Pyrimidine Nucleotides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Uridine Triphosphate: Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Orotic AcidOrotate Phosphoribosyltransferase: The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC 2.4.2.10.Uracil NucleotidesDihydroorotase: An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC 3.5.2.3.Uridine Monophosphate: 5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.Pyrimidine Nucleosides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.Aspartate Carbamoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.3.2.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC 6.3.5.5.Pyrimidine Dimers: Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.Orotidine-5'-Phosphate Decarboxylase: Orotidine-5'-phosphate carboxy-lyase. Catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidylic acid to yield uridylic acid in the final step of the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. EC 4.1.1.23.Uridine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine to uridine 5'-phosphate and cytidine 5'-phosphate, respectively. ATP, dUTP, dGTP, and dATP are effective phosphate donors. EC 2.7.1.48.UridineCytidine Triphosphate: Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.UracilDihydroorotate Oxidase: An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC 1.3.3.1.Cytosine NucleotidesCytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Uridine Diphosphate: A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)3-Deazauridine: 4-Hydroxy-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyridinone. Analog of uridine lacking a ring-nitrogen in the 3-position. Functions as an antineoplastic agent.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Nucleotide Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Phosphonoacetic Acid: A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate: The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Guanine NucleotidesDeoxycytidine Monophosphate: Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.Organomercury Compounds: Organic compounds which contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Sugar PhosphatesAspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Adenine NucleotidesGuanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Deoxyribonuclease (Pyrimidine Dimer): An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.ThymidineStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Pyrimidine Phosphorylases: Pentosyltransferases that catalyze the reaction between a pyrimidine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free pyrimidine and ribose-5-phosphate.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Carbamyl Phosphate: The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).Deoxyribodipyrimidine Photo-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reactivation by light of UV-irradiated DNA. It breaks two carbon-carbon bonds in PYRIMIDINE DIMERS in DNA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate: An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseDNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A novel mechanism for regulation of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis". EMBO J. 4 (13B): 3735-42. PMC 554725 . PMID 4092695. ... Carrey EA, Campbell DG, Hardie DG (1986). "Phosphorylation and activation of hamster carbamyl phosphate synthetase II by cAMP- ...
A novel mechanism for regulation of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis". The EMBO Journal. 4 (13B): 3735-42. PMC 554725 . PMID ... Carrey EA, Campbell DG, Hardie DG (Dec 1985). "Phosphorylation and activation of hamster carbamyl phosphate synthetase II by ... Stone SR, Mayer R, Wernet W, Maurer F, Hofsteenge J, Hemmings BA (Dec 1988). "The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding the ...
ATP, a purine nucleotide, is an activator of pyrimidine synthesis, while CTP, a pyrimidine nucleotide, is an inhibitor of ... which donates the ribose and phosphate necessary to create a nucleotide. Adenine and guanine are the two nucleotides classified ... Pyrimidine nucleotides include cytidine, uridine, and thymidine. The synthesis of any pyrimidine nucleotide begins with the ... Pyrimidine bases can also be salvaged. For example, the uracil base can be combined with ribose-1-phosphate to create uridine ...
Pyrimidine ring is synthesized as orotate and attached to ribose phosphate and later converted to common pyrimidine nucleotides ... Purine and pyrimidine Metabolism De novo synthesis of purine nucleotides. ... For example, nucleotides are not needed in the diet as they can be constructed from small precursor molecules such as formate ...
Uridine triphosphate, which is a pyrimidine nucleotide, has the ability to act as an energy source. In this particular reaction ... fructose 6-phosphate. This turns fructose 6-phosphate into glucosamine-6-phosphate. In step two, an acetyl group is transferred ... which will change N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate to N-acetyl-glucosamine-1-phosphate. In step 4, the N-acetyl-glucosamine-1- ... Also in this reaction, the C3 hydroxyl group will remove a phosphate from the alpha carbon of phosphenolpyruvate. This creates ...
