Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Primidone: An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Valproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ethosuximide: An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic: Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Phenylethylmalonamide: A metabolite of primidone.Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic: A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Hydantoins: Compounds based on imidazolidine dione. Some derivatives are ANTICONVULSANTS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Schilling Test: A diagnostic test in which vitamin B12 is tagged with radioactive cobalt, taken orally, and gastrointestinal absorption is determined via measurement of the amount of radioactivity in a 24-hour urine collection.Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Status Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)Microtubule Proteins: Proteins found in the microtubules.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Capsule Endoscopy: Non-invasive, endoscopic imaging by use of VIDEO CAPSULE ENDOSCOPES to perform examination of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small bowel.Epilepsies, Partial: Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)Epilepsy, Complex Partial: A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Pharmacopoeias as Topic: Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Serotonin Syndrome: An adverse drug interaction characterized by altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, and neuromuscular abnormalities. It is most frequently caused by use of both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, leading to excess serotonin availability in the CNS at the serotonin 1A receptor.Oncology Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with the care provided to cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family.Methylergonovine: A homolog of ERGONOVINE containing one more CH2 group. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Buspirone: An anxiolytic agent and serotonin receptor agonist belonging to the azaspirodecanedione class of compounds. Its structure is unrelated to those of the BENZODIAZAPINES, but it has an efficacy comparable to DIAZEPAM.Ketoconazole: Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
It is highly bound to plasma proteins (98.7%), mainly albumin, along with α1-acid glycoprotein (77%) and IgG (15%). Its ... In vitro, atomoxetine does not affect the plasma protein binding of aspirin, desipramine, diazepam, paroxetine, phenytoin, or ... including pressors such as dobutamine or isoprenaline and β2 adrenoceptor agonists Highly plasma protein-bound drugs: ... bound to plasma proteins, while 4-hydroxyatomoxetine is only 66.6% bound. The half-life of atomoxetine varies widely between ...
... highly protein bound and hence may interact with drugs that are substrates for any of these enzymes or are highly protein bound ... phenytoin and phenobarbitone) and itself. It may also interact with: Aspirin: may increase valproate concentrations. May also ... "Valproic acid in association with highly active antiretroviral therapy for reducing systemic HIV-1 reservoirs: results from a ...
... , like other benzodiazepines, is widely distributed and is highly bound to plasma proteins; clorazepate also crosses ... Phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine have the opposite effect, with coadministration leading to increased metabolism and ...
The active metabolites of cyclophosphamide are highly protein bound and distributed to all tissues, are assumed to cross the ... Drugs altering hepatic microsomal enzyme activity (e.g., alcohol, barbiturates, rifampicin, or phenytoin) may result in ... a sulfhydryl donor which binds and detoxifies acrolein. Intermittent dosing of cyclophosphamide decreases cumulative drug dose ...
... due to its highly promiscuous binding profile, doxepin acts as a highly selective antagonist of the H1 receptor at very low ... Haemodialysis is not recommended due to the high degree of protein binding with doxepin. ECG monitoring is recommended for ... Hepatic enzyme inducers such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, and barbiturates are advised against in patients receiving TCAs like ... Doxepin is widely distributed throughout the body and is approximately 80% plasma protein-bound, specifically to albumin and α1 ...
... is highly plasma protein bound, 99% bound to albumin. Albumin is a the most abundant protein found in human plasma ... such as the anticoagulant medication warfarin and the antiepileptic drugs phenytoin and carbamazepine. The oral absorption ( ... bioavailability) of zafirlukast is decreased by 40% when it is taken with high fat or high protein meals. To avoid this ...
... a protein that binds biotin strongly. When cooked, avidin is partially denatured and binding to biotin is reduced. However one ... especially highly common prescription anti-seizure medications such as phenytoin, primidone, and carbamazepine), may lead to ... Protein deficiency: A shortage of proteins involved in biotin homeostasis can cause biotin deficiency. The main proteins ... Velázquez A (1997). "Biotin deficiency in protein-energy malnutrition: implications for nutritional homeostasis and ...
Preclinical studies have shown that nintedanib binds in a highly selective manner to the ATP-binding pocket of its three target ... without binding to similarly shaped ATP domains in other proteins, which reduces the potential for undesirable side effects. ... phenytoin or St. John's Wort probably lower plasma levels as well. Nintedanib targets growth factor receptors, which have been ... Only a small percentage of orally taken nintedanib is absorbed in the gut, partially due to transport proteins (such as P- ...
