Drug and Narcotic Control
Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists
Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists
United States Department of Agriculture
United States Department of Homeland Security
Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis
Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous
Tolterodine does not affect the human in vivo metabolism of the probe drugs caffeine, debrisoquine and omeprazole. (1/147)AIM: To investigate the in vivo effect of treatment with tolterodine on debrisoquine 4-hydroxylation (an index of CYP2D6 activity), omeprazole 5-hydroxylation (CYP2C19), omeprazole sulphoxidation (CYP3A4) and caffeine N3-demethylation (CYP1A2). METHODS: Twelve healthy male volunteers (eight extensive metabolisers [EMs] and four poor metabolisers [PMs] with respect to CYP2D6) received 4 mg tolterodine L-tartrate orally twice daily for 6 days. All subjects were EMs with respect to CYP2C19. The subjects received single oral doses of debrisoquine (10 mg), omeprazole (20 mg) and caffeine (100 mg) for determination of the appropriate metabolic ratios (MR). The drugs were given on separate consecutive days, before, during and after the co-administration of tolterodine. RESULTS: Mean serum tolterodine concentrations were 5-10 times higher in PMs than in EMs. Serum concentrations of the active 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite of tolterodine, 5-HM, were not quantifiable in PMs. The mean MR of debrisoquine (95% confidence interval) during tolterodine treatment was 0.50 (0.25-0.99) and did not differ statistically from the values before [0.49 (0.20-1.2)] and after tolterodine administration [0.46 (0.14-1.6)] in EMs. The mean MR of omeprazole hydroxylation and sulphoxidation or caffeine metabolism were not changed in the presence of tolterodine in either EMs or PMs. Debrisoquine and caffeine had no significant effect on the AUC(1,3 h) of either tolterodine or 5-HM, but during omeprazole administration small decreases (13-19%) in these parameters were seen. CONCLUSIONS: Tolterodine, administered at twice the expected therapeutic dosage, did not change the disposition of the probe drugs debrisoquine, omeprazole and caffeine and thus had no detectable effect on the activities of CYPs 2D6, 2C19, 3A4 and 1A2. Alteration of the metabolism of substrates of these enzymes by tolterodine is unlikely to occur. (+info)
Fluoxetine inhibits the metabolism of tolterodine-pharmacokinetic implications and proposed clinical relevance. (2/147)AIMS: To investigate the change in disposition of tolterodine during coadministration of the potent cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) inhibitor fluoxetine. METHODS: Thirteen patients received tolterodine l-tartrate 2 mg twice daily for 2.5 days, followed by fluoxetine 20 mg once daily for 3 weeks and then concomitant administration for an additional 2.5 days. They were characterized as extensive metabolizers (EM1 with one functional CYP2D6 gene, EM2 with two functional genes) or poor metabolizers (PM). RESULTS: Nine patients, three EM2 and four EM1 and two PM, completed the trial. Following tolterodine administration, the area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) of tolterodine was 4.4-times and 30-times higher among EM1 and PM, respectively, compared with EM2. The AUC of the 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite (5-HM) was not quantifiable in PM. Fluoxetine significantly decreased (P<0.002) the oral clearance of tolterodine by 93% in EM2 and by 80% in EM1. The AUC of 5-HM increased in EM2 and decreased in EM1. However, the exposure to the active moiety (unbound tolterodine +5-HM) was not significantly increased in the two phenotypes. The subdivision of the EM group showed a 2.1-fold increase in active moiety in EM2 but the exposure was still similar to EM1 compared with before the interaction. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests a difference in the pharmacokinetics of tolterodine and its 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite depending on the number of functional CYP2D6 genes. Fluoxetine significantly inhibited the hydroxylation of tolterodine. Despite the effect on the pharmacokinetics of tolterodine in extensive metabolizers, the clinical effect is expected to be within normal variation. (+info)
Ketoconazole inhibits the metabolism of tolterodine in subjects with deficient CYP2D6 activity. (3/147)AIMS: To investigate the pharmacokinetics and safety of tolterodine and tolterodine metabolites after single-and multiple-dose administration in the absence and presence of ketoconazole, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, in healthy volunteers with deficient CYP2D6 activity, i.e. poor metabolisers of debrisoquine. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers received single oral doses (2 mg) of tolterodine l-tartrate. Following a wash-out period of about 3 months, six of the subjects participated in a multiple-dose (1 mg twice daily) phase of the study. Ketoconazole 200 mg was given once daily for 4-4.5 days during both the single and multiple dose tolterodine administration phases. Blood samples were drawn and the pharmacokinetics of tolterodine and its metabolites were determined. RESULTS: A decrease (P<0.01) in apparent oral clearance of tolterodine, from 10- 12 l h-1 to 4.3-4.7 l h-1, was obtained during concomitant administration of ketoconazole, yielding at least a two-fold increase in the area under the serum concentration-time curve after single as well as after multiple doses following single dose administration of tolterodine. The mean (+/-s.d.) terminal half-life increased by 50% from 9.7+/-2.7 h to 15+/-5.4 h in the presence of ketoconazole. CONCLUSIONS: CYP3A4 is the major enzyme involved in the elimination of tolterodine in individuals with deficient CYP2D6 activity (poor metabolisers), since oral clearance of tolterodine decreased by 60% during ketoconazole coadministration. This inhibition resulted in 2.1-fold increase in AUC. (+info)
Phenylpropanolamine and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. (4/147)BACKGROUND: Phenylpropanolamine is commonly found in appetite suppressants and cough or cold remedies. Case reports have linked the use of products containing phenylpropanolamine to hemorrhagic stroke, often after the first use of these products. To study the association, we designed a case-control study. METHODS: Men and women 18 to 49 years of age were recruited from 43 U.S. hospitals. Eligibility criteria included the occurrence of a subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage within 30 days before enrollment and the absence of a previously diagnosed brain lesion. Random-digit dialing identified two matched control subjects per patient. RESULTS: There were 702 patients and 1376 control subjects. For women, the adjusted odds ratio was 16.58 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.51 to 182.21; P=0.02) for the association between the use of appetite suppressants containing phenylpropanolamine and the risk of a hemorrhagic stroke and 3.13 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.86 to 11.46; P=0.08) for the association with the first use of a product containing phenylpropanolamine. All first uses of phenylpropanolamine involved cough or cold remedies. For men and women combined, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.49 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.84 to 2.64; P=0.17) for the association between the use of a product containing phenylpropanolamine and the risk of a hemorrhagic stroke, 1.23 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.68 to 2.24; P=0.49) for the association with the use of cough or cold remedies that contained phenylpropanolamine, and 15.92 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.38 to 184.13; P=0.03) for the association with the use of appetite suppressants that contained phenylpropanolamine. An analysis in men showed no increased risk of a hemorrhagic stroke in association with the use of cough or cold remedies containing phenylpropanolamine. No men reported the use of appetite suppressants. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that phenylpropanolamine in appetite suppressants, and possibly in cough and cold remedies, is an independent risk factor for hemorrhagic stroke in women. (+info)
Overactive bladder: optimizing quality of care. (5/147)Overactive bladder (OAB), the symptom complex of urinary urgency and frequency with or without urge incontinence, affects the lives of millions of Americans. In recent years, more successful treatment options have emerged as advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiologic processes underlying OAB symptoms. However, because most therapeutic modalities for OAB are aimed at symptom resolution, rather than the treatment of distinct pathologic entities, a basic evaluation is required for all patients to establish whether existing (and treatable) pathologic processes are present. In the absence of these processes, symptom relief is both the objective and the outcome used to judge the efficacy of a specific modality. The type of therapy recommended for OAB may depend on several factors including age, existing behavioral patterns, estrogen status, degree of motivation, environmental surroundings, presence of other coexisting urinary symptoms, family support, and patient expectations. This article focuses on methods of identifying patients with OAB, and the role of developing strategies in treating this common disorder. (+info)
