The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.
That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.
Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.
The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).
A variety of techniques used to help individuals utilize their voice for various purposes and with minimal use of muscle energy.
The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
Methods of enabling a patient without a larynx or with a non-functional larynx to produce voice or speech. The methods may be pneumatic or electronic.
Total or partial excision of the larynx.
Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.
A device, activated electronically or by expired pulmonary air, which simulates laryngeal activity and enables a laryngectomized person to speak. Examples of the pneumatic mechanical device are the Tokyo and Van Hunen artificial larynges. Electronic devices include the Western Electric electrolarynx, Tait oral vibrator, Cooper-Rand electrolarynx and the Ticchioni pipe.
A method of speech used after laryngectomy, with sound produced by vibration of the column of air in the esophagus against the contracting cricopharyngeal sphincter. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Pathological processes involving any part of the LARYNX which coordinates many functions such as voice production, breathing, swallowing, and coughing.
Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.
The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.
The recording of wavelike motions or undulations. It is usually used on arteries to detect variations in blood pressure.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.
Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
The mucous lining of the LARYNX, consisting of various types of epithelial cells ranging from stratified squamous EPITHELIUM in the upper larynx to ciliated columnar epithelium in the rest of the larynx, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
The species Panthera tigris, a large feline inhabiting Asia. Several subspecies exist including the Siberian tiger and Sumatran tiger.
The observation of successive phases of MOVEMENT by use of a flashing light.
One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.
Substances that display the physical properties of ELASTICITY and VISCOSITY. The dual-nature of these substances causes them to resist applied forces in a time-dependent manner.
Restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of a defective or damaged LARYNX.
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
The motion of air currents.
Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.

Discharge characteristics of laryngeal single motor units during phonation in young and older adults and in persons with parkinson disease. (1/317)

Discharge characteristics of laryngeal single motor units during phonation in young and older adults, and in persons with Parkinson disease. The rate and variability of the firing of single motor units in the laryngeal muscles of young and older nondisordered humans and people with idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) were determined during steady phonation and other laryngeal behaviors. Typical firing rates during phonation were approximately 24 s/s. The highest rate observed, during a cough, was 50 s/s. Decreases in the rate and increases in the variability of motor unit firing were observed in the thyroarytenoid muscle of older and IPD male subjects but not female subjects. These gender-specific age-related changes may relate to differential effects of aging on the male and female voice characteristics. The range and typical firing rates of laryngeal motor units were similar to those reported for other human skeletal muscles, so we conclude that human laryngeal muscles are probably no faster, in terms of their contraction speed, than other human skeletal muscles. Interspike interval (ISI) variability during steady phonation was quite low, however, with average CV of approximately 10%, with a range of 5 to 30%. These values appear to be lower than typical values of the CV of firing reported in three studies of limb muscles of humans. We suggest therefore that low ISI variability is a special although not unique property of laryngeal muscles compared with other muscles of the body. This conceivably could be the result of less synaptic "noise" in the laryngeal motoneurons, perhaps as a result of suppression of local reflex inputs to these motoneurons during phonation.  (+info)

The neuromuscular control of birdsong. (2/317)

Birdsong requires complex learned motor skills involving the coordination of respiratory, vocal organ and craniomandibular muscle groups. Recent studies have added to our understanding of how these vocal subsystems function and interact during song production. The respiratory rhythm determines the temporal pattern of song. Sound is produced during expiration and each syllable is typically followed by a small inspiration, except at the highest syllable repetition rates when a pattern of pulsatile expiration is used. Both expiration and inspiration are active processes. The oscine vocal organ, the syrinx, contains two separate sound sources at the cranial end of each bronchus, each with independent motor control. Dorsal syringeal muscles regulate the timing of phonation by adducting the sound-generating labia into the air stream. Ventral syringeal muscles have an important role in determining the fundamental frequency of the sound. Different species use the two sides of their vocal organ in different ways to achieve the particular acoustic properties of their song. Reversible paralysis of the vocal organ during song learning in young birds reveals that motor practice is particularly important in late plastic song around the time of song crystallization in order for normal adult song to develop. Even in adult crystallized song, expiratory muscles use sensory feedback to make compensatory adjustments to perturbations of respiratory pressure. The stereotyped beak movements that accompany song appear to have a role in suppressing harmonics, particularly at low frequencies.  (+info)

Distinct gamma-band evoked responses to speech and non-speech sounds in humans. (3/317)

To understand spoken language, the human brain must have fast mechanisms for the representation and identification of speech sounds. Stimulus-induced synchronization of neural activity at gamma frequencies (20-80 Hz), occurring in humans at 200-300 msec from stimulus onset, has been suggested to be a possible mechanism for neural object representation. Auditory and visual stimuli also evoke an earlier (peak <100 msec) gamma oscillation, but its dependence on high-level stimulus parameters and, thereby, its involvement in object representation has remained unclear. Using whole-scalp magnetoencephalography, we show here that responses evoked by speech and non-speech sounds differed in the gamma-frequency but not in the low-frequency (0.1-20 Hz) band as early as 40-60 msec from stimulus onset. The gamma-band responses to the speech sound peaked earlier in the left than in the right hemisphere, whereas those to the non-speech sound peaked earlier in the right hemisphere. For the speech sound, there was no difference in the response amplitude between the hemispheres at low (20-45 Hz) gamma frequencies, whereas for the non-speech sound, the amplitude was larger in the right hemisphere. These results suggest that evoked gamma-band activity may indeed be sensitive to high-level stimulus properties and may hence reflect the neural representation of speech sounds. Consequently, speech-specific neuronal processing may commence no later than 40-60 msec from stimulus onset, possibly in the form of activation of language-specific memory traces.  (+info)

Somatosensory feedback modulates the respiratory motor program of crystallized birdsong. (4/317)

Birdsong, like human speech, involves rapid, repetitive, or episodic motor patterns requiring precise coordination between respiratory, vocal organ, and vocal tract muscles. The song units or syllables of most adult songbirds exhibit a high degree of acoustic stereotypy that persists for days or months after the elimination of auditory feedback by deafening. Adult song is assumed to depend on central motor programs operating independently from immediate sensory feedback. Nothing is known, however, about the possible role of mechanoreceptive or other somatosensory feedback in the motor control of birdsong. Even in the case of human speech, the question of "how and when sensory information is used in normal speaking conditions...remains unanswered" and controversial [Smith, A. (1992) Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 3, 233-267]. We report here evidence for somatosensory modulation of ongoing song motor patterns. These patterns include the respiratory muscles that, in both birdsong and speech, provide the power for vocalization. Perturbing respiratory pressure by a brief, irregularly timed injection of air into the cranial thoracic air sac during song elicited a compensatory reduction in the electrical activity of the abdominal expiratory muscles, both in hearing and deafened adult northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). This muscle response was absent or reduced during quiet respiration, suggesting it is specifically linked to phonation. Our findings indicate that somatosensory feedback to expiratory muscles elicits compensatory adjustments that help stabilize, in real time, the subsyringeal pressure against fluctuations caused by changes in posture or physical activity.  (+info)

Control of oral closure in lingual stop consonant production. (5/317)

Previous work has shown that the lips are moving at a high velocity when the oral closure occurs for bilabial stop consonants, resulting in tissue compression and mechanical interactions between the lips. The present experiment recorded tongue movements in four subjects during the production of velar and alveolar stop consonants to examine kinematic events before, during, and after the stop closure. The results show that, similar to the lips, the tongue is often moving at a high velocity at the onset of closure. The tongue movements were more complex, with both horizontal and vertical components. Movement velocity at closure and release were influenced by both the preceding and the following vowel. During the period of oral closure, the tongue moved through a trajectory of usually less than 1 cm; again, the magnitude of the movement was context dependent. Overall, the tongue moved in forward-backward curved paths. The results are compatible with the idea that the tongue is free to move during the closure as long as an airtight seal is maintained. A new interpretation of the curved movement paths of the tongue in speech is also proposed. This interpretation is based on the principle of cost minimization that has been successfully applied in the study of hand movements in reaching.  (+info)

