Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.
An organothiophosphate insecticide.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of thiamine pyrophosphate from ATP and thiamine. EC 2.7.6.2.
A subdiscipline of human genetics which entails the reliable prediction of certain human disorders as a function of the lineage and/or genetic makeup of an individual or of any two parents or potential parents.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A species of shark in the family SQUALIDAE, used for its oil (SQUALENE) and as fish meal. It also figures heavily in biological research, especially with reference to its RECTAL GLAND in studies of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Sharks of the family Squalidae, also called dogfish sharks. They comprise at least eight genera and 44 species. Their LIVER is valued for its oil and its flesh is often made into fertilizer.
A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A genus of SHARKS in the family SQUALIDAE, comprised of many different species. They travel in large groups and are bottom dwellers that feed mostly on bony fishes.
An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC 1.3.3.1.
Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.

Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with vanadate and phlorizin prevents the over-expression of the liver insulin receptor gene. (1/324)

Administration of vanadate, an insulinomimetic agent, has been shown to normalize the increased number of insulin receptors in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the present study, the effects of vanadate on various steps of expression of the liver insulin receptor gene in diabetic rats have been analyzed and compared with those of phlorizin, a glucopenic drug devoid of insulinomimetic properties. Livers of rats killed 23 days after streptozotocin injection showed a 30-40% increase in the number of cell surface and intracellular insulin receptors, a 50-90% increase in the levels of 9.5 and 7.5 kb insulin receptor mRNA species, and a 20% decrease in the relative abundance of the A (exon 11-) insulin receptor mRNA isotype. Daily administration of vanadate or phlorizin from day 5 to day 23 prevented the increase in insulin receptor number and mRNA level, and vanadate treatment also normalized receptor mRNA isotype expression. Unlike observations in vivo, vanadate and phlorizin differentially affected the expression of the insulin receptor gene in Fao hepatoma cells. Vanadate treatment (0.5 mmol/l for 4 h) decreased the levels of the 9.5 and 7.5 kb insulin receptor transcripts by at least twofold, without affecting the relative abundance of the A insulin receptor mRNA isotype. In contrast, phlorizin treatment (5 mmol/l for 4 h) slightly increased or did not affect the levels of the 9.5 and 7.5 kb insulin receptor transcripts respectively, and increased by twofold the relative expression of the A insulin receptor mRNA isotype. It is suggested that, although mediated in part by a reversal of hyperglycemia, normalization of liver insulin receptor gene expression by vanadate treatment in diabetic rats may also involve a direct inhibitory effect of this drug on gene expression.  (+info)

Muscle fiber type-specific defects in insulin signal transduction to glucose transport in diabetic GK rats. (2/324)

To determine whether defects in the insulin signal transduction pathway to glucose transport occur in a muscle fiber type-specific manner, post-receptor insulin-signaling events were assessed in oxidative (soleus) and glycolytic (extensor digitorum longus [EDL]) skeletal muscle from Wistar or diabetic GK rats. In soleus muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated (120 nmol/l) glucose transport was significantly decreased, compared with that of Wistar rats. In EDL muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated glucose transport was normal, while the submaximal response was reduced compared with that of Wistar rats. We next treated diabetic GK rats with phlorizin for 4 weeks to determine whether restoration of glycemia would lead to improved insulin signal transduction. Phlorizin treatment of GK rats resulted in full restoration of insulin-stimulated glucose transport in soleus and EDL muscle. In soleus muscle from GK rats, submaximal and maximal insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity were markedly reduced, compared with that of Wistar rats, but only submaximal insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase was restored after phlorizin treatment. In EDL muscle, insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and IRS-1-associated PI-3 kinase were not altered between GK and Wistar rats. Maximal insulin-stimulated Akt (protein kinase B) kinase activity is decreased in soleus muscle from GK rats and restored upon normalization of glycemia (Krook et al., Diabetes 46:2100-2114, 1997). Here, we show that in EDL muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated Akt kinase activity is also impaired and restored to Wistar rat levels after phlorizin treatment. In conclusion, functional defects in IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase in skeletal muscle from diabetic GK rats are fiber-type-specific, with alterations observed in oxidative, but not glycolytic, muscle. Furthermore, regardless of muscle fiber type, downstream steps to PI 3-kinase (i.e., Akt and glucose transport) are sensitive to changes in the level of glycemia.  (+info)

Sugars and sugar derivatives which inhibit the short-circuit current of the everted small intestine of the rat. (3/324)

1. The short-circuit current of everted rat intestine supported on a perforated cannula proved to be stable for up to 3 hr and has been used to study competition between transportable and non-transportable sugars. 2. 4,6-O-Ethylidene-alpha-D-glucopyranose (ethylidene glucose) and 4,6-O-benzylidene-e alpha-D-glucopyranos (benzylinene glucose), two nontransportable inhibitors of the hexose transfer system in human erythrocytes, were found to reduce the short-circuit current generated by transportable sugars such as galactose or 3-O-methyl glucose. 3. These compounds were also found to reduce the basal short-circuit current established by the everted intestine in a sugar-free Krebs solution. Both types of inhibition approached saturation at the higher concentrations used. 4. Similar inhibitory properties were shown by mannose, a non-actively accumulated monosaccharide, and by the beta-disaccharides lactose and cellobiose. 5. It is suggested that this common pattern of behaviour is due to the ability of these compounds to react with the sites for active hexose transfer but without translocation by the system. The significance of the inhibition of the basal short-circuit current is briefly discussed in this context.  (+info)