The 5'-phosphate group of one nucleotide is linked to the 3'-hydroxyl group of the next nucleotide, creating a backbone of ... Synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides is a much simpler process. The formation of the pyrimidine ring begins with the conversion ... a phosphate-sugar-base unit, in which he later called a nucleotide. Although the order of nucleotide components were well ... Nucleotides with phosphate groups in positions other than on the 5' carbon have also been observed. Examples include ...
... phosphate synthase on pyrimidine nucleotides. Evidence for a regulatory site". Biochemistry. 19 (26): 6062-8. doi:10.1021/ ... Jones ME (1980). "Pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis in animals: genes, enzymes, and regulation of UMP biosynthesis". Annual ... Orotate PRTase activity is activated by low concentrations of OMP, phosphate, and ADP. P. falciparum OPRTase follows a random ... Suttle DP, Bugg BY, Winkler JK, Kanalas JJ (Mar 1988). "Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence for the complete coding ...
... the second step in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. In prokaryotes ATCase consists of two subunits: a ... The N-terminal domain is the carbamoyl phosphate binding domain. The C-terminal domain is an aspartate/ornithine-binding domain ... Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTCase) catalyses the conversion of ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to citrulline. In mammals ... Aspartate carbamoyltransferase (ATCase) catalyses the conversion of aspartate and carbamoyl phosphate to carbamoylaspartate, ...
In addition to studying amino acid metabolism, Jones was also active in studying pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism. She was one ... and the discovery of carbamoyl phosphate, a key component of nucleotides which are essential to energy transfer within cells. ... and for the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. Jones became the first woman to hold a chair at the University of North ... She was notable for discovery of carbamoyl phosphate, a chemical substance that is key to the biosynthesis of arginine and urea ...
In humans, orotidine occurs as its 5'-phosphate (orotidylic acid), which is an intermediate in pyrimidine nucleotide ...
Besides involvement in the synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides, prokaryotic NDPK is also involved in several metabolism cycles ... The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-site ... NDPK usually consumes ATP, the most abundant cellular nucleotide, and stores the nucleotides. However, consumption of ATP would ... A ping-pong mechanism integrates phosphorylation of a histidine residue by transferring terminal phosphate group (γ-phosphate) ...
... an enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. An increased nucleotide pool within the cell can lead to ... For example, RHEB is an activator for nucleotide synthesis by binding carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate ... mTORC1 is also a regulator for CAD, so both RHEB and mTORC1 are involved with the control of nucleotide level within the cell. ... carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase) protein in a GTP- and effector domain- ...
... encode enzymes for synthesis of the pyrimidine nucleotides: carbamoyl phosphate synthase, dihydroorotase, aspartate ...
Pyrimidine ribonucleosides and their respective nucleotides have been prebiotically synthesised by a sequence of reactions that ... cyclic phosphates. A potential weakness of these routes is the generation of enantioenriched glyceraldehyde, or its 3-phosphate ... One version, 189-bases long, had an error rate of just 1.1% per nucleotide when synthesizing an 11 nucleotide long RNA strand ... cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides directly, which are known to be able to polymerise into RNA. Organic chemist Donna Blackmond ...
Finally phosphate was incorporated into the evolving system which allowed the synthesis of nucleotides and phospholipids. If ... Pyrimidine ribonucleosides and their respective nucleotides have been prebiotically synthesized by a sequence of reactions ... This paper also highlights the possibility for the photo-sanitization of the pyrimidine-2',3'-cyclic phosphates. Metabolism- ... cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides directly, which are known to be able to polymerize into RNA. ...
... and phosphate, but with only limited efficacy for purine nucleotides, and no success for pyrimidine nucleotides. However, ... detailed the first plausible prebiotic synthesis of activated pyrimidine nucleotides, which had previously been a significant ... Sutherland demonstrated a plausible prebiotic scheme showing that the precursors of pyrimidine nucleotides formed from hydrogen ... a partially activated nucleotide, that is remarkable for its stereospecifity and yield. Instead of assembling the nucleotide ...