Quantitative analysis of professionally trained versus untrained voices. (6/317)

The aim of this study was to compare healthy trained and untrained voices as well as healthy and dysphonic trained voices in adults using combined voice range profile and aerodynamic tests, to define the normal range limiting values of quantitative voice parameters and to select the most informative quantitative voice parameters for separation between healthy and dysphonic trained voices. Three groups of persons were evaluated. One hundred eighty six healthy volunteers were divided into two groups according to voice training: non-professional speakers group consisted of 106 untrained voices persons (36 males and 70 females) and professional speakers group--of 80 trained voices persons (21 males and 59 females). Clinical group consisted of 103 dysphonic professional speakers (23 males and 80 females) with various voice disorders. Eighteen quantitative voice parameters from combined voice range profile (VRP) test were analyzed: 8 of voice range profile, 8 of speaking voice, overall vocal dysfunction degree and coefficient of sound, and aerodynamic maximum phonation time. Analysis showed that healthy professional speakers demonstrated expanded vocal abilities in comparison to healthy non-professional speakers. Quantitative voice range profile parameters- pitch range, high frequency limit, area of high frequencies and coefficient of sound differed significantly between healthy professional and non-professional voices, and were more informative than speaking voice or aerodynamic parameters in showing the voice training. Logistic stepwise regression revealed that VRP area in high frequencies was sufficient to discriminate between healthy and dysphonic professional speakers for male subjects (overall discrimination accuracy--81.8%) and combination of three quantitative parameters (VRP high frequency limit, maximum voice intensity and slope of speaking curve) for female subjects (overall model discrimination accuracy--75.4%). We concluded that quantitative voice assessment with selected parameters might be useful for evaluation of voice education for healthy professional speakers as well as for detection of vocal dysfunction and evaluation of rehabilitation effect in dysphonic professionals.  (+info)

Vocal dose measures: quantifying accumulated vibration exposure in vocal fold tissues. (7/317)

To measure the exposure to self-induced tissue vibration in speech, three vocal doses were defined and described: distance dose, which accumulates the distance that tissue particles of the vocal folds travel in an oscillatory trajectory; energy dissipation dose, which accumulates the total amount of heat dissipated over a unit volume of vocal fold tissues; and time dose, which accumulates the total phonation time. These doses were compared to a previously used vocal dose measure, the vocal loading index, which accumulates the number of vibration cycles of the vocal folds. Empirical rules for viscosity and vocal fold deformation were used to calculate all the doses from the fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) values of speech. Six participants were asked to read in normal, monotone, and exaggerated speech and the doses associated with these vocalizations were calculated. The results showed that large F0 and SPL variations in speech affected the dose measures, suggesting that accumulation of phonation time alone is insufficient. The vibration exposure of the vocal folds in normal speech was related to the industrial limits for hand-transmitted vibration, in which the safe distance dose was derived to be about 500 m. This limit was found rather low for vocalization; it was related to a comparable time dose of about 17 min of continuous vocalization, or about 35 min of continuous reading with normal breathing and unvoiced segments. The voicing pauses in normal speech and dialogue effectively prolong the safe time dose. The derived safety limits for vocalization will likely require refinement based on a more detailed knowledge of the differences in hand and vocal fold tissue morphology and their response to vibrational stress, and on the effect of recovery of the vocal fold tissue during voicing pauses.  (+info)

In reference to phonation larynx fixation: computer graphic record. (8/317)

The vocal apparatus serves phonation. It represents a biocybernetic self-regulating system, disposing of a feedback network of the central nervous system. The larynx is a self-induced vibrating system. The larynx, functioning as the phonation apparatus of the vocal apparatus, is a source of human voice. In every individual its frequency range corresponds to about eight semitones in speech and about two octaves of the so-called chest register in singing, denoted also as a thoracic or modal voice. This is followed by one more octave of the so-called cranial register or falsetto voice. We were interested in changes of the larynx positions at intonation in the fundamental singing registers, both modal and falsetto, in professional male singers. At our disposal were 11 professional male singers. We investigated changes in the position of the laryngeal structures simultaneously with the aid of an X-ray apparatus, the acoustic and mechanical signals registered by means of the B & K 4369 acceleration recorder. It has been found that at phonation with the modal voice a change in the position of the laryngeal structures takes place in two different ways, whereas the larynx movements at falsetto remain the same. It has been suggested that a complex fixation apparatus participates in the phonation larynx movements. Of the same complex character are also the problems connected with the examination of the entire vocal apparatus. For the purpose of compiling the present pieces of knowledge in the field of human voice studies, we have made the most advantageous use of the presently most complex system Authorware for the production of some interactive multimedial programmes on personal computers.  (+info)

Phonation is the process of sound production in speech, singing, or crying. It involves the vibration of the vocal folds (also known as the vocal cords) in the larynx, which is located in the neck. When air from the lungs passes through the vibrating vocal folds, it causes them to vibrate and produce sound waves. These sound waves are then shaped into speech sounds by the articulatory structures of the mouth, nose, and throat.

Phonation is a critical component of human communication and is used in various forms of verbal expression, such as speaking, singing, and shouting. It requires precise control of the muscles that regulate the tension, mass, and length of the vocal folds, as well as the air pressure and flow from the lungs. Dysfunction in phonation can result in voice disorders, such as hoarseness, breathiness, or loss of voice.

Vocal cords, also known as vocal folds, are specialized bands of muscle, membrane, and connective tissue located within the larynx (voice box). They are essential for speech, singing, and other sounds produced by the human voice. The vocal cords vibrate when air from the lungs is passed through them, creating sound waves that vary in pitch and volume based on the tension, length, and mass of the vocal cords. These sound waves are then further modified by the resonance chambers of the throat, nose, and mouth to produce speech and other vocalizations.

The larynx, also known as the voice box, is a complex structure in the neck that plays a crucial role in protection of the lower respiratory tract and in phonation. It is composed of cartilaginous, muscular, and soft tissue structures. The primary functions of the larynx include:

1. Airway protection: During swallowing, the larynx moves upward and forward to close the opening of the trachea (the glottis) and prevent food or liquids from entering the lungs. This action is known as the swallowing reflex.
2. Phonation: The vocal cords within the larynx vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound that forms the basis of human speech and voice production.
3. Respiration: The larynx serves as a conduit for airflow between the upper and lower respiratory tracts during breathing.

The larynx is located at the level of the C3-C6 vertebrae in the neck, just above the trachea. It consists of several important structures:

1. Cartilages: The laryngeal cartilages include the thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages, as well as the corniculate and cuneiform cartilages. These form a framework for the larynx and provide attachment points for various muscles.
2. Vocal cords: The vocal cords are thin bands of mucous membrane that stretch across the glottis (the opening between the arytenoid cartilages). They vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound.
3. Muscles: There are several intrinsic and extrinsic muscles associated with the larynx. The intrinsic muscles control the tension and position of the vocal cords, while the extrinsic muscles adjust the position and movement of the larynx within the neck.
4. Nerves: The larynx is innervated by both sensory and motor nerves. The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all intrinsic laryngeal muscles, except for one muscle called the cricothyroid, which is innervated by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. Sensory innervation is provided by the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The larynx plays a crucial role in several essential functions, including breathing, speaking, and protecting the airway during swallowing. Dysfunction or damage to the larynx can result in various symptoms, such as hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, or stridor (a high-pitched sound heard during inspiration).