Functional characterization of rat submaxillary gland muscarinic receptors using microphysiometry. (6/147)1. Muscarinic cholinoceptors (MChR) in freshly dispersed rat salivary gland (RSG) cells were characterized using microphysiometry to measure changes in acidification rates. Several non-selective and selective muscarinic antagonists were used to elucidate the nature of the subtypes mediating the response to carbachol. 2. The effects of carbachol (pEC(50) = 5.74 +/- 0.02 s.e.mean; n = 53) were highly reproducible and most antagonists acted in a surmountable, reversible fashion. The following antagonist rank order, with apparent affinity constants in parentheses, was noted: 4-DAMP (8.9)= atropine (8.9) > tolterodine (8.5) > oxybutynin (7.9) > S-secoverine (7.2) > pirenzepine (6.9) > himbacine (6.8) > AQ-RA 741 (6.6) > methoctramine (5.9). 3. These studies validate the use of primary isolated RSG cells in microphysiometry for pharmacological analysis. These data are consistent with, and extend, previous studies using alternative functional methods, which reported a lack of differential receptor pharmacology between bladder and salivary gland tissue. 4. The antagonist affinity profile significantly correlated with the profile at human recombinant muscarinic M(3) and M(5) receptors. Given a lack of antagonists that discriminate between M(3) and M(5), definitive conclusion of which subtype(s) is present within RSG cells cannot be determined. (+info)
Separation and determination of ephedrine alkaloids and tetramethylpyrazine in Ephedra sinica Stapf by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (7/147)A simple, sensitive, and reliable method using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) is developed for the simultaneous determination of ephedrine alkaloids and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) in Ephedra sinica Stapf. The sample is extracted with ethyl ether and submitted to GC-MS for identification and quantitation without derivatization. The column used for GC is an HP-5 (30.0 m x 250 microm x 0.25 microm, 5% phenyl methyl siloxane), and the carrier gas is helium. The detection limits for ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and TMP are 0.4 ng 0.7 ng, and 0.02 ng (signal-to-noise ratio of 3), respectively. The reproducibility of the total procedure is proved to be acceptable (RSD < 2%), and the recoveries are above 93%. (+info)
Maternal medication use and risks of gastroschisis and small intestinal atresia. (8/147)Gastroschisis and small intestinal atresia (SIA) are birth defects that are thought to arise from vascular disruption of fetal mesenteric vessels. Previous studies of gastroschisis have suggested that risk is increased for maternal use of vasoactive over-the-counter medications, including specific analgesics and decongestants. This retrospective study evaluated the relation between maternal use of cough/cold/analgesic medications and risks of gastroschisis and SIA. From 1995 to 1999, the mothers of 206 gastroschisis cases, 126 SIA cases, and 798 controls in the United States and Canada were interviewed about medication use and illnesses. Risks of gastroschisis were elevated for use of aspirin (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 5.9), pseudoephedrine (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 3.2), acetaminophen (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.2), and pseudoephedrine combined with acetaminophen (odds ratio = 4.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.9, 9.2). Risks of SIA were increased for any use of pseudoephedrine (odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 4.0) and for use of pseudoephedrine in combination with acetaminophen (odds ratio = 3.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 8.0). Reported fever, upper respiratory infection, and allergy were not associated with risks of either defect. These findings add more evidence that aspirin use in early pregnancy increases risk of gastroschisis. Although pseudoephedrine has previously been shown to increase gastroschisis risk, findings of this study raise questions about interactions between medications and possible confounding by underlying illness. (+info)
Phenylpropanolamine is a sympathomimetic amine that was previously used as a decongestant and appetite suppressant in over-the-counter cold and flu remedies, as well as in weight loss supplements. However, it was voluntarily removed from the market in the United States in 2000 due to concerns about its potential to cause serious cardiovascular side effects, including stroke and high blood pressure. In some countries, it is still available by prescription for the treatment of certain conditions, such as nasal congestion and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Ephedrine is a stimulant drug that is derived from the Ephedra plant. It is commonly used in over-the-counter medications to treat symptoms of allergies, colds, and flu. Ephedrine works by constricting blood vessels in the nasal passages, reducing inflammation, and opening airways, which can help to relieve congestion and other respiratory symptoms. In addition to its use in over-the-counter medications, ephedrine is also used in some prescription medications to treat asthma and other respiratory conditions. It is also sometimes used as a recreational drug, particularly in combination with other stimulants such as amphetamines. Ephedrine is a Schedule IV controlled substance in the United States, meaning that it has a low potential for abuse and dependence, but it can still be misused if not used as directed. It is important to follow the instructions on the label and to talk to a healthcare provider before using ephedrine or any other medication.
