Pyrimidine Nucleotides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Uridine Triphosphate: Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Orotic AcidOrotate Phosphoribosyltransferase: The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC 126.96.36.199.Uracil NucleotidesDihydroorotase: An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC 188.8.131.52.Uridine Monophosphate: 5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.Pyrimidine Nucleosides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.Aspartate Carbamoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 184.108.40.206.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC 220.127.116.11.Pyrimidine Dimers: Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.Orotidine-5'-Phosphate Decarboxylase: Orotidine-5'-phosphate carboxy-lyase. Catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidylic acid to yield uridylic acid in the final step of the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. EC 18.104.22.168.Uridine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine to uridine 5'-phosphate and cytidine 5'-phosphate, respectively. ATP, dUTP, dGTP, and dATP are effective phosphate donors. EC 22.214.171.124.UridineCytidine Triphosphate: Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.UracilDihydroorotate Oxidase: An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC 126.96.36.199.Cytosine NucleotidesCytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Uridine Diphosphate: A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)3-Deazauridine: 4-Hydroxy-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyridinone. Analog of uridine lacking a ring-nitrogen in the 3-position. Functions as an antineoplastic agent.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 188.8.131.52.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 184.108.40.206.Nucleotide Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Phosphonoacetic Acid: A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate: The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Guanine NucleotidesDeoxycytidine Monophosphate: Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.Organomercury Compounds: Organic compounds which contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Sugar PhosphatesAspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Adenine NucleotidesGuanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Deoxyribonuclease (Pyrimidine Dimer): An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.ThymidineStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Pyrimidine Phosphorylases: Pentosyltransferases that catalyze the reaction between a pyrimidine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free pyrimidine and ribose-5-phosphate.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Carbamyl Phosphate: The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).Deoxyribodipyrimidine Photo-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reactivation by light of UV-irradiated DNA. It breaks two carbon-carbon bonds in PYRIMIDINE DIMERS in DNA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate: An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseDNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A novel mechanism for regulation of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis". EMBO J. 4 (13B): 3735-42. PMC 554725 . PMID 4092695. ... Carrey EA, Campbell DG, Hardie DG (1986). "Phosphorylation and activation of hamster carbamyl phosphate synthetase II by cAMP- ...
A novel mechanism for regulation of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis". The EMBO Journal. 4 (13B): 3735-42. PMC 554725 . PMID ... Carrey EA, Campbell DG, Hardie DG (Dec 1985). "Phosphorylation and activation of hamster carbamyl phosphate synthetase II by ... Stone SR, Mayer R, Wernet W, Maurer F, Hofsteenge J, Hemmings BA (Dec 1988). "The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding the ...
ATP, a purine nucleotide, is an activator of pyrimidine synthesis, while CTP, a pyrimidine nucleotide, is an inhibitor of ... which donates the ribose and phosphate necessary to create a nucleotide. Adenine and guanine are the two nucleotides classified ... Pyrimidine nucleotides include cytidine, uridine, and thymidine. The synthesis of any pyrimidine nucleotide begins with the ... Pyrimidine bases can also be salvaged. For example, the uracil base can be combined with ribose-1-phosphate to create uridine ...
Pyrimidine ring is synthesized as orotate and attached to ribose phosphate and later converted to common pyrimidine nucleotides ... Purine and pyrimidine Metabolism De novo synthesis of purine nucleotides. ... For example, nucleotides are not needed in the diet as they can be constructed from small precursor molecules such as formate ...
Uridine triphosphate, which is a pyrimidine nucleotide, has the ability to act as an energy source. In this particular reaction ... fructose 6-phosphate. This turns fructose 6-phosphate into glucosamine-6-phosphate. In step two, an acetyl group is transferred ... which will change N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate to N-acetyl-glucosamine-1-phosphate. In step 4, the N-acetyl-glucosamine-1- ... Also in this reaction, the C3 hydroxyl group will remove a phosphate from the alpha carbon of phosphenolpyruvate. This creates ...
The 5'-phosphate group of one nucleotide is linked to the 3'-hydroxyl group of the next nucleotide, creating a backbone of ... Synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides is a much simpler process. The formation of the pyrimidine ring begins with the conversion ... a phosphate-sugar-base unit, in which he later called a nucleotide. Although the order of nucleotide components were well ... Nucleotides with phosphate groups in positions other than on the 5' carbon have also been observed. Examples include ...
... phosphate synthase on pyrimidine nucleotides. Evidence for a regulatory site". Biochemistry. 19 (26): 6062-8. doi:10.1021/ ... Jones ME (1980). "Pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis in animals: genes, enzymes, and regulation of UMP biosynthesis". Annual ... Orotate PRTase activity is activated by low concentrations of OMP, phosphate, and ADP. P. falciparum OPRTase follows a random ... Suttle DP, Bugg BY, Winkler JK, Kanalas JJ (Mar 1988). "Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence for the complete coding ...
... the second step in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. In prokaryotes ATCase consists of two subunits: a ... The N-terminal domain is the carbamoyl phosphate binding domain. The C-terminal domain is an aspartate/ornithine-binding domain ... Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTCase) catalyses the conversion of ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to citrulline. In mammals ... Aspartate carbamoyltransferase (ATCase) catalyses the conversion of aspartate and carbamoyl phosphate to carbamoylaspartate, ...