DNase I is a nuclease that cleaves DNA preferentially at phosphodiester linkages adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide, yielding ... 5'-phosphate-terminated polynucleotides with a free hydroxyl group on position 3', on average producing tetranucleotides. It ... 1996). "Identification of the nucleotide substitution that generates the fourth polymorphic site in human deoxyribonuclease I ( ... 1995). "The molecular basis for genetic polymorphism of human deoxyribonuclease I: identification of the nucleotide ...
PRPP provides the ribose sugar in de novo synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, used in the nucleotide bases that form RNA and ... The enzyme is involved in the synthesis of nucleotides (purines and pyrimidines), cofactors NAD and NADP, and amino acids ... Ribose 5-phosphate is produced by the HMP Shunt Pathway from Glucose-6-Phosphate. The product phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate acts ... Ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase transfers the diphosphoryl group from Mg-ATP (Mg2+ coordinated to ATP) to ribose 5-phosphate. ...
Pyrimidines are synthesized first from aspartate and carbamoyl-phosphate in the cytoplasm to the common precursor ring ... Thus a nucleoside plus a phosphate group yields a nucleotide. Nucleotides also play a central role in life-form metabolism at ... Unlike in nucleic acid nucleotides, singular cyclic nucleotides are formed when the phosphate group is bound twice to the same ... and at least one phosphate group. They are also known as phosphate nucleotides. A nucleoside is a nitrogenous base and a 5- ...
... (NPP) is a class of dimeric enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate ... NPP1 helps scavenge extracellular nucleotides in order to meet the high purine and pyrimidine requirements of dividing cells. ... The pyrophosphate produced by NPP1 in bone cells is thought to serve as both a phosphate source for calcium phosphate ... another member of the alkaline phosphate superfamily. Alkaline phosphatase primarily hydrolyzes phosphate monoester bonds, but ...
... s are linear polymers (chains) of nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of three components: a purine or pyrimidine ... They are composed of nucleotides, which are monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a ... DNA consists of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides, with backbones made of sugars and phosphate groups joined ... The sugars and phosphates in nucleic acids are connected to each other in an alternating chain (sugar-phosphate backbone) ...
This bifunctional enzyme is named UMP synthase and it also catalyzes the preceding reaction in pyrimidine nucleotide ... Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase (OMP decarboxylase) or orotidylate decarboxylase is an enzyme involved in pyrimidine ... The function of this enzyme is essential to the de novo biosynthesis of the pyrimidine nucleotides uridine triphosphate, ... The driving force for the loss of the carboxyl linked to the C6 of the pyrimidine ring comes from the close proximity of an ...
D-ribose 5-phosphate + a pyrimidine base Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are pyrimidine 5'-nucleotide and H2O, whereas ... Imada A (1967). "Degradation of pyrimidine nucleotides by enzyme systems of Streptomyces. II. Pyrimidine 5'-nucleotide ... "Degradation of pyrimidine nucleotides by enzyme systems of Streptomyces. I. Ribose-5-phosphate formation from pyrimidine ... Other names in common use include pyrimidine nucleotide N-ribosidase, and Pyr5N. This enzyme participates in pyrimidine ...
Thymidine phosphorylase or pyrimidine-nucleoside phosphorylase adds 2-deoxy-alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate to thymine, forming ... A salvage pathway is a pathway in which nucleotides (purine and pyrimidine) are synthesized from intermediates in the ... Uridine phosphorylase or pyrimidine-nucleoside phosphorylase adds ribose 1-phosphate to the free base uracil, forming uridine. ... The salvaged bases and nucleosides can then be converted back into nucleotides. The salvage pathway requires distinct ...
... cyclic phosphate and H2O, whereas its product is nucleoside 2'-phosphate. CNPase is a myelin-associated enzyme that makes up 4 ... Helfman DM, Kuo JF (Jan 1982). "A homogeneous cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase hydrolyzes both pyrimidine and purine cyclic 2':3'- ... It is named for its ability to catalyze the phosphodiester hydrolysis of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides to 2'-nucleotides, though a ... 2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase also known as CNPase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CNP gene. ...
pyrimidine metabolism. *Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. mitochondrial shuttle. *Malate-aspartate shuttle. *Glycerol phosphate ... MT-TI is a small 69 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 4263-4331) that transfers the amino acid isoleucine to a ... A-to-G at nucleotide 4295) causing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy". Human Mutation. 8 (3): 216-22. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004( ...
