Phloroglucinol: A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.Mallotus Plant: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain fredelin type TRITERPENES, mallorepine (a cyano-pyridone), and hydrolyzable TANNINS.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Hypericum: Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.Pyrogallol: A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.Dryopteris: A plant genus of the family DRYOPTERIDACEAE. Members contain aspidin and filicic acid.Caproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.Protein Carbonylation: The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Gallic Acid: A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Humic Substances: Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Galaxies: Large aggregates of CELESTIAL STARS; COSMIC DUST; and gas. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Ice Cream: A frozen dairy food made from cream or butterfat, milk, sugar, and flavorings. Frozen custard and French-type ice creams also contain eggs.Stars, Celestial: Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Piper: A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that includes species used for spicy and stimulating qualities.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Piper betle: A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that is indigenous in the Indian Malay region and cultivated in Madagascar, and the West Indies. It contains chavibetol, chavicol and cadinene. The leaf is chewed as a stimulant, antiseptic and sialogogue. The common name of betel is also used for ARECA.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Ulva: A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Ulvaceae. Commonly know as sea lettuces, they grow attached to rocks and KELP in marine and estuarine waters.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Flavoxate: A drug that has been used in various urinary syndromes and as an antispasmodic. Its therapeutic usefulness and its mechanism of action are not clear. It may have local anesthetic activity and direct relaxing effects on smooth muscle as well as some activity as a muscarinic antagonist.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.Receptors, Leukotriene: Cell-surface receptors that bind LEUKOTRIENES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. The leukotriene receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their affinities for the endogenous leukotrienes LTB4; LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4.Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.QuinolinesLeukotriene D4: One of the biologically active principles of SRS-A. It is generated from LEUKOTRIENE C4 after partial hydrolysis of the peptide chain, i.e., cleavage of the gamma-glutamyl portion. Its biological actions include stimulation of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, and increases in vascular permeability. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Brachypodium: A plant genus in the family POACEAE. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for functional genomics studies.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)GlucuronidasePlant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.

Towards the reaction mechanism of pyrogallol-phloroglucinol transhydroxylase of Pelobacter acidigallici. (1/213)

Conversion of pyrogallol to phloroglucinol was studied with the molybdenum enzyme transhydroxylase of the strictly anaerobic fermenting bacterium Pelobacter acidigallici. Transhydroxylation experiments in H218O revealed that none of the hydroxyl groups of phloroglucinol was derived from water, confirming the concept that this enzyme transfers a hydroxyl group from the cosubstrate 1,2,3, 5-tetrahydroxybenzene (tetrahydroxybenzene) to the acceptor pyrogallol, and simultaneously regenerates the cosubstrate. This concept requires a reaction which synthesizes the cofactor de novo to maintain a sufficiently high intracellular pool during growth. Some sulfoxides and aromatic N-oxides were found to act as hydroxyl donors to convert pyrogallol to tetrahydroxybenzene. Again, water was not the source of the added hydroxyl groups; the oxides reacted as cosubstrates in a transhydroxylation reaction rather than as true oxidants in a net hydroxylation reaction. No oxidizing agent was found that supported a formation of tetrahydroxybenzene via a net hydroxylation of pyrogallol. However, conversion of pyrogallol to phloroglucinol in the absence of tetrahydroxybenzene was achieved if little pyrogallol and a high amount of enzyme preparation was used which had been pre-exposed to air. Obviously, the enzyme was oxidized by air to form sufficient amounts of tetrahydroxybenzene from pyrogallol to start the reaction. A reaction mechanism is proposed which combines an oxidative hydroxylation with a reductive dehydroxylation via the molybdenum cofactor, and allows the transfer of a hydroxyl group between tetrahydroxybenzene and pyrogallol without involvement of water. With this, the transhydroxylase differs basically from all other hydroxylating molybdenum enzymes which all use water as hydroxyl source.  (+info)

Promotion of antibiotic production by high ethanol, high NaCl concentration, or heat shock in Pseudomonas fluorescens S272. (2/213)

A stress imposed by a continuous feed of high ethanol, high NaCl concentration, or a high temperature shock increased antibiotic production by several times in Pseudomonas fluorescens S272. A tentative bioassay showed that the stress caused about 40-fold elevation in the autoinducer activity. Addition of synthetic autoinducers, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone or N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone at a concentration of more than 100 micrograms/l to a non-stressed culture also increased the antibiotic production by several times. These results suggested that the antibiotic production in P. fluorescens S272 was regulated by N-acyl-homoserine lactone and the promotive effect by stress occurred through any function that increased the autoinducer production.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a gene cluster for synthesis of the polyketide antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol from Pseudomonas fluorescens Q2-87. (3/213)

The polyketide metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) is produced by many strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol activity against soilborne fungal plant pathogens. Genes required for 2,4-DAPG synthesis by P. fluorescens Q2-87 are encoded by a 6.5-kb fragment of genomic DNA that can transfer production of 2,4-DAPG to 2,4-DAPG-nonproducing recipient Pseudomonas strains. In this study the nucleotide sequence was determined for the 6.5-kb fragment and flanking regions of genomic DNA from strain Q2-87. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which (phlACBD) comprise an operon that includes a set of three genes (phlACB) conserved between eubacteria and archaebacteria and a gene (phlD) encoding a polyketide synthase with homology to chalcone and stilbene synthases from plants. The biosynthetic operon is flanked on either side by phlE and phlF, which code respectively for putative efflux and regulatory (repressor) proteins. Expression in Escherichia coli of phlA, phlC, phlB, and phlD, individually or in combination, identified a novel polyketide biosynthetic pathway in which PhlD is responsible for the production of monoacetylphloroglucinol (MAPG). PhlA, PhlC, and PhlB are necessary to convert MAPG to 2,4-DAPG, and they also may function in the synthesis of MAPG.  (+info)

Environmental factors modulating antibiotic and siderophore biosynthesis by Pseudomonas fluorescens biocontrol strains. (4/213)