In addition to studying amino acid metabolism, Jones was also active in studying pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism. She was one ... and the discovery of carbamoyl phosphate, a key component of nucleotides which are essential to energy transfer within cells. ... and for the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. Jones became the first woman to hold a chair at the University of North ... She was notable for discovery of carbamoyl phosphate, a chemical substance that is key to the biosynthesis of arginine and urea ...
In humans, orotidine occurs as its 5'-phosphate (orotidylic acid), which is an intermediate in pyrimidine nucleotide ...
Besides involvement in the synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides, prokaryotic NDPK is also involved in several metabolism cycles ... The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-site ... NDPK usually consumes ATP, the most abundant cellular nucleotide, and stores the nucleotides. However, consumption of ATP would ... A ping-pong mechanism integrates phosphorylation of a histidine residue by transferring terminal phosphate group (γ-phosphate) ...
... an enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. An increased nucleotide pool within the cell can lead to ... For example, RHEB is an activator for nucleotide synthesis by binding carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate ... mTORC1 is also a regulator for CAD, so both RHEB and mTORC1 are involved with the control of nucleotide level within the cell. ... carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase) protein in a GTP- and effector domain- ...
... encode enzymes for synthesis of the pyrimidine nucleotides: carbamoyl phosphate synthase, dihydroorotase, aspartate ...
Pyrimidine ribonucleosides and their respective nucleotides have been prebiotically synthesised by a sequence of reactions that ... cyclic phosphates. A potential weakness of these routes is the generation of enantioenriched glyceraldehyde, or its 3-phosphate ... One version, 189-bases long, had an error rate of just 1.1% per nucleotide when synthesizing an 11 nucleotide long RNA strand ... cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides directly, which are known to be able to polymerise into RNA. Organic chemist Donna Blackmond ...
Finally phosphate was incorporated into the evolving system which allowed the synthesis of nucleotides and phospholipids. If ... Pyrimidine ribonucleosides and their respective nucleotides have been prebiotically synthesized by a sequence of reactions ... This paper also highlights the possibility for the photo-sanitization of the pyrimidine-2',3'-cyclic phosphates. Metabolism- ... cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides directly, which are known to be able to polymerize into RNA. ...
... and phosphate, but with only limited efficacy for purine nucleotides, and no success for pyrimidine nucleotides. However, ... detailed the first plausible prebiotic synthesis of activated pyrimidine nucleotides, which had previously been a significant ... Sutherland demonstrated a plausible prebiotic scheme showing that the precursors of pyrimidine nucleotides formed from hydrogen ... a partially activated nucleotide, that is remarkable for its stereospecifity and yield. Instead of assembling the nucleotide ...
DNase I is a nuclease that cleaves DNA preferentially at phosphodiester linkages adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide, yielding ... 5'-phosphate-terminated polynucleotides with a free hydroxyl group on position 3', on average producing tetranucleotides. It ... 1996). "Identification of the nucleotide substitution that generates the fourth polymorphic site in human deoxyribonuclease I ( ... 1995). "The molecular basis for genetic polymorphism of human deoxyribonuclease I: identification of the nucleotide ...
PRPP provides the ribose sugar in de novo synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, used in the nucleotide bases that form RNA and ... The enzyme is involved in the synthesis of nucleotides (purines and pyrimidines), cofactors NAD and NADP, and amino acids ... Ribose 5-phosphate is produced by the HMP Shunt Pathway from Glucose-6-Phosphate. The product phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate acts ... Ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase transfers the diphosphoryl group from Mg-ATP (Mg2+ coordinated to ATP) to ribose 5-phosphate. ...
Pyrimidines are synthesized first from aspartate and carbamoyl-phosphate in the cytoplasm to the common precursor ring ... Thus a nucleoside plus a phosphate group yields a nucleotide. Nucleotides also play a central role in life-form metabolism at ... Unlike in nucleic acid nucleotides, singular cyclic nucleotides are formed when the phosphate group is bound twice to the same ... and at least one phosphate group. They are also known as phosphate nucleotides. A nucleoside is a nitrogenous base and a 5- ...
... (NPP) is a class of dimeric enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate ... NPP1 helps scavenge extracellular nucleotides in order to meet the high purine and pyrimidine requirements of dividing cells. ... The pyrophosphate produced by NPP1 in bone cells is thought to serve as both a phosphate source for calcium phosphate ... another member of the alkaline phosphate superfamily. Alkaline phosphatase primarily hydrolyzes phosphate monoester bonds, but ...
... s are linear polymers (chains) of nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of three components: a purine or pyrimidine ... They are composed of nucleotides, which are monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a ... DNA consists of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides, with backbones made of sugars and phosphate groups joined ... The sugars and phosphates in nucleic acids are connected to each other in an alternating chain (sugar-phosphate backbone) ...
This bifunctional enzyme is named UMP synthase and it also catalyzes the preceding reaction in pyrimidine nucleotide ... Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase (OMP decarboxylase) or orotidylate decarboxylase is an enzyme involved in pyrimidine ... The function of this enzyme is essential to the de novo biosynthesis of the pyrimidine nucleotides uridine triphosphate, ... The driving force for the loss of the carboxyl linked to the C6 of the pyrimidine ring comes from the close proximity of an ...
D-ribose 5-phosphate + a pyrimidine base Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are pyrimidine 5'-nucleotide and H2O, whereas ... Imada A (1967). "Degradation of pyrimidine nucleotides by enzyme systems of Streptomyces. II. Pyrimidine 5'-nucleotide ... "Degradation of pyrimidine nucleotides by enzyme systems of Streptomyces. I. Ribose-5-phosphate formation from pyrimidine ... Other names in common use include pyrimidine nucleotide N-ribosidase, and Pyr5N. This enzyme participates in pyrimidine ...
