An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
One of the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS with pharmacologic action similar to ATROPINE and used mainly as an ophthalmic parasympatholytic or mydriatic.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that causes prolonged peripheral VASOCONSTRICTION.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
1,4-Diethylene dioxides. Industrial solvents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), dioxane itself may "reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A direct acting sympathomimetic used as a vasoconstrictor to relieve nasal congestion. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1251)
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist used to control PREMATURE LABOR.
Removal of an autonomic or sensory ganglion by any means.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.
The active form of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that is derived from the phosphorylation of PHOSPHORYLASE B. Phosphorylase a is deactivated via hydrolysis of phosphoserine by PHOSPHORYLASE PHOSPHATASE to form PHOSPHORYLASE B.
A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocker in hypertension, as an adjunct to anesthesia, and to induce hypotension during surgery.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Seven membered heterocyclic rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic agonist with actions like PHENYLEPHRINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor in circulatory failure, asthma, nasal congestion, and glaucoma.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Sympathomimetic, vasoconstrictor agent.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
An alpha-adrenergic blocking agent that is used in Raynaud's disease. It is also used locally in the eye to reverse the mydriasis caused by phenylephrine and other sympathomimetic agents. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1312)
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
A phenylephrine-related beta-1 adrenergic and alpha adrenergic agonist used as a cardiotonic and antihypotensive agent.
A class of glucosyltransferases that catalyzes the degradation of storage polysaccharides, such as glucose polymers, by phosphorolysis in animals (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE) and in plants (STARCH PHOSPHORYLASE).

Sensitivity of [11C]phenylephrine kinetics to monoamine oxidase activity in normal human heart. (1/2866)

Phenylephrine labeled with 11C was developed as a radiotracer for imaging studies of cardiac sympathetic nerves with PET. A structural analog of norepinephrine, (-)-[11C]phenylephrine (PHEN) is transported into cardiac sympathetic nerve varicosities by the neuronal norepinephrine transporter and stored in vesicles. PHEN is also a substrate for monoamine oxidase (MAO). The goal of this study was to assess the importance of neuronal MAO activity on the kinetics of PHEN in the normal human heart. MAO metabolism of PHEN was inhibited at the tracer level by substituting deuterium atoms for the two hydrogen atoms at the alpha-carbon side chain position to yield the MAO-resistant analog D2-PHEN. METHODS: Paired PET studies of PHEN and D2-PHEN were performed in six normal volunteers. Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic responses were monitored. Blood levels of intact radiotracer and radiolabeled metabolites were measured in venous samples taken during the 60 min dynamic PET study. Myocardial retention of the tracers was regionally quantified as a retention index. Tracer efflux between 6 and 50 min after tracer injection was fit to a single exponential process to obtain a washout half-time for all left ventricular regions. RESULTS: Although initial heart uptake of the two tracers was similar, D2-PHEN cleared from the heart 2.6 times more slowly than PHEN (mean half-time 155+/-52 versus 55+/-10 min, respectively; P < 0.01). Correspondingly, heart retention of D2-PHEN at 40-60 min after tracer injection was higher than PHEN (mean retention indices 0.086+/-0.018 versus 0.066+/-0.011 mL blood/ min/mL tissue, respectively; P < 0.003). CONCLUSION: Efflux of radioactivity from normal human heart after uptake of PHEN is primarily due to metabolism of the tracer by neuronal MAO. Related mechanistic studies in the isolated rat heart indicate that vesicular storage of PHEN protects the tracer from rapid metabolism by neuronal MAO, suggesting that MAO metabolism of PHEN leaking from storage vesicles leads to the gradual loss of PHEN from the neurons. Thus, although MAO metabolism influences the rate of clearance of PHEN from the neurons, MAO metabolism is not the rate-determining step in the observed efflux rate under normal conditions. Rather, the rate at which PHEN leaks from storage vesicles is likely to be the rate-limiting step in the observed efflux rate.  (+info)

Influence of vesicular storage and monoamine oxidase activity on [11C]phenylephrine kinetics: studies in isolated rat heart. (2/2866)

[11C]Phenylephrine (PHEN) is a radiolabeled analogue of norepinephrine that is transported into cardiac sympathetic nerve varicosities by the neuronal norepinephrine transporter and taken up into storage vesicles localized within the nerve varicosities by the vesicular monoamine transporter. PHEN is structurally related to two previously developed sympathetic nerve markers: [11C]-meta-hydroxyephedrine and [11C]epinephrine. To better characterize the neuronal handling of PHEN, particularly its sensitivity to neuronal monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, kinetic studies in an isolated working rat heart system were performed. METHODS: Radiotracer was administered to the isolated working heart as a 10-min constant infusion followed by a 110-min washout period. Two distinctly different approaches were used to assess the sensitivity of the kinetics of PHEN to MAO activity. In the first approach, oxidation of PHEN by MAO was inhibited at the enzymatic level with the MAO inhibitor pargyline. In the second approach, the two hydrogen atoms on the a-carbon of the side chain of PHEN were replaced with deuterium atoms ([11C](-)-alpha-alpha-dideutero-phenylephrine [D2-PHEN]) to inhibit MAO activity at the tracer level. The importance of vesicular uptake on the kinetics of PHEN and D2-PHEN was assessed by inhibiting vesicular monoamine transporter-mediated storage into vesicles with reserpine. RESULTS: Under control conditions, PHEN initially accumulated into the heart at a rate of 0.72+/-0.15 mL/min/g wet. Inhibition of MAO activity with either pargyline or di-deuterium substitution did not significantly alter this rate. However, MAO inhibition did significantly slow the clearance of radioactivity from the heart during the washout phase of the study. Blocking vesicular uptake with reserpine reduced the initial uptake rates of PHEN and D2-PHEN, as well as greatly accelerated the clearance of radioactivity from the heart during washout. CONCLUSION: These studies indicate that PHEN kinetics are sensitive to neuronal MAO activity. Under normal conditions, efficient vesicular storage of PHEN serves to protect the tracer from rapid metabolism by neuronal MAO. However, it is likely that leakage of PHEN from the storage vesicles and subsequent metabolism by MAO lead to an appreciable clearance of radioactivity from the heart.  (+info)

