A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS which are concentrated in the thick ascending limb at the junction of the LOOP OF HENLE and KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.
A pteridinetriamine compound that inhibits SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. It has been used in the treatment of familial hyperkalemia, hypertension, edema, and urinary tract disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p810)
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.
A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing POLYURIA and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary POLYDIPSIA. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.
An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)
Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.
A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.
A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.
A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
A subfamily of lysophospholipid receptors with specificity for LYSOSPHINGOLIPIDS such as sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingosine phosphorylcholine.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
In B. prionotes they are principally responsible for the uptake of malate, phosphate, chloride, sodium and potassium. When ... The unusually high levels of sodium and chloride-at concentrations usually only seen under saline conditions-may be due to the ... and very low concentrations of phosphate and amino acids compared to chloride and sulfate anions. The low levels of potassium ... However, there are typically a very high number of follicles per cone, leading to relatively high seed counts. There is some ...
Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate are examples of electrolytes. In medicine, electrolyte ... Some gases, such as hydrogen chloride (HCl), under conditions of high temperature or low pressure can also function as ... The electrolytes measured most often are sodium and potassium. Chloride levels are rarely measured except for arterial blood ... In physiology, the primary ions of electrolytes are sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), chloride ( ...
They include chloride, potassium, lactic acid, ADP, magnesium (Mg2+), reactive oxygen species, and inorganic phosphate. ... High concentrations of potassium (K+) also causes the muscle cells to decrease in efficiency, causing cramping and fatigue. ... though the effects of potassium are much less than if there were no lactic acid to remove the chloride ions. Ultimately, it is ... Potassium builds up in the t-tubule system and around the muscle fiber as a result of action potentials. The shift in K+ ...
In particular crop applications of urea, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride, as well as growth stimulant ZA are ... The northern tip of the island is separated from the mainland at high and mid tides by a very shallow straight which is 400 ... This activity is targeted at students from elementary level to high school, and plans to reach out to communities around the ... Agricultural runoff is particularly high in nutrients from fertilisers and manure from farm animals. ...
... g Soya peptone 7.2g Sodium chloride 1.26g Potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.18g Dipotassium phosphate 13.58g Magnesium chloride ... It enriches salmonellae because they are better able to survive the high osmotic pressure in the medium and because they can ... multiply at relatively lower pH and higher temperatures compared with other gut bacteria. RVS broth has a pH around 5.2. A ...
For example, sodium, potassium and chloride are common chemicals found in small amounts in most waters, and these elements play ... Examples include calcium, zinc, manganese, phosphate, fluoride and sodium compounds. Water generated from the biochemical ... can cause dental problems and other issues when present at high levels. Water is essential for the growth and maintenance of ... Potassium is secreted into the tubule in exchange for the sodium, which is reabsorbed. The activated renin-angiotensin system ...
For example, sodium, potassium and chloride are common chemicals found in small quantities in most waters, and these elements ... Some systems suffer high operating costs. The cost to replace the deteriorating water and sanitation infrastructure of ... Examples include calcium, zinc, manganese, phosphate, fluoride and sodium compounds. Water generated from the biochemical ... Because of the high initial investments, many less wealthy nations cannot afford to develop or sustain appropriate ...
There have been concerns with certain populations' use of potassium chloride as a substitute for salt as high potassium loads ... Research demonstrates that salt substitutes such as potassium chloride, and synergistic compounds such as phosphates, can be ... which usually substitute a portion of sodium chloride content with potassium chloride, can be used to increase the potassium to ... However, studies have found a strong inverse association between long-term adequate to high rates of potassium intake and the ...
Other inorganic potassium fertilizers include potassium nitrate, potassium sulfate, and monopotassium phosphate. Potassium-rich ... The most widely used potassium fertilizer is potassium chloride (muriate of potash). ... When potassium is readily available in the soil, a plant absorb it through plasma membrane channels and high-affinity H+/K+ ... Wood ash also has high potassium content but must be used cautiously due its effect on pH level. Adequate moisture is necessary ...
Potash: Potassium chloride is a rich fertilizer for agricultural crops and is produced in the south of the Dead Sea. During the ... Phosphates: Phosphate deposits have been discovered since 1950 in several areas in the south of the country, mainly in the ... Copper: Copper is mined from shafts in the Timna Valley Magnesium - A high concentration of magnesium with high purity made ...
... tetrabutylammonium chloride, tetrabutylammonium bromide or tetramethylammonium chloride. The mass ratio of the potassium ... inorganic phosphate and a less significant rise in serum potassium with a terminal rise in non-protein nitrogen and potassium. ... Exposure to a high concentration of MFA vapor does not show any symptoms in animals until 30 - 60 minutes. Then violent ... chloride, and inorganic phosphate in a small number of rabbits, dogs, and goats. Blood changes include a rise of 20 to 60% in ...
Reduction with potassium gives metallic lanthanum. One application of lanthanum chloride is the removal of phosphate from ... The compound has been identified as a catalyst for the high pressure oxidative chlorination of methane to chloromethane with ... Lanthanum chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula LaCl3. It is a common salt of lanthanum which is mainly used in ... Lanthanum chloride is also used in biochemical research to block the activity of divalent cation channels, mainly calcium ...
Substances reabsorbed in the PCT include urea, water, potassium, sodium, chloride, glucose, amino acids, lactate, phosphate, ... The 300 mOsm/L fluid from the loop loses water to the higher concentration outside the loop and increases in tonicity until it ... Ascending limb of loop of Henle Sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl−) ions are reabsorbed from the urine by secondary ... By means of a countercurrent multiplier system, which uses electrolyte pumps, the loop of Henle creates an area of high urea ...
Urea and other waste products including potassium, and phosphate diffuse into the dialysis solution. However, concentrations of ... sodium and chloride are similar to those of normal plasma to prevent loss. Sodium bicarbonate is added in a higher ... Nanotechnology is being used in some of the most recent high-flux membranes to create a uniform pore size. The goal of high- ... Synthetic membranes can be made in either low- or high-flux configuration, but most are high-flux. ...
... potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, phosphate Glucose Amylase and lipase Arterial blood gas, lactate Blood ... It may vary from subtle deficit in higher brain function (e.g. mood, concentration in grade I) to deep coma (grade IV). ... Severe lung injury and hypoxemia result in high mortality. Most cases of severe lung injury are due to ARDS, with or without ... Other series have reported death rates of those listed for transplant as high as 40%. In the ALFSG, the transplantation rate ...
... chloride, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, sulphate, sodium, ammonium, potassium, total chlorophyll, biochemical oxygen demand and ... The analysis over the period has revealed that the lake water was alkaline, chloride and conductivity concentrations were high ... Alarming rate of fall in groundwater level has occurred in the vicinity of the lake due to high extraction for various uses. In ... In spite of Brahma appearing before him and granting him the higher status of a rishi instead of a royal-sage (rajarishi), ...
Ferric acetate removes phosphates. All chlorides are dissolved out of the residue, and titrated. In the Fajans method, named ... potassium chromate is an indicator, giving red silver chromate after all chloride ions have reacted: 2Ag+ (aq) + CrO2− 4 (aq ... Ag2CrO4 (s) (Ksp = 1.1 × 10−12) The solution needs to be near neutral, because silver hydroxide forms at high pH, while the ... Chloride ions react with silver(I) ions to give the insoluble silver chloride: Ag+ (aq) + Cl− (aq) → AgCl (s) (K = 5.88 × 109) ...