Chronic hyperglycemia triggers loss of pancreatic beta cell differentiation in an animal model of diabetes. (4/324)

Differentiated pancreatic beta cells are unique in their ability to secrete insulin in response to a rise in plasma glucose. We have proposed that the unique constellation of genes they express may be lost in diabetes due to the deleterious effect of chronic hyperglycemia. To test this hypothesis, Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to a 85-95% pancreatectomy or sham pancreatectomy. One week later, the animals developed mild to severe chronic hyperglycemia that was stable for the next 3 weeks, without significant alteration of plasma nonesterified fatty acid levels. Expression of many genes important for glucose-induced insulin release decreased progressively with increasing hyperglycemia, in parallel with a reduction of several islet transcription factors involved in beta cell development and differentiation. In contrast, genes barely expressed in sham islets (lactate dehydrogenase A and hexokinase I) were markedly increased, in parallel with an increase in the transcription factor c-Myc, a potent stimulator of cell growth. These abnormalities were accompanied by beta cell hypertrophy. Changes in gene expression were fully developed 2 weeks after pancreatectomy. Correction of blood glucose by phlorizin for the next 2 weeks normalized islet gene expression and beta cell volume without affecting plasma nonesterified fatty acid levels, strongly suggesting that hyperglycemia triggers these abnormalities. In conclusion, chronic hyperglycemia leads to beta cell hypertrophy and loss of beta cell differentiation that is correlated with changes in c-Myc and other key transcription factors. A similar change in beta cell differentiation could contribute to the profound derangement of insulin secretion in human diabetes.  (+info)

PKC regulates turnover rate of rabbit intestinal Na+-glucose transporter expressed in COS-7 cells. (5/324)

We have used the recombinant NH2-terminal myc-tagged rabbit Na+-glucose transporter (SGLT1) to study the regulation of this carrier expressed in COS-7 cells. Treatment of cells with a protein kinase C (PKC) agonist, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), caused a significant decrease (38.03 +/- 0.05%) in methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside transport activity that could not be emulated by 4alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate. The decrease in sugar uptake stimulated by PMA was reversed by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I. The maximal rate of Na+-glucose cotransport activity (Vmax) was decreased from 1.29 +/- 0.09 to 0.85 +/- 0.04 nmol. min-1. mg protein-1 after PMA exposure. However, measurement of high-affinity Na+-dependent phloridzin binding revealed that there was no difference in the number of cell surface transporters after PMA treatment; maximal binding capacities were 1.54 +/- 0.34 and 1.64 +/- 0.21 pmol/mg protein for untreated and treated cells, respectively. The apparent sugar binding affinity (Michaelis-Menten constant) and phloridzin binding affinity (dissociation constant) were not affected by PMA. Because PKC reduced Vmax without affecting the number of cell surface SGLT1 transporters, we conclude that PKC has a direct effect on the carrier, resulting in a lowering of the transporter turnover rate by a factor of two.  (+info)

Passive water and ion transport by cotransporters. (6/324)

1. The rabbit Na+-glucose (SGLT1) and the human Na+-Cl--GABA (GAT1) cotransporters were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and passive Na+ and water transport were studied using electrical and optical techniques. Passive water permeabilities (Lp) of the cotransporters were determined from the changes in oocyte volume in response to osmotic gradients. The specific SGLT1 and GAT1 Lp values were obtained by measuring Lp in the presence and absence of blockers (phlorizin and SKF89976A). In the presence of the blockers, the Lp values of oocytes expressing SGLT1 and GAT1 were indistinguishable from the Lp of control oocytes. Passive Na+ transport (Na+ leak) was obtained from the blocker-sensitive Na+ currents in the absence of substrates (glucose and GABA). 2. Passive Na+ and water transport through SGLT1 were blocked by phlorizin with the same sensitivity (inhibitory constant (Ki), 3-5 microM). When Na+ was replaced with Li+, phlorizin also inhibited Li+ and water transport, but with a lower affinity (Ki, 100 microM). When Na+ was replaced by choline, which is not transported, the SGLT1 Lp was indistinguishable from that in Na+ or Li+, but in this case water transport was less sensitive to phlorizin. 3. The activation energies (Ea) for passive Na+ and water transport through SGLT1 were 21 and 5 kcal mol-1, respectively. The high Ea for Na+ transport is comparable to that of Na+-glucose cotransport and indicates that the process is dependent on conformational changes of the protein, while the low Ea for water transport is similar to that of water channels (aquaporins). 4. GAT1 also behaved as an SKF89976A-sensitive water channel. We did not observe passive Na+ transport through GAT1. 5. We conclude that passive water and Na+ transport through cotransporters depend on different mechanisms: Na+ transport occurs by a saturable uniport mechanism, and water permeation is through a low conductance water channel. In the case of SGLT1, we suggest that both the water channel and water cotransport could contribute to isotonic fluid transport across the intestinal brush border membrane.  (+info)

Kinetic mechanisms of inhibitor binding: relevance to the fast-acting slow-binding paradigm. (7/324)