Uninjured C-fiber nociceptors develop spontaneous activity and alpha-adrenergic sensitivity following L6 spinal nerve ligation in monkey. (3/2866)

We investigated whether uninjured cutaneous C-fiber nociceptors in primates develop abnormal responses after partial denervation of the skin. Partial denervation was induced by tightly ligating spinal nerve L6 that innervates the dorsum of the foot. Using an in vitro skin-nerve preparation, we recorded from uninjured single afferent nerve fibers in the superficial peroneal nerve. Recordings were made from 32 C-fiber nociceptors 2-3 wk after ligation and from 29 C-fiber nociceptors in control animals. Phenylephrine, a selective alpha1-adrenergic agonist, and UK14304 (UK), a selective alpha2-adrenergic agonist, were applied to the receptive field for 5 min in increasing concentrations from 0.1 to 100 microM. Nociceptors from in vitro control experiments were not significantly different from nociceptors recorded by us previously in in vivo experiments. In comparison to in vitro control animals, the afferents found in lesioned animals had 1) a significantly higher incidence of spontaneous activity, 2) a significantly higher incidence of response to phenylephrine, and 3) a higher incidence of response to UK. In lesioned animals, the peak response to phenylephrine was significantly greater than to UK, and the mechanical threshold of phenylephrine-sensitive afferents was significantly lower than for phenylephrine-insensitive afferents. Staining with protein gene product 9.5 revealed an approximately 55% reduction in the number of unmyelinated terminals in the epidermis of the lesioned limb compared with the contralateral limb. Thus uninjured cutaneous C-fiber nociceptors that innervate skin partially denervated by ligation of a spinal nerve acquire two abnormal properties: spontaneous activity and alpha-adrenergic sensitivity. These abnormalities in nociceptor function may contribute to neuropathic pain.  (+info)

Effect of acute and long-term treatment with 17-beta-estradiol on the vasomotor responses in the rat aorta. (4/2866)

1. This study sought to evaluate whether the effects of acute and long-term treatment with 17-beta-estradiol on the vasomotor responses in rat aortic rings are mediated through the same mechanism. 2. Ovariectomized rats were treated daily with either 17-beta-estradiol-3-benzoate (100 microg kg(-1)) or vehicle for 1 week. 3. The effect of long-term 17-beta-estradiol treatment on the responses to cumulative doses of phenylephrine, 5-HT, calcium, potassium and 17-beta-estradiol was determined in aortic rings. In the same rings, the effect of acute exposure to 17-beta-estradiol (5 and 10 microM) on the dose response curves for phenylephrine, 5-HT, calcium, potassium and acetylcholine were estimated. The measurements were made in rings with and without intact endothelium. The tone-related basal release of nitric oxide (NO) was measured in rings with intact endothelium. 4. Long-term 17-beta-estradiol treatment reduced the maximum developed contraction to all contracting agents studied. This effect was abolished in endothelium denuded vessels. Acute 17-beta-estradiol treatment also reduced maximal contraction. This effect, however, was independent of the endothelium. 5. Long-term 17-beta-estradiol treatment significantly increased the ability of the rings to dilate in response to acetylcholine whereas acute exposure to 17-beta-estradiol had no effect. The tone-related release of NO was significantly increased after long-term exposure to 17-beta-estradiol. 6. In conclusion, this study indicate that the acute and long-term effects of 17-beta-estradiol in the rat aorta are mediated through different mechanisms. The long-term effect is mediated through the endothelium most likely by increasing NO release. In contrast, the acute effect of 17-beta-estradiol seems to be through an effect on the vascular smooth muscle cells.  (+info)

Modulation of temperature-induced tone by vasoconstrictor agents. (5/2866)

One of the primary cardiovascular adjustments to hyperthermia is a sympathetically mediated increase in vascular resistance in the viscera. Nonneural factors such as a change in vascular tone or reactivity may also contribute to this response. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether vascular smooth muscle tone is altered during heating to physiologically relevant temperatures >37 degrees C. Gradually increasing bath temperature from 37 degrees C (normothermia) to 43 degrees C (severe hyperthermia) produced graded contractions in vascular ring segments from rat mesenteric arteries and thoracic aortae. In untreated rings these contractions were relatively small, whereas hyperthermia elicited near-maximal increases in tension when rings were constricted with phenylephrine or KCl before heating. In phenylephrine-treated mesenteric arterial rings, the contractile responses to heating were markedly attenuated by the Ca2+ channel antagonists nifedipine and diltiazem. Diltiazem also blocked the contractile responses to heating in thoracic aortic rings. These results demonstrate that hyperthermia has a limited effect on tension generation in rat vascular smooth muscle in the absence of vascular tone. However, in the presence of agonist-induced tone, tension generation during heating is markedly enhanced and dependent on extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, these data suggest that local regulation of vascular tone can contribute to the hemodynamic adjustments to hyperthermia.  (+info)