Understanding the environmental factors that regulate the biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds by disease-suppressive strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens is an essential step toward improving the level and reliability of their biocontrol activity. We used liquid culture assays to identify several minerals and carbon sources which had a differential influence on the production of the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (PHL), pyoluteorin (PLT), and pyrrolnitrin and the siderophores salicylic acid and pyochelin by the model strain CHA0, which was isolated from a natural disease-suppressive soil in Switzerland. Production of PHL was stimulated by Zn2+, NH4Mo2+, and glucose; the precursor compound mono-acetylphloroglucinol was stimulated by the same factors as PHL. Production of PLT was stimulated by Zn2+, Co2+, and glycerol but was repressed by glucose. Pyrrolnitrin production was increased by fructose, mannitol, and a mixture of Zn2+ and NH4Mo2+. Pyochelin production was increased by Co2+, fructose, mannitol, and glucose. Interestingly, production of its precursor salicylic acid was increased by different factors, i.e., NH4Mo2+, glycerol, and glucose. The mixture of Zn2+ and NH4Mo2+ with fructose, mannitol, or glycerol further enhanced the production of PHL and PLT compared with either the minerals or the carbon sources used alone, but it did not improve siderophore production. Extending fermentation time from 2 to 5 days increased the accumulation of PLT, pyrrolnitrin, and pyochelin but not of PHL. When findings with CHA0 were extended to an ecologically and genetically diverse collection of 41 P. fluorescens biocontrol strains, the effect of certain factors was strain dependent, while others had a general effect. Stimulation of PHL by Zn2+ and glucose was strain dependent, whereas PLT production by all strains that can produce this compound was stimulated by Zn2+ and transiently repressed by glucose. Inorganic phosphate reduced PHL production by CHA0 and seven other strains tested but to various degrees. Production of PLT but not pyrrolnitrin by CHA0 was also reduced by 100 mM phosphate. The use of 1/10-strength nutrient broth-yeast extract, compared with standard nutrient broth-yeast extract, amended with glucose and/or glycerol resulted in dramatically increased accumulations of PHL (but not PLT), pyochelin, and salicylic acid, indicating that the ratio of carbon source to nutrient concentration played a key role in the metabolic flow. The results of this study (i) provide insight into the biosynthetic regulation of antimicrobial compounds, (ii) limit the number of factors for intensive study in situ, and (iii) indicate factors that can be manipulated to improve bacterial inoculants.  (+info)

Hyperforin, a major antidepressant constituent of St. John's Wort, inhibits serotonin uptake by elevating free intracellular Na+1. (5/213)

Extracts of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) are widely used for the treatment of depressive disorders and are unspecific inhibitors of the neuronal uptake of several neurotransmitters. Previous studies have shown that hyperforin represents the reuptake inhibiting constituent. To characterize the mechanism of serotonin reuptake inhibition, kinetic analyses in synaptosomes of mouse brain were performed. Michaelis-Menten kinetics revealed that hyperforin (2 microM) induces a decrease in V(max) by more than 50% while only slightly decreasing K(m), indicating mainly noncompetitive inhibition. By contrast, citalopram (1 nM) leads to an elevation of K(m) without changing V(max). Monensin, a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, showed similar properties as hyperforin (decrease of V(max) without changing K(m)). Compared with classical antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants, hyperforin is only a weak inhibitor of [(3)H]paroxetine binding relative to its effects on serotonin uptake. As monensin decreases serotonin uptake by increasing Na(+)/H(+) exchange, we compared the effects of hyperforin and monensin on the free intracellular sodium concentration ([Na(+)](i)) in platelets by measuring 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-[1,4,10-trioxa-7, 13-diazacyclopentadecan-7,13-diylbis(5-methoxy-6, 2-benzofurandiyl)]bis-, tetraammonium salt (SBFI/AM) fluorescence. Both drugs elevated [Na(+)](i) over basal levels, with a maximal [Na(+)](i) of 69 +/- 16.1 mM (50 microM hyperforin) and 140 +/- 9.1 mM (10 microM monensin). Citalopram at concentrations relevant for [(3)H]serotonin uptake inhibition had no effect on [Na(+)](i). Although the mode of action of hyperforin seems to be associated with elevated [Na(+)](i) similar to those levels found with monensin, the molecular mechanism might be different, as even at high concentrations, hyperforin does not elevate free intracellular sodium concentration ([Na(+)](i)) up to the extracellular level, as monensin does. Hyperforin represents the first substance with a known preclinical antidepressant profile that inhibits serotonin uptake by elevating [Na(+)](i).  (+info)

Cloning, sequencing and heterologous expression of pyrogallol-phloroglucinol transhydroxylase from Pelobacter acidigallici. (6/213)

A genomic lambda-library of Pelobacter acidigallici has been established. Proteolytic digestion of homogeneous pyrogallol-phloroglucinol transhydroxylase from the same microorganism afforded polypeptide fragments whose N-terminal sequences allowed the generation of oligonucleotide primers. Together with primers deduced from the known N-terminal sequences of the two intact subunits these were used in PCR experiments to obtain three amplificates. Screening the lambda-library with the three amplificates led eventually to clones containing the whole gene coding for the transhydroxylase. Sequencing the gene revealed two open reading frames coding for 875 and 275 amino acids which correspond to the alpha- and beta-subunits of THL, respectively. The two subunits are separated by a 48-bp noncoding region. Comparison of the sequence with those of other molybdopterin cofactor (MoCo)-enzymes places THL in the dimethylsulfoxide reductase family. Possible contact sites to the MoCo and to the iron-sulphur clusters were spotted. Using the expression vectors pQE 30 and pT 7-7 three constructs harbouring the THL gene were created. One of them carried a His6-tag at the N-terminus of the alpha-subunit, another at the C-terminus of the beta-subunit. Immunoblot analysis showed high expression of THL, but the inclusion bodies could not be refolded to active enzyme.  (+info)

Autoinduction of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthesis in the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and repression by the bacterial metabolites salicylate and pyoluteorin. (7/213)

The antimicrobial metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) contributes to the capacity of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 to control plant diseases caused by soilborne pathogens. A 2, 4-DAPG-negative Tn5 insertion mutant of strain CHA0 was isolated, and the nucleotide sequence of the 4-kb genomic DNA region adjacent to the Tn5 insertion site was determined. Four open reading frames were identified, two of which were homologous to phlA, the first gene of the 2,4-DAPG biosynthetic operon, and to the phlF gene encoding a pathway-specific transcriptional repressor. The Tn5 insertion was located in an open reading frame, tentatively named phlH, which is not related to known phl genes. In wild-type CHA0, 2, 4-DAPG production paralleled expression of a phlA'-'lacZ translational fusion, reaching a maximum in the late exponential growth phase. Thereafter, the compound appeared to be degraded to monoacetylphloroglucinol by the bacterium. 2,4-DAPG was identified as the active compound in extracts from culture supernatants of strain CHA0 specifically inducing phlA'-'lacZ expression about sixfold during exponential growth. Induction by exogenous 2,4-DAPG was most conspicuous in a phlA mutant, which was unable to produce 2, 4-DAPG. In a phlF mutant, 2,4-DAPG production was enhanced severalfold and phlA'-'lacZ was expressed at a level corresponding to that in the wild type with 2,4-DAPG added. The phlF mutant was insensitive to 2,4-DAPG addition. A transcriptional phlA-lacZ fusion was used to demonstrate that the repressor PhlF acts at the level of transcription. Expression of phlA'-'lacZ and 2,4-DAPG synthesis in strain CHA0 was strongly repressed by the bacterial extracellular metabolites salicylate and pyoluteorin as well as by fusaric acid, a toxin produced by the pythopathogenic fungus Fusarium. In the phlF mutant, these compounds did not affect phlA'-'lacZ expression and 2, 4-DAPG production. PhlF-mediated induction by 2,4-DAPG and repression by salicylate of phlA'-'lacZ expression was confirmed by using Escherichia coli as a heterologous host. In conclusion, our results show that autoinduction of 2,4-DAPG biosynthesis can be countered by certain bacterial (and fungal) metabolites. This mechanism, which depends on phlF function, may help P. fluorescens to produce homeostatically balanced amounts of extracellular metabolites.  (+info)