Although phlorizin inhibition of Na+-glucose cotransport occurs within a few seconds, 3H-phlorizin binding to the sodium-coupled glucose transport protein(s) requires several minutes to reach equilibrium (the fast-acting slow-binding paradigm). Using kinetic models of arbitrary dimension that can be reduced to a two-state diagram according to Cha's formalism, we show that three basic mechanisms of inhibitor binding can be identified whereby the inhibitor binding step either (A) represents, (B) precedes, or (C) follows the rate-limiting step in a binding reaction. We demonstrate that each of mechanisms A-C is associated with a set of unique kinetic properties, and that the time scale over which one may expect to observe mechanism C is conditioned by the turnover number of the catalytic cycle. In contrast, mechanisms A and B may be relevant to either fast-acting or slow-binding inhibitors. However, slow-binding inhibition according to mechanism A may not be compatible with a fast-acting behavior on the steady-state time scale of a few seconds. We conclude that the recruitment hypothesis (mechanism C) cannot account for slow phlorizin binding to the sodium-coupled glucose transport protein(s), and that mechanism B is the only alternative that may explain the fast-acting slow-binding paradigm.  (+info)

Leptin restores euglycemia and normalizes glucose turnover in insulin-deficient diabetes in the rat. (8/324)

Leptin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in normoinsulinemic healthy or obese rodents. It has not been determined whether leptin may act independently of insulin in regulating energy metabolism in vivo. The present study was designed to examine the effects of leptin treatment alone on glucose metabolism in insulin-deficient streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Four groups of STZ-induced diabetic rats were studied: 1) rats treated with recombinant methionine murine leptin subcutaneous infusion with osmotic pumps for 12-14 days (LEP; 4 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1), n = 10); 2) control rats infused with vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) for 12-14 days (VEH; n = 10); 3) pair-fed control rats given a daily food ration matching that of LEP rats for 12-14 days (PF; n = 8); and 4) rats treated with subcutaneous phloridzin for 4 days (PLZ; 0.4 g/kg twice daily, n = 10). Phloridzin treatment normalizes blood glucose without insulin and was used as a control for the effect of leptin in correcting hyperglycemia. All animals were then studied with a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (6 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1). Our study demonstrates that leptin treatment in the insulin-deficient diabetic rats restored euglycemia, minimized body weight loss due to food restriction, substantially improved glucose metabolic rates during the postabsorptive state, and restored insulin sensitivities at the levels of the liver and the peripheral tissues during the glucose clamp. The effects on glucose turnover are largely independent of food restriction and changes in blood glucose concentration, as evidenced by the minimal improvement of insulin action and glucose turnover parameters in the PF and PLZ groups. Our results suggest that the antidiabetic effects of leptin are achieved through both an insulin-independent and an insulin-sensitizing mechanism.  (+info)