Unlike estradiol, which binds with high affinity to SHBG, EE has no affinity for this protein and is instead bound almost ... An example is troleandomycin, which is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of CYP3A4. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) has been ... Examples of inducers include anticonvulsants like phenytoin, primidone, ethosuximide, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine; azole ... It binds to and activates both isoforms of the estrogen receptor, ERα and ERβ. In one study, EE was found to have 233% and 38% ...
... is highly protein bound and is extensively metabolized into pharmacologically inactive metabolites. Due to its poor ... Valproate inhibits the metabolism of lorazepam, whereas carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and rifampin ... However, its poor lipid solubility and high degree of protein binding (85-90%) mean its volume of distribution is mainly the ... high protein binding and anoxidative metabolism to a pharmacologically inactive glucuronide form) and by its high relative ...
... is largely bound to plasma proteins. Clonazepam passes through the blood-brain barrier easily, with blood and brain ... Clonazepam may affect levels of phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin). In turn, Phenytoin may lower clonazepam plasma levels by ... "highly potent" benzodiazepines. The anticonvulsant properties of benzodiazepines are due to the enhancement of synaptic GABA ... Clonazepam acts by binding to the benzodiazepine site of the GABA receptors, which enhances the electric effect of GABA binding ...
The iron is tethered to the protein via a cysteine thiolate ligand. This cysteine and several flanking residues are highly ... allowing the degree of binding to be determined from absorbance measurements in vitro C: If carbon monoxide (CO) binds to ... Phenytoin, for example, induces CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4. Substrates for the latter may be drugs with critical ... More than 50,000 distinct CYP proteins are known. Most CYPs require a protein partner to deliver one or more electrons to ...
... is highly protein-bound, with 96 to 99% of the absorbed drug being protein-bound. The distribution half-life of ... Rifampin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital increase the metabolism of diazepam, thus decreasing drug levels and ... Binding of benzodiazepines to this receptor complex promotes binding of GABA, which in turn increases the total conduction of ... Diazepam binds with high affinity to glial cells in animal cell cultures. Diazepam at high doses has been found to decrease ...
... sertraline is highly protein-bound in plasma, with a bound fraction of 98.5%. Hence, only 1.5% is free and theoretically ... Case reports suggest that taking sertraline with phenytoin or zolpidem may induce sertraline metabolism and decrease its ... In the blood, it is 98.5% bound to plasma proteins. According to in vitro studies, sertraline is metabolized by multiple ... It is highly selective in its inhibition of serotonin reuptake. By inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, sertraline increases ...
Estrogens are typically bound to albumin and/or sex hormone-binding globulin in the circulation. They are metabolized in the ... protein S, protein C, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Although this is true ... This is seen in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, which occurs in 0.4 to 15% of pregnancies (highly variable depending on ... Inducers of cytochrome P450 enzymes like carbamazepine and phenytoin can accelerate the metabolism of estrogens and thereby ...
Each protein is a link on the autoimmune chain, and researchers are trying to find drugs to break each of those links. SLE is a ... Antibody binding subsequently spread to other epitopes. The similarity and cross-reactivity between the initial targets of nRNP ... and phenytoin. Discoid (cutaneous) lupus is limited to skin symptoms and is diagnosed by biopsy of rash on the face, neck, ... Anti-dsDNA antibodies are highly specific for SLE; they are present in 70% of cases, whereas they appear in only 0.5% of people ...
It was indicated that the noncompetitive binding site of 6-hydroxyflavone is the reported allosteric binding site of the CYP2C9 ... CYP2C9 makes up about 18% of the cytochrome P450 protein in liver microsomes (data only for antifungal). Some 100 therapeutic ... Genetic polymorphism exists for CYP2C9 expression because the CYP2C9 gene is highly polymorphic. More than 50 single nucleotide ... Especially for CYP2C9 substrates such as warfarin and phenytoin, diminished metabolic capacity because of genetic polymorphisms ...
Wienken CJ, Baaske P, Rothbauer U, Braun D, Duhr S (October 2010). "Protein-binding assays in biological liquids using ... Due to the dependence on the length of x in the trapezoidal rule, the area estimation is highly dependent on the blood/plasma ... As occurs with fluvoxamine, fluoxetine and phenytoin. As larger doses of these pharmaceuticals are administered the plasma ... Noncompartmental PK analysis is highly dependent on estimation of total drug exposure. Total drug exposure is most often ...