... nucleotide synthases) with a solvent-exposed active site atop a Rossman-type nucleotide binding fold. The three-dimensional ... 1H NMR titrations on histidine C2 protons, coupled with 1H and 31P titrations monitoring the C1H and 5-phosphate PRPP ... In de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase catalyzes the formation of orotidine 5-monophosphate ( ... nucleotide synthases) with a solvent-exposed active site atop a Rossman-type nucleotide binding fold. The three-dimensional ...
... of orotic aciduria may include synthetic uridine and cystidine supplementation which will supplies pyrimidine nucleotide for ... What Is Biochemistry - Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency * What Is Biochemistry - Lactase Deficiency ... Orotic aciduria occurs due to mutation of the UMP synthase which affect the synthesis of pyrimidine. Generally UMP synthase is ... involved in the formation of UMP by adding ribose-5-monophosphate ring into the orotic acid in de novo synthesis of pyrimidine ...
... to form ribose 5-phosphate and the corresponding free base. Can use AMP, GMP, IMP, CMP, dTMP and UMP as substrates. Cannot ... Catalyzes the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of diverse pyrimidine and purine nucleotide 5-monophosphates, ... possibly because it contributes to nucleoside pool homeostasis by degrading excess nucleotides and feeding back the ribose ...
D-ribose 5-phosphate + a pyrimidine base Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are pyrimidine 5-nucleotide and H2O, whereas ... Imada A (1967). "Degradation of pyrimidine nucleotides by enzyme systems of Streptomyces. II. Pyrimidine 5-nucleotide ... "Degradation of pyrimidine nucleotides by enzyme systems of Streptomyces. I. Ribose-5-phosphate formation from pyrimidine ... Other names in common use include pyrimidine nucleotide N-ribosidase, and Pyr5N. This enzyme participates in pyrimidine ...
In the method, a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is contacted in an aqueous solution with a radioactive iodide ... whereby a water soluble pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide labeled with radioactive iodine, bromine, chlorine or astatine is ... A method of making a radiolabeled pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is described. ... or to any trialkylstannyl-pyrimidine nucleotide such as 5-trialkylstannyl-cytidine-5-mono-, di, or tri-phosphate, 5- ...
This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of erythrocyte purine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP) in trained and ... Berman PA, Black DA, Human L, Harley EH (1988) Oxypurine cycle in human erythrocytes regulated by pH, inorganic phosphate, and ... Exercise Trained Sedentary Purine and pyrimidine nucleotides Uridine Erythrocyte VO2max APRT HGPRT ... Determination of purines and pyrimidines. The purine nucleotide (ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP) concentrations were determined in ...
Nucleotide Salvage Pathways: Pyrimidines Base to Nucleotide: Uracil and thymine to nucleoside by adding ribose 1-phosphate and ... Nuclei Acid: polymer of DNA/RNA nucleotides. Nucleotides: nitrogenous base, sugar, and 1-3 phosphates. Nucleoside: nitrogenous ... Base to Nucleotide-. Adenine, hypoxanthine, guanine have ribose 5-phosphate added by phosphoribosyltransferase, makes AMP, IMP ... Nucleotide Degradation:. CMP, UMP, and TMP to CO2, H2O, urea, beta-alanine, and beta-alanine aminoisubutyrate. Need ...
The ribose phosphate portion of both purine and pyrimidine nucleotides is synthesized from glucose via ... ... Nucleotide (biochemistry) In the two families of nucleic acids, ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the ... Ribose, also called D-ribose, five-carbon sugar found in RNA (ribonucleic acid), where it alternates with phosphate groups to ... Nucleotides are synthesized from readily available precursors in the cell. ...