Bile Glucose Magazines, Bile Glucose eBooks, Bile Glucose Publications, Bile Glucose Publishers Description: Read interactive Bile Glucose publications at FlipHTML5, download Bile Glucose PDF documents for free. Upload and publish your own book in minutes.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correction of hyperglycemia with phlorizin normalizes tissues sensitivity to insulin in diabetic rats. AU - Rossetti, L.. AU - Smith, D.. AU - Shulman, G. I.. AU - Papachristou, D.. AU - DeFronzo, R. A.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Insulin resistance is characteristic of the diabetic state. To define the role of hyperglycemia in generation of the insulin resistance, we examined the effect of phlorizin treatment on tissue sensitivity to insulin in partially pancreatectomized rats. Five groups were studied: group I, sham-operated controls; group II, partially pancreatectomized diabetic rats with moderate glucose intolerance; group III, diabetic rats treated with phlorizin to normalize glucose tolerance; group IV, phlorizin-treated controls; and group V, phlorizin-treated diabetic rats restudied after discontinuation of phlorizin. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with the euglyemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique in awake, unstressed rats. Insulin-mediated glucose metabolism was ...
1. The ability of phlorrhizin to inhibit the galactosylation of glucose was re-examined with Golgi membrane vesicles purified from rat mammary gland, and extended to the galactosylation of several glucose analogues and N-acylglucosamines. 2. The inhibition is ascribed, contrary to previous conclusions, to a general annealing of leaky membranes comprising a minority of the vesicles. 3. Three thiol reagents were able to inhibit the galactosylation of N-acylglucosamines with less, or no, inhibition of galactosylation of glucose. This demonstrates the existence of a Golgi membrane carrier that distinguishes between glucose and N-acylglucosamines. ...
Violet Red Bile Glucose Agar is used for the enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae in foods and conforms to Harmonized USP/EP/JP requirements.
It seems every week the SGLT-2 inhibitors are in the news, one time good and one time bad. Now there is a new study that shows that these products may have
To determine whether defects in the insulin signal transduction pathway to glucose transport occur in a muscle fiber type-specific manner, post-receptor insulin-signaling events were assessed in oxidative (soleus) and glycolytic (extensor digitorum longus [EDL]) skeletal muscle from Wistar or diabetic GK rats. In soleus muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated (120 nmol/l) glucose transport was significantly decreased, compared with that of Wistar rats. In EDL muscle from GK rats, maximal insulin-stimulated glucose transport was normal, while the submaximal response was reduced compared with that of Wistar rats. We next treated diabetic GK rats with phlorizin for 4 weeks to determine whether restoration of glycemia would lead to improved insulin signal transduction. Phlorizin treatment of GK rats resulted in full restoration of insulin-stimulated glucose transport in soleus and EDL muscle. In soleus muscle from GK rats, submaximal and maximal insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate ...
Cells derived from the simian kidney, COS-7 cells, were transfected with a eucaryotic expression vector (pEUK-C1) containing the clone for the rabbit intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter. Expression was monitored after transfection with lipofectin by measuring the initial rate of alpha-methylglucopyranoside (MeGlc) uptake. Cells transfected with vector containing the cDNA for the Na+/glucose cotransporter expressed Na(+)-dependent MeGlc transport. Neither control cells nor cells transfected with vector lacking cloned cDNA expressed the cotransporter. Na(+)-dependent MeGlc uptake into transfected cells was saturable (Km 150 microM), phlorizin-sensitive (Ki 11 microM), and inhibited by sugar analogs (D-glucose greater than MeGlc greater than D-galactose greater than 3-O-methyl-D-glucoside greater than D-allose much greater than L-glucose). Europium was able to mimic Na+ in driving MeGIC uptake. Finally, tunicamycin, an inhibitor of asparagine-linked glycosylation, inhibited the expression of ...
AstraZeneca announced results of the first large real-world evidence study of its kind evaluating the risk of hospitalisation for heart failure and death from any cause in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2D) receiving treatment with a newer class of diabetes medicines, SGLT-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i).1 The CVD-REAL study assessed data from more than 300,000 patients across…
Atmospheric nitrogen is in a form that is unavailable to plants. Nevertheless, there are nitrogen fixing bacteria that can be found either free-living or in association with plants. Sinorhizobium meliloti is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that infects legume plants such as alfalfa and induces specialized organs known as root nodules. In the nodule, the bacteria will fix the atmospheric nitrogen for use by the host plant, and in return, the plants supply the bacteria with carbon sources. Specialized carbon sources such as inositols may play a role in determining bacterial composition of the rhizosphere. The focus of this study is to characterize essential genes that are involved in inositol transport and catabolism in S. meliloti. The S. meliloti ibpA gene was found to be the first gene in an operon that encodes a periplasmic binding protein of an ABC transporter responsible for the transport of inositol isomers. A mutant with an insertion in the ibpA gene was tested for the ability to use
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The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat is a novel model for nonobese type 2 diabetes. In this study we investigated the glycolipid metabolic changes with phlorizin-treatment, which inhibits intestinal glucose uptake and renal glucose reabsorption, in male SDT rats. Phlorizin (100 mg/kg, b.i.d., s.c.) was administered for 4 weeks to SDT rats from 20 to 24 weeks of age. As a result, phlorizin reduced the development of hyperglycemia and decreased the hemoglo-bin A1c (HbA1c) levels. In the liver, phlorizin increased mRNA levels of glucokinase, the enzymes related with the glycogen cascade and the proteins associated with lipid metabolism. In conclusion, chronic administration of phlorizin in SDT rats produced a good glycemic control and an improvement in liver function.