The most widely used solid inorganic fertilizers are urea, diammonium phosphate and potassium chloride. Solid fertilizer is ... Phosphate rocks contain high levels of fluoride. Consequently, the widespread use of phosphate fertilizers has increased soil ... In fact, potash fertilizers are usually potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, potassium carbonate, or potassium nitrate. There ... such as potassium chloride, recycle material). Compaction implements high pressure to agglomerate dry powder materials. Lastly ...
... ammonium phosphate monobasic, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, potassium phosphate dibasic, and water. Growth can be driven ... cells will usually first consume the sugar yielding the highest growth rate, followed by the sugar yielding the next highest ... The doubling rate of E. coli is higher when more nutrients are available. However, the length of the C and D periods do not ... The coding density was found to be very high, with a mean distance between genes of only 118 base pairs. The genome was ...
Calcium fluoride Cesium iodide Gallium arsenide Germanium Lithium niobate Potassium bromide Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP ... The machine tool components are placed on top of the granite base and can be moved with high degree of accuracy using a high- ... Silicon Sodium chloride Tellurium dioxide Zinc selenide Zinc sulfide The most often requested materials that are not readily ... As a result, the manufacturing costs are high compared to conventional polishing methods. Even with the relatively high volume ...
1.4-39 mmol/L phosphate. *Iodine (mmol/L concentration is usually higher than plasma, but dependent variable according to ... 10-36 mmol/L potassium (higher than plasma). *1.2-2.8 mmol/L calcium (similar to plasma) ... 5-40 mmol/L chloride (lower than plasma). *25 mmol/L bicarbonate (higher than plasma) ... In Singapore, the fine for spitting may be as high as SGD$2,000 for multiple offenses, and one can even be arrested. In some ...
The carboxylic acid produced as a result of the deprotection was then converted to an acyl chloride by oxalyl chloride and a ... Potassium carbonate was then added to give (1), via a retro-Michael reaction of the thiol. (1) was then purified by an acid/ ... The final product is obtained in high purity (99.7%) and an overall yield of 17-22% from (−)-shikimic acid. It is noted that ... In the final step the BOC group is removed with phosphoric acid and the oseltamivir phosphate 15 is formed. Also in 2006 the ...
The most common chemical constituents are calcium, phosphates, nitrates, sodium, potassium, and chloride, which are found in ... For freshwater oysters, trouts, and other high value seafood, highest productivity and economic returns are achieved by ... Higher TDS Fresh Water is drinkable but taste may be objectionable. Acid rain Surface runoff Regarding meters: EC meter pH ... Non-volatile solids must be heated to a high temperature, typically 550 °C, in order to achieve this state change. Examples of ...
A trial of intravenous chloride-rich fluid is warranted if there is a high index of suspicion for chloride-responsive metabolic ... sparing sodium/potassium pumps to prevent further loss of potassium), leading to metabolic alkalosis. Congenital chloride ... Decreases in albumin and phosphate will cause metabolic alkalosis. Retention of bicarbonate - retention of bicarbonate would ... Due to a low extracellular potassium concentration, potassium shifts out of the cells. In order to maintain electrical ...
The most widely used solid inorganic fertilizers are urea, diammonium phosphate and potassium chloride.[17] Solid fertilizer is ... Phosphate rocks contain high levels of fluoride. Consequently, the widespread use of phosphate fertilizers has increased soil ... In fact potash fertilizers are usually potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, potassium carbonate, or potassium nitrate.[15] ... Potassium fertilizers[edit]. Potash is a mixture of potassium minerals used to make potassium (chemical symbol: K) fertilizers ...
Some anti-sensitivity toothpastes with fluoride on the market contain the ingredients called strontium chloride or potassium ... The application of high-fluoride content toothpaste in adults twice daily improves the surface hardness of untreated root decay ... 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel or foam is used for patients without tooth-colored restorations, while 2.0% neutral ... The reason for this is to allow the teeth to absorb the fluoride into the tooth structure when it is at its highest ...
A common source of potassium is muriate of potash which is chemically potassium chloride. A soil fertility analysis is used to ... It is usually practiced on the high-value crops such as vegetables, turf, fruit trees, and ornamentals. Most plant nutrients ... to live but they must be contained in other chemical substances such as monoammonium phosphate or diammonium phosphate to serve ... Other nutrients needed by plants include phosphorus and potassium. Like nitrogen, plants require these substances ...
Her academic excellence was recognized with the University of Manitoba Gold Medal for highest standing in the B.Sc. Agriculture ... Grant also worked to develop and assess beneficial management practices (BMPs) for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and ... International Fertilizer Industry Association Award for Young Professionals The Robert E. Wagner Award, Potash and Phosphate ... chloride to improve nutrient use efficiency, becoming one of the first Canadian researchers supported by the international ...
Salts of high-valence actinides easily hydrolyze. So, colorless sulfate, chloride, perchlorate and nitrate of thorium transform ... Th Sometimes thorium is extracted by electrolysis of a fluoride in a mixture of sodium and potassium chloride at 700-800 °C in ... So phosphates, fluorides, oxalates, iodates and carbonates of actinides are weakly soluble in water; they precipitate as ... At high pH, this results in precipitation of diuranate, which is treated with hydrogen in the presence of nickel yielding an ...
Diets high in chloride, phosphate and sulfate (all of which are anions) were presumed to be acid forming, while diets high in ... potassium, calcium and magnesium (all of which are cations) were presumed to be alkaline forming. Other investigations showed ... The level of effort needed to use this diet is considered "high" as there are many foods that need to be excluded. According to ... Hanley, DA; Whiting, SJ (2013). "Does a high dietary acid content cause bone loss, and can bone loss be prevented with an ...
... chloride with potassium to form metallic yttrium and potassium chloride.[6][7] ... The high radioactivity of lawrencium would make it highly toxic to living cells, causing radiation poisoning. The same is true ... The principal commercially viable ore of lutetium is the rare-earth phosphate mineral monazite, (Ce,La,etc.)PO4, which contains ... Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic ...
Potassium vanadate - KVO3. *Tripotassium phosphate - K3PO4. Pr[edit]. *Praseodymium(III) chloride - PrCl3 ... Hydroiodic acid - HI. *Hydrogen bromide - HBr. *Hydrogen chloride - HCl. *Hydrogen cyanide - HCN ... Antimony potassium tartrate - K2Sb2(C4H2O6)2 ... Aluminium potassium sulfate - AlK(SO4)2 potassium alum. NH3/4[ ...
High nutrient density. dietary sources Term for deficiency Term for excess Potassium 04700.0004700 NE; NE Quantity A systemic ... A systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP with potassium Table salt (sodium chloride, the main source), sea ... Red meat, dairy foods, fish, poultry, bread, rice, oats.[19][20] In biological contexts, usually seen as phosphate[21] ... Table salt (sodium chloride) is the main dietary source. hypochloremia hyperchloremia Sodium 01500.0001500 2300; NE Quantity ...
The crystal lattice structure of potassium chloride (KCl), a salt which is formed due to the attraction of K+ cations and Cl− ... Examples of polyatomic ions that do not split up during acid-base reactions are hydroxide (OH−) and phosphate (PO43−). ... That is, substances with a higher Ka are more likely to donate hydrogen ions in chemical reactions than those with lower Ka ... Cations and anions can form a crystalline lattice of neutral salts, such as the Na+ and Cl− ions forming sodium chloride, or ...
high guanine and cytosine content, which increases stability and replication fidelity;. *circular structure, which assures ... They consist of a nitrogenous base attached to a sugar-phosphate backbone. RNA is made of long stretches of specific ... Potassium chloride. *Silicon carbide. *Silicon mononitride. *Silicon monoxide. *Silicon monosulfide. *Sodium chloride ... Aminooxazolines can react with cyanoacetylene in a mild and highly efficient manner, controlled by inorganic phosphate, to give ...
Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate , The National Academies Press. p. 124. doi:10.17226/10925. ISBN 978-0-309-09169-5. . ... a high intake of carbohydrate, a high glycemic load, and high glycemic index diet.[20] Wine and whole-grained bread may ... They are composed primarily of bilirubin (insoluble bilirubin pigment polymer) and calcium (calcium phosphate) salts that are ... Besides a high concentration of cholesterol, two other factors are important in causing gallstones. The first is how often and ...
Phosphates. Main article: Phosphate minerals. The phosphate minerals are characterized by the tetrahedral [PO4]3− unit, ... Quartz has several polymorphs, including tridymite and cristobalite at high temperatures, high-pressure coesite, and ultra-high ... The alkali feldspars are most commonly in a series between potassium-rich orthoclase and sodium-rich albite; in the case of ... a chloride, or an oxide ion.[112] Because of the variable chemistry, there are over 80 species of amphibole, although ...
Lithium-Iron-Phosphate chemistry. Lithium ion. 3.6. 460. Various lithium chemistries. Very expensive. Very high energy density ... In some designs, the ammonium chloride is replaced by zinc chloride. Molten salt. Molten salt batteries are primary or ... Very high energy density. Very high drain capable. For many years considered obsolete due to high silver prices. Cell suffers ... Performs better than alkaline batteries in higher drain devices. Traditional chemistry has high energy density, but also a high ...
The majority of the common ostrich's internal solutes are made up of sodium ions (Na+), potassium ions (K+), chloride ions (Cl ... of total phosphate of the cell.[73] The majority of phosphate concentration switches from 2,3- DPG to IPP, suggesting the ... This can be attributed to the high metabolic need of the developing embryo, thus high oxygen affinity serves to satisfy this ... Adults have higher rates with a plasma osmolality of 330 mOsm, and a urine osmolality of 163 mOsm. The osmolality of both ...
Potassium phosphates - mineral tuz. *Potassium propionate - koruyucu. *Potassium salts of fatty acids - emülgatör, stabilizör, ... Blackcurrant seed oil - used as a food supplement, because of high content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Also used in ... Potassium bromate - flour treatment agent. *Potassium carbonate - mineral tuz. *Potassium chloride - mineral tuz ... Potassium alginate - kıvam arttırıcı, bitkisel sakız, stabilizör, jelleştirici, emulsifier. *Potassium aluminium silicate - ...
The highest-capacity low-self-discharge AA cells have 2500 mAh capacity, compared to 2700 mAh for high-capacity AA NiMH cells.[ ... NiMH cells have an alkaline electrolyte, usually potassium hydroxide. The positive electrode is nickel hydroxide, and the ... Devices that were designed to operate using primary alkaline chemistry (or zinc-carbon/chloride) cells may not function with ... Lithium iron phosphate battery. *Nickel-zinc battery. *Nickel(II) hydroxide. *Nickel(III) oxide ...
The C−N distance is short at 1.16 Å, consistent with a triple bond.[3] Nitriles are polar, as indicated by high dipole moments ... Common methods include the use of potassium persulfate,[19] Trichloroisocyanuric acid,[20] or anodic electrosynthesis.[21] ... Two intermediates in this reaction are amide tautomer A and its phosphate adduct B.. In a related dehydration, secondary amides ... Typical reagents for this transformation are triethylamine/sulfur dioxide, zeolites, or sulfuryl chloride. Exploiting this ...
This hygroscopic blue solid is one of the most common sources of vanadium in the laboratory, reflecting its high stability. It ... monosodium phosphate. Potassium. *bicarbonate. *bitartrate. *chloride. *citrate. *gluconate. Sodium. *chloride. *sulfate. ...
Potassium concentration[edit]. Main articles: Potassium § Homeostasis, and Potassium in biology. High potassium concentrations ... High PTH concentrations cause the excretion of phosphate ions via the urine. Since phosphates combine with calcium ions to form ... Bauer JH, Gauntner WC (March 1979). "Effect of potassium chloride on plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone during sodium ... For example, high glycine concentration disrupts temperature and blood pressure control, and high CSF pH causes dizziness and ...
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic ... 2 times the total pressure, elevated partial pressures can occur either from high O. 2 fraction in breathing gas or from high ... Manganese is an important cofactor, and calcium and chloride are also required for the reaction to occur. (Raven 2005) ... Water polluted with plant nutrients such as nitrates or phosphates may stimulate growth of algae by a process called ...
... due to the high ratio of that macronutrient), and inorganic salts such as sodium chloride, which are also part of the wastes ... Phosphate ores contain heavy metals such as cadmium and uranium, which can reach the food chain via mineral phosphate ... Urine can contain up to 90 percent of the nitrogen, up to 50 percent of the phosphorus, and up to 70 percent of the potassium ... A high protein diet results in high urea levels in urine. Urine typically contains 70% of the nitrogen and more than half the ...
... magnesium chloride, zinc chloride, ferric chloride, carnallite, potassium carbonate, potassium phosphate, ferric ammonium ... citrate, ammonium nitrate, potassium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide. Owing to their very high affinity for water, these ... Zinc chloride and calcium chloride, as well as potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide (and many different salts), are so ... Most deliquescent materials are salts, including calcium chloride, ...
These solutions contained a range of concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium, carbonate, phosphate, and hydroxide. The ... Concentrations vary from low to normal to high. High concentrations are used rarely in medicine but frequently in molecular ... 154 mEq of chloride ion = 154 mmol. Usage[edit]. For medical purposes, saline is often used to flush wounds and skin abrasions ... The molecular weight of sodium chloride is approximately 58.5 grams per mole, so 58.5 grams of sodium chloride equals 1 mole. ...
... and other NSAIDs can cause abnormally high blood levels of potassium by inducing a hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronic state ... Livingstone FB (1985). Frequencies of hemoglobin variants: thalassemia, the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, G6PD ... In 1853, chemist Charles Frédéric Gerhardt treated sodium salicylate with acetyl chloride to produce acetylsalicylic acid for ... High risk[edit]. For people who have already had a heart attack or stroke, taking aspirin daily for two years prevented 1 in 50 ...
The works of Thompson and Way involved the action of water-soluble fertilizer salts, ammonium sulfate and potassium chloride. ... The main beneficial advantages are reliability, very good accuracy and precision, high selectivity, high speed, high separation ... phosphate, as well as various electrolytes including potassium, and sodium. In total, the 2009 edition of the USP-NF officially ... Proteins with high net charge will need a higher ionic strength for them to be eluted out of the column.[16] It is possible to ...
It is used to flocculate and increase the density of the drilling fluid to overcome high downwell gas pressures. Whenever a ... tricalcium phosphate) to form the extinguishing agent. When it is applied to the fire, the salt acts like a heat sink, ... potassium, sodium, and NaK alloys (Class D). Thermoplastic powder is added to the mixture, along with waterproofing (metal ... Solid sodium chlorideEdit. See also: Cubic crystal system. In solid sodium chloride, each ion is surrounded by six ions of the ...
Dead Sea minerals contain a significantly higher magnesium chloride ratio, 50.8%. Carbonates and calcium are essential for all ... Beryllium chloride. Calcium chloride. Strontium chloride. Barium chloride. Radium chloride Except where otherwise noted, data ... Magnesium chloride is used in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Cuisine[edit]. Magnesium chloride (E511[13]) is an ... Calcium chloride damages concrete twice as fast as magnesium chloride.[11] It should be noticed that the amount of magnesium ...