The glottis is a medical term that refers to the opening between the vocal cords (the ligaments in the larynx that produce sound when air passes through them during speech) in the human throat or larynx. It is an important structure for breathing, swallowing, and producing sounds or speech. The glottis opens during inhalation to allow air into the lungs and closes during swallowing to prevent food or liquids from entering the trachea (windpipe) and lungs.

Voice quality, in the context of medicine and particularly in otolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat medicine), refers to the characteristic sound of an individual's voice that can be influenced by various factors. These factors include the vocal fold vibration, respiratory support, articulation, and any underlying medical conditions.

A change in voice quality might indicate a problem with the vocal folds or surrounding structures, neurological issues affecting the nerves that control vocal fold movement, or other medical conditions. Examples of terms used to describe voice quality include breathy, hoarse, rough, strained, or tense. A detailed analysis of voice quality is often part of a speech-language pathologist's assessment and can help in diagnosing and managing various voice disorders.

Voice disorders are conditions that affect the quality, pitch, or volume of a person's voice. These disorders can result from damage to or abnormalities in the vocal cords, which are the small bands of muscle located in the larynx (voice box) that vibrate to produce sound.

There are several types of voice disorders, including:

1. Vocal cord dysfunction: This occurs when the vocal cords do not open and close properly, resulting in a weak or breathy voice.
2. Vocal cord nodules: These are small growths that form on the vocal cords as a result of excessive use or misuse of the voice, such as from shouting or singing too loudly.
3. Vocal cord polyps: These are similar to nodules but are usually larger and can cause more significant changes in the voice.
4. Laryngitis: This is an inflammation of the vocal cords that can result from a viral infection, overuse, or exposure to irritants such as smoke.
5. Muscle tension dysphonia: This occurs when the muscles around the larynx become tense and constricted, leading to voice changes.
6. Paradoxical vocal fold movement: This is a condition in which the vocal cords close when they should be open, causing breathing difficulties and a weak or breathy voice.
7. Spasmodic dysphonia: This is a neurological disorder that causes involuntary spasms of the vocal cords, resulting in voice breaks and difficulty speaking.

Voice disorders can cause significant impairment in communication, social interactions, and quality of life. Treatment may include voice therapy, medication, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause of the disorder.

The laryngeal muscles are a group of skeletal muscles located in the larynx, also known as the voice box. These muscles play a crucial role in breathing, swallowing, and producing sounds for speech. They include:

1. Cricothyroid muscle: This muscle helps to tense the vocal cords and adjust their pitch during phonation (voice production). It is the only laryngeal muscle that is not innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Instead, it is supplied by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve.
2. Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle: This muscle is primarily responsible for abducting (opening) the vocal cords during breathing and speaking. It is the only muscle that can abduct the vocal cords.
3. Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle: This muscle adducts (closes) the vocal cords during phonation, swallowing, and coughing.
4. Transverse arytenoid muscle: This muscle also contributes to adduction of the vocal cords, working together with the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle. It also helps to relax and lengthen the vocal cords during quiet breathing.
5. Oblique arytenoid muscle: This muscle is involved in adducting, rotating, and shortening the vocal cords. It works together with the transverse arytenoid muscle to provide fine adjustments for voice production.
6. Thyroarytenoid muscle (Vocalis): This muscle forms the main body of the vocal cord and is responsible for its vibration during phonation. The vocalis portion of the muscle helps control pitch and tension in the vocal cords.

These muscles work together to enable various functions of the larynx, such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking.

"Voice training" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the field of otolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat medicine) or speech-language pathology. However, voice training generally refers to the process of developing and improving one's vocal skills through various exercises and techniques. This can include training in breath control, pitch, volume, resonance, articulation, and interpretation, among other aspects of vocal production. Voice training is often used to help individuals with voice disorders or professionals such as singers and actors to optimize their vocal abilities. In a medical context, voice training may be recommended or overseen by a speech-language pathologist as part of the treatment plan for a voice disorder.

In medical terms, the term "voice" refers to the sound produced by vibration of the vocal cords caused by air passing out from the lungs during speech, singing, or breathing. It is a complex process that involves coordination between respiratory, phonatory, and articulatory systems. Any damage or disorder in these systems can affect the quality, pitch, loudness, and flexibility of the voice.

The medical field dealing with voice disorders is called Phoniatrics or Voice Medicine. Voice disorders can present as hoarseness, breathiness, roughness, strain, weakness, or a complete loss of voice, which can significantly impact communication, social interaction, and quality of life.

In the context of medicine and physiology, vibration refers to the mechanical oscillation of a physical body or substance with a periodic back-and-forth motion around an equilibrium point. This motion can be produced by external forces or internal processes within the body.

Vibration is often measured in terms of frequency (the number of cycles per second) and amplitude (the maximum displacement from the equilibrium position). In clinical settings, vibration perception tests are used to assess peripheral nerve function and diagnose conditions such as neuropathy.

Prolonged exposure to whole-body vibration or hand-transmitted vibration in certain occupational settings can also have adverse health effects, including hearing loss, musculoskeletal disorders, and vascular damage.

Sound spectrography, also known as voice spectrography, is a diagnostic procedure in which a person's speech sounds are analyzed and displayed as a visual pattern called a spectrogram. This test is used to evaluate voice disorders, speech disorders, and hearing problems. It can help identify patterns of sound production and reveal any abnormalities in the vocal tract or hearing mechanism.

During the test, a person is asked to produce specific sounds or sentences, which are then recorded and analyzed by a computer program. The program breaks down the sound waves into their individual frequencies and amplitudes, and displays them as a series of horizontal lines on a graph. The resulting spectrogram shows how the frequencies and amplitudes change over time, providing valuable information about the person's speech patterns and any underlying problems.

Sound spectrography is a useful tool for diagnosing and treating voice and speech disorders, as well as for researching the acoustic properties of human speech. It can also be used to evaluate hearing aids and other assistive listening devices, and to assess the effectiveness of various treatments for hearing loss and other auditory disorders.

Speech acoustics is a subfield of acoustic phonetics that deals with the physical properties of speech sounds, such as frequency, amplitude, and duration. It involves the study of how these properties are produced by the vocal tract and perceived by the human ear. Speech acousticians use various techniques to analyze and measure the acoustic signals produced during speech, including spectral analysis, formant tracking, and pitch extraction. This information is used in a variety of applications, such as speech recognition, speaker identification, and hearing aid design.

Laryngoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the examination of the larynx, which is the upper part of the windpipe (trachea), and the vocal cords using a specialized instrument called a laryngoscope. The laryngoscope is inserted through the mouth or nose to provide a clear view of the larynx and surrounding structures. This procedure can be performed for diagnostic purposes, such as identifying abnormalities like growths, inflammation, or injuries, or for therapeutic reasons, such as removing foreign objects or taking tissue samples for biopsy. There are different types of laryngoscopes and techniques used depending on the reason for the examination and the patient's specific needs.

Alaryngeal speech refers to the various methods of communicating without the use of the vocal folds (cords) in the larynx, which are typically used for producing sounds during normal speech. This type of communication is necessary for individuals who have lost their larynx or have a non-functioning larynx due to conditions such as cancer, trauma, or surgery.