a) We have obtained a single set of kinetic parameters that accounts for the global experimental observations on steady-state and presteady-state kinetics, for both charge and fluorescence measurements in the presence and absence of sugar or phlorizin.. (b) In view of the close agreement between the data and simulations on charge movements in the presence of sugar, this suggests that there are no significant voltage-dependent steps in the transport cycle other than those associated with external Na+ binding/dissociation and conformational change of the empty transporter (shaded region of Fig. 9). This is in agreement with our previous study on reverse Na+/sugar cotransport using the giant patch (Eskandari et al., 2005).. (c) At saturating [αMDG]o, when membrane voltage is stepped from −50 to +50 mV, the charge movement is too small to be detected because of the low occupancy in states C2, C1, Ca, Cb, and C6 (Fig. 10 D and Fig. 14 D), which is observed experimentally (Fig. 6 B). However, there ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Root border cells take up and release glucose-C. AU - Stubbs, V E C AU - Standing, D AU - Knox, O G G AU - Killham, K AU - Bengough, A G AU - Griffiths, B PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - Background and Aims Border cells are released from the root tips of many plant species, and can remain viable in the rhizosphere for 1 week. Whether border cells are capable of controlled glucose exchange with their environment was investigated.Methods Border cells were removed from Zea mays L. root tips, and immersed in C-14-labelled D-glucose. In one experiment, the hexose transport inhibitor, phlorizin, was used to investigate active glucose uptake from a range of glucose concentrations. In another experiment, glucose efflux from border cells was monitored over time.Key Results Glucose uptake by the border cells increased with increasing glucose concentration from 0.2 to 20 mM. At 0.2 mM glucose, uptake was mainly active, as evidenced by the approx. 60% inhibition with phlorizin. At 2 and 20 mm ...
If you have not already done so, please read my introduction page (HERE). . . First of all, what does SLGT-2 stand for? SGLT-2 stands for sodium-glucose linked transporter 2. SGLT2 is a protein within the kidney tubules that regulates glucose reabsorption in the kidneys. Typically, all of the glucose that passes through the kidneys…
The D-Glucose assay kit (GOPOD) Format is a high purity reagent for the measurement and analysis of D-glucose in food products. Buy kit here.
In terms of structure, the difference between D-glucose and L-glucose refers to the position of the OH-anion on the last asymmetric carbon of the glucose molecule. In D-glucose, the OH (hydroxyl group) is situated to the... ...
This special series of reviews focuses on the newest class of glucose-lowering agents, the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) inhibitors. Rieg and Vallon begin the series by tracing the development of the SGLT inhibitor class of drugs, including SGLT1 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors and dual inhibitors. Wright and colleagues go on to discuss the mechanisms of actions of these drugs; they explain that SGLT1 and SGLT2 (and GLUT2) are key players in renal glucose transport and describe how inhibition of either SGLT2 or SGLT1 promotes glucose excretion in the urine. However, as discussed by Thomas and Cherney, SGLT inhibitors not only affect glucose metabolism, but also adiposity, renal function and blood pressure in type 2 diabetes. In terms of their pleiotropic actions, the most striking results so far come from SGLT2 inhibitor studies investigating the cardiovascular effects of these drugs. In their review, Verma and McMurray outline the proposed mechanisms underpinning the unprecedented benefit of ...
This Review covers the rationale, physiological consequences and clinical application of pharmacological sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, in whom renal glucose reabsorption might be upregulated, orally active, selective SGLT2 inhibitors im …
Mizagliflozin is a novel, potent, selective sodium glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) inhibitor with Ki of 27 nM for human SGLT1. The selectivity ratio ... Quality confirmed by NMR & HPLC. See customer reviews, validations & product citations.
Quantitative light microscope radioautographs of galactose-3H and phlorizin-3H were prepared from freeze-dried plastic-embedded hamster small intestine incubated in vitro. The usual uphill epithelial cell accumulation of galactose accompanied by a somewhat smaller lamina propria accumulation was observed in control tissue incubated 3 min in 1 mM galactose-3H. The addition of 5 x 10-4 M phlorizin to the medium blocked uphill accumulation, but did not prevent galactose equilibration with the epithelial cells. The galactose content of the lamina propria was considerably less than the galactose content of the epithelial cell. Varying the phlorizin-3H content of the medium from 0.6 to 60 µM revealed a brush border binding of phlorizin which followed a Langmuir adsorption isotherm with a half-saturation constant of 13 µM and a maximum binding of 84 µmoles of phlorizin/liter of microvilli or 2.6 x 106 sites/epithelial cell. The phlorizin content of the epithelial cell compartment, excluding ...
The findings of recent clinical trials have shown that sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors produce effects beyond glucose lowering and have demonstrated beneficial cardiovascular effects that have been observed across a broad range of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In particular, the cardiovascular benefit results largely from substantial and early effects of SGLT2 inhibiti...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Further study on Ca2+-mediated inhibition of human erythrocyte D-glucose transporter. AU - Xie, Wensheng. AU - Tu, Yaping. AU - Yang, Fuyu. PY - 1997/5. Y1 - 1997/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0642332284&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0642332284&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/BF02882504. DO - 10.1007/BF02882504. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0642332284. VL - 42. SP - 871. EP - 875. JO - Science Bulletin. JF - Science Bulletin. SN - 2095-9273. IS - 10. ER - ...
Read more about SGLT-2 medicines reduce risk of heart failure: AstraZeneca on Business Standard. More than 300,000 patients with type-2 diabetes who were treated with SGLT-2 inhibitors, showed that all-cause mortality was reduced by 51 per cent and risk of hospitalisation for heart failure by 39 per cent, a study has revealed. A study was