Frequency and biodiversity of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing bacteria isolated from the maize rhizosphere at different stages of plant growth. (8/213)

A Pseudomonas 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG)-producing population that occurred naturally on the roots, in rhizosphere soil of Zea mays and in the nonrhizosphere soil was investigated in order to assess the microbial diversity at five stages of plant growth. A total of 1,716 isolates were obtained, and 188 of these isolates were able to produce DAPG. DAPG producers were isolated at each stage of plant growth, indicating that the maize rhizosphere is colonized by natural DAPG producers throughout development. The frequency of DAPG producers was very low in the first stage of plant growth and increased over time. An analysis of the level of biodiversity of the DAPG producers at the species level was performed by comparing the AluI restriction patterns of the 16S ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) amplified by PCR from 167 isolates. This comparison allowed us to cluster the isolates into four amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) groups, and the main group (ARDRA group 1) contained 89.8% of the isolates. The diversity of the 150 isolates belonging to ARDRA group 1 was analyzed by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. An analysis of RAPD patterns by a molecular variance method revealed that there was a high level of genetic diversity in this population and that the genetic diversity was related to plant age. Finally, we found that some of the DAPG producers, which originated from all stages of plant growth, had the same genotype. These DAPG producers could be exploited in future screening programs for biocontrol agents.  (+info)