There are several types of alaryngeal speech, including:

1. Esophageal speech: In this method, air is swallowed into the esophagus and then released in short bursts to produce sounds. This technique requires significant practice and training to master.
2. Tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) speech: A small opening is created between the trachea and the esophagus, allowing air from the lungs to pass directly into the esophagus. A one-way valve is placed in the opening to prevent food and liquids from entering the trachea. The air passing through the esophagus produces sound, which can be modified with articulation and resonance to produce speech.
3. Electrolarynx: This is a small electronic device that is held against the neck or jaw and produces vibrations that are used to create sound for speech. The user then shapes these sounds into words using their articulatory muscles (lips, tongue, teeth, etc.).

Alaryngeal speech can be challenging to learn and may require extensive therapy and practice to achieve proficiency. However, with proper training and support, many individuals are able to communicate effectively using these methods.

A laryngectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the larynx, also known as the voice box. This is typically performed in cases of advanced laryngeal cancer or other severe diseases of the larynx. After the surgery, the patient will have a permanent stoma (opening) in the neck to allow for breathing. The ability to speak after a total laryngectomy can be restored through various methods such as esophageal speech, tracheoesophageal puncture with a voice prosthesis, or electronic devices.

Dysphonia is a medical term that refers to difficulty or discomfort in producing sounds or speaking, often characterized by hoarseness, roughness, breathiness, strain, or weakness in the voice. It can be caused by various conditions such as vocal fold nodules, polyps, inflammation, neurological disorders, or injuries to the vocal cords. Dysphonia can affect people of all ages and may impact their ability to communicate effectively, causing social, professional, and emotional challenges. Treatment for dysphonia depends on the underlying cause and may include voice therapy, medication, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

An artificial larynx, also known as a voice prosthesis or speech aid, is a device used to help individuals who have undergone a laryngectomy (surgical removal of the larynx) or have other conditions that prevent them from speaking normally. The device generates sound mechanically, which can then be shaped into speech by the user.

There are two main types of artificial larynx devices:

1. External: This type of device consists of a small electronic unit that produces sound when the user presses a button or activates it with a breath. The sound is then directed through a tube or hose into a face mask or a mouthpiece, where the user can shape it into speech.
2. Internal: An internal artificial larynx, also known as a voice prosthesis, is implanted in the body during surgery. It works by allowing air to flow from the trachea into the esophagus and then through the voice prosthesis, which creates sound that can be used for speech.

Both types of artificial larynx devices require practice and training to use effectively, but they can significantly improve communication and quality of life for individuals who have lost their natural voice due to laryngeal cancer or other conditions.

Esophageal speech is not a type of "speech" in the traditional sense, but rather a method of producing sounds or words using the esophagus after a laryngectomy (surgical removal of the voice box). Here's a medical definition:

Esophageal Speech: A form of alaryngeal speech produced by swallowing air into the esophagus and releasing it through the upper esophageal sphincter, creating vibrations that are shaped into sounds and words. This method is used by individuals who have undergone a laryngectomy, where the vocal cords are removed, making traditional speech impossible. Mastering esophageal speech requires extensive practice and rehabilitation.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

Laryngeal diseases refer to conditions that affect the structure and function of the larynx, also known as the voice box. The larynx is a complex structure composed of cartilages, muscles, membranes, and mucous glands that play essential roles in breathing, swallowing, and vocalization.

Laryngeal diseases can be categorized into several types based on their causes and manifestations. Some common laryngeal diseases include:

1. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the larynx that can cause hoarseness, throat pain, coughing, and difficulty swallowing. Acute laryngitis is often caused by viral infections or irritants, while chronic laryngitis may result from prolonged exposure to smoke, chemicals, or acid reflux.
2. Vocal cord lesions: Abnormal growths on the vocal cords, such as polyps, nodules, or cysts, that can affect voice quality and cause hoarseness, breathiness, or pain. These lesions are often caused by overuse, misuse, or trauma to the vocal cords.
3. Laryngeal cancer: Malignant tumors that develop in the larynx and can invade surrounding structures, such as the throat, neck, and chest. Laryngeal cancer is often associated with smoking, alcohol consumption, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
4. Laryngeal stenosis: Narrowing of the airway due to scarring or thickening of the tissues in the larynx. This condition can cause difficulty breathing, wheezing, and coughing, especially during physical activity or sleep.
5. Reinke's edema: Swelling of the vocal cords caused by fluid accumulation in the mucous membrane that covers them. Reinke's edema is often associated with smoking and can cause hoarseness, low voice, and difficulty projecting the voice.
6. Laryngeal papillomatosis: A rare condition characterized by the growth of benign tumors (papillomas) in the larynx, usually caused by HPV infection. These tumors can recur and may require repeated surgeries to remove them.
7. Vocal cord paralysis: Inability of one or both vocal cords to move due to nerve damage or other medical conditions. This condition can cause hoarseness, breathiness, and difficulty speaking or swallowing.

These are some of the common laryngeal disorders that can affect a person's voice, breathing, and swallowing functions. Proper diagnosis and treatment by an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat specialist) are essential to manage these conditions effectively and prevent complications.

Vocal cord paralysis is a medical condition characterized by the inability of one or both vocal cords to move or function properly due to nerve damage or disruption. The vocal cords are two bands of muscle located in the larynx (voice box) that vibrate to produce sound during speech, singing, and breathing. When the nerves that control the vocal cord movements are damaged or not functioning correctly, the vocal cords may become paralyzed or weakened, leading to voice changes, breathing difficulties, and other symptoms.

The causes of vocal cord paralysis can vary, including neurological disorders, trauma, tumors, surgery, or infections. The diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, including a laryngoscopy, to assess the movement and function of the vocal cords. Treatment options may include voice therapy, surgical procedures, or other interventions to improve voice quality and breathing functions.

Thyroid cartilage is the largest and most superior of the laryngeal cartilages, forming the front and greater part of the larynx, also known as the "Adam's apple" in humans. It serves to protect the vocal cords and provides attachment for various muscles involved in voice production. The thyroid cartilage consists of two laminae that join in front at an angle, creating a noticeable prominence in the anterior neck. This structure is crucial in speech formation and swallowing functions.

Kymography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize and analyze the movement or motion of structures, such as muscles, blood vessels, or intestines, over time. It involves capturing a series of images at high temporal resolution and then displaying them in a way that emphasizes changes in intensity along a single line or region of interest.

In kymography, a moving stripe or band is created on the image display, representing the movement of the structure being studied. The resulting image shows the velocity, direction, and patterns of motion of the structure, which can be useful for diagnostic purposes or for research in physiology and biomechanics.

Kymography is often used in conjunction with other imaging techniques, such as ultrasound or fluoroscopy, to provide more detailed information about the function and behavior of different tissues and organs.

Acoustics is a branch of physics that deals with the study of sound, its production, transmission, and effects. In a medical context, acoustics may refer to the use of sound waves in medical procedures such as:

1. Diagnostic ultrasound: This technique uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of internal organs and tissues. It is commonly used during pregnancy to monitor fetal development, but it can also be used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, including heart disease, cancer, and musculoskeletal injuries.
2. Therapeutic ultrasound: This technique uses low-frequency sound waves to promote healing and reduce pain and inflammation in muscles, tendons, and ligaments. It is often used to treat soft tissue injuries, arthritis, and other musculoskeletal conditions.
3. Otology: Acoustics also plays a crucial role in the field of otology, which deals with the study and treatment of hearing and balance disorders. The shape, size, and movement of the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear all affect how sound waves are transmitted and perceived. Abnormalities in any of these structures can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus, or balance problems.

In summary, acoustics is an important field of study in medicine that has applications in diagnosis, therapy, and the understanding of various medical conditions related to sound and hearing.