The ribose phosphate portion of both purine and pyrimidine nucleotides is synthesized from glucose via ... ... Ribose, also called D-ribose, five-carbon sugar found in RNA (ribonucleic acid), where it alternates with phosphate groups to ... Nucleotides are synthesized from readily available precursors in the cell. ...
Carbamoyl phosphate, thus, participates in a branched pathway in these organisms that leads to either pyrimidine nucleotides or ... Pyrimidine Catabolism De novo Synthesis of Purine Nucleotides De novo Synthesis of Pyrimidine Nucleotides Interconversion of ... Pyrimidines. *Uracil = 2,4-dioxy pyrimidine *Thymine = 2,4-dioxy-5-methyl pyrimidine *Cytosine = 2-oxy-4-amino pyrimidine * ... Nucleotides. Adding one or more phosphates to the sugar portion of a nucleoside results in a nucleotide. Generally, the ...
Ribose-5-phosphate and NADPH 24 used for purine/pyrimidine (nucleotide) synthesis ...
Plays an important role in de novo pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Has preference for UMP and CMP as phosphate acceptors. ... Catalyzes the phosphorylation of pyrimidine nucleoside monophosphates at the expense of ATP. ... Plays an important role in de novo pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Has preference for UMP and CMP as phosphate acceptors. ... p>This subsection of the Function section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always ...
... and pyridine nucleotides (1). PRPP synthesis from Mg-ATP and ribose-5-phosphate is catalyzed in mammalian cells by a family of ... Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) is an important regulatory substrate in the synthesis of purine, pyrimidine, ... For all other nucleotide residues of the patients PRS1 and PRS2 cDNA and her mothers PRS1 and PRS2 cDNA, single peaks ... In A, peaks representing both A and T are seen at nucleotide position 578 (arrow). These dual peaks support evidence from PRS1 ...
... an intermediate in the formation of the pyrimidine and purine nucleotides as well as NAD+. ... Definition: d-ribose carrying a phosphate group on ribose carbon-5 and a pyrophosphate group on ribose carbon-1; ...
A novel mechanism for regulation of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis". EMBO J. 4 (13B): 3735-42. PMC 554725 . PMID 4092695. ... Carrey EA, Campbell DG, Hardie DG (1986). "Phosphorylation and activation of hamster carbamyl phosphate synthetase II by cAMP- ...
Pyrimidines are essential precursors for DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) synthesis, protein ... Keywords: nucleotide metabolism; multifunctional protein; glutaminase; carbamoyl phosphate synthetase; dihydroorotase; ... Jones ME (1980) Pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis in animals: genes, enzymes, and regulation of UMP biosynthesis. Annual ... De novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides is essential for cell growth and proliferation. ...
Metabolism of amino acids, purine and pyrimidine bases. Amino acids (AAs). Sources of AAs: diet synthesis de novo protein ... Important notes about synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides • Carbamoyl phosphate is formed from Gln and CO2 (2 ATP are consumed ... Pyrimidines and Purines - N. n. n. n. n. n h. pyrimidines and purines. pyrimidine and purine are the names of the parent ... Structures of the Purine and Pyrimidine Bases - . example of the structure of a nucleotide. base. nucleoside. nucleotide. ...
Enzymatic synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. Orotidine-5′-phos-phate and uridine-5′.phosphate. J. of Biol. Chem. 215, 403-415 ... Enzymatic synthesis of pyrimidine and purine nucleotides. II. Orotidine-5-phosphate pyrophosphorylase and decarboxylase. J. ... Roll, P. M., H. Wetnfeld and E. Carroll: The utilization of nucleotides by the mammal. V. Metabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides ... Enzymatic synthesis of pyrimidine and purine nucleotides. I. Formation of 5-phosphoribosylpyro-phosphate. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. ...
Biolog also offers Phosphate tris(acetoxymethyl)ester (PO4-AM3, Cat. No. P 030) which is recommended as control reagent in ...
... which are called nucleotides. Learn about DNA structure and see pictures of DNA structure. ... thymine (T) - a pyrimidine. ". " Strands of DNA are made of the sugar and phosphate portions of the nucleotides, while the ... The sides of the ladder comprise the sugar-phosphate portions of adjacent nucleotides bonded together. The phosphate of one ... Each nucleotide consists of a sugar (deoxyribose) bound on one side to a phosphate group and bound on the other side to a ...