Thymidine phosphorylase or pyrimidine-nucleoside phosphorylase adds 2-deoxy-alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate to thymine, forming ... A salvage pathway is a pathway in which nucleotides (purine and pyrimidine) are synthesized from intermediates in the ... Uridine phosphorylase or pyrimidine-nucleoside phosphorylase adds ribose 1-phosphate to the free base uracil, forming uridine. ... The salvaged bases and nucleosides can then be converted back into nucleotides. The salvage pathway requires distinct ...
... cyclic phosphate and H2O, whereas its product is nucleoside 2'-phosphate. CNPase is a myelin-associated enzyme that makes up 4 ... Helfman DM, Kuo JF (Jan 1982). "A homogeneous cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase hydrolyzes both pyrimidine and purine cyclic 2':3'- ... It is named for its ability to catalyze the phosphodiester hydrolysis of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides to 2'-nucleotides, though a ... 2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase also known as CNPase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CNP gene. ...
pyrimidine metabolism. *Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. mitochondrial shuttle. *Malate-aspartate shuttle. *Glycerol phosphate ... MT-TI is a small 69 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 4263-4331) that transfers the amino acid isoleucine to a ... A-to-G at nucleotide 4295) causing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy". Human Mutation. 8 (3): 216-22. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004( ...
... nucleotide synthases) with a solvent-exposed active site atop a Rossman-type nucleotide binding fold. The three-dimensional ... 1H NMR titrations on histidine C2 protons, coupled with 1H and 31P titrations monitoring the C1H and 5-phosphate PRPP ... In de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase catalyzes the formation of orotidine 5-monophosphate ( ... nucleotide synthases) with a solvent-exposed active site atop a Rossman-type nucleotide binding fold. The three-dimensional ...
... of orotic aciduria may include synthetic uridine and cystidine supplementation which will supplies pyrimidine nucleotide for ... What Is Biochemistry - Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency * What Is Biochemistry - Lactase Deficiency ... Orotic aciduria occurs due to mutation of the UMP synthase which affect the synthesis of pyrimidine. Generally UMP synthase is ... involved in the formation of UMP by adding ribose-5-monophosphate ring into the orotic acid in de novo synthesis of pyrimidine ...
... to form ribose 5-phosphate and the corresponding free base. Can use AMP, GMP, IMP, CMP, dTMP and UMP as substrates. Cannot ... Catalyzes the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of diverse pyrimidine and purine nucleotide 5-monophosphates, ... possibly because it contributes to nucleoside pool homeostasis by degrading excess nucleotides and feeding back the ribose ...
D-ribose 5-phosphate + a pyrimidine base Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are pyrimidine 5-nucleotide and H2O, whereas ... Imada A (1967). "Degradation of pyrimidine nucleotides by enzyme systems of Streptomyces. II. Pyrimidine 5-nucleotide ... "Degradation of pyrimidine nucleotides by enzyme systems of Streptomyces. I. Ribose-5-phosphate formation from pyrimidine ... Other names in common use include pyrimidine nucleotide N-ribosidase, and Pyr5N. This enzyme participates in pyrimidine ...
In the method, a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is contacted in an aqueous solution with a radioactive iodide ... whereby a water soluble pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide labeled with radioactive iodine, bromine, chlorine or astatine is ... A method of making a radiolabeled pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is described. ... or to any trialkylstannyl-pyrimidine nucleotide such as 5-trialkylstannyl-cytidine-5-mono-, di, or tri-phosphate, 5- ...
This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of erythrocyte purine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP) in trained and ... Berman PA, Black DA, Human L, Harley EH (1988) Oxypurine cycle in human erythrocytes regulated by pH, inorganic phosphate, and ... Exercise Trained Sedentary Purine and pyrimidine nucleotides Uridine Erythrocyte VO2max APRT HGPRT ... Determination of purines and pyrimidines. The purine nucleotide (ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP) concentrations were determined in ...
Nucleotide Salvage Pathways: Pyrimidines Base to Nucleotide: Uracil and thymine to nucleoside by adding ribose 1-phosphate and ... Nuclei Acid: polymer of DNA/RNA nucleotides. Nucleotides: nitrogenous base, sugar, and 1-3 phosphates. Nucleoside: nitrogenous ... Base to Nucleotide-. Adenine, hypoxanthine, guanine have ribose 5-phosphate added by phosphoribosyltransferase, makes AMP, IMP ... Nucleotide Degradation:. CMP, UMP, and TMP to CO2, H2O, urea, beta-alanine, and beta-alanine aminoisubutyrate. Need ...
The ribose phosphate portion of both purine and pyrimidine nucleotides is synthesized from glucose via ... ... Nucleotide (biochemistry) In the two families of nucleic acids, ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the ... Ribose, also called D-ribose, five-carbon sugar found in RNA (ribonucleic acid), where it alternates with phosphate groups to ... Nucleotides are synthesized from readily available precursors in the cell. ...
The ribose phosphate portion of both purine and pyrimidine nucleotides is synthesized from glucose via ... ... Ribose, also called D-ribose, five-carbon sugar found in RNA (ribonucleic acid), where it alternates with phosphate groups to ... Nucleotides are synthesized from readily available precursors in the cell. ...