Kim HS, Lee HE, Yang HK, Kim WH (2014). "High lactate dehydrogenase 5 expression correlates with high tumoral and stromal ... The lactate-forming reaction generates cytosolic NAD+, which feeds into the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction ... Potassium. *Chloride. *Calcium. *Renal function *Creatinine. *Urea. *BUN-to-creatinine ratio. *Plasma osmolality ... High levels of lactate dehydrogenase in cerebrospinal fluid are often associated with bacterial meningitis.[34] In the case of ...
This is more expensive than the original method but yields a higher purity of thorium; in particular, it removes phosphates ... chlorides, and bromides.[50] For example, when treated with potassium fluoride and hydrofluoric acid, Th4+ forms the complex ... Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic ... and phosphate as trisodium phosphate. This crystallises trisodium phosphate decahydrate when cooled below 60 °C; uranium ...
Higher dietary intakes of magnesium correspond to lower diabetes incidence.[15] For people with diabetes or at high risk of ... The second class of enzymes includes those where the Mg2+ is complexed to nucleotide di- and tri-phosphates (ADP and ATP), and ... March 2008). "Magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intakes and risk of stroke in male smokers". Arch. Intern. Med. 168 (5 ... such as the chloride or citrate. Magnesium is similarly absorbed from Epsom salts, although the sulfate in these salts adds to ...
... and it is higher than that in many countries in éastern Europe and Asia.[56] The high level of sodium in many processed foods ... Table salt is a refined salt containing about 97 to 99 percent sodium chloride.[27][28][29] Usually, anticaking agents such as ... "WHO issues new guidance on dietary salt and potassium". WHO. 31 January 2013. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 20 July 2016. ... Other anticaking agents sometimes used include tricalcium phosphate, calcium or magnesium carbonates, fatty acid salts (acid ...
potassium chloride (KCl:NaCl = 95:5 or higher)[1]. Nitrate of potash or saltpeter. potassium nitrate (KNO3) ... several forms of potassium phosphate, many other potassic chemicals, and soap manufacturing. Potassium carbonate is used to ... c.1942 potassium carbonate (K2CO3); c.1950 any one or more of potassium chloride (KCl), potassium sulfate (K2SO4) or potassium ... Potash refers to potassium compounds and potassium-bearing materials, the most common being potassium chloride (KCl). The term ...
Potassium bicarbonate. Ammonium bicarbonate Related compounds Sodium bisulfate. Sodium hydrogen phosphate Y (what is this?) ( ... NaHCO3 is mainly prepared by the Solvay process, which is the reaction of කැල්සියම් කාබනේට්, sodium chloride, ammonia, and ... Nahcolite was deposited as beds during periods of high evaporation in the basin. It is commercially mined using in-situ leach ... The acidic compounds that induce this reaction include phosphates, cream of tartar, lemon juice, yogurt, buttermilk, cocoa, ...
The addition of inorganic coagulants such as aluminum sulfate (or alum) or iron (III) salts such as iron(III) chloride cause ... Water with high concentrations of hardness salts can be treated with soda ash (sodium carbonate) which precipitates out the ... The addition of small quantities of phosphate ion and increasing the pH slightly both assist in greatly reducing plumbo- ... with decreased blood serum potassium concentration. Magnesium, calcium, and other minerals in water can help to protect against ...
... low calcium/high magnesium artificial cerebrospinal fluid (low-cal) is needed to simulate the tissues previous environment ... Making 10x Low Ca/High Mg Artificial Cerebrospinal Fluid: When dealing with live brain tissue, ... Sodium chloride (NaCl)*Potassium chloride (KCl)*Magnesium chloride (MgCl2)*Sodium phosphate monohydrate (NaH2PO4 * H2O)*Calcium ... Making 10x Low Ca/High Mg Artificial Cerebrospinal Fluid. By cody_teleki in LivingEducation. 1,273 ...
... high glucose levels during fasting 2014, normal range of blood sugar for pregnant video, diabetic blood sugar level 500 ... pancreatitis and high blood sugar levels, glucose levels kidney function mean, safe blood sugar levels gestational diabetes ... chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, and phosphate. In a clinical setting, sodium, potassium, and chloride are typically analyzed in ... In such a situation, potassium from the blood ends up in the ECF in abnormally high concentrations. Chloride functions to ...
Source a Large Selection of Rock Phosphate Fertilizer Products at rock phosphate ,rock phosphate prices ,phosphate fertilizer ... China Rock Phosphate Fertilizer Suppliers and Manufacturers Directory - ... Used as a high effective non-chloride N, P compound fertilizer in agriculture. It contains totally 74% fertilizer elements, ... Tags: Monopotassium Phosphate Mkp Fertilizer , Mono Potassium Phosphate (mkp) , Mkp 0-52-34 ...
Potassium 130 mg; Chloride 80 mg; Nonfat Milk; Vegetable Oil (Palm Olein, Soy, Coconut, High Oleic Sunflower Oils); Corn Syrup ... Solids; Lactose; Calcium Phosphate; Less Than 1%: Mortierella Alpina Oil*; Crypthecodinium Cohnii Oil**; Vitamin A Palmitate; ... Potassium Chloride; Potassium Hydroxide; Taurine; L-Carnitine; *A Source of Arachidonic Acid (ARA); **A Source of ... Choline Chloride; Ferrous Sulfate; Zinc Sulfate; Manganese Sulfate; Cupric Sulfate; Sodium Selenite; ...
Potassium Chloride; Dibasic Calcium Phosphate; Magnesium Oxide; Microcrystalline Cellulose; Ascorbic Acid (Vit. C); Ferrous ... Chloride 72 mg; Potassium 80 mg; Boron 75 mcg; Nickel 5 mcg; Silicon 2 mg; Tin 10 mcg; Vanadium 10 mcg; Calcium Carbonate; ... Stannous Chloride; Sucrose; Talc; Thiamine Mononitrate (Vit. B1); Titanium Dioxide; Tocopherols; Tribasic Calcium Phosphate; ... IMPORTANT INFORMATION: Long-term intake of high levels of vitamin A (excluding that sourced from beta-carotene) may increase ...
... potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate and chloride, and in the microminerals iron, iodine, fluorine, selenium and copper. ... and high doses of selenium can affect the brain while high doses of estrogens may increase the risk of breast cancer. ... asparagines within foods upon exposure to high heat). Recently, relatively high levels of acrylamide were unexpectedly detected ... Thus, low levels of a compound can have the opposite effect of high levels of the same compound. As a result of the combined ...
0.02 M Potassium Phosphate, 0.15 M Sodium Chloride, pH 7.2 Preservative 0.01% (w/v) Sodium Azide ... Okada M, Cheeseman IM, Hori T, Okawa K, McLeod IX, Yates JR 3rd, Desai A, Fukagawa T. (2006) The CENP-H-I complex is required ...
Electrolytes are important, naturally occurring chemicals in the body, such as calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphate, ... Acid-Base disorders occur when the pH levels in your blood are too high or too low. Metabolic acidosis is an excess of acid in ... potassium and sodium. In most cases, healthy kidneys help regulate electrolyte levels in your blood. An electrolyte disorder ...
In high dose males, in addition increased creatinine, potassium, chloride and inorganic phosphate concentrations were found. ... and slightly increased potassium, chloride and inorganic phosphate levels. Reduced concentration of bile acids was observed in ... and slightly increased potassium, chloride and inorganic phosphate levels. Reduced concentration of bile acids was observed in ... One couple in control group and one couple in highest dose group did not reproduce (female in highest dose group died on day 1 ...