Pyrimidine nucleotides include cytidine, uridine, and thymidine. The synthesis of any pyrimidine nucleotide begins with the ... Interconversion of nucleotides[edit]. Once the nucleotides are synthesized they can exchange phosphates among one another in ... ATP, a purine nucleotide, is an activator of pyrimidine synthesis, while CTP, a pyrimidine nucleotide, is an inhibitor of ... Pyrimidine bases can also be salvaged. For example, the uracil base can be combined with ribose-1-phosphate to create uridine ...
... nucleotides (PubMed:25320081). Is inhibited strongly by pyridoxal 5-phosphate, 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, tannic acid, ... Mitochondrial transporter that imports/exports pyrimidine nucleotides into and from mitochondria (PubMed:25320081). Transports ... pyrimidine nucleotide transport Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the ... pyrimidine nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to ...
Pyrimidines, however, do not react with ribose, even anhydrously. Then phosphate must be introduced, but in nature phosphate in ... For the nucleotides to form RNA, they must be activated themselves (meaning that they must be combined with two more phosphate ... However, this does not happen in reverse because the pyrimidine nucleotides do not stack well. ... The primordial soup that made up Earth had compounds including nucleotides. These nucleotides sequenced spontaneously and ...
... is an activated compound used in the biosynthesis of histidine and purine/pyrimidine nucleotides. This pathway map also shows ... Pentose phosphate pathway - Aerococcus urinae ACS-120-V-Col10a [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML ... The pentose phosphate pathway is a process of glucose turnover that produces NADPH as reducing equivalents and pentoses as ... essential parts of nucleotides. There are two different phases in the pathway. One is irreversible oxidative phase in which ...
A regulatory, allosteric enzyme in the synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides.. aspartate transaminase. see aspartate ... enzyme catalyzing the condensation of carbamoyl phosphate and l-aspartate to N-carbamoyl-l-aspartate. ... and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases) were carried out in the samples collected.. Plasma hepatic enzymes as biopredictors of ... requiring the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate; it is normally present in serum and in various body tissues, especially in the ...
  • 1 H NMR titrations on histidine C2 protons, coupled with 1 H and 31 P titrations monitoring the C1H and 5-phosphate PRPP resonances, allowed the quantitation of the rates of loop movement during product release, and relate protein motion to enzymatic catalysis. (elsevier.com)
  • B-DNA adopts two representative phosphate backbone conformations, BI and BII, which are defined by ∊ - ζ values (Supplementary Fig. S1). (iucr.org)
  • enzymes , there is no chemical reaction that produces the sugar A five-carbon sugar found in RNA (ribonucleic acid), where it alternates with phosphate groups to form the backbone of the RNA polymer. (godandscience.org)
  • Hans Kuhn in 1972 laid out a possible process by which the modern genetic system might have arisen from a nucleotide-based precursor, and this led Harold White in 1976 to observe that many of the cofactors essential for enzymatic function are either nucleotides or could have been derived from nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • When reacted with fully or partially sequence-complementary RNA (oligo C), the abiotically generated oligo G RNA displays a typical ribozyme activity consisting of terminal ligation accompanied by cleavage of an internal phosphate site of the donor oligonucleotide stem upon attack of the acceptor 3′ terminal OH. (mdpi.com)
  • Within a gene , the sequence of nucleotides along a DNA strand defines a messenger RNA sequence, which in turn defines a protein. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • What type of a mutation occurs when a gene has two fewer nucleotides in its sequence? (lumenlearning.com)
  • BSC: Exam 3 (chapters 16-20) Before lecture Questions: Q: "A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses). (majortests.com)
  • In E. coli, the direction for orisome assembly are built into a short stretch of nucleotide sequence called as origin of replication (oriC) which contains multiple binding sites for the initiator protein DnaA (a highly homologous protein amongst bacterial kingdom). (wikipedia.org)