Five new phloroglucinol glycosides, cucalmainosides A-E (1-5), were isolated from the fresh fruits of Eucalyptus maideni, along with 15 flavonoids (6-20), seven (+)-oleuropeic acid derivatives (15, 16, and 22-26), three hydrolyzable tannins (32-34), and six simple phenolic compounds (21, 27-31). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including HSQC, HMBC, and acidic hydrolysis. The in vitro anit-herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) assay indicated that the flavonols, myricetin (6) and quercetin (7), and the ellagitannin isocoriariin F (33) showed weak anti-HSV-1 activity with TIC values of 0.31, 0.33, and 0.12 mM, respectively ...
tHGA is a geranyl acetophenone originally found in the young leaves of Melicope ptelefolia. It is also a phloroglucinol compound that contains phloroglucinols as its common monomer unit [31]. Previous studies have reported that tHGA, at 5 and 20 μM, exerts anti-allergic properties by preserving the morphology of MCs and attenuating the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in both cellular and animal model of IgE-mediated MC activation whereby inhibition of β-hexosaminidase and TNF-α were reported [18]. However, our results in the present study revealed that this phloroglucinol compound was unable to attenuate the release of both β-hexosamidase and TNF-α inflammatory by the DENV3-induced RBL-2H3 cells. It is possible that tHGA may not target the signaling molecules involved in the mechanism of action (MOA) of direct DENV infection in MCs. As tHGA has been previously reported to target the linker for activation of T cell, which is located along the classical signaling pathway of MC ...
Cell extracts, in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), catalyzed the conversion of pyrogallol to phloroglucinol with dimethylsulfide as a product. The isomerization reaction would also proceed if 1,2,3,5-benzenetetrol was present rather than DMSO. To quantitate this activity, an assay was developed that followed the disappearance of 1,2,4-benzenetriol colorimetrically after incubation with sodium molybdate at neutral pH. The products of this reaction are resorcinol and 1,6-dihydroxyquinone. The enzyme(s) catalyzing this reaction was purified 5-fold from cells grown on gallate. The purification procedure involved fractionation with 40% acetone, precipitation with ammonium sulfate, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, concentration by ultrafiltration (molecular weight retention above 100,000), and hydroxylapatite chromatography. This preparation had a specific activity of 14.7 umol/min/mg protein and a pH optimum about 7.5. Activity was strongly inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate. The mechanism ...
Microbial production of various useful chemicals becomes more and more important to our daily life [28]. However, the potential product toxicity to cells is one of the main issues when producing many valuable chemicals by engineered strains from renewable resources [29, 30], because the toxicity can inhibit the product synthesis and cell viability. Product toxicity usually interferes with important metabolic processes and damages cell membrane and cellular macromolecules, thus leading to poor cell viability. Furthermore, stresses on engineered strains can influence metabolic imbalances due to enzyme overexpression against the stress response, which will redistribute the metabolic fluxes and change the intracellular redox state [31]. These impacts will slow down product synthesis and diminish cell viability, and therefore improving product tolerance is an essential aspect for engineered strains. To address these challenges, many metabolic engineering strategies had been used to improve microbial ...
Bowl-like tris-[(N-methyl-2-imidazoyl)]methoxy]cyclotriguaiacyclene (TMIM-CTG) (1) was synthesized and cocrystallized with ethanol, resorcinol, and phloroglucinol to afford three molecular complexes (TMIM-CTG)-(ethanol)(3) (2), (TMIM-CTG)-(resorcinol)-(CH3CN)(2) (3), and (TMIM-CTG)-(phloroglucinol)center dot(CH3CN)(2) (4), whose Structures have been determined by X-ray single crystal analysis. Except for the hydrogen bonds between imidazole of 1 and the hydroxyl group of alcohol/phenols (O-H center dot center dot center dot N), all crystals contain self-inclusion motifs with cooperative C-H center dot center dot center dot pi, interactions which can be considered as the secondary way to extend the primary hydrogen-bonded networks to (lie frameworks with higher levels. In complex 2. two adjacent TMIM-CTGs form a self-clasping dimer by an edge-to-face C-H center dot center dot center dot pi interaction between the imidazole ring and the benzene ring of CTG, which is further extended to a ...
Role of hyperforin in diabetes and its associated hyperlipidemia in rats - hyperforin;diabetes;insulin;antihyperglycemic;antihyperlipidemic;antioxidant;
Summary. Humanwell Healthcare (Group) Co Ltd (Humanwell), formerly Wuhan Humanwell Hi-Tech Industry Co Ltd is a pharmaceutical company that offers generic products. The company offers pharmaceutical, medical instrument and reproductive health care products and technologies. It provides anesthetics, biological products, herbal medicines, CNS medicines, womens health, anti-infection drugs, medical devices, OTC medicines and other products. Humanwell also manufactures buflomedil hydrochloride injectable, pantoprazole sodium injectable, omeprazole sodium injectable, phloroglucinol injectable, and simvastatin capsules. The company produces products in the forms of injection, tablets, syrup, granules, capsules, and suspension. Humanwell is headquartered in Wuhan, China.. Humanwell Healthcare (Group) Co Ltd (600079)-Pharmaceuticals & Healthcare-Deals and Alliances Profile provides you comprehensive data and trend analysis of the companys Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As), partnerships and financings. ...
1M13: Crystal Structure of the Human Pregane X Receptor Ligand Binding Domain in Complex with Hyperforin, a Constituent of St. Johns Wort
In the present study we have shown that intestinal P-gp plays a principal role in the fecal elimination pathways of docetaxel without modifying the pharmacokinetic behavior of the drug in the systemic circulation. Previous investigations have shown a major role of the cytochrome P450 3A4 isozymes in docetaxel metabolism. In humans, the principal biotransformation routes involve hydroxylation of the tert-butoxy function in the C13 side chain, followed by a spontaneous cyclization reaction (15) . The four principal metabolites resulting from this pathway have substantially less cytotoxic activity on tumor and nonmalignant hematopoietic cells as compared with the parent drug (12) . Fecal excretion of docetaxel and its metabolites has been previously reported in two other cases (14 , 15) , and in both, M4 was the main metabolite, very similar to our present findings, and accounted for a larger fraction of the recovered dose than docetaxel itself. Interestingly, this metabolite can only be detected ...
Tax regulation authors habitually infuse regulations with explanatory examples. These examples are viewed favorably by both the government that encourages their
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The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seed inoculation with the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens strain F113 (producing the antibiotic DAPG) and its modified derivative strain F113G22 (with DAPG production disrupted) on the uptake of nitrogen by pea and wheat plants. Uptake of N by the two plant species was investigated in soil microcosms amended with 15N-labelled fertilisers (urea or ammonium nitrate) or 15N-labelled plant residues. Uptake of fertiliser-N was unaffected by inoculation. However, uptake of N derived from organic residues was enhanced in pea inoculated with either strain. In contrast, uptake of N by wheat was reduced in the presence of either strain F113 or F113G22, suggesting that the effects of these microbial inocula on N-mineralisation in the rhizosphere were dependent on plant species. It was subsequently found that microfaunal populations, especially soil nematodes in the rhizosphere of inoculated pea were significantly larger than those ...