The laryngeal nerves are a pair of nerves that originate from the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) and provide motor and sensory innervation to the larynx. There are two branches of the laryngeal nerves: the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The superior laryngeal nerve has two branches: the external branch, which provides motor innervation to the cricothyroid muscle and sensation to the mucous membrane of the laryngeal vestibule; and the internal branch, which provides sensory innervation to the mucous membrane of the laryngeal vestibule.

The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, except for the cricothyroid muscle, and sensation to the mucous membrane below the vocal folds. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve has a longer course than the left one, as it hooks around the subclavian artery before ascending to the larynx.

Damage to the laryngeal nerves can result in voice changes, difficulty swallowing, and respiratory distress.

Speech production measurement is the quantitative analysis and assessment of various parameters and characteristics of spoken language, such as speech rate, intensity, duration, pitch, and articulation. These measurements can be used to diagnose and monitor speech disorders, evaluate the effectiveness of treatment, and conduct research in fields such as linguistics, psychology, and communication disorders. Speech production measurement tools may include specialized software, hardware, and techniques for recording, analyzing, and visualizing speech data.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted" is not a commonly used medical term or concept. Numerical analysis is a branch of mathematics dealing with the approximation of problems by numerical values and the use of algorithms to solve these problems. It can be used in various fields, including medicine, for example, in modeling biological systems or analyzing medical data. However, "computer-assisted" generally refers to the use of computers to aid in a task, which is not exclusive to numerical analysis.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer them!

Air pressure, also known as atmospheric pressure, is the force exerted by the weight of air in the atmosphere on a surface. It is measured in units such as pounds per square inch (psi), hectopascals (hPa), or inches of mercury (inHg). The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is defined as 101,325 Pa (14.7 psi/1013 hPa/29.92 inHg). Changes in air pressure can be used to predict weather patterns and are an important factor in the study of aerodynamics and respiratory physiology.

The laryngeal mucosa is the mucous membrane that lines the interior surface of the larynx, also known as the voice box. This mucous membrane is composed of epithelial cells and underlying connective tissue, and it plays a crucial role in protecting the underlying tissues of the larynx from damage, infection, and other environmental insults.

The laryngeal mucosa is continuous with the respiratory mucosa that lines the trachea and bronchi, and it contains numerous mucus-secreting glands and cilia that help to trap and remove inhaled particles and microorganisms. Additionally, the laryngeal mucosa is richly innervated with sensory nerve endings that detect changes in temperature, pressure, and other stimuli, allowing for the regulation of breathing, swallowing, and voice production.

Damage to the laryngeal mucosa can occur as a result of various factors, including irritants, infection, inflammation, and trauma, and may lead to symptoms such as pain, swelling, difficulty swallowing, and changes in voice quality.

Animal vocalization refers to the production of sound by animals through the use of the vocal organs, such as the larynx in mammals or the syrinx in birds. These sounds can serve various purposes, including communication, expressing emotions, attracting mates, warning others of danger, and establishing territory. The complexity and diversity of animal vocalizations are vast, with some species capable of producing intricate songs or using specific calls to convey different messages. In a broader sense, animal vocalizations can also include sounds produced through other means, such as stridulation in insects.

Speech is the vocalized form of communication using sounds and words to express thoughts, ideas, and feelings. It involves the articulation of sounds through the movement of muscles in the mouth, tongue, and throat, which are controlled by nerves. Speech also requires respiratory support, phonation (vocal cord vibration), and prosody (rhythm, stress, and intonation).

Speech is a complex process that develops over time in children, typically beginning with cooing and babbling sounds in infancy and progressing to the use of words and sentences by around 18-24 months. Speech disorders can affect any aspect of this process, including articulation, fluency, voice, and language.

In a medical context, speech is often evaluated and treated by speech-language pathologists who specialize in diagnosing and managing communication disorders.

Anatomic models are three-dimensional representations of body structures used for educational, training, or demonstration purposes. They can be made from various materials such as plastic, wax, or rubber and may depict the entire body or specific regions, organs, or systems. These models can be used to provide a visual aid for understanding anatomy, physiology, and pathology, and can be particularly useful in situations where actual human specimens are not available or practical to use. They may also be used for surgical planning and rehearsal, as well as in medical research and product development.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

"Nonlinear dynamics is a branch of mathematics and physics that deals with the study of systems that exhibit nonlinear behavior, where the output is not directly proportional to the input. In the context of medicine, nonlinear dynamics can be used to model complex biological systems such as the human cardiovascular system or the brain, where the interactions between different components can lead to emergent properties and behaviors that are difficult to predict using traditional linear methods. Nonlinear dynamic models can help to understand the underlying mechanisms of these systems, make predictions about their behavior, and develop interventions to improve health outcomes."

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tigers" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to the largest cat species in the world, found primarily in Asia. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try and help with those!

Stroboscopy is a medical examination technique used primarily for the evaluation of voice and swallowing disorders. It involves the use of a strobe light that flickers at a rate equal to or close to the vibration rate of the vocal folds (vocal cords). This allows the examiner to visualize the movement of the vocal folds in slow motion, which can help identify any abnormalities in their movement or structure.

During the procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a stroboscope is inserted through the nose and into the throat. The strobe light is then activated, and the examiner observes the vibration of the vocal folds using an attached camera and video monitor. This technique can help diagnose conditions such as vocal fold nodules, polyps, paralysis, and other disorders that affect voice production.

It's important to note that stroboscopy should be performed by a trained healthcare professional, such as an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat specialist) or speech-language pathologist, who has experience in evaluating voice and swallowing disorders.

The arytenoid cartilages are paired, irregularly shaped pieces of elastic cartilage located in the larynx (voice box) of mammals. They play a crucial role in the process of vocalization and breathing.

Each arytenoid cartilage has a body and two projections: the vocal process, which provides attachment for the vocal cord, and the muscular process, which serves as an attachment site for various intrinsic laryngeal muscles. The arytenoid cartilages are connected to the cricoid cartilage below by the synovial cricoarytenoid joints, allowing for their movement during respiration and phonation.

These cartilages help in adjusting the tension of the vocal cords and controlling the opening and closing of the rima glottidis (the space between the vocal cords), which is essential for breathing, swallowing, and producing sounds. Any abnormalities or injuries to the arytenoid cartilages may result in voice disturbances or respiratory difficulties.

Viscoelastic substances are materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic properties when undergoing deformation. In the context of medicine, viscoelastic substances are often used to describe certain biological fluids, such as synovial fluid found in joints, or the vitreous humor in the eye. These fluids have a complex structure that allows them to behave as a liquid and a solid simultaneously, providing resistance to sudden force while also allowing for smooth movement over time.

Artificial viscoelastic substances are also used in medical applications, such as in surgical sealants and hemostatic agents, which are designed to control bleeding by forming a gel-like substance that fills wounds and helps to promote clotting. These materials have unique properties that allow them to conform to the shape of the wound and provide sustained pressure to help stop bleeding.

Laryngoplasty is a surgical procedure that involves reconstructing or reinforcing the larynx, specifically the vocal cords. The goal of this procedure can be to improve voice quality, restore breathing function, or manage airway obstructions caused by various conditions such as vocal cord paralysis, vocal fold bowing, or scarring.