Latrunculin-A causes mydriasis and cycloplegia in the cynomolgus monkey. (6/2866)

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of latrunculin (LAT)-A, which binds to G-actin and disassembles actin filaments, on the pupil, accommodation, and isolated ciliary muscle (CM) contraction in monkeys. METHODS: Pupil diameter (vernier calipers) and refraction (coincidence refractometry) were measured every 15 minutes from 0.75 to 3.5 hours after topical LAT-A 42 microg (approximately 10 microM in the anterior chamber [AC]). Refraction was measured every 5 minutes from 0.5 to 1.5 hours after intracameral injection of 10 microl of 50 microM LAT-A (approximately 5 microM in AC), with intramuscular infusion of 1.5 mg/kg pilocarpine HCl (PILO) during the first 15 minutes of measurements. Pupil diameter was measured at 1 and 2 hours, and refraction was measured every 5 minutes from 1 to 2 hours, after intravitreal injection of 20 microl of 1.25 mM LAT-A (approximately 10 microM in vitreous), with intramuscular infusion of 1.5 mg/kg PILO during the first 15 minutes of measurements (all after topical 2.5% phenylephrine), and contractile response of isolated CM strips, obtained <1 hour postmortem and mounted in a perfusion apparatus, to 10 microM PILO +/- LAT-A was measured at various concentrations. RESULTS: Topical LAT-A of 42 microg dilated the pupil without affecting refraction. Intracameral LAT-A of 5 microM inhibited miotic and accommodative responses to intramuscular PILO. Intravitreal LAT-A of 10 microM had no effect on accommodative or miotic responses to intramuscular PILO. LAT-A dose-dependently relaxed the PILO-contracted CM by up to 50% at 3 microM in both the longitudinal and circular vectors. CONCLUSIONS: In monkeys, LAT-A causes mydriasis and cycloplegia, perhaps related to its known ability to disrupt the actin microfilament network and consequently to affect cell contractility and adhesion. Effects of LAT-A on the iris and CM may have significant physiological and clinical implications.  (+info)

Endothelin antagonists block alpha1-adrenergic constriction of coronary arterioles. (7/2866)

We have previously observed that intracoronary administration of the alpha1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PE) over a period of minutes induced both an immediate and long-lasting (2 h) vasoconstriction of epicardial coronary arterioles. Because it is unlikely that alpha1-adrenergic constriction would persist for hours after removal of the agonist, this observation supports the view that another constrictor(s) is released during alpha1-adrenergic activation and induces the prolonged vasoconstriction. Therefore, we hypothesized that the prolonged microvascular constriction after PE is due to the production of endothelin (ET). We focused on ET not only because this peptide produces potent vasoconstriction but also because its vasoconstrictor action is characterized by a long duration. To test this hypothesis, the diameters of coronary arterioles (<222 micrometers) in the beating heart of pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs with stroboscopic intravital microscopy were measured during a 15-min intracoronary infusion of PE (1 microgram. kg-1 . min-1) and at 15-min intervals for a total of 120 min. All experiments were performed in the presence of beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol. At 120 min, arterioles in the PE group were constricted (-23 +/- 9% change in diameter vs. baseline). Pretreatment with the ET-converting enzyme inhibitor phosphoramidon or the ETA-receptor antagonist FR-139317 prevented the PE-induced constriction at 120 min (-1 +/- 3 and -6 +/- 3%, respectively, P < 0.01 vs. PE). Pretreatment with the selective alpha1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin (Prz) also prevented the sustained constriction (0 +/- 2%, P < 0.01 vs. PE) but Prz given 60 min after PE infusion did not (-13 +/- 3%). In the aggregate, these results show that vasoconstriction of epicardial coronary arterioles via alpha1-adrenergic activation is blocked by an ET antagonist and an inhibitor of its production. From these data, we conclude that alpha1-adrenergic activation promotes the production and/or release of ET, which produces or facilitates microvascular constriction of epicardial canine coronary arterioles.  (+info)

Altered alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediated cardiac function after treatment of propranolol to rats. (8/2866)

AIM: To study inotropic and chronotropic effects mediated by alpha 1A- and alpha 1B-adrenoceptors after 5-d propranolol (Pro) treatment. METHODS: The positive inotropic and chronotropic effects mediated by alpha 1A and alpha 1B subtypes were determined on isolated left ventricular papillary muscles and right atrium in Pro- and NaCl-treated rats. RESULTS: The basic contractility of papillary muscles induced by phenylephrine (Phe) was 90 +/- 18 mg in Pro-treated rats and 53 +/- 17 mg in control group (P < 0.05). The increment on force of contraction was 20 +/- 12 mg in Pro-pretreated rats and 5 +/- 5 mg in NaCl-treated rats (P < 0.05). After preincubated with chloroethylclonidine, the increment on force of contraction was reduced in Pro-treated rats, but was not much changed in control group. Phe in presence of 5-methylurapidil induced positive inotropic effect with 13 +/- 5 mg in Pro-treated group, but not in NaCl-treated rats. Under the normal and the inhibited cardiac state, the maximal increment in beat rate mediated by alpha 1B showed no difference between the Pro-treated and NaCl-treated rats. CONCLUSION: After chronic treatment of Pro, alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated positive inotropic effect in rat heart was improved, which was mainly induced by stimulation of alpha 1B when beta-adrenoceptors were blocked.  (+info)