The genomic sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 has shown the presence of a 41 kb cluster of genes that encode the production of a second flagellar apparatus. Among 2535 pseudomonads strains with sequenced genomes, these genes are only present in the genomes of F113 and other six strains, all but one belonging to the P. fluorescens cluster of species, in the form of a genetic island. The genes are homologous to the flagellar genes of the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii. Regulation of these genes is mediated by the flhDC master operon, instead of the typical regulation in pseudomonads, which is through fleQ. Under laboratory conditions, F113 does not produce this flagellum and the flhDC operon is not expressed. However, ectopic expression of the flhDC operon is enough for its production, resulting in a hypermotile strain. This flagellum is also produced under laboratory conditions by the kinB and algU mutants. Genetic analysis has shown that kinB strongly represses the expression of the flhDC
The transcriptional regulator AmrZ is a global regulatory protein conserved within the pseudomonads. AmrZ can act both as a positive and a negative regulator of gene expression, controlling many genes implicated in environmental adaption. Regulated traits include motility, iron homeostasis, exopolysaccharides production and the ability to form biofilms. In Pseudomonas fluorescens F113, an amrZ mutant presents a pleiotropic phenotype, showing increased swimming motility, decreased biofilm formation and very limited ability for competitive colonization of rhizosphere, its natural habitat. It also shows different colony morphology and binding of the dye Congo Red. The amrZ mutant presents severely reduced levels of the messenger molecule cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP), which is consistent with the motility and biofilm formation phenotypes. Most of the genes encoding proteins with diguanylate cyclase (DGCs) or phosphodiesterase (PDEs) domains, implicated in c-di-GMP turnover in this bacterium, appear to ...
An investigation of the polar glycosidic fraction from the leaves of myrtle afforded four galloylated nonprenylated phloroglucinol glucosides (3a−d) related to the endoperoxide hormone G3 (4) in terms of structure and biogenesis. Despite their close similarity, significant antibacterial activity was shown only by one of these compounds (3b, gallomyrtucommulone B), while the G3 hormone (4) was inactive.. ...
St Johns wort is being studied for effectiveness in the treatment of certain somatoform disorders. Results from the initial studies are mixed and still inconclusive; some research has found no effectiveness, other research has found a slight lightening of symptoms. Further study is needed and is being performed.. A major constituent chemical, hyperforin, may be useful for treatment of alcoholism, although dosage, safety and efficacy have not been studied.[110][111] Hyperforin has also displayed antibacterial properties against Gram-positive bacteria, although dosage, safety and efficacy has not been studied.[112] Herbal medicine has also employed lipophilic extracts from St Johns wort as a topical remedy for wounds, abrasions, burns, and muscle pain.[111] The positive effects that have been observed are generally attributed to hyperforin due to its possible antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects.[111] For this reason hyperforin may be useful in the treatment of infected wounds and ...
... online at Sand Moutain Herbs. Over 400 varieties of herbs offered by Herbalist Larry Chandler.
Ecklonia cava P.E,US $ 10 - 50 / Kilogram, Ecklonia cava P.E, Powder, leaves.Source from Shaanxi Huike Botanical Development Co., Ltd. on Alibaba.com.
St. Johns wort (Hypericum perforatum) is a flowering shrub native to Europe. It gets its name from the fact that it often blooms on the birthday of the biblical John the Baptist.. The flowers and leaves of St. Johns wort contain active ingredients such as hyperforin. St. Johns wort is available as a supplement in teas, tablets, liquids and topical preparations.. St. Johns wort is often used to treat depression and menopausal symptoms.. Research on St. Johns wort use for specific conditions shows:. ...
Hyperforin is a plant-derived compound that has been found useful in the treatment of depression. In fact, this phytochemical was shown to be superior to popular antidepressants such as Prozac. What is this natural compound extracted from St. Johns wort? How does it improve the symptoms of depression and what are the main studies to back its claim? How should it be used? Read on to find the answers to these questions.
Ecklonia cava is a type of brown algae found in the oceans of Japan and Korea. It contains tannins that have both antibacterial and antimicrobial properties. Ecklonia cava is also rich in iodine, salt, iron, potassium, phosphorous, calcium, vitamin A and niacin.
Oxidation of quercetin by air oxygen takes place in water and aqueous ethanol solutions under mild conditions, namely in moderately-basic media (pH ∼ 8-10) at ambient temperature and in the absence of any radical initiators, without enzymatic catalysis or irradiation of the reaction media by light. The principal reaction products are typical of other oxidative degradation processes of quercetin, namely 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic (proto-catechuic) and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic (phloroglucinic) acids, as well as the decarboxylation product of the latter - 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (phloroglucinol). In accordance with the literature data, this process involves the cleavage of the γ-pyrone fragment (ring C) of the quercetin molecule by oxygen, with primary formation of 4,6-dihydroxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyloxy)benzoic acid (depside). However under such mild conditions the accepted mechanism of this reaction (oxidative decarbonylation with formation of carbon monoxide, CO) should be reconsidered as preferably an
Bergapten is a natural compound coming from plants like the common fig, but it can also be synthesized. Most syntheses of linear furanocoumarins involve starting with a central aromatic unit and adding two heterocyclic rings. Alternate routes of synthesis are desirable to avoid regiochemical problems and moderate yields. The synthesis described here involves Iodine as a removable group to insure regiochemical integrity and convergence.[13] As shown in the diagram, phloroglucinol (compound 1) was the starting material. Mono-methylation was conducted followed by a reaction with ethyl propiolate in the presence of ZnCl2 to yield 7-hydroxy-5-methoxycoumarin (product 3, not shown) with 68% yield. The 8-position of 7-hydroxy-5-methoxycoumarin was then protected by iodine to avoid the formation of an angular furanocoumarin. Product 4 in the diagram is the result of that iodine protection. Product 5 was the result of the allylation of product 4. Osmium tetraoxide and sodium metraperiodate were used to ...
Pyranone ; Maltol ; Chelidonic acid ; Pronucleophiles ; Phenols ; Substituted phenols ; Microwave irradiation ; ¹³C-labelling ; Regioselective ¹³C-labelling ; Gallic acid ; Phloroglucinol ; Resorcinol ; C-H activation borylation and oxidation ; Anthocyanins ; Cyanidin glucoside ; Delphinidin glucoside ; QD341.P5M2 ; Phenols--Synthesis ; Polyphenols--Research
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for the accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), potentially lethal lesions. HR takes place in the late S-G2 phase of the cell cycle and involves the generation of a single-stranded region of DNA, followed by strand invasion, formation of a Holliday junction, DNA synthesis using the intact strand as a template, branch migration and resolution. It is investigated that RecA/Rad51 family proteins play a central role. The breast cancer susceptibility protein Brca2 and the RecQ helicase BLM (Bloom syndrome mutated) are tumor suppressors that maintain genome integrity, at least in part, through HR ...