There are different types of laryngoplasties, including:

1. Type I Thyroplasty (Medialization Laryngoplasty): This procedure involves placing an implant made of silicone, Gore-Tex, or other materials in the thyroid cartilage to medialize (move towards the midline) and support the paralyzed vocal cord. This helps improve voice quality and airway closure during speech and swallowing.
2. Arytenoid Adduction: In this procedure, the arytenoid cartilage is repositioned or fixed in place to help approximate (bring together) the vocal cords. It is often performed along with a Type I Thyroplasty for better voice and airway outcomes.
3. Laryngeal Framework Surgery: This is a more extensive procedure that involves reshaping the laryngeal framework, including the thyroid and cricoid cartilages, to improve voice, swallowing, or breathing function.

The choice of surgical technique depends on the underlying condition, its severity, and the patient's individual needs and goals.

The Elastic Modulus, also known as Young's modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a material. It is defined as the ratio of stress (force per unit area) to strain (partial deformation or change in length per unit length) in the elastic range of deformation of a material. In other words, it measures how much a material will deform (change in length or size) when subjected to a given amount of force. A higher elastic modulus indicates that a material is stiffer and less likely to deform, while a lower elastic modulus indicates that a material is more flexible and will deform more easily. The elastic modulus is typically expressed in units of Pascals (Pa) or Gigapascals (GPa).

Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder that results from damage to the nervous system, particularly the brainstem or cerebellum. It affects the muscles used for speaking, causing slurred, slow, or difficult speech. The specific symptoms can vary depending on the underlying cause and the extent of nerve damage. Treatment typically involves speech therapy to improve communication abilities.

"Air movements" is not a medical term or concept. It generally refers to the movement or circulation of air, which can occur naturally (such as through wind) or mechanically (such as through fans or ventilation systems). In some contexts, it may refer specifically to the movement of air in operating rooms or other controlled environments for medical purposes. However, without more specific context, it is difficult to provide a precise definition or medical interpretation of "air movements."

Speech Therapy, also known as Speech-Language Pathology, is a medical field that focuses on the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of communication and swallowing disorders in children and adults. These disorders may include speech sound production difficulties (articulation disorders or phonological processes disorders), language disorders (expressive and/or receptive language impairments), voice disorders, fluency disorders (stuttering), cognitive-communication disorders, and swallowing difficulties (dysphagia).

Speech therapists, who are also called speech-language pathologists (SLPs), work with clients to improve their communication abilities through various therapeutic techniques and exercises. They may also provide counseling and education to families and caregivers to help them support the client's communication development and management of the disorder.

Speech therapy services can be provided in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, schools, private practices, and long-term care facilities. The specific goals and methods used in speech therapy will depend on the individual needs and abilities of each client.