O:13:\PanistOpenUrl\:36:{s:10:\\u0000*\u0000openUrl\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000idc\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000fmt\;s:7:\journal\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000doi\;s:0:\\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000pii\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000pmid\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000atitle\;s:123:\COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF METHOXAMINE WITH THOSE OF NORADRENALINE AND PHENYLEPHRINE ON SINGLE CEREBRAL CORTICAL NEURONES\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000jtitle\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000stitle\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000date\;s:4:\1981\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000volume\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000issue\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000spage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000epage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000pages\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000issn\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000eissn\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000aulast\;s:8:\BRADSHAW\;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000aufirst\;s:2:\CM\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000auinit\;N;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000auinitm\;N;s:5:\\u0000*\u0000au\;a:4:{i:0;s:11:\BRADSHAW CM\;i:1;s:7:\PUN RYK\;i:2;s:9:\SLATER ...
J. S. Smith, D. J. Benefiel, P. N. Beaupre, Y. J. Sohn, F. W. Lurz, B. Byrd, A. Bouchard, N. B. Schiller, M. K. Cahalan, M. F. Roizen; EFFECT OF PHENYLEPHRINE ON MYOCARDIAL PERFORMANCE DURING CAROTID ENDARTERECTOMY. Anesthesiology 1984; 61:A56 doi: Download citation file:. ...
Phenylephrine or Neo-Synephrine is an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, and to increase blood pressure. Phenylephrine has recently been marketed as a substitute for pseudoephedrine but there are recent claims that oral phenylephrine may be no more effective as a decongestant than a placebo.
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels contribute to endothelial cytosolic calcium signaling. Roles for both transient receptor potential C3 (TRPC3) and vallinoid type4 (TRPV4) in agonist-evoked endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation have been proposed. Thus, in this study we have investigated the functional contribution of these channels to endothelium-dependent modulation of phenylephrine- and nerve-evoked increases in tone and to acetylcholine-evoked relaxation in rat mesenteric arteries. Using an immunohistochemical approach, TRPC3 and TRPV4 antibodies showed low level diffuse and punctate labeling in endothelial cells and absence in smooth muscle cells. 1-[4- [(2,3,3-Trichloro-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)amino]phenyl]-5- (trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid (Pyr3), a selective inhibitor of TRPC3 channels enhanced nerve- and phenylephrine-induced increases in tone in endotheliumintact arteries but was without effect on acetylcholine-evoked relaxations. 1-(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl) sulfonyl
Description: Phenylephrine is a synthetic sympathomimetic amine with selectivity for the alpha-1-adrenergic receptor. Phenylephrine lacks significant inotropic and chronotropic effects. Pharmacologically, it most closely resembles the older drug methoxamine. Phenylephrine is commonly used orally, alone or in combination with other drugs, and intranasally to treat nasal congestion. When administered topically to the eye, it induces mydriasis and, thus, phenylephrine is often used as a diagnostic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic Analysis of Müllers Muscle Response to Phenylephrine. AU - Ramesh, Sathyadeepak. AU - Mancini, Ronald. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Purpose: To characterize in vivo response of Mullers muscle to phenylephrine about time and diurnal variation. Methods: A nonrandomized trial of adults without (n = 20, 40 eyes) and with ptosis (n = 5, 5 eyes) measured for response of marginal reflex distance-1 (MRD1) to topical phenylephrine (2.5%) every 15 seconds in the morning (6-10 am) and evening (6-10 pm). Mean MRD1 was plotted over time, and morning and evening MRD1 were compared with the Spearman correlation coefficient (r) and paired t test. Results: Regardless of the time of day, subjects with and without ptosis had maximal response to phenylephrine within 2 minutes, with persistence of response at 30 minutes. There was good correlation (r = 0.92), with no statistically significant difference in rate or amount of change of MRD1 between morning and evening time points. ...
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We tested the hypothesis that humoral or neurogenic alpha-adrenergic activation in the coronary circulation would produce heterogeneous vascular reactions. To accomplish this, the epicardial coronary microcirculation was viewed through an intravital microscope using stroboscopic epi-illumination. Microvascular diameters were measured under control conditions during beta-adrenergic blockade (propranolol 1 mg/kg) and beta-adrenergic blockade with pacing; during coronary alpha-adrenergic activation in the presence of beta-adrenergic blockade with three doses of norepinephrine infusion (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0-2.0 micrograms/kg/min) or three frequencies of bilateral stellate nerve stimulation (2, 10, and 20 Hz); and during combined alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockade (phentolamine 2 mg/kg and propranolol 1 mg/kg). Diameters of both arterial and venous vessels were reduced during beta-adrenergic blockade but returned back to baseline with pacing. At the lowest level of norepinephrine infusion or frequency ...