Carbamoyl phosphate, thus, participates in a branched pathway in these organisms that leads to either pyrimidine nucleotides or ... Pyrimidine Catabolism De novo Synthesis of Purine Nucleotides De novo Synthesis of Pyrimidine Nucleotides Interconversion of ... Pyrimidines. *Uracil = 2,4-dioxy pyrimidine *Thymine = 2,4-dioxy-5-methyl pyrimidine *Cytosine = 2-oxy-4-amino pyrimidine * ... Nucleotides. Adding one or more phosphates to the sugar portion of a nucleoside results in a nucleotide. Generally, the ...
Ribose-5-phosphate and NADPH 24 used for purine/pyrimidine (nucleotide) synthesis ...
Plays an important role in de novo pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Has preference for UMP and CMP as phosphate acceptors. ... Catalyzes the phosphorylation of pyrimidine nucleoside monophosphates at the expense of ATP. ... Plays an important role in de novo pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Has preference for UMP and CMP as phosphate acceptors. ... p>This subsection of the Function section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always ...
... and pyridine nucleotides (1). PRPP synthesis from Mg-ATP and ribose-5-phosphate is catalyzed in mammalian cells by a family of ... Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) is an important regulatory substrate in the synthesis of purine, pyrimidine, ... For all other nucleotide residues of the patients PRS1 and PRS2 cDNA and her mothers PRS1 and PRS2 cDNA, single peaks ... In A, peaks representing both A and T are seen at nucleotide position 578 (arrow). These dual peaks support evidence from PRS1 ...
... an intermediate in the formation of the pyrimidine and purine nucleotides as well as NAD+. ... Definition: d-ribose carrying a phosphate group on ribose carbon-5 and a pyrophosphate group on ribose carbon-1; ...
A novel mechanism for regulation of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis". EMBO J. 4 (13B): 3735-42. PMC 554725 . PMID 4092695. ... Carrey EA, Campbell DG, Hardie DG (1986). "Phosphorylation and activation of hamster carbamyl phosphate synthetase II by cAMP- ...
Pyrimidines are essential precursors for DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) synthesis, protein ... Keywords: nucleotide metabolism; multifunctional protein; glutaminase; carbamoyl phosphate synthetase; dihydroorotase; ... Jones ME (1980) Pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis in animals: genes, enzymes, and regulation of UMP biosynthesis. Annual ... De novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides is essential for cell growth and proliferation. ...
Metabolism of amino acids, purine and pyrimidine bases. Amino acids (AAs). Sources of AAs: diet synthesis de novo protein ... Important notes about synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides • Carbamoyl phosphate is formed from Gln and CO2 (2 ATP are consumed ... Pyrimidines and Purines - N. n. n. n. n. n h. pyrimidines and purines. pyrimidine and purine are the names of the parent ... Structures of the Purine and Pyrimidine Bases - . example of the structure of a nucleotide. base. nucleoside. nucleotide. ...
Enzymatic synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. Orotidine-5′-phos-phate and uridine-5′.phosphate. J. of Biol. Chem. 215, 403-415 ... Enzymatic synthesis of pyrimidine and purine nucleotides. II. Orotidine-5-phosphate pyrophosphorylase and decarboxylase. J. ... Roll, P. M., H. Wetnfeld and E. Carroll: The utilization of nucleotides by the mammal. V. Metabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides ... Enzymatic synthesis of pyrimidine and purine nucleotides. I. Formation of 5-phosphoribosylpyro-phosphate. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. ...
Biolog also offers Phosphate tris(acetoxymethyl)ester (PO4-AM3, Cat. No. P 030) which is recommended as control reagent in ...
... which are called nucleotides. Learn about DNA structure and see pictures of DNA structure. ... thymine (T) - a pyrimidine. ". " Strands of DNA are made of the sugar and phosphate portions of the nucleotides, while the ... The sides of the ladder comprise the sugar-phosphate portions of adjacent nucleotides bonded together. The phosphate of one ... Each nucleotide consists of a sugar (deoxyribose) bound on one side to a phosphate group and bound on the other side to a ...
Pyrimidine nucleotides include cytidine, uridine, and thymidine. The synthesis of any pyrimidine nucleotide begins with the ... Interconversion of nucleotides. Once the nucleotides are synthesized they can exchange phosphates among one another in ... ATP, a purine nucleotide, is an activator of pyrimidine synthesis, while CTP, a pyrimidine nucleotide, is an inhibitor of ... Pyrimidine bases can also be salvaged. For example, the uracil base can be combined with ribose-1-phosphate to create uridine ...
... nucleotides (PubMed:25320081). Is inhibited strongly by pyridoxal 5-phosphate, 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, tannic acid, ... Mitochondrial transporter that imports/exports pyrimidine nucleotides into and from mitochondria (PubMed:25320081). Transports ... pyrimidine nucleotide transport Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the ... pyrimidine nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to ...
Pyrimidines, however, do not react with ribose, even anhydrously. Then phosphate must be introduced, but in nature phosphate in ... For the nucleotides to form RNA, they must be activated themselves (meaning that they must be combined with two more phosphate ... However, this does not happen in reverse because the pyrimidine nucleotides do not stack well. ... The primordial soup that made up Earth had compounds including nucleotides. These nucleotides sequenced spontaneously and ...