FIG. 2. Persistence of P. fluorescens CHA0-Rif, the algU mutant CHA212-Rif, and the gacA mutant CHA96-Rif at 60 days after inoculation in Eschikon soil (A), Tänikon soil (B), and Mellstorf soil (C). The numbers of total cells (immunofluorescence microscopy), viable cells (Kogures test), and CFU of the inoculants were determined. The error bars show the standard deviations. Data were analyzed separately for each soil. For each strain, statistically significant differences between cell counts (i.e., total counts, viable counts, and CFU) are indicated by the lowercase letters a, b, and c. For each type of cell count, statistically significant differences between the three strains are indicated by the Greek letters α, β, and γ. ...
Meridian Botanicals St. Johns wort complex teapills - Certified organic whole cut of St. Johns wort powder, reinforced with a full spectrum hydro-alcoholic extract that has been concentrated to a 3% hyperforin and 0.3% hypercin content. 400-450 mg herbs per capsule, 50 vegetarian capsules sealed in a brown amber glass jar. Also known as Hypericum perforatum Introduction Originally native to
Natural products, such as plants extract, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new and selective drug discoveries because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity [16]. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 80% of the worlds population relies on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare needs. The use of herbal medicines in Asia represents a long history of human interactions with the environment. Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases [5]. In the present investigation, we evaluated antileishmanial activity of methanolic extract and essential oil of M. communis and their cytotoxic activities against J774-A1 cells on an in vitro model.. Our findings demonstrated that M. communis, particularly its essential oil, significantly (P,0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote and amastigote forms of L. ...
1,3,5-三甲氧基苯 1,3,5-Trimethoxybenzene 是中国玫瑰品种中的主要芳香化合物。1,3,5-Trimethoxybenzene 在三个连续的甲基化步骤中由间苯三酚 (初始前体) 合成。1,3,5-Trimethoxybenzene 是一种有效的镇静剂 ...
Após a sua estréia, Chemistry teve uma recepção positiva da crítica, com as publicações "The Guardin", "New Music Express" e "Top Of The Pops" o incluindo na lista dos melhores álbuns de 2005. De toda forma, o álbum foi o único lançamento do grupo que não alcançou o Top 10 no UK Albums Chart, a parada de álbuns do Reino Unido, mesmo vendendo muito bem nas primeiras semanas e recebendo a certificação de platina.. O álbum também foi lançado na Austrália e Nova Zelândia, em 20 de fevereiro de 2006, mas não conseguiu gerar muito interesse. Há ainda uma versão especial do álbum, lançada no Natal, com uma capa diferente, e um CD bônus, além do CD normal, com oito faixas com temas natalinos.. O grande trunfo do álbum é a sonoridade mais madura e as letras irônicas que são visíveis nas músicas "Models", "Watch Me Go" e "Swinging London Town". "Biology", o single-chefe do álbum, foi considerado o single pop da década pelo "The Observer".. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C3K5G7 (PDXB_PSEFS), Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase. Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain SBW25)
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John White (1867-1898) 1899 Obituary [1] JOHN WHITE, son of Mr. Nicholson White, of Folkestone, was born on the 11th August, 1867. After servi...
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Jey Perie and John Caruso talk about the ability to work with people they admire, and why its important to work globally as well as domestically.
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John Marwood Cleese (27 octobre 1939 Weston-super-Mare, Angleterre - ) est un acteur britannique. Il est devenu mondialement connu lors de ses prestations av
The Honest Johns Dealership trope as used in popular culture. Youre in a sticky situation; you need to get something and there doesnt seem to be a cheap …
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ISSNer: 0733-2467. Yderligere søgbare ISSNs (Elektroniske): 1520-6777. John/Wiley & Sons, Inc. John/Wiley & Sons Ltd, USA. Tidsskrift ...
نيويورك ـ بعد القرار الذي اتخذته الولايات المتحدة برفع سقف الدين الذي كانت قد فرضته على نفسها، فمن الحكمة أن نتذكر الأسباب التي جعلت الدين العام الأميركي بهذه الضخامة، وما مدى أهمية هذا الدين. مع صعود حزب الشاي فربما يعترض الجمهوريون أشد الاعتراض على رفع سقف الديون، ولكنهم من المرجح أن يتراجعوا في نهاية المطاف، وذلك لأن الدفاع عن الحروب الممولة بالدين ـ ولنقل في أفغانستان والعراق ـ من بين أمور أخرى أمر أيسر من الدفاع عن الحروب التي يتم تمويلها أولاً بأول بالاستعانة بأموال دافعي الضرائب.. والواقع أن الجدال الذي يلوح في أفق الولايات المتحدة يؤكد على ...
ВАШИНГТОН, ОКРУГ КОЛУМБИЯ. Лидеры всего мира активно обсуждают целесообразность введения режима «бесполетной зоны» для прекращения жестокости, разворачивающейся в Ливии. Некоторые из них, в качестве основания к действию, ссылаются на Боснию, где НАТО потребовалось слишком много времени для принятия решения о защите гражданского населения в середине 1990-х годов. Другие вспоминают Руанду, когда президент Билл Клинтон позднее выразил сожаление по поводу непринятия действий по защите невинных жизней. Однако причины для действий в сегодняшней ...
바이오 소재를 연구개발하고 이를 활용한 의료기기와 화장품을 개발, 생산하는 글로벌 바이오 에스테틱 전문기업 ㈜차메디텍입니다.
The proteobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens produces phloroglucinol, phloroglucinol carboxylic acid and diacetylphloroglucinol. ... Achkar, Jihane; Xian, Mo; Zhao, Huimin; Frost, J. W. (2005). "Biosynthesis of Phloroglucinol". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 (15): 5332 ...
Hyperforin is a prenylated phloroglucinol derivative. Total synthesis of hyperforin has not yet been accomplished, despite ...
The close correlation of these oils with other more potent toxins called formylated phloroglucinol compounds (euglobals, ... Eschler, BM; Pass, DM; Willis, R; Foley, WJ (2000). "Distribution of foliar formylated phloroglucinol derivatives amongst ...
Achkar, Jihane; Xian, Mo; Zhao, Huimin; Frost, J. W. (2005). "Biosynthesis of Phloroglucinol". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 (15): 5332 ...
flavesone, papuanone, isoleptospermone and grandiflorone). Phloroglucinol is biosynthesized in a single step from malonyl-CoA ... Leptospermone can be synthesized from phloroglucinol by a reaction with 3-methylbutanenitrile (isovaleronitrile) in the ... "Biosynthesis of Phloroglucinol". J Am Chem Soc. 127 (15): 5332-3. doi:10.1021/ja042340g. PMID 15826166. ...
Achkar, Jihane; Xian, Mo; Zhao, Huimin; Frost, J. W. (2005). "Biosynthesis of Phloroglucinol". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127: 5332-5333 ...
... phloroglucinol (compound 1) was the starting material. Mono-methylation was conducted followed by a reaction with ethyl ...
Condensed tannins can undergo acid-catalyzed cleavage in the presence of a nucleophile like phloroglucinol (reaction called ... "Analysis of Proanthocyanidin Cleavage Products Following Acid-Catalysis in the Presence of Excess Phloroglucinol". Journal of ...
It is synthetized from phloroglucinol. "Dictionary of Organic Compounds ... - Google Books". "Cospanon label" (PDF). " ...
... is a prenylated phloroglucinol derivative. The structure of hyperforin was elucidated by a research group from the ... Gey, C; Kyrylenko, S; Hennig, L; Nguyen, LH; Büttner, A; Pham, HD; Giannis, A (July 2, 2007). "Phloroglucinol Derivatives ...
Hyperforin is a prenylated phloroglucinol derivative. Total synthesis of hyperforin has not yet been accomplished, despite ...
Muscarinic antagonist Parasympatholytic Phloroglucinol Spasticity "Antispasmodic". thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved February 1 ...
Hyperforin and adhyperforin, two phloroglucinol constituents of St John's wort, are TRPC6 receptor agonists and, consequently, ... Hyperforin is a prenylated phloroglucinol derivative. Total synthesis of hyperforin has not yet been accomplished, despite ... Phloroglucinols (e.g. hyperforin, adhyperforin) Tannins (unspecified, proanthocyanidins reported) Volatile oils (e.g. 2- ... The naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin along with the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin are thought to be ...
... is a phloroglucinol derivative found in the fern Dryopteris abbreviata. A phloroglucinol derivative of ...