Fluid and electrolyte disturbances: Retention of sodium, chloride, water, potassium, calcium, and inorganic phosphates. ... Giving a higher priority to drug use than other obligations. *Having difficulty in discontinuing the drug despite desires and ... Prolonged use of high doses of androgens (principally the 17-α alkyl-androgens) has been associated with development of hepatic ... Other experts emphasize that higher dosages are needed to induce pubertal changes and lower dosages can be used for maintenance ...
High Potency Multi Vitamins and Minerals indications, usages and related health products lists ... High Potency Multi Vitamins and Minerals information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by NutriCorp ... Calcium (Calcium Phosphate Dibasic)*Chlorine (Potassium Chloride)*Chromium (Chromium Chloride)*Copper (Copper Oxide)*Folic Acid ... Phosphorus (Calcium Phosphate Dibasic)*Potassium (Potassium Chloride)*Selenium (Sodium Selenite)*Silicon (Sodium Metasilicate)* ...
Monobasic potassium phosphate and potassium chloride were purchased from Merck, Germany. Methanol was of analytical grade and ... Is there a quality reason for a higher price? Section menu. You are here. *Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal*About the ... But high tablet strength should not compromise disintegration in the stomach: tablets should disintegrate within the time limit ... A new high-absorption-rate Paracetamol 500-mg formulation: a comparative bioavailability study in healthy volunteers. Current ...
Another reason Hi-Tech included dandelion extract is because researchers believe that dandelion may work well when combined ... Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals H20 isolates the precise active ingredients found in dandelion extract that are the reason for its ... Potassium (as Potassium Chloride) - 99mg 3% Other Ingredients: Gelatin Capsule (FD&C Blue #1, Tilanium Dioxide, Gelatin), ... Dicalcium Phosphate, Magnesium Stearate, Silica. Directions. Start taking H2O Expulsion 5 days out from when you want to see ...
Another reason Hi-Tech included dandelion extract is because researchers believe that dandelion may work well when combined ... Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals H20 isolates the precise active ingredients found in dandelion extract that are the reason for its ... Potassium (as Potassium Chloride) - 99mg 3%. Other Ingredients:. Gelatin Capsule (FD&C Blue #1, Titanium Dioxide, Gelatin), ... Dicalcium Phosphate, Magnesium Stearate, Silica. Global Disclaimer. Manufacturers continually change product specifications, ...
Potassium Phosphate Monobasic, Purified Water, Sodium Phosphate Dibasic.. Warnings. Do not use if solution is brown or contains ... Ask a doctor before use if the child has heart disease; high blood pressure; thyroid disease; diabetes. When using this product ... Active Ingredient: Phenylephrine Hydrochloride USP (0.125%). Inactive Ingredients: Benzalkonium Chloride, Edetate Disodium, ...
Sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, calcium and magnesium are all "electrolytes" - the charged particles that ... Even if someone has a high level of LDL, a high HDL greatly decreases the risk of heart disease. Thus, the lower the total ... A high WBC count likely indicates that an infection is present somewhere in the body, while a low number might indicate that an ... High levels of these can mean liver damage, which can be caused by HIV meds, other meds, alcohol, or hepatitis. There are ...
Fluid and electrolyte disturbances: Retention of sodium, chloride, water, potassium, calcium, and inorganic phosphates. ... Prolonged use of high doses of androgens (principally the 17-α alkyl-androgens) has been associated with development of hepatic ... Other experts emphasize that higher dosages are needed to induce pubertal changes and lower dosages can be used for maintenance ... Drugs in this class also cause retention of nitrogen, sodium, potassium, and phosphorous, and decreased urinary excretion of ...
... potassium persulfate, potassium ferricyanide, trichloroacetic acid, ferric chloride, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and disodium ... High Hydrostatic Pressure-Assisted Extraction of High-Molecular-Weight Melanoidins from Black Garlic: Composition, Structure, ... X. Jun, "Application of high hydrostatic pressure processing of food to extracting lycopene from tomato paste waste," High ... 7 mM ABTS was mixed with 2.45 mM potassium persulfate solution for 12 h in the dark. The mixture was diluted with phosphate ...
Other inorganic potassium fertilizers include potassium nitrate, potassium sulfate, and monopotassium phosphate. Potassium-rich ... The most widely used potassium fertilizer is potassium chloride (muriate of potash). ... When potassium is readily available in the soil, a plant absorb it through plasma membrane channels and high-affinity H+/K+ ... Wood ash also has high potassium content but must be used cautiously due its effect on pH level. Adequate moisture is necessary ...
Sodium chloride. *Disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate. *Sucrose. READ MORE: Covid positive tests mapped: TWO areas at highest ... Potassium dihydrogen phosphate. * ... Diabetes type 2 symptoms: The tell-tale signs of high blood ... Diabetes type 2 symptoms: The consistency of your stools is a sign of high blood sugar. ...
In these cases concentrated potassium phosphates and potassium chloride were administered under separate circumstances. Each ... This alert discusses two fatal medication incidents involving high alert drugs of concentrated electrolytes. IV administration ... 1: Concentrated potassium phosphates solution for injection, available in a patient care area, was mistakenly used to flush a ... The resident subsequently gave a verbal order to the nurse to administer IV potassium chloride (KCl) to the infant. The ...
Fluid and electrolyte imbalances: retention of water, sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium and inorganic phosphates. ... In males attending high school, approximately 6.6% reported using steroids, and out of that percentage some 40% , report heavy ... Oligospermia (low sperm volume) can occur at high dosage.. *Hirsutism (overgrowth of hair on the face or body), male pattern ... Without the institution of randomized drug testing, the likelihood of anabolic steroid abuse remains quite high. ...
PBS Phosphate-Buffered Saline is available in multiple formulations and formats to meet your specific needs, including calcium ... All Gibco phosphate-buffered salines contain monobasic potassium phosphate, sodium chloride, and dibasic sodium phosphate.. ... Gibco PBS is always manufactured in cGMP, ISO-certified facilities to ensure the highest quality and consistency. ...
Potassium, magnesium, phosphate, and sulfate are primarily intracellular electrolytes; sodium and chloride are major ... At rest, organs such as the liver, brain, heart, and kidney have the highest metabolic activity and, therefore, the highest ... phosphates), magnesium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, and potassium. The trace elements (microminerals or trace minerals), required ... and chloride and phosphates as negative ions (anions). Mineral salts dissolved in body fluids help regulate fluid balance, ...
... generally due to high concentrations of dissolved calcium, phosphates, sodium, chloride, or potassium. These elements most ... Water quality is sufficiently high to allow swimming in 77% of the waters assessed. ...
Diuretics Can Trigger Down Potassium Concentration in Blood, Loads of diuretics (typically called water pills decrease k++ ... The primary electrolytes in the blood are sodium magnesium, chloride, phosphate potassium, calcium, and carbonate. Mostly, ... High Blood Pressure Symptoms , Causes , Diet , Treatment , High Blood Pressure Medicines , Diuretics Can Trigger Down Potassium ... Potassium is ordered when a doctor is diagnosing and evaluating high blood pressure and kidney illness and when monitoring a ...
Q. Have you ever had a metabolic profile, serum sodium, magnesium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphate? ... Hi there i have a question for you. I am 26 with 3 children 2,4,6 this year. I got blood work 3 times and im getting a little ... hi can you help me please yesterday i got a very sudden tightness in my heart it only lasted for a few seconds after that when ... Hi there. I have been nauseous all weekend. Yesterday I felt dizzy and extremely tired. I track my period and it says I am ...