... is an activated compound used in the biosynthesis of histidine and purine/pyrimidine nucleotides. This pathway map also shows ... Pentose phosphate pathway - Aerococcus urinae ACS-120-V-Col10a [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML ... The pentose phosphate pathway is a process of glucose turnover that produces NADPH as reducing equivalents and pentoses as ... essential parts of nucleotides. There are two different phases in the pathway. One is irreversible oxidative phase in which ...
A regulatory, allosteric enzyme in the synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides.. aspartate transaminase. see aspartate ... enzyme catalyzing the condensation of carbamoyl phosphate and l-aspartate to N-carbamoyl-l-aspartate. ... and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases) were carried out in the samples collected.. Plasma hepatic enzymes as biopredictors of ... requiring the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate; it is normally present in serum and in various body tissues, especially in the ...
BiosynthesisPRPPNucleosideThymineNucleic AcidUracilPURINES AND PYRIMIDINESEnzymeBiosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotidesUridinePathwayNucleosides and nucleotidesDerivativesPentose sugarCytidineAdjacent pyrimidine nucleotidesSugarsBackboneRibonucleotidesAtomsCofactorsFormation of the pyrimidineDeoxyribose sugarNitrogenousPrecursorsResiduesUric acidBound to a phosphate groupThymidineNovo pyrimidine synthesisSequenceDerivativeReactionsCoenzymesGroup
- Is required for optimal growth in glucose minimal medium, possibly because it contributes to nucleoside pool homeostasis by degrading excess nucleotides and feeding back the ribose moiety to catabolism. (rcsb.org)
- A method of making a radiolabeled pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is described. (google.com)
- In the method, a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is contacted in an aqueous solution with a radioactive iodide, bromide, chlorine or astatine ion in the presence of an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing. (google.com)
- In the method, a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is contacted in an aqueous solution with a radioactive iodide, bromide, chlorine or astatine ion in the presence of an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing solution comprising at least a 3:1 ratio of 30% hydrogen peroxide to 1N acid (v/v), whereby a water soluble pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide labeled with radioactive iodine, bromine, chlorine or astatine is formed. (google.com)
- ii) a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide and (iii) an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing solution comprising at least a 3:1 ratio of 30% hydrogen peroxide to 1N acid (v/v), whereby a water soluble pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide labeled with radioactive iodine, bromine, chlorine or astatine is formed. (google.com)
- 5. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide comprises a trimethyl stannyl analogue or a tributylstannyl analogue of a pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide. (google.com)
- 6. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside comprises the tributylstannyl analogue. (google.com)
- 7. The method of claim 1, wherein the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is immobilized on a solid surface. (google.com)
- 8. The method of claim 1, wherein a radioactive iodide ion is used to label the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide. (google.com)
- 12. A kit suitable for forming a radiolabeled pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide, the kit comprising a premeasured amount of a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide in a first sterile, non-pyrogenic container and an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing solution comprising at least a 3:1 ratio of 30% hydrogen peroxide to 1N acid (v/v) in a second sterile, non-pyrogenic container. (google.com)
- 15. The kit of claim 12, wherein the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is immobilized on a solid surface. (google.com)
- Adding one or more phosphates to the sugar portion of a nucleoside results in a nucleotide . (utah.edu)
- In at least some tissues, the nucleosides undergo phosphorolysis with nucleoside phosphorylases to yield the base and ribose 1-P (or deoxyribose 1-P). Since R 1-P and R 5-P are in equilibrium, the sugar phosphate can either be reincorporated into nucleotides or metabolized via the Hexose Monophosphate Pathway. (utah.edu)
- Catalyzes the phosphorylation of pyrimidine nucleoside monophosphates at the expense of ATP. (uniprot.org)
- We conclude that TK is essential for synthesis of thymine nucleotides regardless of whether the nucleoside precursors originate from the de novo pathway or through salvage. (nih.gov)
- The adenine nucleoside is called adenosine and lacks only a phosphate to form a nucleotide. (conservapedia.com)
- In principle, the above nucleotides and/or their nucleoside and nucleobase precursors can be obtained in several ways: synthesis de novo , direct acquisition by salvage or by subsequent interconversions to yield the appropriate repertoire of purines and pyrimidine derivatives found in the nucleic acids and other important molecular species. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- When a sugar group is bound to a pyrimidine or a purine, it is called a nucleoside. (wisegeek.com)
- The phosphate group binds to the sugar molecule of a nucleoside through an ester linkage. (wisegeek.com)
- 2. Flavour modulating substance according to claim 1, wherein the moiety --NRH represents the residue of a purine radical, a pyrimidine radical, a nucleoside or a nucleotide. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- A nucleoside is composed of deoxyribose and a nitrogen basis , i.e. contrary to a nucleotide, it doesn't have a phosphate group anymore. (lecturio.com)
- This means that a nucleoside can come from a nucleotide through the removal of a phosphate group. (lecturio.com)
- Then the C5 hydroxyl of the sugar molecule of nucleoside joins with a phosphate group to form a nucleotide molecule. (expertsmind.com)
- In contrast with other epithelia, in this epithelium, we have identified the high-affinity pyrimidine-preferring human concentrative nucleoside transporter (hCNT) 1 as the only hCNT-type protein expressed at both the basal and apical membranes. (aspetjournals.org)