This mutation alters a cysteine involved in a disulfide bond in the extracellular N-terminus of the protein. This extracellular ... This mutation, R43Q, is located in the one of two benzodiazepine binding-sites located in the extracellular N-terminus. ... The results of these mutations are highly variable, some producing functional channels while others result in non-functional ... epilepsy mutation in the beta1 subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel results in reduced channel sensitivity to phenytoin ...
In gram-negative bacteria, plasmid-mediated resistance genes produce proteins that can bind to DNA gyrase, protecting it from ... and are highly active. Some experts have advised avoidance of fluoroquinolones in athletes. If tendonitis occurs, it generally ... phenytoin, cyclosporine, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and cycloserine. Administration of quinolone antibiotics to a benzodiazepine ... Finally, mutations at key sites in DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV can decrease their binding affinity to quinolones, decreasing ...
The active metabolites of cyclophosphamide are highly protein bound and distributed to all tissues, are assumed to cross the ... or phenytoin) may result in accelerated metabolism of cyclophosphamide into its active metabolites, increasing both ... a sulfhydryl donor which binds and detoxifies acrolein.[21][22] Intermittent dosing of cyclophosphamide decreases cumulative ...
Protein binding. 25%[1]. Metabolism. Hepatic. Elimination half-life. Primidone: 5-18 h,. Phenobarbital: 75-120 h,[1]. PEMA: 16 ... Phenytoin was to be used as adjunctive therapy only.[79] In spite of these advances, primidone was still considered to be a " ... was first noted to be highly prevalent in epileptic people in 1941 by a Dr. Lund, fourteen years before primidone was on the ... Phenytoin was still regarded as the drug of choice for partial seizures due to its long half-life and low cost; but for ...
... has plasma protein binding of 85%.[124][119] Clonazepam passes through the blood-brain barrier easily, with blood ... Clonazepam may affect levels of phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin).[92][94][95][96] In turn, Phenytoin may lower clonazepam plasma ... "highly potent" benzodiazepines.[110] The anticonvulsant properties of benzodiazepines are due to the enhancement of synaptic ... It acts by binding to the benzodiazepine site of the GABA receptors, which enhances the electric effect of GABA binding on ...
"RTX proteins: A highly diverse family secreted by a common mechanism". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 34 (6): 1076-112. doi:10.1111 ... The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of membrane-bound (typically endoplasmic reticulum-bound) enzymes contain a heme cofactor ... phenytoin.[unreliable source?] 7) CYP2C19*2 (19154G>A, rs4244285,[unreliable source?] Il264Met) and CYP2C19*3 (17948G>A, ... Thus, the CYP epoxygenases which attack arachidonic acid's double bound between carbon 14 and 15 form a mixture of 14R,15S-ETE ...
It is highly advised to not sleep too late and to get enough high quality sleep. Understanding the symptoms, when they occur ... Other anti-convulsants effective in some cases and being studied closer include phenytoin, levetiracetam, pregabalin and ... Antidepressant effectiveness varies, which may be related to different serotonergic and dopaminergic receptor binding profiles ... "Efficacy of a protein kinase C inhibitor (tamoxifen) in the treatment of acute mania: A pilot study". Bipolar Disorders. 9 (6 ...
Protein binding. 60%. Metabolism. Hepatic via CYP3A4. Elimination half-life. 1.8 ± 0.4 hours. ... Indinavir (IDV; trade name Crixivan, made by Merck) is a protease inhibitor used as a component of highly active antiretroviral ... As a result, structural proteins, resulting from polypeptide products of gag and gag-pol genes, that are necessary for the HIV ...
Phenytoin is highly bound to plasma proteins, primarily albumin, although to a lesser extent than fosphenytoin. In the absence ... However, fosphenytoin displaces phenytoin from plasma protein binding sites. This increases the fraction of phenytoin unbound ( ... Fosphenytoin is extensively bound (95% to 99%) to human plasma proteins, primarily albumin. Binding to plasma proteins is ... The pharmacokinetics and protein binding of fosphenytoin, phenytoin, and diazepam were not altered when diazepam and CEREBYX ...
... , Dilantin, Fosphenytoin, Cerebyx, Diphenylhydantoin, DPH, Hydantoin, Mephenytoin, Ethotoin, Phenacemide. ... Fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) has similar pharmacokinetics to Phenytoin. *Hepatic metabolism. *Highly protein bound ... phenytoin, PHENYTOIN, Phenytoin - chemical (substance), DPH, Phenylhydantoin, Phenytoin product, Phenytoin (product), Phenytoin ... However onset of activity is similar to that with Phenytoin (as Fosphenytoin is converted to active Phenytoin form) ...