The most important electrolytes in humans and other animals are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate, and ... as it may lead to overly high levels of potassium in the blood. In addition, patients should be advised to avoid driving or ... Potassium-sparing diuretics. Patients should avoid the use of salt substitutes containing potassium while taking this type of ... POTASSIUM-SPARING DIURETICS Potassium-sparing diuretics include such drugs as amiloride (Midamor) and triamterene (Dyrenium). ...
Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances: Retention of sodium, chloride, water, potassium, calcium, and inorganic phosphates. ... Oligospermia may occur at high dosage (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).. Skin and Appendages: Hirsutism, male pattern of baldness, ... Oral doses as high as 400 mg per day are needed to achieve clinically effective blood levels for full replacement therapy. The ... Prolonged use of high doses of androgens has been associated with the development of peliosis hepatis and hepatic neoplasms ...
Magnesium Phosphate, Sodium Chloride, Potassium Citrate, Sodium Phosphate, Green Tea Extract, Tyrosine, Choline Bitartrate, ... High-Protein Chicken Powder. Loma Linda Plant-Based Protein Meal Solutions. High-protein, Low-Calorie and Low-Fat Premium Beef ... High Protein Meal Replacer. New Iconic protein drink is a low-calorie breakfast or snack solution for on-the-go consumers.. ... Home » High Protein Meal Replacer. Better for YouFunctional New ProductsProteins, Collagen, Amino Acids & PeptidesVitamins & ...
  • Compare the efficacy of potassium phosphate to that of potassium citrate. (drugpatentwatch.com)
  • Treatment for these children includes plenty of fluids, a low-salt diet and medications such as potassium citrate. (drugpatentwatch.com)
  • A major advantage of potassium citrate, as compared to hydrochlorothiazide, is its lack of side effects. (drugpatentwatch.com)
  • One problem the researchers and others have observed is that some children continue to form kidney stones despite correction of hypercalciuria with potassium citrate. (drugpatentwatch.com)
  • One possible explanation is that in some individuals potassium citrate therapy results in an excessive elevation of urine pH, a situation that may predispose to calcium phosphate stone formation. (drugpatentwatch.com)
  • It is a water-based salt solution containing sodium chloride, sodium phosphate, potassium chloride and potassium phosphate. (scbt.com)
  • Rated 5 out of 5 by KG from Various publications cite the use of PBS Various publications cite the use of PBS with 1M NaCl Solution as a high salt cleaning solution in affinity purification of antibodies and buffer exchange protocols. (scbt.com)
  • Brine - A highly concentrated solution of water and salt (in potash mining, brine is specifically a solution of water and potassium chloride). (mosaicco.com)
  • Phosphate - An inorganic chemical, phosphate is a salt of phosphoric acid. (mosaicco.com)
  • Sodium (NA+) is the major positive ion in fluid outside of cells (extracellular), and when combined with chloride the resulting substance is table salt. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • Aluminium - color (silver) Aluminium ammonium sulfate - mineral salt Aluminium potassium sulfate - mineral salt Aluminium silicate - anti-caking agent Aluminium sodium sulfate - mineral salt Aluminium sulfate - mineral salt Amaranth - color (red) (FDA: [DELISTED] Red #2) Note that amaranth dye is unrelated to the amaranth plant Amaranth oil - high in squalene and unsaturated fatty acids - used in food and cosmetic industries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, as a result of potassium is so vital to coronary heart function, it is often ordered (along with other electrolytes) throughout all complete regular evaluations, particularly in those that take diuretics or blood stress or coronary heart drugs. (highbloodpressuremed.com)
  • Aim To investigate which energy drink contains a higher concentration of electrolytes Background Knowledge Electrolytes are nutrients that affect the fluid balance in our bodies and are required for the nerves and muscles in our body to function. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Sodium and potassium are the most common electrolytes added to the ever-increasing variety of sports drinks. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Let's take things back to your high school chemistry class: Electrolytes are minerals that conduct electricity when they're mixed with water. (instyle.com)
  • When significant amounts of fluid are lost through high-intensity exercise , replacement with water alone can lead to a chemical imbalance in the body and deficiencies in electrolytes , which are nutrients critical for organ functioning. (medicinenet.com)
  • The electrolytes in our body include sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and phosphate, but sodium is the substance of most concern when replacing fluids lost through exercising. (medicinenet.com)
  • Nutrition can also help keep the proper balance of electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium. (cureourchildren.org)
  • Ever wonder why our medical team tells us to make sure we replenish our electrolytes when we are severely dehydrated or when we are dealing with an extremely high blood sugar? (diabetesdaily.com)
  • During heavy exercise , sodium and potassium electrolytes, in particular, are lost through sweating. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • These precise nutrient sets are formulated by assembling nutrients into modules that supply energy, electrolytes, antioxidants, phosphate, vitamins, minerals, neurotransmitter substrates and amino acids as the protein building blocks. (nutramed.com)
  • Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, phosphate and chloride are the essential electrolytes which should arrive in proportion to each other and in the right amounts for proper body function. (nutramed.com)
  • When we sweat, we lose not only water through our sweat but also important electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. (bestofnutrition.com)
  • 3. This product still retains the high levels of broad-spectrum minerals that were part of the ancient plants from which it was derived. (alibaba.com)
  • Along with this powerful, exclusive blend of herbal diuretics, H2O Expulsion contains two B vitamins: B3 and B6, along with electrolyte minerals magnesium and potassium at a high dosage for a natural diuretic blend. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Boost High Protein Drink is an excellent source of protein with 15 g (30% daily value) plus 26 vitamins & minerals and Calcilock blend of essential nutrients to help maintain strong bones. (safeway.com)
  • The thyroid gland has the highest iodine and selenium concentrations of all tissues in the body, and these trace minerals play a key role to support normal thyroid function. (giantfood.com)
  • Made with only the highest quality meats, these all natural formulas also support healthy digestion with chelated minerals and sweet potatoes and support proper hydration with their rich gravy. (onlynaturalpet.com)
  • All Gibco phosphate-buffered salines contain monobasic potassium phosphate, sodium chloride, and dibasic sodium phosphate. (thermofisher.com)
  • If you have a high level of bicarbonate in your blood. (drugs.com)
  • Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals H20 isolates the precise active ingredients found in dandelion extract that are the reason for it's potent diuretic actions. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Melanoidin is one of the most important ingredients in black garlic due to the high nutritional values and biological functions. (hindawi.com)
  • Products with moderate and high processing concerns generally have more artificial ingredients, more ingredients that have been significantly modified from whole foods, and more ingredients overall. (ewg.org)
  • Offshore - Our Offshore segment produces and/or markets phosphate-, potash- and nitrogen-based crop nutrients and animal feed ingredients to countries outside of the U.S. and Canada. (mosaicco.com)
  • Phosphates - Refers to the Mosaic business segment that produces and sells phosphate crop nutrients and animal feed ingredients. (mosaicco.com)