The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics. Among some phoneticians, phonation ... In linguistic phonetic treatments of phonation, such as those of Peter Ladefoged, phonation was considered to be a matter of ... The minimum pressure drop required to achieve phonation is called the phonation threshold pressure (PTP), and for humans with ... and whispery voice phonation (murmur) if the vocal folds vibrate modally. Whisper phonation is heard in many productions of ...
Esling, John H. (2013). "Voice and Phonation". In Jones, Mark J.; Knight, Rachael-Anne (eds.). The Bloomsbury Companion to ...
Husson, Raoul (1957). "Physiologie de la Phonation". Practica Oto-Rhino-Laryngologica (in French). 50 (2): 123-139. doi:10.5631 ...
Rather, they are bare phonation. It is primarily the shape of the tongue rather than its position that distinguishes the ... A series of alveolar plosives ranging from open-glottis to closed-glottis phonation is: Additional diacritics are provided by ... may be motivated by the similarities of these phonations. The extIPA provides combining parentheses for weak intensity, which ...
A phonatory process (phonation is the process of producing vocal sound by the vibration of the vocal folds that is in turn ... Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is enhanced in timbre and/or intensity by the air- ... For example, phonation only comes into perspective when it is connected with respiration; the articulators affect resonance; ... In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. ...
ISSN 0584-8687 Phonation types. In Phonetics, Working Papers. (1987). WPP, No. 67: Studies of Phonation Types. UC Los Angeles: ...
They often interfere with phonation. Hoarseness is the most common presenting symptom, while pain, stridor or laryngeal ... Phonation, Voice disorders, Congenital disorders of respiratory system). ...
In addition to these changes in phonation, someone may have issues changing their pitch or loudness. Or, they may speak in ... Some common signs include the following Phonation and prosody: Damage to cranial nerve X can present as changes in voice ... Depending on which nerves are damaged, flaccid dysarthria affects respiration, phonation, resonance, and articulation. It also ... Phonation and prosody: Behavioural treatments may include turning one's head to the affected side during speech or lateralizing ...
Denver CO: Denver Center for the Performing Arts (1985). Titze, I.R. & Scherer, R.C. (Eds.). Phonation Place of articulation ... Titze, Ingo R. (2006-01-01). The Myoelastic Aerodynamic Theory of Phonation. National Center for Voice and Speech. ISBN ... Titze, I.R., & Verdolini, K. (2012). The Myoelastic-Aerodynamic Theory of Phonation. Denver, CO 80204: National Center for ...
... stress and phonation type, e.g. San Lucas Quiaviní (Chávez Peón 2010). Zapotec languages all display contrastive phonation type ... When they occur they also typically receive the primary stress of the phrase, causing the noun to lose some phonation features ... Santa Ana del Valle Zapotec Phonation. M.A. thesis, UCLA. Foreman, John. 2006. The Morphosyntax of Subjects in Macuiltianguis ...
Vowel phonation also frequently develops into tone, as can be seen in the case of Burmese. 1. The table below is the process of ... In some languages, such as Burmese, pitch and phonation are so closely intertwined that the two are combined in a single ... Contour, duration, and phonation may all contribute to the differentiation of tones. Recent investigations using perceptual ... Kuang identified two types of phonation: pitch-dependent and pitch-independent. Contrast of tones has long been thought of as ...
Many sounds can be produced with or without phonation, though physical constraints may make phonation difficult or impossible ... but other voiceless sounds like fricatives create their own acoustic source regardless of phonation. Phonation is controlled by ... To produce phonation at all, the lungs must maintain a pressure of 3-5 cm H2O higher than the pressure above the glottis. ... The normal phonation pattern used in typical speech is modal voice, where the vocal folds are held close together with moderate ...
Somali does not distinguish vowel phonation; and the graphemes b and v represent the same phoneme in all varieties of Spanish ( ...
Scoring is generally done without phonation. Depending on whether the tongue is maximally protruded and/or the patient asked to ...
Hirano, M.; Koike, Y.; Leden, H. von (1967-01-01). "The Sternohyoid Muscle During Phonation: Electromyographic Studies". Acta ...
As in many Mon-Khmer languages, Mon uses a vowel-phonation or vowel-register system in which the quality of voice in ... The contrastive mechanism is the vowel phonation. In the examples below, breathy voice is marked with under-diaeresis. Mon ... The interaction between pitch and phonation type in Mon: phonetic implications for a theory of tonogenesis. Mon-Khmer Studies ...
They aid phonation (speech) by suppressing dysphonia. In some ethnic singing and chanting styles, such as in Tuva, Sardinia, ... They have a minimal role in normal phonation, but are often used to produce deep sonorous tones in Tuvan throat singing, as ... Some voice actors occasionally employ small amounts of this phonation for its dark, growling quality while portraying a " ... Abstract A self-sustained vocal-ventricular phonation mode: acoustical, aerodynamic and glottographic evidences ; L Fuks, B ...
"Fluid Dynamics of Human Phonation and Speech." Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 45:437-467, 2013. Rajat Mittal, Jung Hee ...
ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4. Gordon, Matthew; Ladefoged, Peter (2001). "Phonation types: A cross-linguistic overview" (PDF). Journal ...
2 (4). "A Workshop on Respiration, Phonation, and Articulation" (PDF). National University of Singapore. Archived from the ...
Registers, devoicing, vowel phonation: their history in Katuic]. Mon-Khmer Studies 11. 47-82. Thomas, Dorothy. M. (1967). A ... On the Origin of Rime Laryngealization in Ta'oiq: A Case Study in Vowel Height Conditioned Phonation Contrasts. Paper presented ...
As do other consonants, clicks vary in phonation. Oral clicks are attested with four phonations: tenuis, aspirated, voiced and ... All languages but Damin have at least one phonation contrast as well. Clicks may be pronounced with a third place of ... Miller (2011) analyses the glottalisation as phonation, and so considers these to be simple clicks. Various languages also have ... phonation (voiced, aspirated, breathy voiced, glottalised), as well as any change in the airstream with the release of the ...
As the voicing of stops was lost, however, the contrast shifted to the phonation of the attached vowels, which, in turn, ... When consonant voicing was lost, the distinction was maintained by the vowel (*kaa, *ke̤a); later the phonation disappeared as ... Khmer once had a phonation distinction in its vowels, but this now survives only in the most archaic dialect (Western Khmer). ...
Kmucha, Steven T; Yanagisawa, Eiji; Estill, Jo (1990). "Endolaryngeal Changes During High-Intensity Phonation ...
The two low vowels /a, a̰/ differ in terms of phonation type. /a/ has modal voice (i.e. normal phonation); /a̰/ has creaky ...
They may thus be a form of phonation. Non-ballistic syllables are, by contrast, called "controlled." See Chinantec of Ozumacín ... v t e (Articles lacking reliable references from August 2015, All articles lacking reliable references, Phonation, All stub ...
Difficulties with phonation are not likely to occur. The majority of patients are satisfied with function of the nose after ...
... distinguishes five vowel qualities, discounting phonation: /i/, /æ/, /a/, /o/, /u/. Phonations are modal voice, ... Blankenship, Barbara (April 2002). "The time course of nonmodal phonation in vowels". Journal of Phonetics. 30:2. Ventura Lucio ... However, vowels distinguish several phonations, and like all Mazatec languages, Jalapa has tone. Jalapa roots distinguish three ... breathy voice, and creaky voice; all phonations may also occur with the five nasal vowels: Breathy vowels may have strong ...
The Modifying Phonation Intervals (MPI) Stuttering Treatment Program is designed to be a computer-aided, bio-feedback program ... Gow, M.L, & Ingham, R.J. (1992). The effect of modifying electroglottograph identified intervals of phonation on stuttering. ... Ingham, R.J., Montgomery, J., & Ulliana, L. (1983). The effect of manipulating phonation duration on stuttering. Journal of ... Evaluation of a stuttering treatment based on reduction of short phonation intervals. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing ...
Other such phonation types include breathy voice, or murmur; slack voice; and creaky voice. The following plosives have been ...
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics. Among some phoneticians, phonation ... In linguistic phonetic treatments of phonation, such as those of Peter Ladefoged, phonation was considered to be a matter of ... The minimum pressure drop required to achieve phonation is called the phonation threshold pressure (PTP), and for humans with ... and whispery voice phonation (murmur) if the vocal folds vibrate modally. Whisper phonation is heard in many productions of ...
Measuring Speech Production: Part One - Respiration Phonation and Aerodynamics Calendar Add to Calendar * Add to Timely ...
Phonation Test - Vocal Pedagogy Test #2 - Phonation
Title: Anisotropic Minimum Dissipation Subgrid-Scale Model in Hybrid Aeroacoustic simulations of Human Phonation. Authors: ... deals with large-eddy simulations of 3D incompressible laryngeal flow followed by acoustic simulations of human phonation of ...
An Experimental Methodology for the Determination of the Viscoelastic Properties of the Vocal Fold at Human Phonation ... "An Experimental Methodology for the Determination of the Viscoelastic Properties of the Vocal Fold at Human Phonation ...
Phonation 2 - Memoires (2016), was written as part of my doctoral project in composition. It is an electroacoustic piece ...
Home / Practical Thoughts Blog / Why no "continuous phonation?" Recent posts. My Experience as an SLP Graduate Student who ... Why no "continuous phonation?". May 07, 2018 As many of you know, we have posted several "how to" videos for teaching speech ... I find my students tend to "run out of air" while using continuous phonation. Physiologically, when they attempt to finish ... In other words, continuous phonation (again, in my experience and opinion) has a high occurrence of "backfires!" It simply does ...
Learn about a useful fluency technique called Continuous Phonation. ... Learning continuous phonation with short phrases and sentences ​. Practice saying the following phrases. Keep the phonation ... A tip to help achieve continuous phonation. Visualise your voice box as the engine of a car. To achieve continuous phonation ... Learning to use continuous phonation in conversation. Once you feel able to reliably use continuous phonation while delivering ...
The patient should be able to sustain phonation of /a/ for at least 10 seconds or produce 10-15 syllables per breath. ... If the insufflation test is performed correctly and phonation is not achieved or is of poor quality and duration, the 4 ... Evaluate phonation with a patent puncture tract and stoma occlusion to rule out technique problems. ... Before any prosthesis is inserted, phonation should be sampled with a patent puncture tract. The perceptual quality and effort ...