- Overall, this result favors the view that the placenta is a pyrimidine-preferring nucleoside sink from both maternal and fetal sides, and hCNT1 plays a major role in promoting pyrimidine salvage and placental growth. (aspetjournals.org)
- A 'nucleotide' is a 5'-phosphate ester of a nucleoside. (rpi.edu)
- A nucleotide without the phosphate group is known as a nucleoside. (rapidlearningcenter.com)
- A nucleotide can thus also be defined as the phosphate ester of a nucleoside. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- As a pyrimidine nucleobase, thymine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. (conservapedia.com)
- There are several pyrimidine molecules, but only cytosine and thymine are part of the DNA structure, while cytosine and uracil are part of the RNA structure. (wisegeek.com)
- Pyrimidine derivatives are cytosine, Uracil and thymine. (expertsmind.com)
- The major pyrimidine residues are those of Cytosine, Uracil and Thymine. (rapidlearningcenter.com)
- Ureidosuccinic acid as a precursor of nucleic acid pyrimidines in normal and tumor-bearing mice. (springer.com)
- When it is desired to test whether a target nucleic acid strand contains a specific sequence of nucleotides, oligonucleotide probes can be used. (google.com)
- We found that mTORC1 increases metabolic flux through the de novo purine synthesis pathway in various mouse and human cells, thereby influencing the nucleotide pool available for nucleic acid synthesis. (sciencemag.org)
- Each nucleic acid strand is a linear (or, in a few cases, circular), unbranched polymer consisting of a sugar-phosphate backbone with a nucleotide base (purine or pyrimidine) linked to each sugar residue. (aasv.org)
- Before we look at nucleic acid structure, we need to study the synthesis of the purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides and the subsequent synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotides, followed by their catabolic and recycling pathways. (rpi.edu)
- DNA structure is a nucleic acid, meaning it is made up of a chain of nucleotides. (majortests.com)
- There are two kinds of nitrogen-containing bases - purines and pyrimidines. (utah.edu)
- Nucleotides can be separated into purines and pyrimidines . (wikipedia.org)
- This regulation helps to keep the purine/pyrimidine amounts similar, which is beneficial because equal amounts of purines and pyrimidines are required for DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
- On the other hand, the positioning of the phosphate-chain is an even more important term for PGK in the case of both purines and pyrimidines with an L -configuration, as deduced from the present kinetic studies with various nucleotide -site mutants of PGK. (rsc.org)
- Synthesis de novo , acquisition by salvage and interconversion of purines and pyrimidines represent the fundamental requirements for their eventual assembly into nucleic acids as nucleotides and the deployment of their derivatives in other biochemical pathways. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Note: We will soon see other important purines and pyrimidines. (rpi.edu)
- The systematic name of this enzyme class is pyrimidine-5'-nucleotide phosphoribo(deoxyribo)hydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
- Degradation of pyrimidine nucleotides by enzyme systems of Streptomyces. (wikipedia.org)
- enzyme catalyzing the condensation of carbamoyl phosphate and l-aspartate to N -carbamoyl-l-aspartate. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A regulatory, allosteric enzyme in the synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The wide specificity of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) towards its nucleotide substrate is a property that allows contribution of this enzyme to the effective phosphorylation ( i.e. activation) of nucleotide -based pro- drugs against HIV. (rsc.org)
- Here, the structural basis of the nucleotide-PGK interaction is characterised in comparison to other kinases, namely pyruvate kinase (PK) and creatine kinase (CK), by enzyme kinetic analysis and structural modelling (docking) studies. (rsc.org)
- Red blood cell glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme disorder worldwide, affecting 420 million of the world population. (frontiersin.org)
- The systematic name of this enzyme class is xanthosine-5'-phosphate:L-glutamine amido-ligase (AMP-forming). (wikibooks.org)
- Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase (or AIR carboxylase) is an enzyme involved in nucleotide synthesis. (wikibooks.org)
- Assayed with yeast RNA as substrate, the enzyme showed the maximal activity at about pH 6.5 with sodium phosphate buffer. (biomedsearch.com)
- Among the synthetic substrates examined, the enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed pyrimidine nucleotides, with a higher affinity for polycytidylate than for polyuridylate. (biomedsearch.com)
- In prokaryotes ATCase consists of two subunits: a catalytic chain (gene pyrB) and a regulatory chain (gene pyrI), while in eukaryotes it is a domain in a multi-functional enzyme (called URA2 in yeast, rudimentary in Drosophila, and CAD in mammals [ PMID: 8098212 ]) that also catalyses other steps of the biosynthesis of pyrimidines. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Here, we report high-resolution X-ray structures of Bacillus subtilis aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase), an enzyme that catalyzes one of the first reactions in pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. (rcsb.org)
- Structures of the enzyme have been determined in the absence of ligands, in the presence of the substrate carbamoyl phosphate, and in the presence of the bisubstrate/transition state analog N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate. (rcsb.org)
- EC 220.127.116.11) is the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of purine nucleotides and might by feed-back mechanism coordinate this entire biochemical pathway. (pulsus.com)
- Phosphate has multiple effects on the activity and structure of the enzyme. (pulsus.com)
- ATP, GTP), nucleotide-based enzyme cofactors (e.g. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Signaling by mTORC1 caused accumulation of the transcription factor ATF4, which enhances production of the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 2, thus leading to increased production of the purine nucleotides needed for cell growth. (sciencemag.org)