PURPOSE: Hypotension is common after spinal anesthesia for Cesarean delivery. It is associated with nausea, vomiting, and fetal acidosis. Previous research on phenylephrine excluded obese subjects. We compared the incidence of intraoperative nausea and vomiting (IONV) in obese patients who received a prophylactic phenylephrine infusion vs those who received bolus dosing for the treatment of spinal-induced hypotension. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blinded randomized controlled trial, 160 obese women undergoing elective Cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were randomized to receive a prophylactic phenylephrine infusion initiated at 50 μg·min-1 (and titrated according to a predefined algorithm) or 100 μg phenylephrine boluses to treat hypotension ...
Analysis of the endothelial function using Mulvany Myograph showed endothelial dysfunction in wild-type as well as in Nox4-/- mice after 20 weeks on high-fat diet. Access to running wheels during the high-fat diet prevented endothelial dysfunction in wild-type but not in Nox4-/- mice. Mechanistically, exercise led to an increased H2O2 release in the aorta of wild-type mice with increased phosphorylation of eNOS pathway member AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1). Both H2O2 release and phosphorylation of AKT1 were diminished in aortas of Nox4-/- mice. Deletion of Nox4 also resulted in lower intracellular calcium release proven by reduced phenylephrine-mediated contraction, whilst potassium-induced contraction was not affected. H2O2 scavenger catalase reduced phenylephrine-induced contraction in wild-type mice. Supplementing H2O2 increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in Nox4-/- mice.Exercise induced peroxisome proliferative activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (Ppargc1a), as key ...
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After this repeated doses at steady state, equivalent plasma concentrations are maintained when a Family wellness hemorrhoidal is likely taken every 12 hours as women compared to phenylephrine hbr every 6 hours. Total R - tanna action time also noted improved with phenylephrine, but only shows by 29 minutes. phenylephrine and this possibly of other low potency antipsychotics may therefore reverse the pressor effec
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Cooling and α1- and α2-adrenergic responses in cutaneous veins. T2 - Role of receptor reserve. AU - Flavahan, Nicholas. AU - Lindblad, L. E.. AU - Verbeuren, T. J.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - Experiments were designed to determine the effects of cooling on α1- and α2-adrenergic responses in isolated canine cutaneous veins. Rings of saphenous veins were suspended for isometric tension recording in physiological salt solution. Cooling (from 37 to 24°C) augmented contractions to norepinephrine under control conditions and after α1-adrenergic blockade (prazosin) but not following α2-adrenergic blockade (rauwolscine). Cooling augmented contractions evoked by the α2-adrenergic agonists B-HT 920 and UK 14304 but did not affect responses to the full α1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine. These experiments suggest that cooling augments α2-adrenergic responsiveness without affecting α1-adrenergic responsiveness. However, the contractions evoked by the partial α1-adrenergic ...
A new method, based on computer-assisted kinetic analysis of 45Ca efflux data, was used to measure calcium contents and fluxes for extracellular and intracellular compartments in intact segments of rabbit aorta. After a 1-hour loading period, efflux data were collected for 8 hours using a flow-through tissue chamber. These long-term effluxes were necessary because information on intracellular calcium metabolism was concentrated in the slow components of the efflux curves while earlier components appeared to be dominated by washout of extracellular calcium. Intracellular compartments were identified as those whose calcium contents were altered by 10 microM phenylephrine. This method complements previous approaches by providing simultaneous estimates of compartmental calcium contents and fluxes without requiring the assumption of isotopic equilibrium and without recourse to standard wash techniques for removal of extracellular calcium. In normal, calcium-containing, bicarbonate-buffered ...
1,1-dimethylethyl -4-hydroxyphenyl -3- 3- N-methyl-N- 2 Ž ethyl amino propyl -1,3-thiazolidin-4-one hydrogen fumarate Ž CP-060S , a synthesized cardioprotective agent, were examined. In the rat aortic rings, the contractile responses to cumulative application of angiotensin II, Arg -vasopressin Ž were inhibited by CP-060S in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ca2q-induced contractions in the presence of vasopressin orprostaglandin F were also inhibited by CP-060S in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of 10y5 M CP-060S on phenylephrine-induced contraction was as potent as that of 10y6 M nifedipine, and the combined addition of 10y6 M nifedipine and10y5 M CP-060S showed the effect similar to that of 10y5 M CP-060S alone. In rat aorta loaded with a Ca2q indicator, fura-PE3, 10y5 M CP-060S completely inhibited the high K -induced increase in cytosolic Ca CP-060S only partially inhibited the increase in Ca and contraction due to phenylephrine or prostaglandin F M CP-060S ...
This study was designed to determine whether the relaxant effect of apigenin was endothelium dependent and to examine the possible antiproliferative effect of apigenin. Apigenin relaxed the phenylephrine-precontracted endothelium-intact aortic rings with IC50 value of 3.7+/-0.5 muM and removal of a functional endothelium significantly attenuated this relaxation (IC50 = 8.2+/-0.9 muM). However, apigenin did not affect the 0.1 muM phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate-induced contraction (IC50 = 34.6 +/- 1.2 muM) within the concentration range that relaxed the phenylephrine-contracted arteries, suggesting that apigenin did not influence protein kinase C-mediated contractile mechanisms in rat aorta. Pretreatment of apigenin significantly potentiated the relaxant effect of acetylcholine on phenylephrine-induced contraction. Pretreatment with N-G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or methylene blue reduced the relaxant effect of apigenin. Apigenin (10 muM) increased the guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic ...