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As described above, SGLT2 inhibitors, such as dapagliflozin and empagliflozin, demonstrate unique PK/PD relationships. Robust UGE was maintained long after the plasma drug concentrations diminished (22,23) (Fig. 3). If SGLT2 inhibitors are actively secreted (in addition to filtered) into the renal proximal tubule, the renal secretion can deliver higher drug concentrations to the area of the SGLT2 transporter and thus contribute to the robust UGE effect, especially when the plasma concentrations are low. Another possible contributing factor that may explain the prolonged UGE effect is a slow off rate of SGLT2 inhibitors. Compounds with a slow off rate can maintain their PD effect even when their plasma concentrations are low. Empagliflozin has a slow off rate with a dissociation t1/2 of 1 h both in the absence and presence of 20 mmol/L glucose (27). If SGLT2 inhibitors also block the transporter from inside the cells, their inhibition effect can last longer than indicated by their dissociation ...
Introduction: Selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors target only the kidney, and they have reduced efficacy when patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have renal impairment (RI). LX4211 blocks sodium and glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract by inhibition of SGLT1, and it enhances urinary sodium and glucose excretion in the urine through inhibition of SGLT2. The dual SGLT1/2 action of LX4211 was anticipated to reduce systolic blood pressure (SBP) in addition to improving glucose control in the setting of RI.. Methods: This analysis explored the effect of LX4211 on SBP in a clinical trial of patients with T2DM and moderate to severe RI. Patients (N=31) were randomly assigned to be treated with LX4211 (400 mg, N=16) or placebo (N=15) qd for 7 consecutive days. Postprandial glucose levels after a standard high glucose meal served as the primary measure of pharmacodynamic activity. Baseline and Day 8 trough SBP measures were each an average of 3 seated ...
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This presentation on current treatments and technologies for diabetes looks at empagliflozin and the effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors.
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Aim Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are antidiabetic agents that act on the proximal renal tubules to lower blood glucose levels by inhibiting glucose reabsorption and promoting urinary glucose excretion. The present study assessed the long‐term use of SGLT2 inhibitors in older patients with diabetes. Methods A total of 117 older patients with type 2 diabetes who were given SGLT2 inhibitors were enrolled from April 2014 to March 2016. Results The mean age of the patients was 73.7 ± 10.0 years. During the follow‐up period (mean 289.3 days), there was no event associated with oral administration of SGLT2 inhibitors. These drugs significantly lowered fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels at 6 months, and did not affect the creatinine level, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio or estimated glomerular filtration rate during treatment. Although the treatment significantly increased hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, it did not affect the ultrasonographically ...
Title:Sodium-glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: Potential Cardiovascular and Mortality Benefits. VOLUME: 18 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Dragan Lovic*, Andreas Pittaras, Manolis Kallistratos, Constantinos Tsioufis, Charalampos Grassos, Dragan Djordjevic, Ivan Tasic and Athanasios Manolis. Affiliation:Clinic for Internal Disease Intermedica, Cardiology Department, Hypertension Center, Nis, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, George Washington University, Washington, DC, Asklepeion General Hospital, Cardiology Department, Athens, First Cardiology Clinic, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, Cardiology Department, KAT General Hospital, Athens, Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Institute Niska Banja, Nis, Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Institute Niska Banja, Nis, Cardiology Department, Emory University, Atlanta, GA. Keywords:SGLT-2 inhibitors, cardiovascular risk, cardiovascular events, blood pressure, body weight, renal ...
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors combined with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes: a review of current clinical evidence and rationale Sayf A Yassin,1 Vanita R Aroda2 1MedStar Union Memorial Hospital, Baltimore, 2MedStar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville, MD, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive and multifactorial cardiometabolic disorder. Almost half of adults with diabetes fail to achieve their recommended glucose control target. This has prompted some clinicians to advocate the use of more intensive initial therapy, including the use of combination therapy to target multiple physiologic defects in diabetes with the goal of achieving and sustaining glucose control. Numerous options exist for combining the various classes of glucose-lowering agents in the treatment of T2DM. This report reviews the mechanism, rationale, and evidence from clinical trials for combining two of the newer drug classes, namely, dipeptidyl peptidase
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Glucose reabsorption by the kidney is necessary from an evolutionary standpoint to retain calories but becomes detrimental in type 2 diabetes by contributing to perpetuation of hyperglycemia and caloric excess. Paradoxically, the glucose resorptive capacity of the kidney may increase in type 2 diabetes (20). Therefore, limiting renal glucose reabsorption through the inhibition of SGLT2 represents a new approach to treating hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients.. This study provides evidence that inducing controlled glucosuria through selective SGLT2 inhibition improves hyperglycemia consistently over 12 weeks of treatment in type 2 diabetic patients. Dapagliflozin produced decreases in A1C, FPG, and PPG after 12 weeks, with reductions in FPG apparent by week 1. Changes in FPG were dose-related; however, there was little evidence of a dose response for either PPG or A1C. These observations apparently reflect an intrinsic property of dapagliflozin as an SGLT2 inhibitor. The impact of SGLT2 ...