- The most striking abnormality was a 26-fold increase in orotate associated with a decrease in uridine monophosphate (UMP) levels, indicating an inhibition of UMP synthetase (UMPS), the last enzyme in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway, which produces UMP from orotate and 5-phosphoribosyl-α-pyrophosphate (PRPP). (aacrjournals.org)
- In addition, L-serine conversion to glycine via this same enzyme provides the one-carbon units necessary for production of the pyrimidine nucleotide, deoxythymidine monophosphate, also an essential component of DNA. (drugbank.ca)
- Nucleotides are the components of many enzyme cofactors. (rapidlearningcenter.com)
- The human pathogenic parasite Trypanosoma brucei possess both de novo and salvage routes for the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. (nih.gov)
- Aspartate carbamoyltransferase ( EC:18.104.22.168 ) (ATCase) catalyses the conversion of aspartate and carbamoyl phosphate to carbamoylaspartate, the second step in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides [ PMID: 3015959 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- This protein is regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, which indicates a direct link between activation of the MAPK cascade and de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. (nih.gov)
- Pyrimidine nucleotides include cytidine , uridine , and thymidine . (wikipedia.org)
- The synthesis of any pyrimidine nucleotide begins with the formation of uridine. (wikipedia.org)
- Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (uridine 5'-diphosphate-GlcNAc, or UDP-Glc-NAc) is an acetylated aminosugar nucleotide. (hmdb.ca)
- UDPgal is a product of the galactose-l-phosphate uridyl transferase (EC 22.214.171.124) reaction but may also be made from Glucose-l-P, involving uridine diphosphate galactose-4-epimerase (EC 126.96.36.199). (hmdb.ca)
- When a phosphate attaches to uridine, uridine 5'-monophosphate is produced. (conservapedia.com)
- E. C. 188.8.131.52) changes orotidine 5-phosphate (OMP) to uridine 5-phosphate (UMP) using the discharge of CO2. (acmbcb.org)
- Exogenous pyrimidines uridine, cytidine, and thymidine, but not purines adenosine or guanosine, rescued multiple myeloma cells from AICAr-induced apoptosis, supporting this notion. (aacrjournals.org)
- In animals, the de novo pathway is initiated and controlled by CAD, a ∼240‐kDa multifunctional protein with four different enzymatic domains: glutaminase (GLN), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), dihydroorotase (DHO) and aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC). (els.net)
- a) Overview of the de novo pathway for the biosynthesis of pyrimidines. (els.net)
- The pentose phosphate pathway is a process of glucose turnover that produces NADPH as reducing equivalents and pentoses as essential parts of nucleotides. (genome.jp)
- T . brucei pyrimidine pathway. (nih.gov)
- The oxidative branch of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP) is the major source of NADPH produced in animal cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- This gene encodes a trifunctional protein which is associated with the enzymatic activities of the first 3 enzymes in the 6-step pathway of pyrimidine biosynthesis: carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS II), aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase. (nih.gov)
- This protein is a "fusion" protein encoding four enzymatic activities of the pyrimidine pathway (GATase, CPSase, ATCase and DHOase). (nih.gov)
- Orotic acid, first discovered in ruminant milk, is an intermediate in the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway of animal cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- When there is insufficient capacity for detoxifying the load of ammonia presented for urea synthesis, CP leaves the mitochondria and enters the pyrimidine pathway, where orotic acid biosynthesis is stimulated, orotic acid excretion in urine then increases. (biomedsearch.com)
- NADPH generated through the pentose-phosphate pathway is required for NADPH oxidase activity and H 2 O 2 production and also for de novo fatty acid synthesis (5,6). (scielo.br)
- Another section analyses the mechanisms by which cells obtain the energy necessary for their growth, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic and the anaplerotic cycles. (springer.com)
- Mechanistically, elevation of pyrimidine nucleotides induced by chemotherapy is dependent on increased activity of the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
- Moreover, combined treatment with doxorubicin and leflunomide, a clinically approved inhibitor of the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway, induces regression of TNBC xenografts. (aacrjournals.org)
- This invention relates to methods for making radiolabeled pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleotides and, more specifically, to a fast method for labeling with radioactive iodine, bromine, chlorine or astatine, particularly by destannylation of a stannyl precursor. (google.com)
- There's a logic to the naming of the nucleosides and nucleotides, if you can remember a few rules. (rpi.edu)
- These are carbohydrate derivatives containing a pentose substituted by one or more phosphate groups. (hmdb.ca)
- Pyrimidine derivatives have already been shown to go through 6-addition from the sulfite anion, an exceedingly reactive nucleophile, with addition of the solvent proton at C5 (9 C URB597 16) (Structure 2A). (acmbcb.org)
- these are of 2 kinds pyrimidine derivatives with a single ring and purine derivatives with a double ring structure. (expertsmind.com)
- Adenine nucleotides are components of the coenzymes NAD+, NADP+, FMN, FAD and Coenzyme A. UDP-Glucose in Glycogen synthesis and CDP-diacylglycerol in Phosphoglyceride synthesis are the nucleotide derivatives that act as activated intermediates. (rapidlearningcenter.com)
- Nucleotide synthesis is an anabolic mechanism generally involving the chemical reaction of phosphate , pentose sugar , and a nitrogenous base . (wikipedia.org)
- C 5 H 10 O 5 A pentose sugar occurring as a component of various nucleotides, including ribonucleic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Nucleotides consist of a pentose sugar (brown), one or more phosphate groups (red), and a heterocyclic base (blue). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- B-DNA adopts two representative phosphate backbone conformations, BI and BII, which are defined by ∊ - ζ values (Supplementary Fig. S1). (iucr.org)