The enzyme phloroglucinol reductase uses dihydrophloroglucinol and NADP+ to produce phloroglucinol, NADPH, and H+. It is found ... Dihydrophloroglucinol is a chemical compound found in the pathway of the microbial degradation of phloroglucinol and other ... Armstrong, SM; Patel, TR (1994). "Microbial degradation of phloroglucinol and other polyphenolic compounds". Journal of basic ... Haddock, JD; Ferry, JG (1989). "Purification and properties of phloroglucinol reductase from Eubacterium oxidoreducens G-41". ...
... (THAP) is a phloroglucinol. It has a plasma cholesterol-lowering activity in animals. It is also ...
"Halogenated phloroglucinols from Rhabdonia verticillata". Phytochemistry. 21: 2141-2142. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(82)83072-0. ...
... a phloroglucinol derivative from Hypericum polyanthemum: A promising new molecular pattern for the development of ...
The molecule possesses a dibenzo-p-dioxin skeleton and a phloroglucinol component. The molecule can also be viewed as a ... "Protective effect of phlorotannin components phloroglucinol and eckol on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice". ... phloroglucinol trimer. It exhibits an anti-plasmin inhibitory effect and a radioprotective effect in mice. It also exhibits a ...
Most of the phlorotannins' biosynthesis is still unknown, but it appears they are formed from phloroglucinols via the acetate- ... 70: 60417-1-5. High-molecular-weight phloroglucinol-based tannins from brown algae: Structural variants. A. G. McInnes, M. A. ... Phlorotannins are classified following the arrangement of the phloroglucinol monomeres. More than 150 compounds are known, ... Contrary to hydrolysable or condensed tannins, these compounds are oligomers of phloroglucinol (polyphloroglucinols). As they ...
"Cytotoxic and antiherpetic activity of phloroglucinol derivatives from Mallotus japonicus (Euphorbiaceae)". Chemical & ...
Blackman, Adrian J.; Rogers, Glen I.; Volkman, John K. (1988). "Phloroglucinol Derivatives from Three Australian Marine Algae ... angustata produce phloroglucinol derivatives. Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. (2008). "Zonaria". AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic ...
... hydrolase uses phloretin and water to produce phloretate and phloroglucinol. Phlorizin is the 2'-glucoside of ...
Phloroglucinol carboxylic acid is further decarboxylated to phloroglucinol, which is dehydroxylated to resorcinol. Resorcinol ... Catechin is metabolized to protocatechuic acid (PCA) and phloroglucinol carboxylic acid (PGCA). It is also degraded by ...
A similar test can be performed with phloroglucinol-HCl solution, which turns red. Toluidine Blue is often used to identify ...
Phloroglucinol is a reagent of the Tollens test for pentoses. This test relies on reaction of the furfural with phloroglucinol ... Phloroglucinol is also generally found in the flavonoid ring A substitution pattern. Phloroglucinol (1,3,5-benzenetriol) is a ... The enzyme phloroglucinol reductase uses dihydrophloroglucinol and NADP+ to produce phloroglucinol, NADPH, and H+. It is found ... Hyperforin and adhyperforin are two phloroglucinols found in St Johns wort. Humulone is a phloroglucinol derivative with three ...
In enzymology, a phloroglucinol reductase (EC 1.3.1.57) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction dihydrophloroglucinol ... Haddock JD, Ferry JG (1989). "Purification and properties of phloroglucinol reductase from Eubacterium oxidoreducens G-41". J. ... NADP+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } phloroglucinol + NADPH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ... dihydrophloroglucinol and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are phloroglucinol, NADPH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of ...
Phloroglucinol [PG] [1% w/v]. It was prepared by dissolving 1 g of the phloroglucinol (99.98%) (BDH Chemicals Ltd., Poole, ... In order to study the effect of concentration of phloroglucinol, a fixed concentration of NMD (10 μg/mL) was taken in a series ... Then, 1 mL of phloroglucinol (1% w/v) and 1.5 mL 4 M sodium hydroxide were added. The contents were made up to the mark with ... A volume of 1 mL phloroglucinol (1%) in a total volume of 10 mL was found to be sufficient leading to maximum color stability ...
"Phloroglucinol" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Phloroglucinol" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Phloroglucinol" by people in Profiles. ... and whether "Phloroglucinol" was a major or minor topic of these publication. ...
... phloroglucinol explanation free. What is phloroglucinol? Meaning of phloroglucinol medical term. What does phloroglucinol mean? ... Looking for online definition of phloroglucinol in the Medical Dictionary? ... phloroglucinol. Also found in: Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. phlo·ro·glu·cin·ol. (flôr′ə-glōō′sə-nôl′,-nōl′). n.. A white, slightly ... phloroglucinol; BFP).. The novel phloroglucinol derivative BFP induces apoptosis of glioma cancer through reactive oxygen ...
Phloroglucinol Used to detect the presence of wood fiber.; CAS Number: 108-73-6; EC Number: 203-611-2; Synonym: 1,3,5- ... Phloroglucinol is an antispasmodic and a derivative of phenol. Application Phloroglucinol has been used to stain root sections. ... Phloroglucinol Used to detect the presence of wood fiber. Synonym: 1,3,5-. Trihydroxybenzene ...
A known triterpenoid, β-amyrin (1), and a known and a new phloroglucinol, cohulupone (2) and garcinielliptone P (3), were ... Xanthine oxidase inhibitory triterpenoid and phloroglucinol from guttiferaceous plants inhibit growth and induced apoptosis in ...
Phloroglucinol dihydrate is utilized in the preparation of active pharmaceutical ingredients such as flopropione. It acts as a ...
Phloroglucinol ; physical and chemical property of 108-73-6, Phloroglucinol is provided by ChemNet.com ... 108-73-6 Phloroglucinol. Nama produk. Phloroglucinol. Sinonim. 1,3,5-Benzenetriol; 1,3,5-THB; 1,3,5-Trihydroxybenzene; ... CAS No: 108-73-6, Chemical Name: Phloroglucinol. Home , Products , Suppliers , Offer to Buy , Offer to Sell , Chemical News , ... the physical and chemical property of 108-73-6, Phloroglucinol is provided by ChemNet.com ...
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The key role of phloroglucinol O-methyltransferase in the biosynthesis of Rosa chinensis volatile 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene.. [ ... This compound is synthesized in three successive methylation steps from phloroglucinol, the initial precursor. A novel, to our ... Both the native and recombinant POMT exhibited substrate specificity for phloroglucinol. POMT was expressed specifically in ... knowledge, phloroglucinol O-methyltransferase (POMT) characterized here methylates the first step to produce the intermediate 3 ...
Phloroglucinol mediates cross-talk between the pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic pathways in Pseudomonas ... Genetic diversity in the phloroglucinol biosynthetic locus of Pseudomonas fluorescens from different geographic locations. ... The first step in DAPG biosynthesis is production of phloroglucinol (PG) by PhlD. In this study, we show that PG is required at ... Phloroglucinol mediates cross-talk between the pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic pathways in Pseudomonas ...
... Login ... A new phloroglucinol with significant antimicrobial properties was isolated by bioactivity guided fractionation from ... Antimicrobial activity of Helichrysum species and the isolation of a new phloroglucinol from Helichrysum caespititium. Mathekga ... The structure elucidation, conformation and stereochemistry of the new phloroglucinol, 2-methyl-4-[2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-(2- ...
4-Benzyloxy-Phenylmethylene)-Bis-Diisopentanoyl Phloroglucinol: Evaluation of Anti-HIV-1 Properties and Use as HIV-1 ...
Pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6-bieckol (PPB) significantly inhibited monocyte migration in vitro by reducing levels of ... Oh, S.; Son, M.; Lee, H.S.; Kim, H.-S.; Jeon, Y.-J.; Byun, K. Protective Effect of Pyrogallol-Phloroglucinol-6,6-Bieckol from ... Oh, S.; Son, M.; Lee, H.S.; Kim, H.-S.; Jeon, Y.-J.; Byun, K. Protective Effect of Pyrogallol-Phloroglucinol-6,6-Bieckol from ... Oh, S.; Son, M.; Lee, H.S.; Kim, H.-S.; Jeon, Y.-J.; Byun, K. Protective Effect of Pyrogallol-Phloroglucinol-6,6-Bieckol from ...