  • We manufacture our pet foods in U.S. manufacturing facilities with the highest quality ingredients from North America, Europe and New Zealand. (hillspet.com)
  • Purina ONE SMARTBLEND True Instinct High Protein Dog Food is formulated with real beef as the number one ingredient, along with salmon and other high-quality ingredients. (purina.com)
  • Inspired by a dog's instinct to choose nutrient-dense foods in nature, Purina ONE® True Instinct High Protein was created with 32% protein, including real beef as the #1 ingredient, with a SmartBlend of real salmon and other ingredients to provide the protein, energy and other nutrients active adult dogs need. (purina.com)
  • We know the best nutrition for baby starts with the highest quality ingredients. (gerber.com)
  • This electrolyte supplement contains 5 essential vitamins namely vitamin B3, B5, B6, B12, and C. It is made with natural ingredients such as sodium, potassium, and glucose. (bestofnutrition.com)
  • The key ingredients of this supplement are sodium, potassium, and chloride. (bestofnutrition.com)
  • Muriate of Potash (Potassium Chloride) is used for supply of Potassium. (fitnesshealthandwellnesscenter.com)
  • Muriate of Potash - (" MOP ") Potassium Chloride. (mosaicco.com)
  • Potash - A naturally occurring mineral that is also referred to as Muriate of Potash (MOP) or Potassium Chloride (KCl), and is the most widely used potassium fertilizer. (mosaicco.com)
  • Plants require potassium ions (K+) for protein synthesis and for the opening and closing of stomata, which is regulated by proton pumps to make surrounding guard cells either turgid or flaccid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium also functions in other physiological processes such as photosynthesis, protein synthesis, activation of some enzymes, phloem solute transport of photoassimilates into source organs, and maintenance of cation:anion balance in the cytosol and vacuole. (wikipedia.org)
  • BOOST Nutritional Drink High Protein Very Vanilla - 12-8 Fl. (safeway.com)
  • Boost High Protein Complete N... 8 oz. (walgreens.com)
  • Ensure Active High Protein Nu. (walgreens.com)
  • Research shows that maintaining a higher intake of protein is associated with protecting lean muscle, which is essential for functional independence. (walgreens.com)
  • Have a BOOST® High Protein drink as a nutritious snack or light meal to help meet your daily nutritional needs. (walgreens.com)
  • What characterized obese individuals was the higher expression of IL-6 and IL-15 at the protein level in VAT compared to normal-weight controls ( p = 0.047 and p = 0.016, respectively). (mdpi.com)
  • BOOST Plus® Drink-now with a new great taste-provides 360 nutrient-rich calories and 14 g of high-quality protein in each 8 fl oz bottle. (cvs.com)
  • BOOST High Protein Nutritional Drink Rich Chocolate - 6-8 Fl. (albertsons.com)
  • Purina ONE SmartBlend True Instinct High Protein Formula With Real Beef & Salmon is formulated to meet the nutritional levels established by the AAFCO Dog Food Nutrient Profiles for maintenance of adult dogs. (purina.com)
  • Nutritionist View: This formula contains key nutrients that some women fall short of meeting through diet alone including calcium, magnesium, choline, and vitamins D, A & E. Plus it has 15 g high-quality protein with 180 nutrient-rich calories. (giantfood.com)
  • 100% more protein vs boost original (Boost high protein drink contains 20 g protein per serving compared to 10 g in Boost original). (jewelosco.com)
  • Muscle health & energy (Boost high protein balanced nutritional drink contains 20 g protein for muscle health and 240 nutrient-rich calories with 8 B-vitamins to help convert food to energy). (jewelosco.com)
  • Good to Remember: Enjoy the complete and balanced nutrition of Boost high protein drink as part of your daily diet. (jewelosco.com)
  • Boost high protein drink contains 20 g protein plus Calcilock. (jewelosco.com)
  • With their chunky texture and irresistible gravy, they are a high protein, extremely palatable diet that every dog will love. (onlynaturalpet.com)
  • Keep them at the top of their game with PEDIGREE® High Protein Chicken and Turkey Flavor Adult Dry Dog Food. (pedigree.com)
  • Power your dog's active lifestyle with our high protein recipe featuring real chicken in an irresistibly crunchy kibble that also cleans their teeth. (pedigree.com)
  • Small dogs, large dogs, and every active dog in between go crazy for the mouthwatering taste of PEDIGREE® High Protein Adult Dry Dog Food. (pedigree.com)
  • Purina Pro Plan High Protein Sport Performance 30/20 Formula Dry Dog Food, 50 lbs. (petco.com)
  • Purina Pro Plan High Protein Sport Performanc. (petco.com)
  • Oz. Oz. There are 419 calories in 100 grams of Muscle Milk Protein Chocolate High Protein Shake Mix, powder. (schoolwebpages.com)
  • MUSCLE MILK® 100% Whey Protein Powder supplies your body with high quality protein for rapid essential amino acid delivery that can aid recovery and support muscle growth following a workout. (schoolwebpages.com)
  • MUSCLE MILK® Original Protein Shakes deliver a blend of high-quality proteins that provide sustained energy, fuel recovery and help build strength. (schoolwebpages.com)
  • High protein helps maintain lean body mass. (dog.com)
  • Description: Fertilizers are soil amendments applied to promote plant growth, the main nutrients added in fertilizer are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,other nutrients are. (fitnesshealthandwellnesscenter.com)
  • Drugs in this class can also cause retention of nitrogen, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and decreased urinary excretion of calcium. (endo.com)
  • Inorganic phosphates are mined to obtain phosphorus for use in agriculture and industry. (mosaicco.com)
  • Phosphogypsum - Processing of phosphate rock with sulfuric acid allows the nutrient phosphorus to transition from an insoluble state to a soluble state to be available for plant uptake. (mosaicco.com)
  • The researchers reported that they did not find any meta-analyses summarizing the effects of chloride, phosphorus and sulfur on blood pressure or hypertension risk that met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in their analyses. (nutraingredients.com)
  • This wholesome dog food has no added sugar, artificial flavors, or high fructose corn syrup. (pedigree.com)
  • IMPORTANT INFORMATION: Long-term intake of high levels of vitamin A (excluding that sourced from beta-carotene) may increase the risk of osteoporosis in adults. (medshopexpress.com)
  • Phosphate Buffered Saline with 1M Sodium Chloride. (scbt.com)
  • Phosphate buffered saline is a buffer solution commonly used in biological research. (scbt.com)
  • Phosphate Buffered Saline with 1M NaCl is most useful when PBS alone does not provide a sufficient washing step. (scbt.com)
  • 6. The composition of claim 5 , wherein the cationic surface active agent is selected from a group consisting of sodium chloride, phosphate buffered saline, potassium chloride, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium acetate, and sodium acetate. (google.ca)
  • Recall that aldosterone increases the excretion of potassium and the reabsorption of sodium in the distal tubule. (amazonaws.com)
  • Another reason Hi-Tech included dandelion extract is because researchers believe that dandelion may work well when combined with other herbal diuretics to improve overall efficacy. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • High hydrostatic pressures from 200 to 500 MPa were employed to extract the melanoidins from black garlic for improving the extraction efficiency and enhancing the activities. (hindawi.com)
  • Potassium deficiency, also known as potash deficiency, is a plant disorder that is most common on light, sandy soils, because potassium ions (K+) are highly soluble and will easily leach from soils without colloids. (wikipedia.org)
  • An electrolyte disorder occurs when these levels are either too high or too low. (bidmc.org)
  • It's one of the most potent natural diuretics available and a good source of potassium, which is a key electrolyte usually lost through the use of other natural and synthetic diuretics. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • The extent of any electrolyte within the blood can turn out to be too high or too low. (highbloodpressuremed.com)