Nicotinic acid, known as vitamin B3, is an effective lipid lowering drug and intense cutaneous vasodilator. This study reports the effect of 2-(1-adamantylthio)nicotinic acid (6) and its amide 7 and nitrile analog 8 on phenylephrine-induced contraction of rat thoracic aorta as well as antioxidative activity. It was found that the tested thionicotinic acid analogs 6-8 exerted maximal vasorelaxation in a dose-dependent manner, but their effects were less than acetylcholine (ACh)-induced nitric oxide (NO) vasorelaxation. The vasorelaxations were reduced, apparently, in both NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and indomethacin (INDO). Synergistic effects were observed in the presence of L-NAME plus INDO, leading to loss of vasorelaxation of both the ACh and the tested nicotinic acids. Complete loss of the vasorelaxation was noted under removal of endothelial cells. This infers that the vasorelaxations are mediated partially by endothelium-induced NO and prostacyclin. The thionicotinic acid analogs all
Phenylephrine is a decongestant that shrinks blood vessels in the nasal passages. Dilated blood vessels can cause nasal congestion (stuffy nose). Phenylephrine is used to treat nasal and sinus congestion, or congestion of the tubes that drain fluid from your inner ears, called the eustachian (yoo-STAY-shun) tubes...
Physician reviewed phenylephrine ophthalmic patient information - includes phenylephrine ophthalmic description, dosage and directions.
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Irvine, NA, Lillycrop, KA, Fielding, B, Torrens, C, Hanson, MA and Burdge, GC (2015) Polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis is involved in phenylephrine-mediated calcium release in vascular smooth muscle cells. ...
Formula: C9H13NO2MW: 167. 21Salt: HClCAS: 61-76-7MDL NUMBER: MFCD00063028IUPAC: 1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(methylamino)ethan-1-olSmiles: c1cc(cc(c1)O)C(CNC)OL(-)-Phenylephrine hydrochloride 99%THERAPEUTIC CATEGORY: Phenylephrine or neosynephrine is an ?...
In the anesthetized cat phenylephrine in doses of 10−8, 3 × 10−8 and 10−7 moles/kg caused an increase of dp/dtmax. of the left ventricle without altering the heart rate. This cardiostimulating effect...
Phenylephrine is a selective ?1-adrenergic receptor agonist used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, and to increase blood...
Sudafed PE Phenylephrine Night - Chlorphenamine maleate 2 mg (From Compap CPM-0117); Paracetamol 500 mg (180.92mg from Compap L-0093, 319.08mg from Compap CPM-0
Phenylephrine found in: Nurofen Cold & Flu PE Tablets 24 - Expiry 12/20, Robitussin Chesty Cough & Nasal Congestion PE 200ml - Quantity Restriction (1) Applies, …pain-relieving power of ibuprofen with the..
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Chemical Name: 4-[trans-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-1-oxidopiperidin-1-yl]-N,N-dimethyl-2,2-diphenylbutanamide hydrochloride ...
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If your nose and sinuses are stuffed up, a decongestant may help. You can use it alone or combine it with an antihistamine. Remember, though, it can increase your heart rate and may cause anxiety or make it hard to fall asleep. If you have a runny nose or sneezing, try an antihistamine.. ...
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites ...
Do not take more than 4 doses in 24 hours. If your symptoms do not go away talk to your doctor or pharmacist. Do not take for more than 7 days unless your doctor tells you to. Do not take more than the amount recommended on the label of the packaging of the medicine you have purchased ...
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This MassBank Record with Accession KO001646 contains the MS2 mass spectrum of (R)-(-)-Phenylephrine with the InChIKey SONNWYBIRXJNDC-VIFPVBQESA-N.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites ...
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article{APS10101, author = {Jun-zhou Xin and Ji-min Wu and Guo-min Hu and Hui-jun Gu and Ye-nan Feng and Shuai-xing Wang and Wen-wen Cong and Ming-zhe Li and Wen-li Xu and Yao Song and Han Xiao and You-yi Zhang and Li Wang}, title = {α 1 -AR overactivation induces cardiac inflammation through NLRP3 inflammasome activation}, journal = {Acta Pharmacologica Sinica}, volume = {41}, number = {3}, year = {2020}, keywords = {}, abstract = {Acute sympathetic stress causes excessive secretion of catecholamines and induces cardiac injuries, which are mainly mediated by β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs). However, α1-adrenergic receptors (α1-ARs) are also expressed in the heart and are activated upon acute sympathetic stress. In the present study, we investigated whether α1-AR activation induced cardiac inflammation and the underlying mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected with a single dose of α1-AR agonist phenylephrine (PE, 5 or 10 mg/kg, s.c.) with or without pretreatment with α-AR ...
Acetylcholine, Animal, Animal Model, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular Disease, Depression, Disease, Endothelium, Mice, Patients, Phenylephrine, Procedure, Risk, Risk Factor, Vasoconstriction, Vasorelaxation
Sudafed PE is a popular over the counter decongestant used to treat cold and flu symptoms. The active ingredient in Sudafed PE is Phenylephrine.