Highly protein bound in plasma Phenytoin Decks in Exam 8 Class (18): * Tx Psychosis ...
What is a highly protein bound drug used vs. seizures?. Phenytoin 21 ...
It is highly protein bound at 90% with therapeutic levels.. Protein binding does decrease with a toxic ingestion, older age, ... It is highly protein bound at 75% with therapeutic levels but the protein binding decreases with a toxic ingestion, older age, ... It is highly protein bound at 95% with therapeutic levels but the protein binding decreases with a toxic ingestion, older age, ... Does this patient have phenytoin, carbamazapene, valproic acid or phenobarbitol intoxication?. Phenytoin. Phenytoin is a ...
Renal Failure corrects serum phenytoin level for renal failure and/or hypoalbuminemia. ... Phenytoin has a narrow therapeutic window, and is highly protein-bound. The protein-bound phenytoin is what is typically ... Phenytoin is highly protein bound, but generally it is the free, unbound portion in the serum that correlates with ... Laboratories typically only measure the bound portion of phenytoin. Many equations to predict unbound phenytoin concentrations ...
Phenytoin) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related ... As phenytoin is highly protein bound, free phenytoin levels may be altered in patients whose protein binding characteristics ... Phenytoin is extensively bound to serum plasma proteins and is prone to competitive displacement. Phenytoin is metabolized by ... Hemodialysis can be considered since phenytoin is not completely bound to plasma proteins. Total exchange transfusion has been ...
Phenytoin Capsules official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse ... As phenytoin is highly protein bound, free phenytoin levels may be altered in patients whose protein binding characteristics ... Phenytoin is extensively bound to serum plasma proteins and is prone to competitive displacement. Phenytoin is metabolized by ... Hemodialysis can be considered since phenytoin is not completely bound to plasma proteins. Total exchange transfusion has been ...
Phenytoin is a poorly soluble compound that is highly protein bound, metabolized by cytochrome P-450 system, and has nonlinear ... This is a branched-chain fatty acid that undergoes oxidative metabolism and is highly protein bound. The amount of protein ... This agent markedly induces its own metabolism and is highly bound to plasma proteins. Carbamazepine is available as 100-mg/mL ... It is highly protein bound. It is available as a 2-, 4-, 12-, and 16-mg tablets. ...
As phenytoin is highly protein bound, free phenytoin levels may be altered in patients whose protein binding characteristics ... Phenytoin is extensively bound to plasma proteins and is prone to competitive displacement. Phenytoin is metabolized by hepatic ... Hemodialysis can be considered since phenytoin is not completely bound to plasma proteins. Total exchange transfusion has been ... Because of potential changes in protein binding during pregnancy, the monitoring of phenytoin serum levels should be based on ...
As phenytoin is highly protein bound, free phenytoin levels may be altered in patients whose protein binding characteristics ... Phenytoin is extensively bound to plasma proteins and is prone to competitive displacement. Phenytoin is metabolized by hepatic ... Phenytoin is extensively bound to serum plasma proteins.. Elimination. The plasma half-life in man after oral administration of ... Hemodialysis can be considered since phenytoin is not completely bound to plasma proteins. Total exchange transfusion has been ...
Highly protein bound medicines: Amiodarone may alter the concentrations of these medicines e.g. phenytoin. Beta blockers and ... Amiodarone is strongly protein bound and the plasma half life is usually approximately 50 days. There may, however, be ... Once amiodarone treatment is withdrawn, residual tissue bound amiodarone may protect the patient for up to one month, but the ...
... and it is highly protein bound (usually 90% in adults).. In serum, phenytoin binds rapidly and reversibly to proteins. About 90 ... Phenytoin is highly protein bound and extensively metabolised by the liver.. Reduced maintenance dosage to prevent accumulation ... Phenytoin is extensively bound to serum plasma proteins and is prone to competitive displacement. Phenytoin is metabolized by ... Where protein binding is reduced, as in uraemia, total serum phenytoin levels will be reduced accordingly. However, the ...
Current use of highly plasma protein bound drugs including but not limited to, warfarin and phenytoin; ... phenytoin, phenobarbital, propoxyphene, quinidine, amiodarone, or ergot alkaloids, azole antifungals (ketoconazole, fluconazole ...