2. Final creaky phonation. Vocal fry. The latest OMG this new thing these kids do is going to destroy language! But its ...
How the CricoThyroid muscle change phonation pitch. From Vocapedia. This is the approved revision of this page, as well as ... Retrieved from "" ...
Support, Breathing and Phonation - Part 3. By Felipe Carvalho March 20, 2015 January 6, 2017. Singing Articles ...
phonationthresholdpressurephonatoryphysiologysubmucosalsalineinjectionvocal foldscarringphonation threshold pressurePTPchange ... 2022). Phonation threshold pressure as a unique outcome measure of phonatory physiology changes following submucosal saline ... Purpose: This study aimed to describe the utility of phonation threshold pressure (PTP) measurement as an additional outcome ...
A brainstem circuit for phonation and volume control in mice The authors identify a cluster of ~160 peptidergic neurons in the ...
Elicitation of words with different phonation types/voice qualities. Recording of both audio speech signal and laryngeal signal ... Elicitation of words with different phonation types/voice qualities. Recording of both audio speech signal and laryngeal signal ... Elicitation of words with different phonation types/voice qualities. Recording of both audio speech signal and laryngeal signal ...
Tthe presented diseases have been shown primarily from the side of disorders in phonation which accompany them. Despite the ... Markowska D, Jurkiewicz K. Influence of selected autoimmunological diseases on phonation devices, diagnostics and treatment. J ...
So…What is straw phonation? It really is as simple as it sounds! Straw phonation is making sound through the straw. Straw ... Straw Phonation: How an item in your cupboard can save your voice!. 18 October 2022. If you find that your voice is ... If you are experimenting with straw phonation for the first time, here are some exercises to try:. *Make an oo sound through ... Like most exercise, Straw phonation only has a benefit if you are doing it correctly! As such, it is important to start with a ...
The APM measured total phonation time, mean amplitude, and mean fundamental frequency throughout that time. The participants ... using the Ambulatory Phonation Monitor (APM: KayPENTAX, Lincoln Park, New Jersey). The APM was designed to gather objective ... and total phonation time, between individuals diagnosed with Parkinsons disease (PD) and age-and gender-matched individuals ... Using the ambulatory phonation monitor to measure the vocal parameters of older people with and without Parkinsons disease ...
Experimental and theoretical study of glottal flow during phonation. den Doelder, C. F. J. (Author). 31 Oct 1994 ...
Research behind straw phonation by Ingo Titze and this includes links to research studies to read more. This can help your ... Use Straw Phonation, a "Semi-occluded vocal tract exercise" to create back-pressure in the voice box (inertive reactance) prior ... Use Straw Phonation, a "Semi-occluded vocal tract exercise" to create back pressure in the voice box (inertive reactance) prior ... Education and Research article suggestions on Straw Phonation. •Tricks and Tips (what I wish I knew before using this on my own ...
Phonation / physiology * Pitch Perception / physiology * Speech / physiology* Grants and funding * P50 AG023501/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ ...
Phonation. Articulators. Tone quality/Timbre. Aural skills. Reading skills. BODY and MIND Wash car/windows ▪Dig a ditch ▪Swim ...
INTERSPEECH is the worlds largest and most comprehensive conference on the science and technology of spoken language processing. INTERSPEECH conferences emphasize interdisciplinary approaches addressing all aspects of speech science and technology, ranging from basic theories to advanced applications.. The theme of INTERSPEECH 2021 held in Brno, Czechia, is Speech everywhere. Speech is also becoming an indispensable part of all AI systems and no longer considered an isolated block. We are seeing the emergence of larger systems that treat speech, vision, language, interfaces, external knowledge in an integrated way, and learn multi-modal embeddings, or otherwise jointly optimize performance. Speech everywhere also requires speech engineering to become more aware of the principles of human speech communication processes, and we therefore specifically encourage contributions in human speech processing.. In addition to regular oral and poster sessions, INTERSPEECH 2021 featured plenary talks by ...
... phonation type. It proposes neural representations of speech followed by a cascade of two binary neural network-based ... following an expert manual labelling of the data by phonation type. The results of the proposed classifiers reach on average 85 ... and thus pave the way for a new workflow aimed at characterizing phonation types. ... Automatic classification of phonation types in spontaneous speech: towards a new workflow for the characterization of speakers ...
It also participates in blood and lymphatic circulation, acting like a muscular pump; in phonation; in digestion; it has a ...
Learn how Human Phonation, Speech, and the Impact of Tecplot 360 Software in Improving Care for Patients. ... Challenges in Studying Human Phonation and Voice. Human phonation and voice are unique to each individual. Voice is how we ... The study of human phonation and voice is challenging, as the larynx and vocal folds are difficult to visualize and access. ... Fluid Dynamics of Human Phonation and Speech. The Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. 2013. 45: 437-67. ...
Vocal Fold Dynamics: Phonation Mechanism, Aerodynamics, Impact Stress, and Mucosal Wave. First Edition ...
  • Human phonation and voice are unique to each individual. (
  • The study of human phonation and voice is challenging, as the larynx and vocal folds are difficult to visualize and access. (
  • Tecplot 360 is the only visualization tool that he and his colleagues use to perform patient-specific modeling of human phonation and speech. (
  • Within a series of projects, we yield the current understanding of the human phonation process by detailed experimental studies and validated numerical models such as simVoice. (
  • Straw Phonation: How an item in your cupboard can save your voice! (
  • Home / Resources / Blog / October 2022 / Straw Phonation: How an item in your cupboard can save your voice! (
  • Straw phonation is a fun and simple way to help reduce vocal strain and build good voice habits with a tool you already have at home. (
  • So…What is straw phonation? (
  • Straw phonation is making sound through the straw. (
  • Like most exercise, Straw phonation only has a benefit if you are doing it correctly! (
  • Click here to see a video of the founder of straw phonation, Dr. Ingo Titze, demonstrating how it is done. (
  • Use Straw Phonation, a "Semi-occluded vocal tract exercise" to create back-pressure in the voice box (inertive reactance) prior to making single words, sentences and eventually conversation. (
  • The research behind straw phonation by Ingo Titze and includes links to research studies to read more. (
  • Consonants with ' are followed by vowels with creaky phonation. (
  • By using GRBAS scale i will measure the patient phonation, resonance. (
  • The vibration of the vocal mucosa was studied by stroboscopy, observing in slow-motion its amplitude during phonation and precise electro-laryngogram completed the visual evaluation of the vocal folds mucosa quality during emission of vowels. (
  • The rate at which the cords open and close, the number of cycles per second, determines the pitch of the phonation. (
  • We show that, while speech is relatively low-pitched and tonal with mostly regular phonation, singing and especially nonverbal vocalizations vary enormously in pitch and often display harsh-sounding, irregular phonation owing to nonlinear phenomena. (
  • De alveolari laterali Approximant isch en Konsonant vo dr mänschliche Sprooch. (
  • Es isch en Approximant , er wird ohni Verschlùss oder Engi im Muul bildet. (
  • In speech, voiceless phones are associated with vocal folds that are elongated, highly tensed, and placed laterally (abducted) when compared to vocal folds during phonation. (
  • Phonation threshold pressure & laryngeal scarring (Ramanathan et al. (
  • The minimum pressure drop required to achieve phonation is called the phonation threshold pressure (PTP), and for humans with normal vocal folds, it is approximately 2-3 cm H2O. (
  • This study aimed to describe the utility of phonation threshold pressure (PTP) measurement as an additional outcome measure for changes in vocal fold vibration secondary to submucosal saline injection in the case of an individual with idiopathic vocal fold scarring. (
  • Phonation threshold pressure as a unique outcome measure of phonatory physiology changes following submucosal saline injection for vocal fold scarring. (
  • Acoustic analysis of aperiodic voice: perturbation and nonlinear dynamic properties in esophageal phonation. (
  • Our project was designed to determine if there was a difference in vocal parameters, including mean fundamental frequency, mean amplitude, and total phonation time, between individuals diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) and age-and gender-matched individuals without a diagnosis of any neurologic or neurodegenerative diseases (NO PD) using the Ambulatory Phonation Monitor (APM: KayPENTAX, Lincoln Park, New Jersey). (
  • The APM measured total phonation time, mean amplitude, and mean fundamental frequency throughout that time. (
  • Voiceless and supra-glottal phonations are included under this definition. (
  • In linguistics, a phone is called voiceless if there is no phonation during its occurrence. (
  • Elicitation of words with different phonation types/voice qualities. (
  • This paper is devoted to one of the main components of voice quality: phonation type. (
  • Effects of the Voice over Internet Protocol on perturbation analysis of normal and pathological phonation. (
  • Phoneticians in other subfields, such as linguistic phonetics, call this process voicing, and use the term phonation to refer to any oscillatory state of any part of the larynx that modifies the airstream, of which voicing is just one example. (
  • Other functions of the larynx include the production of sound (phonation), coughing, the Valsalva maneuver, and control of ventilation, and acting as a sensory organ. (
  • Tthe presented diseases have been shown primarily from the side of disorders in phonation which accompany them. (
  • Further research is planned to generalize the classifiers on more contexts and speakers, and thus pave the way for a new workflow aimed at characterizing phonation types. (
  • The two groups did not differ in mean fundamental frequency or phonation time. (
  • A spectrographic study was also done: the patient was asked to emit an /i/ in the mid-range for as long as possible (maximum phonation time), a pianissimo /i/, and /i/s at the extreme low and high points of her vocal range. (
  • Maximum phonation time was decreased in 98 cases (52.5 percent). (
  • This approach is evaluated on the spontaneous part of the PTSVOX database, following an expert manual labelling of the data by phonation type. (
  • phonation series an areal feature? (
  • Among some phoneticians, phonation is the process by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration. (
  • Four hundred and ninety-eight audio samples of sustained phonations were analyzed. (
  • Phonation 2 - Memoires (2016), was written as part of my doctoral project in composition. (