  • In a paper published earlier this month in the journal Nutrients ​ ​ ​, researchers from the Medical University Vienna argued that lowering sodium and increasing potassium intake may help lower blood pressure among individuals with high blood pressure. (nutraingredients.com)
  • It is widely known that potassium chloride can be used as a salt substitute. (wixon.com)
  • However, there is a limit to how much salt can be replaced with it due to a metallic or bitter type flavor that potassium chloride brings. (wixon.com)
  • Traditionally, meat processors used salt and sodium phosphates to most effectively enhance moisture retention. (wixon.com)
  • The Cretaceous Aquifers showed high alkalinity and TDS, which is expected due to dissolution of limestone and salt content left behind by marine transgression. (societyforscience.org)
  • The thyroid gland has the highest iodine and selenium concentrations of all tissues in the body, and these trace minerals play a key role to support normal thyroid function. (stopandshop.com)
  • PRO PAC® Ultimates™ is fortified with chelated minerals to allow for higher absorption helping digestion, immune function and healthy skin and hair coat. (thomastonfeed.com)
  • KOHA Big Easy Feast Slow Cooked Stew provides a nutritious high-quality protein combination that is grain, potato, and carrageenan free. (petdiscounters.com)
  • When the processor reaches higher levels of added moisture, other ingredients such as carrageenan, soy protein and starches are more effective for moisture retention. (wixon.com)
  • Samples were also tested for trace elements (iron, arsenic and manganese) and major ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride and sulfate). (societyforscience.org)
  • Made with high quality, unique protein blends in a hydrating broth, each formula also contains beneficial ingredients, including salmon oil, coconut oil and turmeric. (onlynaturalpet.com)
  • Beyond Meat products also include things like dipotassium phosphate, potassium chloride, titanium dioxide, and maltodextrin. (554372.com)
  • From 2007 to 2008, spring nitrogen prices increased by a third, phosphate prices nearly doubled, and potash prices doubled. (usda.gov)
  • Nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium are the three most important nutrients, alongside trace elements such as iron, boron and zinc. (gardenguides.com)
  • Although diammonium phosphate and its attached nitrogen has increased in market share, triple superphosphate remains popular as a phosphorous source in granular fertilizers. (gardenguides.com)
  • Fertilizer is labeled as nitrogen (N), phosphate (P2O5), and potash (K2O), respectively N-P-K, which are the oxide forms for elemental phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). In some cases, nutrients may be expressed either way. (msstate.edu)
  • Fertilizer grade or analysis is the weight percent of available nitrogen (N), phosphate (P2O5), and potash (K2O) in the material, expressed in the order N-P2O5-K2O. (msstate.edu)
  • each particle in a 10-20-10 granulated fertilizer contains 10 percent nitrogen, 20 percent phosphate, and 10 percent potash. (msstate.edu)
  • Each granule includes three main nutrients: nitrogen (N), phosphorous (Р2О5) and potassium (К2О). (apollo7.be)
  • Increasing the concentration of testosterone leads to an acceleration of protein metabolism, a decrease in the amount of adipose tissue, the development of striated muscles, as well as the excretion of potassium phosphates, sodium chloride, nitrogen and water by the kidneys. (regularityfitness.com)
  • This is generally due to excessive nitrogen and not enough calcium, phosphorous, potassium and magnesium. (aglabs.com)
  • Nitrogen and potassium can easily enter a plant in nonphosphate form but it takes a lot of water. (aglabs.com)
  • Our seaweed fertilizer contains magnesium, zinc, iron, potassium, nitrogen and all other essential nutrients and hence pledges to deliver outstanding results after the application. (biofertilizerindia.in)
  • This seaweed liquid fertilizer is manufactured from the kelp and different types of seaweed in order to obtain all the nutrition (magnesium, zinc, iron, potassium, nitrogen) significant for plant growth, available in different packing all across Jodhpur. (biofertilizerindia.in)
  • Many can be applied directly such as anhydrous ammonia, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate solutions, triple superphosphate, ammonium phosphates, and muriate of potash (potassium chloride). (msstate.edu)
  • Urea Fertilizer Making Machine Urea Fertilizer Making Machine Potassium Chloride Urea Phosphate NPK Fertilizer Production Making Machine. (dlpublishinggroup.com)
  • 1.The urea fertilizer pellet manufacturing equipments are based on the advanced and mature technology,high production effcciency,low labour intensity,low investment cost. (dlpublishinggroup.com)
  • It is 60- to 62-percent potassium, the highest of the potassium fertilizers, and some products list it as muriate of potash. (gardenguides.com)
  • Ensure High Protein Shake Strawberry. (well.ca)
  • Nutritionist View: This formula contains key nutrients that some women fall short of meeting through diet alone including calcium, magnesium, choline, and vitamins D, A & E. Plus it has 15 g high-quality protein with 180 nutrient-rich calories. (stopandshop.com)
  • Corn Syrup Solids, Vegetable Oil (Palm Olein, Coconut, Soy, And High Oleic Sunflower Oils), Partially Hydrolyzed Nonfat Milk And Whey Protein Concentrate Solids (Soy), Whey Protein-lipid Concentrate (Milk)‡ And Less Than 2%: Mortierella Alpina Oil§, Schizochytrium Sp. (enfamil.com)
  • Protein: Strong, lean muscles supported by high-quality protein. (giantfoodstores.com)
  • BLUE Basics small breed formulas feature the right blend of protein and carbohydrates to meet small breeds' higher energy needs, plus "small-bite" kibble to help smaller dogs with chewing and tartar removal. (petdiscounters.com)
  • With recipes for all tastes and diets, including limited ingredient diets, high protein, grain-free, wholesome grains, and exotic proteins, BLUE Buffalo always starts with real meat, and ends with good health. (petdiscounters.com)
  • High-quality protein from real chicken helps your dog build and maintain healthy muscles. (petgoods.com)
  • Evolve Protein Shakes are made with only the highest-quality, North American grown, inherently Non-GMO pea protein. (me.uk)
  • 11 best dog foods for puppies 2020 top 5 purina one puppy food review purina one vs puppy chow pet what amount of pedigree is needed for a en rice dry puppy food purina Purina One Smartblend Healthy Puppy FoodPurina Puppy Chow High Protein Dry Food Plete With Real En 4 Lb BagPurina One Smartblend… Read More » Purina ONE puppy food is an excellent choice of food for large breed. (swongart.com)
  • Fromm Family Puppy Gold Food for Dogs is specially developed to meet the unique nutritional needs of young, growing dogs by providing high-quality, easily-digestible protein in a smaller kibble. (heartypet.com)
  • When you grab a veggie burger, you're looking for a solid substitution for the minimally-processed, beef-based patty, which is high in protein and low-carb. (554372.com)
  • This grain free recipe is made with fresh, animal protein from the USA along with other high quality ingredients providing perfectly balanced nutrition your pup is sure to love! (loyalcompanion.com)
  • Our Single Animal Protein Formulas provide the highest quality proteins and nutrients for strong muscles and healthy bodies. (krusefeed.com)
  • This feed contains moderate levels of protein, high levels of essential fatty acids and highly digestible carbohydrates, and low levels of copper. (vetcentral.com.sg)
  • Protein that comes from plant-based sources tends to be lower in fat and cholesterol and higher in fiber and nutrients. (healthysd.gov)
  • The single source of protein helps to support healthy digestion and the high amounts of omega fatty acids promote the health of your cat's skin and coat. (pawsnplay.com)
  • BLUE Homestyle Recipe Beef Dinner provides your dog with delicious, high-quality beef, wholesome whole grains and garden fruits and vegetables including carrots, sweet potatoes, blueberries and cranberries. (petdepotonline.com)
  • Some gases, such as hydrogen chloride, under conditions of high temperature or low pressure can also function as electrolytes. (basicknowledge101.com)
  • The excretion of phosphate through the kidneys put a lot of stress on animals. (aglabs.com)