... phloroglucinol compound flavaspidic acid BB. The present invention provides for the first time a method of chemical synthesis ... FR) ACIDE FLAVASPIDIQUE BB DE COMPOSÉ DE PHLOROGLUCINOL DE DRYOPTERIS FRAGRANS ET SON APPLICATION À VISÉE ANTIBACTÉRIENNE. (ZH) ... EN) DRYOPTERIS FRAGRANS PHLOROGLUCINOL COMPOUND FLAVASPIDIC ACID BB AND ANTIBACTERIAL APPLICATION THEREOF. ( ... 1. (WO2019028933) DRYOPTERIS FRAGRANS PHLOROGLUCINOL COMPOUND FLAVASPIDIC ACID BB AND ANTIBACTERIAL APPLICATION THEREOF ...
Phloroglucinol - Drugs.com. Phloroglucinol is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US mediions ... Phloroglucinol - Drug Monograph - DrugInfoSys.com. Side Effects. The severe or irreversible adverse effects of Phloroglucinol, ... UV visible spectrum of phloroglucinol. Phloroglucinol is an organic compound with the formula C6H3(OH)3. It is a colorless ... UV visible spectrum of phloroglucinol. Phloroglucinol is an organic compound with the formula C6H3(OH)3. It is a colorless ...
Global Phloroglucinol Market 2016 The Exploration study offers an in-depth assessment of the Phloroglucinol Market and helps ... Phloroglucinol manufacturers and suppliers Find here 241 suppliers manufacturers of Phloroglucinol from China India etc Get the ... Intermediates of Phloroglucinol manufacturer supplier Intermediates of Phloroglucinol offered by Manus Aktteva Biopharma LLP ... China Phloroglucinol manufacturers - Select 2020 high quality Phloroglucinol products in best price from certified Chinese ...
Strengthening the Aromatic Character of the Ligand Backbone in Extended Phloroglucinol Ligands by Prevention of Heteroradialene ... Strengthening the Aromatic Character of the Ligand Backbone in Extended Phloroglucinol Ligands by Prevention of Heteroradialene ... Strengthening the Aromatic Character of the Ligand Backbone in Extended Phloroglucinol Ligands by Prevention of Heteroradialene ... Strengthening the Aromatic Character of the Ligand Backbone in Extended Phloroglucinol Ligands by Prevention of Heteroradialene ...
Laryngeal Edema Caused by Phloroglucinol. Sun, Li-Rui; Sun, Zhi-Hui; Xue, Xia; More ...
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The crystal and molecular structure of phloroglucinol. K. Maartmann-Moe. Read article ...
Phloroglucinol Derivatives as Potent Photosystem II Inhibitors. Yoneyama, Koichi / Konnai, Makoto / Honda, Ichiro / Yoshida, ...
Induction of single and multiple shoots was obtained from nodal expiants of 60-80 year-old elite trees of rosewood on Murashige and Skoogs basal medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (1.0 mg 1
Whereas dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, ethyl lactate, heptaminol, menthol, phloroglucinol and trime-thylphloroglucinol ...
  • Variation of voltage with changes in concentration of the phenols was investigated for resorcinol, catechol, hydroquinoe and phloroglucinol , whereas, phenol (hydoxybenzene) was used as reference. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The preparation of [2-¹³C]phloroglucinol was carried out via [2-¹³C]resorcinol, with regioselective placement of a single ¹³C-atom into the aromatic ring. (bl.uk)
  • Phloroglucinol, and its benzenetriol isomers, are still defined as "phenols" according to the IUPAC official nomenclature rules of chemical compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • From water, phloroglucinol crystallizes as the dihydrate, which has a melting point of 116-117 °C, but the anhydrous form melts at a much higher temperature, at 218-220 °C. It does not boil intact, but it does sublime. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phloroglucinol dihydrate is utilized in the preparation of active pharmaceutical ingredients such as flopropione. (alfa.com)
  • In 1855, phloroglucinol was first prepared from phloretin by the Austrian chemist Heinrich Hlasiwetz (1825-1875), who is remembered for his chemical analysis of phloroglucinol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phloroglucinol was originally prepared from phloretin, a compound isolated from fruit trees, using potassium hydroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phloretin, 3-(4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and phloroglucinol were end products of both Cosín-Sales. (penelope-projects.be)
  • (EN) The present invention relates to the technical field of pharmaceuticals, and discloses an antibacterial application of a Dryopteris fragrans phloroglucinol compound flavaspidic acid BB. (wipo.int)
  • His 1992 paper "The phloroglucinols of Dryopteris stenolepis" (C.J. Widen, P. Ayras, T. Reichstein, Annales Botancici Fennici , 29:41-54), for example, was coauthored with Finnish researchers from the University of Helsinki and the University of Turku. (the-scientist.com)
  • It is a selective trinitration where benzene is symmetrically trinitrated to 1,3,5 trinitrobenzene to produce a precursor for the synthesis of phloroglucinol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key role of phloroglucinol O-methyltransferase in the biosynthesis of Rosa chinensis volatile 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This compound is synthesized in three successive methylation steps from phloroglucinol, the initial precursor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A new phloroglucinol with significant antimicrobial properties was isolated by bioactivity guided fractionation from Helichrysum caespititium. (up.ac.za)
  • Arzanol, an anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV-1 phloroglucinol α -pyrone from Helichrysum italicum ssp. (hindawi.com)
  • Evaluation of the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of arzanol, a prenylated α -pyrone-phloroglucinol etherodimer from Helichrysum italicum subsp. (hindawi.com)
  • In enzymology, a phloroglucinol reductase (EC 1.3.1.57) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction dihydrophloroglucinol + NADP+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } phloroglucinol + NADPH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are dihydrophloroglucinol and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are phloroglucinol, NADPH, and H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens produces phloroglucinol, phloroglucinol carboxylic acid and diacetylphloroglucinol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xanthine oxidase inhibitory triterpenoid and phloroglucinol from guttiferaceous plants inhibit growth and induced apoptosis in human NTUB1 cells th. (nih.gov)
  • Find here 241 suppliers manufacturers of Phloroglucinol from China India etc Get the suppliers' contacts information Request for quotation My ChemicalBook My ChemicalBook Welcome to chemicalbook! (stukadoortje.be)
  • Phloroglucinol is a useful intermediate because it is polyfunctional. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 1980s our attention was drawn to the problem of waste in the fine chemicals industry by our experience with the industrial production of the pharmaceutical intermediate, phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) in three steps from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). (rsc.org)
  • 1H, 13C and 2D NMR analyses were used to identify the reaction products between 4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone (Q-4MeC) and wine relevant nucleophiles like SO2, glutathione, ascorbic acid, phloroglucinol and a key odoriferous volatile thiol the 3-sulfanylhexanol. (avf.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Phloroglucinol" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Phloroglucinol" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • To each 30 [micro]l plasma, 3 ml of phloroglucinol (sigma) color reagent was added, then placed in boiling water for 4 min, then cooled in ice water, the absorption of each sample was read on a UV/Vis spectrometer (Perkin Elmer) set at 554 nm. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The severe or irreversible adverse effects of Phloroglucinol, which give rise to further compliions include Angioneurotic edema, Hypotension. (penelope-projects.be)
  • The nitrite formed was diazotized with paminoacetophenone in acidic medium which was subsequently coupled with phloroglucinol to give yellow-orange dye in alkaline medium having an absorption maximum at 420 nm. (ajol.info)