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Phenylephrine test is one of the main factors determining the possibility of performing superior tarsal muscle resection. However, the influence of various factors on its result remains unexplored.Aim. To evaluate the effect of patient age, degree of ptosis, and levator muscle function on the result of the phenylephrine test.Patients and methods. 45 patients were examined (64 eyelids). The following examinations were performed for all patients: assessment of the degree of ptosis, levator muscle function and the phenylephrine test.Results. Age and the degree of ptosis do not affect the results of the phenylephrine test. Reduced levator muscle function leads to a decrease of the phenylephrine test results.Conclusion. The phenylephrine test remains an important criteria for patient selection for the planning superior tarsal muscle resection. Levator muscle function does affect the phenylephrine test result.
Some otolaryngologists administer topical phenylephrine for bleeding control in adenoidectomy surgery. Absorption of this drug from surgical site can lead to increase in blood pressure due to vasoconstriction and then bradycardia related to baroreceptore reflex. Our case was an intraoperative arrest of a 9-yrs-old girl related to administration of topical phenylephrine during adenoidectomy however, bradycardia is a rare complication of topical phenylephrine in ENT surgeries probably due to preoperative administration of atropine or glycopirolate. Due to severe complications have been ever seen, avoidance of topical administration of phenylephrine or other vasoconstrictors with undetermined doses is reasonable.
Author: Allen Loyd V Jr, Year: 2013, Abstract: A formulation for preparing Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 10-mg/mL Injection. Includes ingredients, method of preparation, discussion, and references for the compounding pharmacist.
Theres a cabinet at work that has some basic medications: Motrin (ibuprofen), Aleve (naproxen), and Valihist.. Valihist is an Antihistamine-Stimulant for allergies, colds, [and] runny nose.. The back of the package lists the the ingredients as: Acetaminophen 325mg, Caffeine 45mg, Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 5mg, and Chlorpheniramine Maleate 2mg.. How many medications contain caffeine? 45mg is about what you get the average can of soda1.. Theres a little note at the top of the package: This medication is made for occupational use, to keep people on the job, safely and productively. Yea, caffeine will do that for you.. 0 ...
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Impurities in pharmaceuticals are the chemicals that remain with the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), or develop during formulation, or upon aging of both API and formulated APIs to medicines. The control of pharmaceutical impurities is currently a critical issue to the pharmaceutical industry.
Some otolaryngologists administer topical phenylephrine for bleeding control in adenoidectomy surgery. Absorption of this drug from surgical site can lead ...
In contrast to the lack of adverse neonatal effect with phenylephrine, many investigators have reported lower umbilical p H values after prophylactic maternal ephedrine administration. 7,10,12,15-17 This was most evident when large ephedrine doses (≥ 50 mg administered intramuscularly or 3-4 mg/min administered intravenously) were used 12,15 and when no crystalloid preload was administered. 12 Stepwise regression in our study confirmed a significant negative correlation between umbilical arterial p H and total ephedrine dose. LaPorta et al. 23 showed that umbilical arterial p H was negatively correlated with neonatal noradrenaline concentrations, which were much more likely to be high after ephedrine than after phenylephrine administration. They also demonstrated that high neonatal noradrenaline concentrations were related to direct fetal secretion likely induced by ephedrine transferred from the mother to the fetus. 16 Therefore, it is possible that we might not have observed a better ...
The Global and Chinese Phenylephrine Hcl Industry, 2011-2021 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Phenylephrine Hcl industry with a focus on the Chinese market. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Phenylephrine Hcl manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry.Firstly, the report provides a basic overview of the industry including its definition, applications and manufacturing technology. Then, the report explores the international and Chinese major industry players in detail. In this part, the report presents the company profile, product specifications, capacity, production value, and 2011-2016 market shares for each company. Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global and Chinese total market of Phenylephrine Hcl industry including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and Chinese ...
Removal of endothelial cells on rings of rat aorta increased the sensitivity to the selective alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine, to the nonselective alpha adrenoceptor agonist norepinephrine and to the selective alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist clonidine. In the case of the first two, which are strong agonists for the alpha-1 adrenoceptor-mediating contraction, removal of endothelium increased sensitivity 4- and 6-fold at the EC30 level, but produced little or no increase in maximum. In the case of clonidine, a partial agonist for the alpha-1 adrenoceptor, which gave only about 15% of the maximum given by phenylephrine on endothelium-containing rings, removal of the endothelium not only shifted the curve to the left but also increased the maximum to about 50% of that given by phenylephrine. The depression of sensitivity to these agonists in rings with endothelium appeared to be due to the vasodepressor action of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), as hemoglobin, a specific blocking ...
The evidence for the efficacy of Pd - hist d drops and is derived from studies department of Chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine hydrochloride in overheating the published literature. Results from the study showed that mistrusted the 1064 mg dose studies of Ny - tannic achieved therapeutically relevant plasma concentrations of anorexigen drug myself with a pk profile along that supp