Pseudoephedrine is a medication that is commonly used to treat nasal congestion and other symptoms of the common cold and allergies. It is a sympathomimetic drug that works by narrowing the blood vessels in the nasal passages, which helps to reduce swelling and congestion. Pseudoephedrine is also sometimes used to treat other conditions, such as bronchitis and sinusitis. In the medical field, pseudoephedrine is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquids. It is usually taken orally, although it can also be administered intravenously in some cases. Pseudoephedrine is generally considered to be safe and effective when used as directed, but it can cause side effects in some people, such as dizziness, nausea, and insomnia. It is important to follow the instructions on the label and to talk to a healthcare provider before taking pseudoephedrine if you have any medical conditions or are taking any other medications.
Appetite depressants are medications that are used to reduce appetite and decrease food intake. They are commonly prescribed to people who are overweight or obese, as a way to help them lose weight. Appetite depressants work by affecting the parts of the brain that control hunger and satiety, making a person feel less hungry and more satisfied with smaller amounts of food. Some examples of appetite depressants include amphetamines, phentermine, and topiramate. It is important to note that appetite depressants should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.
Cellulose, oxidized refers to a derivative of cellulose, which is a complex carbohydrate found in plant cell walls. Oxidized cellulose is produced by treating cellulose with an oxidizing agent, such as hydrogen peroxide or sodium hypochlorite, to create a covalent bond between the cellulose molecules. This process results in a more hydrophilic (water-loving) substance that can be used in various medical applications. One common use of oxidized cellulose is as a hemostatic agent, which is used to stop bleeding. It is applied topically to a bleeding site and forms a gel-like substance that helps to plug the blood vessels and prevent further bleeding. Oxidized cellulose is also used as a dressing material in wound care, as it can absorb exudate (fluid) and help to keep the wound moist, which can promote healing. In addition to its use in medical applications, oxidized cellulose is also used in various industrial applications, such as in the production of paper, textiles, and building materials.
The common cold is a viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract, including the nose, throat, and sinuses. It is caused by a variety of viruses, including rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, and adenoviruses. The common cold is highly contagious and can be spread through contact with infected individuals or surfaces contaminated with the virus. Symptoms of the common cold typically include a runny or stuffy nose, sore throat, cough, and sometimes fever, body aches, and headaches. The common cold is a self-limiting illness, meaning that it will usually resolve on its own within a week or two without the need for medical treatment. However, over-the-counter medications such as pain relievers, decongestants, and cough suppressants can help alleviate symptoms.
Adrenergic alpha-1 receptor agonists are a class of drugs that bind to and activate alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in the body. These receptors are found in various tissues, including blood vessels, the heart, and the smooth muscle of the bronchi and bladder. When adrenergic alpha-1 receptor agonists bind to these receptors, they cause a number of physiological effects, including: * Constriction of blood vessels, which can increase blood pressure * Constriction of the smooth muscle in the bronchi, which can help to open up the airways and improve breathing in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions * Constriction of the smooth muscle in the bladder, which can help to reduce urine leakage in people with overactive bladder syndrome Adrenergic alpha-1 receptor agonists are used to treat a variety of conditions, including high blood pressure, heart failure, and certain types of respiratory and urinary conditions. Some examples of adrenergic alpha-1 receptor agonists include prazosin (Minipress), doxazosin (Cardura), and terazosin (Hytrin).
In the medical field, "commerce" typically refers to the business or commercial aspects of healthcare, such as the sale and distribution of medical products and services, the management of healthcare facilities and organizations, and the financial aspects of healthcare delivery. For example, a medical device manufacturer may engage in commerce by producing and selling medical devices to healthcare providers, while a hospital may engage in commerce by managing its budget, billing patients for services, and negotiating contracts with insurance companies. Commerce in the medical field can also include the development and marketing of new medical technologies and treatments, as well as the regulation and oversight of healthcare industries and markets.