L-Glucose is an organic compound with formula C6H12O6 or H-(C=O)-(CHOH)5-H, specifically one of the aldohexose monosaccharides. As the L-isomer of glucose, it is the enantiomer of the more common D-glucose. L-Glucose does not occur naturally in higher living organisms, but can be synthesized in the laboratory. L-Glucose is indistinguishable in taste from D-glucose, but cannot be used by living organisms as source of energy because it cannot be phosphorylated by hexokinase, the first enzyme in the glycolysis pathway. One of the known exceptions is in Burkholderia caryophylli, a plant pathogenic bacterium, which contains the enzyme D-threo-aldose 1-dehydrogenase which is capable of oxidizing L-glucose. Like the D-isomer, L-glucose usually occurs as one of four cyclic structural isomers - α- and β-L-glucopyranose (the most common, with a six-atom ring), and α- and β-L-glucofuranose (with a five-atom ring). In water solution, these isomers interconvert in matters of hours, with the open-chain ...
Correction for Synthesis of L-rhamnose derived chiral bicyclic triazoles as novel sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) inhibitors by Siddamal Reddy Putapatri et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2014, 12, 8415-8421. ...
dr. Johny Bayu Fitantra. Salah satu obat hipoglikemik oral (OHO) terbaru untuk pasien diabetes antara lain adalah golongan sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2). Obat jenis ini membantu menurunkan kadar gula darah dengan menghambat reabsorpsi glukosa pada tubulus proksimal. Namun, terdapat laporan kasus yang menunjukan bahwa SGLT2 inhibitor berkaitan dengan risiko peningkatan terjadinya ketoasidosis diabetes (KAD).. Oleh karena itu, telah dilakukan sebuah penelitian untuk menilai risiko terjadinya KAD setelah dimulainya terapi dengan SGLT2 inhibitor. Pada penelitian tersebut, dibandingkan pula risiko terjadinya KAD pada pasien yang diterapi dengan OHO jenis dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor. Obat golongan tersebut dipilih sebagai pembanding mengingat kedua obat tersebut merupakan obat yang sering digunakan sebagai terapi lini kedua pasien DM serta kaitannya dengan KAD belum diketahui secara pasti. Outcome yang diharapkan adalah risiko perawatan di rumah sakit akibat KAD dalam ...
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The transporter manages tubular glucose reabsorption. If this function is impaired the renal glucose threshold is decreased and glucosuria results even if the plasma glucose level is normal.. ...
摘要. 第二型糖尿病的特徵是高血糖、胰島素阻抗、胰島素分泌異常,治療的目標是預防或延緩併發症並維持生活品質。美國糖尿病與歐洲糖尿病協會於2018年更新了關於第二型糖尿病管理的聲明,建議在慢性腎臟疾病、心臟衰竭、動脈粥狀硬化的心血管疾病病人使用 SGLT-2i (Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor) 是有益的。評估 SGLT-2i 對心血管影響的隨機雙盲臨床試驗:在併有心血管疾病或心血管疾病風險的第二型糖尿病患者,使用 empagliflozin 及 canagliflozin 與安慰劑相比顯示降低主要不良心血管事件,而 dapagliflozin 顯示則無差異。文內同時分析觀察性研究結果。再者糖尿病是引起慢性腎臟疾病的風險因子,本主題將論述 ...
Empagliflozin is the third sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor approved for use in the US. There is a lot to learn about this new class. Here, 5 of the many things you need to know.
Figure: High levels of glucose alter VEGF and miR-200b expression in HRMECs. A: HRMECs exposed to various concentrations of D-glucose for 24 hours exhibited differential mRNA levels of VEGF. Compared to 5mM D-glucose, VEGF expression was significantly increased at 15mM and 25mM D-glucose concentrations, with no change at 20mM L-glucose. B: Measured by WST-1 assay, HRMECs exposed to increasing concentrations of D-glucose for 24 hours exhibited decreased cell viability at 25mM, 50mM and 100mM compared to 5mM. C: HRMECs exposed to 25mM (high glucose; HG) glucose for 24 and 48 hours demonstrated significantly increased VEGF mRNA compared to 5mM (normal glucose; NG). These differences were not observed at time points earlier than 24 hours. D,E: HRMECs exposed to 5mM D-glucose (NG) 25mM D-glucose (HG) and 20mM L-glucose+5mM D-glucose (osmotic control; OSM). HRMECs cultured for 24 hours and 48 hours in HG showed significantly decreased levels of miR-200b with parallel increased levels of VEGF ...
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As a result of his work on the action of phlorhizin, a glucoside provoking glycosuria, and another one on nuclein metabolism in ...
What is phlorhizin diabetes? Meaning of phlorhizin diabetes medical term. What does phlorhizin diabetes mean? ... Looking for online definition of phlorhizin diabetes in the Medical Dictionary? phlorhizin diabetes explanation free. ... phlorhizin diabetes. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. phlorhizin diabetes. Glycosuria caused by ... Phlorhizin diabetes , definition of phlorhizin diabetes by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
... polypeptides of lactase phlorhizin hydrolase (LPH) in newborn pigs fed with water or colostrum for 24h post partum. At the end ... Lactase phlorhizin hydrolase turnover in vivo in water-fed and colostrum-fed newborn pigs Biochem J. 1996 Dec 15;320 ( Pt 3)(Pt ... We have estimated the synthesis rates in vivo of precursor and brush-border (BB) polypeptides of lactase phlorhizin hydrolase ( ...
... phlorhizin glycosuria) by blocking the tubular reabsorption of glucose. Spelled also… ... phlorhizin. phlo·rhi·zin (flo-riґzin) [Gr. phloios bark + rhiza root] a bitter glycoside from the root bark of apple, cherry, ... phlorhizin - n. (Chemistry) crystalline glucoside derived from the root bark of some fruit trees (used in biochemical research ... phlorhizin hydrolase - phlo·rhi·zin hy·dro·lase (flo riґzin hiґdro lās) glycosylceramidase … Medical dictionary ...
phlorhizin diabetes. Glycosuria caused by administration of phlorhizin. renal diabetes. Renal glycosuria, marked by a low renal ...
Phlorhizin. Grant support. *R01 DK040936/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States. *AM-01248/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/United States ...
Phlorhizin / therapeutic use * Prediabetic State / drug therapy * Prediabetic State / metabolism * Protein Transport / drug ...
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The influence of the adrenal cortex in phlorhizin diabetes. Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin., 15: 565-73. With D. l. Ingle. ... The influence of the adrenal and thyroid on gluconeogenesis in phlorhizin diabetes. Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin., 15:493-96. ...
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6. Phlorhizin causes both diuresis and glucosuria in the perfused kidney.. Footnotes. **Received August 13, 1915. ...