- enzymes , there is no chemical reaction that produces the sugar A five-carbon sugar found in RNA (ribonucleic acid), where it alternates with phosphate groups to form the backbone of the RNA polymer. (godandscience.org)
- On the other hand, the discovery in 2009 that activated pyrimidine ribonucleotides can be synthesized under plausible prebiotic conditions suggests that it is premature to dismiss the RNA-first scenarios. (wikipedia.org)
- Depending on their base sugar, nucleotides are therefore known as "deoxyribonucleotides" or "ribonucleotides. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The phosphate of one nucleotide is covalently bound (a bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms) to the sugar of the next nucleotide. (howstuffworks.com)
- The ring structure of each of these pyrimidine molecules contain two nitrogen atoms and four carbon atoms. (wisegeek.com)
- In fact, nucleotides are even more cumbersome to make because atoms of carbon and nitrogen have to be added one at a time! (dummies.com)
- The nitrogen-containing base of a nucleotide (also called the nucleobase ) is typically a derivative of either purine or pyrimidine , which are heterocyclic compounds (organic compounds that contain a ring structure that has, in addition to carbon , such atoms as sulfur , oxygen , or nitrogen ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Hans Kuhn in 1972 laid out a possible process by which the modern genetic system might have arisen from a nucleotide-based precursor, and this led Harold White in 1976 to observe that many of the cofactors essential for enzymatic function are either nucleotides or could have been derived from nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
- Each nucleotide consists of a sugar ( deoxyribose ) bound on one side to a phosphate group and bound on the other side to a nitrogenous base . (howstuffworks.com)
- A nucleotide contains a nitrogenous base, phosphate group and sugar. (rapidlearningcenter.com)
- Deoxyribonucleotide is made up of a sugar called deoxyribose, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. (rapidlearningcenter.com)
- Nucleotides are phosphate esters of pentoses in which a nitrogenous base is linked to C1' of the sugar residue. (rapidlearningcenter.com)
- The repeating structure of polynucleotides involves alternating sugar and phosphate residues, with phosphodiester bonds linking the 3′-hydroxyl group of one nucleotide sugar to the 5′-hydroxyl group of the adjacent nucleotide sugar. (nih.gov)
- Ribonuclease A (RNase A) is an endoribonuclease that cleaves single-stranded RNA at the 3´ end of pyrimidine residues, forming oligoribonucleotides having 3´-terminal pyrimidine-3´-phosphates. (lucigen.com)
- In animals, the multifunctional protein CAD catalyses the first three reactions of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. (els.net)
- Pharmacologic inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis sensitizes TNBC cells to genotoxic chemotherapy agents by exacerbating DNA damage. (aacrjournals.org)
- We find that chemotherapy agents induce adaptive reprogramming of de novo pyrimidine synthesis and show that this response can be exploited pharmacologically, using clinically approved inhibitors of de novo pyrimidine synthesis, to sensitize TNBC cells to chemotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
- When reacted with fully or partially sequence-complementary RNA (oligo C), the abiotically generated oligo G RNA displays a typical ribozyme activity consisting of terminal ligation accompanied by cleavage of an internal phosphate site of the donor oligonucleotide stem upon attack of the acceptor 3′ terminal OH. (mdpi.com)
- Within a gene , the sequence of nucleotides along a DNA strand defines a messenger RNA sequence, which in turn defines a protein. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- What type of a mutation occurs when a gene has two fewer nucleotides in its sequence? (lumenlearning.com)
- BSC: Exam 3 (chapters 16-20) Before lecture Questions: Q: "A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses). (majortests.com)
- In E. coli, the direction for orisome assembly are built into a short stretch of nucleotide sequence called as origin of replication (oriC) which contains multiple binding sites for the initiator protein DnaA (a highly homologous protein amongst bacterial kingdom). (wikipedia.org)
- EC 184.108.40.206) isoforms in reactions that require Mg 2+ and inorganic phosphate (Pi) as activators and are subject to inhibition by purine nucleotides ( 1 ). (wiley.com)
- Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) is an enzymatic cofactor involved in many redox reactions where it cycles between the reduced (NADPH) and oxidized (NADP) forms. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Adenine nucleotides are components of three major coenzymes, NAD + , FAD, and CoA, organic molecules that assist in various biochemical reactions by serving as carriers. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- 2'-GMP would indicate that a phosphate is in ester linkage to the 2' hydroxyl group of a guanosine. (utah.edu)
- Omission of a hydroxyl group at the 2' or 3'-position reduced inhibitor potency as did introduction of a γ-thiophosphate group or omission of the γ-phosphate group. (ku.edu)
- Each nucleotide contains one phosphate group, one pentose or deoxypentose sugar, and one purine or pyrimidine base. (nih.gov)
- In the crystal constructions of nucleotide complexes with ODCase, the 5-phosphoryl group seems to brace Rabbit Polyclonal to OR4C16 the substrate inside the energetic site so as to pressure the scissile carboxylate group in to the neighborhood from the billed quartet. (acmbcb.org)
- Ki-67 incorporation was more pronounced in phosphate treated group in comparison with the control. (pulsus.com)
- Cleavage occurs between the 3'-phosphate group of a pyrimidine ribonucleotide and the 5'-hydroxyl of the adjacent nucleotide. (protocol-online.org)
- Pyrimidine is group of molecules that are part of the DNA and RNA structure. (wisegeek.com)
- Nucleosides resemble the structure of nucleotides (i.e., they contain a base bonded to a sugar) but lack the phosphate group. (newworldencyclopedia.org)