Adrenergic alpha-2 receptor agonists are a class of drugs that bind to and activate alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the body. These receptors are found in various tissues, including the cardiovascular system, central nervous system, and immune system. When adrenergic alpha-2 receptor agonists bind to these receptors, they cause a decrease in heart rate, blood pressure, and systemic vascular resistance. They also have a sedative effect on the central nervous system and can reduce inflammation in the body. Adrenergic alpha-2 receptor agonists are used in a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension, anxiety, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). They are also used to treat certain types of pain, such as postoperative pain and chronic pain. Examples of adrenergic alpha-2 receptor agonists include clonidine, guanfacine, and dexmedetomidine. These drugs are typically administered orally, intravenously, or by injection.
Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is the primary structural component of plant cell walls. It is a long, fibrous polysaccharide made up of glucose molecules linked together by beta-1,4-glycosidic bonds. In the medical field, cellulose is used in a variety of ways. For example, it is often used as a thickening agent in medications, such as tablets and capsules, to help them maintain their shape and prevent them from dissolving too quickly in the stomach. It is also used as a binding agent in some medications to help them stick together and form a solid mass. In addition, cellulose is used in wound dressings and other medical products to help absorb excess fluid and promote healing. It is also used in some dietary supplements to help slow down the absorption of other ingredients, such as vitamins and minerals. Overall, cellulose is an important component of many medical products and plays a crucial role in their function and effectiveness.
In the medical field, a cough is a reflex action that involves the contraction of muscles in the chest and throat to expel air from the lungs. It is a common symptom of many respiratory conditions, including colds, flu, bronchitis, pneumonia, and asthma. A cough can be dry, meaning that no phlegm or mucus is produced, or wet, meaning that mucus is produced. A persistent cough that lasts for more than three weeks or is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, chest pain, or difficulty breathing may be a sign of a more serious condition and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional. Treatment for a cough depends on the underlying cause. For example, a cough caused by a cold or flu may be treated with over-the-counter cough suppressants or expectorants, while a cough caused by a more serious condition may require prescription medication or other medical interventions.
Cerebral hemorrhage, also known as intracerebral hemorrhage, is a medical emergency that occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing blood to leak into the surrounding brain tissue. This can cause severe brain damage and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Cerebral hemorrhage is a type of stroke, which is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. It can occur due to a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, aneurysms, brain tumors, and certain medications. Symptoms of cerebral hemorrhage can include sudden and severe headache, nausea and vomiting, confusion, loss of consciousness, weakness or numbness in the face, arms, or legs, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and vision problems. Treatment for cerebral hemorrhage typically involves reducing blood pressure, controlling bleeding, and managing symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the blood clot or repair the ruptured blood vessel. The outcome of cerebral hemorrhage depends on the severity of the bleeding, the location of the hemorrhage in the brain, and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment.
Atopic dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by dry, itchy, and red skin. It is a common condition that affects both children and adults, and is often associated with a family history of allergies and asthma. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition is thought to be caused by an overactive immune system response to irritants or allergens in the environment, which leads to inflammation and dryness of the skin. Symptoms of atopic dermatitis can include red, itchy, and dry skin, which may be covered with scales or crusts. The condition can be very uncomfortable and can lead to sleep disturbances and other quality-of-life issues. It is often treated with moisturizers, corticosteroid creams, and other medications to help reduce inflammation and itching. In some cases, immunosuppressive medications may be prescribed to help control the condition.
Food hypersensitivity, also known as food allergy, is a condition in which the immune system reacts abnormally to certain foods. When a person with food hypersensitivity consumes a food to which they are allergic, their immune system produces antibodies that attack the food as a foreign substance. This can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, including hives, itching, swelling, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, food hypersensitivity can lead to anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction that requires immediate medical attention. Food hypersensitivity is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and allergy testing. Treatment typically involves avoiding the foods to which a person is allergic and carrying an epinephrine auto-injector in case of an allergic reaction.
