioapatite in bone, teeth, and scales reflects both the body temperature of the animal and the oxygen isotope composition of its body fluids ( 13 - 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • Porous calcium phosphate implant compositions that approximate the chemical composition of natural bone mineral are provided. (google.es)
  • In addition to calcium phosphate, the compositions include an effervescent agent to promote the formation of interconnected pores and a cohesiveness agent to maintain the shape and hardness of the hardened composition. (google.es)
  • 1 . A self-setting, porous calcium phosphate composition comprising a calcium phosphate, an effervescent agent, and a biocompatible cohesiveness agent admixed with a physiologically acceptable fluid, wherein release of a gaseous component of said effervescent agent occurs upon hydration of said composition and produces at least 5% porosity in said composition, and wherein, after hardening, said calcium phosphate composition has a compressive strength of 1 MPa or greater. (google.es)
  • 2. The calcium phosphate cement composition of claim 1, wherein said at least one additional calcium source is a calcium source selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, and calcium phosphate. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 9. The calcium phosphate composition of claim 8, wherein said cement further comprises an organic polymer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 10. The calcium phosphate composition of claim 9, wherein said organic polymer is a protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Several structural configurations of such substitutions have been presented as models for carbonate apatite. (springer.com)
  • This shows that the crystal lattice of apatite has a high tolerance to substitutions and distortions [ 15 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Substitutions in apatites. (elsevier.com)
  • In this form most of the OH groups are absent, and there are many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite (phosphate of lime) and pyromorphite (phosphate of lead) contain a considerable amount of it. (dictionary.com)
  • form of the mineral apatite, is not readily available to Price. (bestforpet.cz)
  • The known phosphate deposits of the world are estimated at approximately 900 000 million tons of phosphate ore containing the mineral apatite Ca10(PO4)6F2. (bestforpet.cz)
  • Very gemmy crystals of apatite can be cut as gems but the softness of apatite prevents wide distribution or acceptance of apatite as a gemstone. (web.id)
  • In some cases, crystals of apatite have been cut and used as gems. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Metagenics Cal Apatite Bone Builder is made in America to assure quality, safety and purity. (earthturns.com)
  • Bone Phosphate of Lime (1 percent P20 S = 2.185 percent BPL). (bestforpet.cz)
  • It is also known as tribasic calcium phosphate and bone phosphate of lime (BPL). (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the extracellular fluid, 10% of phosphate is bound to protein, 33% is complexed with calcium or magnesium and the remainder is unbound. (rsc.org)
  • The magnesium and phosphate dominant analog of allactite. (webmineral.com)
  • This crystal of Calcium Phosphate, Apatite, represents a complex combination of hexagonal hemihedral forms produced by the pyramidal selection. (usf.edu)
  • Crystal structure: hexagonal A usually green, transparent mineral consisting mainly of calcium phosphate. (kulagin.pw)
  • a green, yellow, brown, or grey secondary mineral that consists of lead chloro-phosphate in the form of hexagonal crystals. (dictionary.com)
  • Some so-called calcium phosphates contain oxide and hydroxide as well. (openpr.com)
  • This translational study demonstrates that free DNA could be involved in arterial calcification formation by precipitating calcium phosphate apatite crystals in the vessel wall. (lvts.fr)
  • A review of phosphate mineral nucleation in biology and geobiology. (nih.gov)
  • Polyphosphates may be associated with biologically controlled apatite nucleation within vertebrates and invertebrates. (nih.gov)
  • Most apatite GCs crystallize through a homogenous nucleation and crystallization mechanism, which is aided by a prior liquid-liquid phase separation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ion-association complexes unite classical and non-classical theories for the biomimetic nucleation of calcium phosphate. (nih.gov)
  • An irony of the name apatite is that apatite is the mineral that makes up the teeth in all vertebrate animals as well as their bones. (web.id)
  • and conferred on it-because it had up to now led all mineralogists identifying it astray-the name apatite, which I formed from the Greek word apatáō ([I] deceive) and which says as much as [the word] deceiver. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The problem of carbonate apatites. (springer.com)
  • Synthetic high temperature B-type carbonate apatites. (elsevier.com)
  • Electron spin resonance of X-irradiated carbonate apatites. (elsevier.com)
  • tons per annum are used in South Africa, while the mining of rock phosphate?Get Price. (bestforpet.cz)
  • Table - 3 : Details of Exploration Activities for Apatite Rock Phosphate during 2011-12. (bestforpet.cz)
  • This result is in agreement with a theoretical model of isotopic ordering in carbonate ion groups in apatite and calcite. (pnas.org)
  • After the gypsum precipitation stage, triple superphosphate is obtained by reacting the phosphoric acid with further phosphate rock. (world-nuclear.org)
  • Arianne Phosphate has partnered with Opportunities New Brunswick and the Regional Development Corporation to conduct a prefeasibility study and product pretesting with a view to implementing a phosphoric acid plant at Belledune. (arianne-inc.com)
  • The phosphoric acid plant will require a yearly supply of sulfuric acid, water* and apatite from the Lac à Paul mine. (arianne-inc.com)