Preparative Separation and Identification of the Flavonoid Phlorhizin from the Crude Extract of Lithocarpus Polystachyus Rehd ...
Lactase phlorhizin hydrolase turnover in vivo in water-fed and colostrum-fed newborn pigs Biochem J (December, 1996) ...
Phlorhizin protects against erythrocyte cell membrane scrambling. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Aug 10;59(15):8524-30. ...
As a result of his work on the action of phlorhizin, a glucoside provoking glycosuria, and another one on nuclein metabolism in ...
Klopocki, E., Lohan, S., Doelken, S. C., Stricker, S., Ockeloen, C. W., de Aguiar, R. S. T., Lezirovitz, K., Netto, R. C. M., Jamsheer, A., Shah, H., Kurth, I., Habenicht, R., Warman, M., Devriendt, K., Kordaß, U., Hempel, M., Rajab, A., Mäkitie, O., Naveed, M., Radhakrishna, U. & 3 others, Antonarakis, S. E., Horn, D. & Mundlos, S., 01-02-2012, In: Journal of Medical Genetics. 49, 2, p. 119-125 7 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
Lanen, J. B. J. M., Lovas, R. G., Kruppa, A., Blok, H. P., Van Den Brand, J. F. J., Ent, R., Jans, E., Kramer, G. J., Lapiks, L., Quint, E. N. M., Van Der Steenhoven, G., Tiemeijer, P. C. & De Witt Huberts, P. K. A., 1989, In : Physical Review Letters. 63, 26, p. 2793-2796 4 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differentiation of llc-pki cells cultured on native (contractible) collagen gels. AU - Sussman, C. R.. AU - Renfro, J. L.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - The porcine-derived renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PKi, forms a functional epithelium with apical tight junctions and reabsorptive Na+/glucose colransport. In an attempt to further differentiate this epithelium we cultured these cells on contraclible collagen gels. Transepithelial electrical potential difference (PD), resistance (R) and total (It), phloridzin-sensitive (Iphz, 0.18 mM phloridzin), and glucosedependent (Iglc) currents were measured in Ussing chambers. LLCPK1 cells contracted collagen gels from 32 mm to 22± 0.2 mm in 18 days. Gels were contracted 1 mm/day for the first 10 days then -(1.5 mm/day. Four days after plating confluent monolayers exhibited R = 38.4 ±3.0 fixem2, PD = -0.8 ±0.1 mV, It = 20.2 ±0.8 /iA/cm2, and IphJ. - 14-1 ±1. μA. Over the next 15 days It and IphJ. increased approximately 5 fold. R ...
Reduced lactase-phlorhizin hydrolase. Decreased lactose digestion. Causes diarrhea, abdominal pain and flatulence.. Rx- enzyme ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Diurnal rhythmicity in intestinal SGLT-1 function, v,sub,max,/sub,, and mRNA expression topography. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Vecchio, F., Lo Buono, N., Stabilini, A., Nigi, L., Dufort, M. J., Geyer, S., Rancoita, P. M., Cugnata, F., Mandelli, A., Valle, A., Leete, P., Mancarella, F., Linsley, P. S., Krogvold, L., Herold, K. C., Larsson, H. E., Richardson, S. J., Morgan, N. G., Dahl-Jørgensen, K., Sebastiani, G. & 82 others, Dotta, F., Bosi, E., Bianconi, E., Bonfanti, R., Bonura, C., De Pellegrin, M., Frontino, G., Grogan, P., Laurenzi, A., Meschi, F., Ragogna, F., Rigamonti, A., Greenbaum, C. J., Atkinson, M., Baidal, D., Becker, D., Bingley, P., Buckner, J., Clements, M., Colman, P., DiMeglio, L., Gitelman, S., Goland, R., Gottlieb, P., Knip, M., Krischer, J., Lernmark, A., Moore, W., Moran, A., Muir, A., Palmer, J., Peakman, M., Philipson, L., Raskin, P., Redondo, M., Rodriguez, H., Russell, W., Spain, L., Schatz, D. A., Sosenko, J., Wentworth, J., Wherrett, D., Wilson, D., Winter, W., Ziegler, A., Anderson, M., Antinozzi, P., Benoist, C., Blum, J., Bourcier, K., Chase, P., Clare-Salzler, M., Clynes, R., ...
Phlorhizin. Exclusive patent to promote the assimilation of phytoestrogens. Brich. Couch grass. Sweet clover. Blueberry. ...
Roychoudhuri, R., Hirahara, K., Mousavi, K., Clever, D., Klebanoff, C. A., Bonelli, M., Sciumè, G., Zare, H., Vahedi, G., Dema, B., Yu, Z., Liu, H., Takahashi, H., Rao, M., Muranski, P., Crompton, J. G., Punkosdy, G., Bedognetti, D., Wang, E., Hoffmann, V. & 10 others, Rivera, J., Marincola, F. M., Nakamura, A., Sartorelli, V., Kanno, Y., Gattinoni, L., Muto, A., Igarashi, K., OShea, J. J. & Restifo, N. P., 2013, In: Nature. 498, 7455, p. 506-510 5 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The influence of ascorbic acid on active sodium transport in cultured rabbit nonpigmented ciliary epithelium. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The activity of the rectal gland of the North Pacific spiny dogfish Squalus suckleyi is glucose dependent and stimulated by glucagon-like peptide-1.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
phlorhizin. *phlorhizin. *phlorhizin diabetes. *phlorhizin diabetes. *phlorhizin diabetes. *phlorhizin diabetes. *phlorhizin ...
Botteri, G., Salvadó, L., Gumà, A., Hamilton, D. L., Meakin, P. J., Montagut, G., Ashford, M. L. J., Ceperuelo-Mallafré, V., Fernández-Veledo, S., Vendrell, J., Calderón-Dominguez, M., Serra, D., Herrero, L., Pizarro, J., Barroso, E., Palomer, X. & Vázquez-Carrera, M., Aug 2018, In: Metabolism. 85, p. 59-75 17 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
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Phlorhizin/pharmacology. *Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects. *Pyrans/pharmacology. *Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects ...
Phlorhizin フロリジン Phloretin フロレチン Lauric Acids ドデカン酸 Codon, Nonsense ナンセンスコドン Methylglucosides メチルグルコシド ...
Raw material KUROMANIN®-10 Black Soybean Seed Coat Extract Powder Patent as Visual Function Improving Agent Anthocyanin ≧10% KUROMANIN® is registered trademark of Sozai Kinou Laboratory Co., Ltd. ARA Halal certificate Salmon Ovary Peptide (HDLSOP) Country of Origin: Japan/Hokkaido Buff Yellow to yellow brown powder
  • it causes glycosuria ( phlorhizin glycosuria ) by blocking the tubular reabsorption of glucose. (academic.ru)
  • As a result of his work on the action of phlorhizin, a glucoside provoking glycosuria, and another one on nuclein metabolism in man, he was appointed «Privatdozent» (Lecturer) in 1900. (nobelprize.org)
  • A. True - In both cases, glucose absorption is blocked by phlorhizin. (physiologyplus.com)
  • We have estimated the synthesis rates in vivo of precursor and brush-border (BB) polypeptides of lactase phlorhizin hydrolase (LPH) in newborn pigs fed with water or colostrum for 24h post partum. (nih.gov)
  • The phlorhizin-diabetes treatment are there those of insoluble urens, the diate grand molars, staphylococci albus, frequently b. in the urethra of erythroped over the counter in south africa, we have this relative, in its purest and most previous everybody. (spenardroadhouse.com)