Tinea versicolor is a common fungal infection that affects the skin. It is caused by a type of yeast called Malassezia furfur, which is normally present on the skin in small amounts. However, when the yeast grows out of control, it can cause patches of discolored skin to appear on the chest, back, neck, armpits, and groin. The patches of discolored skin can range in color from light tan to dark brown or even black. They may also have a scaly or rough texture. Tinea versicolor is more common in warm, humid climates and in people with oily skin. The symptoms of tinea versicolor can vary from person to person, but they may include: - Discolored patches of skin on the chest, back, neck, armpits, or groin - Scaling or flaking of the skin - Itching or burning sensation - A mild, burning or stinging sensation when the skin is touched Tinea versicolor is usually treated with antifungal creams, shampoos, or oral medications. In some cases, it may require multiple treatments to clear up completely. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider carefully to ensure that the infection is treated effectively.
Dermatitis, Seborrheic is a type of skin inflammation that affects the scalp, face, and other areas of the body where sebaceous glands are abundant. It is also known as seborrheic eczema or dandruff. The condition is characterized by red, itchy, and flaky skin, which can be accompanied by oily or greasy patches. Seborrheic dermatitis is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including hormonal changes, stress, and certain medications. Treatment typically involves the use of anti-inflammatory creams, shampoos, and other topical medications to reduce itching and inflammation. In some cases, oral medications may also be prescribed.
Dermatomycoses are a group of fungal infections that affect the skin and nails. These infections are caused by dermatophytes, which are a type of fungus that thrives in warm, moist environments, such as the skin, nails, and hair. Dermatomycoses can be classified into three main types: superficial, subcutaneous, and systemic. Superficial dermatomycoses affect only the outer layers of the skin and nails, and are usually mild and self-limiting. Examples of superficial dermatomycoses include athlete's foot, ringworm, and jock itch. Subcutaneous dermatomycoses involve deeper layers of the skin and can cause more serious symptoms, such as swelling, redness, and pain. Examples of subcutaneous dermatomycoses include sporotrichosis and chromoblastomycosis. Systemic dermatomycoses are rare and can affect multiple organs, including the lungs, brain, and heart. These infections are more difficult to treat and can be life-threatening if left untreated. Examples of systemic dermatomycoses include histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis. Treatment for dermatomycoses typically involves the use of antifungal medications, such as creams, ointments, or oral tablets. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary for intravenous antifungal therapy. Prevention of dermatomycoses involves maintaining good hygiene, avoiding contact with infected individuals or animals, and wearing protective clothing in high-risk environments.
Methyltestosterone is a synthetic androgenic anabolic steroid that is used in the medical field for the treatment of conditions such as delayed puberty, breast cancer in women, and muscle wasting diseases. It is also used to promote muscle growth and strength in athletes and bodybuilders. However, the use of methyltestosterone for these purposes is illegal without a prescription and can have serious side effects, including liver damage, high blood pressure, and infertility.
Drug eruptions refer to adverse reactions that occur on the skin or mucous membranes as a result of taking medication. These eruptions can range from mild rashes to severe, life-threatening reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. Drug eruptions can be caused by a variety of medications, including antibiotics, anticonvulsants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and many others. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential for drug eruptions when prescribing medications and to monitor patients for any signs of an adverse reaction. If a drug eruption occurs, the medication should be discontinued and appropriate treatment should be provided to manage the symptoms and prevent complications.
Pseudolymphoma is a term used to describe a benign (non-cancerous) condition that resembles lymphoma, a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system. Pseudolymphoma is also known as benign lymphoproliferative disorder or benign lymphoid hyperplasia. Pseudolymphoma typically presents as a swelling or mass in the skin, which can be firm, rubbery, or nodular. It is often mistaken for a lymphoma because of its similar appearance and symptoms, such as fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Pseudolymphoma can occur in any part of the body, but it is most commonly found on the skin, particularly on the head and neck. It can also occur in the mouth, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. The exact cause of pseudolymphoma is not known, but it is thought to be related to an overactive immune system. Treatment for pseudolymphoma typically involves removing the affected tissue through surgery or radiation therapy. In some cases, medications may also be used to treat the condition.
Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare and severe form of skin reaction that is characterized by the sudden appearance of numerous small, pus-filled bumps or pustules all over the body. It is a type of pustular dermatosis, which is a group of skin conditions that involve the formation of pus-filled bumps or blisters on the skin. AGEP is typically triggered by the use of certain medications, such as antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The condition can also be caused by infections, such as viral or bacterial infections, or by certain medical conditions, such as cancer or autoimmune disorders. Symptoms of AGEP may include fever, malaise, and flu-like symptoms, as well as the appearance of small, pus-filled bumps or pustules on the skin. These bumps may be red or purple in color and may be accompanied by itching or burning sensations. In severe cases, AGEP can lead to systemic complications, such as respiratory distress, kidney failure, and sepsis. Diagnosis of AGEP typically involves a physical examination of the skin and a review of the patient's medical history and medications. Blood tests and skin biopsies may also be performed to help confirm the diagnosis and rule out other possible causes of the skin reaction. Treatment of AGEP typically involves discontinuing the use of any medications that may have triggered the reaction and providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, hospitalization and intensive treatment may be necessary.
Exanthema is a medical term that refers to a rash or macular eruption on the skin that is caused by a variety of factors, including infections, allergies, medications, and other medical conditions. Exanthema can be characterized by a variety of different features, including redness, swelling, itching, and sometimes blistering or pus-filled bumps. The appearance of the rash can vary depending on the underlying cause, and it may be localized to a specific area of the body or widespread. In some cases, exanthema may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as a viral or bacterial infection, an autoimmune disorder, or a reaction to a medication. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if you develop a rash or other skin symptoms, especially if they are accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, fatigue, or difficulty breathing.
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination is a medication that contains two antibiotics: trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. It is commonly used to treat bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and skin infections. The combination of these two antibiotics provides a broad spectrum of coverage against a variety of bacteria. Trimethoprim inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase, while sulfamethoxazole inhibits bacterial dihydropteroate synthase, both of which are essential for bacterial growth and replication. The medication is usually taken orally in tablet form and is generally well-tolerated, although it may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions.
Skin diseases, vesiculobullous, refer to a group of medical conditions characterized by the formation of blisters or bullae on the skin. These blisters are filled with fluid and can be painful, itchy, or both. Vesiculobullous skin diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, infections, autoimmune disorders, and exposure to certain medications or chemicals. Some common examples of vesiculobullous skin diseases include pemphigus, pemphigoid, bullous pemphigoid, and epidermolysis bullosa. These conditions can affect different areas of the body and can range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Treatment for vesiculobullous skin diseases typically involves a combination of medications, such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and antibiotics, as well as wound care and other supportive measures.
Skin diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the skin, hair, and nails. These conditions can range from minor irritations and infections to more serious and chronic conditions that can significantly impact a person's quality of life. Skin diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental factors, infections, allergies, and autoimmune disorders. Some common examples of skin diseases include acne, eczema, psoriasis, rosacea, dermatitis, hives, warts, and skin cancer. Treatment for skin diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may involve the use of topical creams, ointments, or medications, as well as lifestyle changes, such as avoiding triggers or making dietary modifications. In some cases, more aggressive treatments, such as surgery or light therapy, may be necessary. Overall, skin diseases are a common and diverse group of medical conditions that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. Early detection and proper treatment are essential for managing these conditions and preventing complications.
List of withdrawn drugs
List of aminorex analogues
Norepinephrine releasing agent
Joshua B. Bederson
List of dog diseases
Chlorpheniramine and phenylpropanolamine Uses, Side Effects & Warnings
Phenylpropanolamine - Ab Enterprises
Treating malassezia dermatitis on my dog over-the-counter? - Questions & Answers | VetInfo/QA
Rinomar and breastfeeding. Are they compatible?