... with regards to plasma protein binding or something? Something to do with *other* meds that bind highly to plasma protein? What ... Phenytoins also got quite a narrow therapeutic index, toxicity may occur if the plasma conc is too high. With phenytoin, its ... DUE TO CHANGES IN PROTEIN BINDING. To a variable extent most drugs are loosely bound to plasma proteins. Protein-binding sites ... For Depakote, plasma protein binding is about 90%. ,From what I remember I think the serum protein binding is what creates a ...
... binding in liver microsomal incubations can result in an underestimation of intrinsic clearance for highly protein binding ... Effect of Albumin on Phenytoin and Tolbutamide Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes: An Impact More Than Protein Binding. Cuyue ... Effect of Albumin on Phenytoin and Tolbutamide Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes: An Impact More Than Protein Binding. Cuyue ... Effect of Albumin on Phenytoin and Tolbutamide Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes: An Impact More Than Protein Binding. Cuyue ...
Caution with other highly protein-bound drugs.. Adverse Reactions: Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, insomnia; hyponatremia/SIADH ( ... Antagonized by strong CYP3A4 inducers (eg, carbamazepine, phenytoin, rifampin); see Adult. Monitor digoxin. ...
Drugs highly bound to plasma protein: In vitro drug-displacement studies were conducted with atomoxetine and other highly-bound ... Warfarin, acetylsalicylic acid, phenytoin, or diazepam did not affect the binding of atomoxetine to human albumin. Similarly, ... Because atomoxetine is highly protein-bound, dialysis is not likely to be useful in the treatment of overdose.. ... Distribution: Atomoxetine is widely distributed and is extensively (98%) bound to plasma proteins, primarily albumin.. ...
In general, protein binding of acidic drugs (including warfarin, phenytoin, ceftriaxone, and furosemide) is decreased in ... In general, drugs that are highly protein bound (regardless of the molecular weight) and drugs with a high volume of ... When possible, unbound drug concentrations should be monitored for drugs that are highly protein bound (, 20% unbound) and have ... protein bound drug, leading to an increased volume of distribution.. It is important to note that changes in drug exposure of ...
... or greater protein binding are too dangerous. An exception is phenytoin (dilantin) because it is highly susceptible to binding ... Protein Binding. (If you want to save time, do protein binding second, right after reference range. This one, like the ... The Protein Binding Rule:. If the drug has a high protein binding percentage, dont use herbs. ... Protein binding is a measure of how much of the drug binds to albumin, the most common protein in the blood. The amount of the ...
The binding of lamotrigine to plasma proteins did not change in the presence of therapeutic concentrations of phenytoin, ... Because lamotrigine is not highly bound to plasma proteins, clinically significant interactions with other drugs through ... Protein Binding. Data from in vitro studies indicate that lamotrigine is approximately 55% bound to human plasma proteins at ... Lamotrigine did not displace other AEDs (carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital) from protein-binding sites. ...
Thyroxine (T4) is very highly protein bound in plasma (99.95% bound, about 0.05% free). Therefore, a rough estimate of the ... Large amounts of drugs such as PHENYTOIN ANS ASPIRIN DISPLACE T4 FROM BINDING SITES ON TBG.===, LOWERING THE TOTAL SERUM T4 ... Thyroid Hormone Binding Proteins. Thyroid hormones circulate in association with proteins which bind thyroid hormones. It is ... More than 99% of thyroid hormone is carried in circulation firmly bound to three major binding proteins: thyroid binding ...
Consequently, interactions with other drugs which are highly protein bound (e.g., anticoagulants) would not be expected. ... group I antiarrhythmics lidocaine, flecainide, Dilantin, phenytoin, propafenone. Atrial Fibrillation diltiazem, Xarelto, ... The extent of flecainide binding to human plasma proteins is about 40% and is independent of plasma drug level over the range ... Flecainide is not extensively bound to plasma proteins. In vitro studies with several drugs which may be administered ...
highly protein bound drugs such as phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek). This is not a complete list of Feldene drug interactions. ...
Highly protein-bound drugs, such as phenytoin, are also best avoided when possible. Levetiracetam, gabapentin, and pregabalin ... For antiepileptic drugs that are hepatically metabolized or highly protein bound, alterations of hepatic enzymatic pathways and ... and have low protein binding. Therefore, levetiracetam is most appropriate for this patient. ... Urinalysis shows 3+ protein, 1+ blood, 15 dysmorphic erythrocytes/hpf, 2-5 leukocytes/hpf, occasional erythrocyte casts and a ...
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