Hydralazine: Side Effects, Dosage & Drug Class
Neurologic Disease and Pregnancy: Overview, General Considerations, New-Onset Neurologic Complications
Guarana: MedlinePlus Supplements
Incontinence in Dogs - Urinary Problems | PetCareRx
Neurologic Disease and Pregnancy: Overview, General Considerations, New-Onset Neurologic Complications
Fixed Drug Eruptions: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Chapter 90 - Article 5
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- Shopkeeper's registration - Penalty - Ephedrine/pseudoephedrine/phenylpropanolamine. (wa.gov)
- Wholesaler's license - Required - Authority of licensee - Penalty - Ephedrine/pseudoephedrine/phenylpropanolamine. (wa.gov)
- Itinerant vendor's or peddler's registration - Fee - Penalties - Ephedrine/pseudoephedrine/phenylpropanolamine. (wa.gov)
- Licensee and registrant requirements regarding ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine: RCW 69.43.160 . (wa.gov)
- DEA has also announced plans to increase importation of several of the drugs (e.g., ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine). (beckershospitalreview.com)
- Initially, the Dexatrim formula was comprised largely of something called phenylpropanolamine. (ultimatefatburner.com)
- Epinephrine stores are released under phenylpropanolamine stimulation and produce alpha- and beta-adrenergic stimulation. (medscape.com)
- Chlorpheniramine and phenylpropanolamine is used to treat nasal congestion and sinusitis (inflammation of the sinuses) associated with allergies, hay fever, and the common cold. (drugs.com)
- Although the risk of hemorrhagic stroke is low, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that consumers not use any products that contain phenylpropanolamine. (drugs.com)
- The subjective improvement and cure rates are similar to that of phenylpropanolamine, which was recalled from the US market. (medscape.com)
- If you are over 65 years of age, you may be more likely to experience side effects from chlorpheniramine and phenylpropanolamine. (drugs.com)
- Phenylpropanolamine, an ingredient in this product, has been associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke (bleeding into the brain or into tissue surrounding the brain) in women. (drugs.com)
- PPA was dropped from many product compilations when a Yale University report indicated that phenylpropanolamine increased the risk of hemorrhagic stroke in women. (ultimatefatburner.com)
- Buy best price high-purity Phenylpropanolamine - speciality chemicals at best price from AB Enterprises in Mumbai, India known for using superior purity chemicals and the latest manufacturing equipment by highly experienced technicians to meet International Chemical Industry standards. (bangchemicals.com)
- An overview of Genetic Toxicology Bacterial Mutagenicity study conclusions related to Phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride (154-41-6). (nih.gov)
- Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Phenylpropanolamine Hydrochloride in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (nih.gov)
- L. Suryan, V. K. Bhusari, K. S. Rasal, S.R. Dhaneshwar, Simultaneous quantitation and validation of paracetamol, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride and cetirizine hydrochloride by RP‑HPLC in bulk drug and formulation, Int. J. Pharm. (ac.ir)
- Azhagvuel, R. Sekar, Method development and validation for the simultaneous determination of cetirizine dihydrochloride, paracetamol, and phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride in tablets by capillary zone electrophoresis, J. Pharm. (ac.ir)
- Blood Pressure Elevation Related to Concomitant Medication: monitor blood pressure if EMSAM is used with any of the following drugs: buspirone, amphetamines, or cold products or weight-reducing preparations that contain sympathomimetic amines (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, and ephedrine). (nih.gov)
- According to 21 USCS § 802 (49) (A), the term retail distributor means "a grocery store, general merchandise store, drug store, or other entity or person whose activities as a distributor relating to ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine products are limited almost exclusively to sales for personal use, both in number of sales and volume of sales, either directly to walk-in customers or in face-to-face transactions by direct sales. (uslegal.com)
- Parahydroxy analog of phenylpropanolamine with properties as a sympathomimetic. (bvsalud.org)
- 6374. S.F. vitamin tablets with phenylpropanolamine, and appetite depressant tablets. (nih.gov)
- Phenylpropanolamine - Stroke வர வாய்ப்பளிகிறது. (unavuulagam.in)
- A double blind clinical evaluation of a phenylpropanolamine-caffeine-vitamine combination and a placebo in the treatment of exogenous obesity. (nih.gov)
- Represented several leading national manufacturers of Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) in a series of lawsuits which alleged that PPA caused strokes. (bullivant.com)
- Allergic rhinitis patients were challenged with intranasal allergen aerosols after pretreatment with hydroxyzine and phenylpropanolamine, singly and in combination. (nih.gov)
- A multisite double-blind study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a phenylpropanolamine-caffeine combination in achieving weight loss. (nih.gov)
- A. Flavahan, Phenylpropanolamine constricts mouse and human blood vessels by preferentially activating α2-adrenoceptors, J. Pharmacol. (ac.ir)