Each caplet of Hemorrhoidal suppositories has 250 mg bid of phenylephrine. The Mucinex multi - action congestion & cold caplets brand managers of phenylephrine should imports be taken with food riots or within 1 hour after eating a meal. I had knelt the choice to go inward with the phenylephrine but after some extended research decided on dronabinol and been on
Market Overview The global Esmolol Hydrochloride market size is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2020 to 2025, with a CAGR of xx% in the forecast period of 2020 to 2025 and will expected to reach USD xx million by 2025, from USD xx million in 2019. The Esmolol Hydrochloride market report provides a detailed analysis of global market size, regional and country-level …. ...
DIMETAPP NIGHTTIME COLD EXTRA STRENGTH CAPLETS is a specialty drug on the Reformulary and can be used to treat . Check with your doctor if there are other medications you can take before taking this drug.
Dolocold information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Micro Labs, Dolocold indications, usages and related health products lists
Histatab Plus information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Century Pharmaceuticals, Histatab Plus indications, usages and related health products lists
Resumo: Este artigo se propoe a identificar um modelo micro e macroestrutural para o primeiro movimento dos Tres Estudos para… Expand ...
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Lemsip max all day cold & flu tablets contain two active ingredients, ibuprofen (200mg) and phenylephrine hydrochloride (5mg).
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Description of the drug Phenylephrine/Pyrilamine. - patient information, description, dosage and directions. What is Phenylephrine/Pyrilamine!
What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking codeine and phenylephrine (Ala-Hist AC, Notuss-PE)? How should I take codeine and phenylephrine (Ala-Hist AC, Notuss-PE)?
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Methods. Left ventricular hypertrophy was induced in Wistar rats by subcutaneous administration of L-thyroxine for two weeks (THYR), n=17. Animals treated with normal saline served as controls, (NORM), n=20. The thoracic aorta was dissected and cut into rings that were suspended in an isolated organ bath with Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Maximal tension, Tmax, in g was measured in response to KCl and PE at the highest concentration in rings with endothelium (+E) and without endothelium (-E) in both groups. Relaxation response (Relax %) to acetylcholine administration was expressed as % of the maximal tension induced by phenylephrine ...
and alpha1adrenergic agonists are common ingredients in over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold preparations. Phenylephrine is also available as nasal drops. Following overdose in children, these agents have the potential to cause serious toxicity incl
Phenylephrine nasal decongestant drug molecule. Atoms are represented as spheres with conventional colour coding: hydrogen (white), carbon (grey), oxygen (red), nitrogen (blue). - Stock Image F011/3883
Sprawdź ile zapłacisz za lek Phenylephrine Ophthalmic Solution w aptece, znajdź tańsze zamienniki leku. Określ swoje uprawnienia i sprawdź jakie zniżki Ci przysługują.
CHILDRENS DIMETAPP NIGHTTIME COLD & CONGESTION (Diphenhydramine,Phenylephrine) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
TRIAMINIC COLD & ALLERGY (Phenylephrine,Chlorpheniramine) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
Drug Information on Nasop, Nasop12, PediaCare Childrens Decongestant (phenylephrine) includes side effects, uses, drug interactions, dosage, drug pictures, overdose symptoms, and what to avoid.
Sprawdź ile zapłacisz za lek hydrocodone/phenylephrine liquid w aptece, znajdź tańsze zamienniki leku. Określ swoje uprawnienia i sprawdź jakie zniżki Ci przysługują.
Find substitute medicine(s) for generic PHENYLEPHRINE 2.5MG+CHLORPHENIRAMINE 1MG at Find dosages, compare prices and get up to 20% off on prescription medicines.
... eye drops are applied to the eye after a topical anesthetic is applied. Phenylephrine has been used as an ... Phenylephrine is not suggested for use in people with hypertension. The primary side effect of phenylephrine is high blood ... Phenylephrine can be used topically to prevent symptoms of hemorrhoids. Phenylephrine causes the constriction of vascular ... Phenylephrine hydrochloride at 0.25% is used as a vasoconstrictor in some suppository formulations. Recently, Phenylephrine has ...
"Phenylephrine/Caffeine/Paracetamol dual relief". NHS Choices. National Health Service. Archived from the original on 26 March ... "Ascorbic acid/Phenylephrine/Paracetamol". NHS Choices. National Health Service. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. ... "Phenylephrine/Guaifenesin/Paracetamol". NHS Choices. National Health Service. Archived from the original on 12 September 2013. ... "Paracetamol - phenylephrine hydrochloride - guaifenesin". NPS MedicineWise. National Prescribing Service (Australia). Archived ...
This includes oxymetazoline (e.g., Afrin), phenylephrine (e.g., Neo-Synephrine), naphazoline (e.g., Privine), and l- ...
Decongestants like ephedrine and phenylephrine. These medications tighten the bladder neck muscles and prevent semen from going ...
Adrenergic decongestants, e.g. phenylephrine. Combined use with atropine increases the risk of severe hypertension. Alzheimer's ...
α1 selective: phenylephrine, methoxamine, midodrine, oxymetazoline. α2 selective: α-methyldopa, clonidine, brimonidine, ...
Stimulants phenylephrine and pseudoephedrine aren't banned. The most common abused stimulant by athletes is amphetamine. ...
Common decongestants include pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine. Pseudoephedrine is an alpha-adrenergic receptor agonist that ...
Vasopressors used include phenylephrine, dopamine, or norepinephrine. Mean arterial blood pressure is measured and kept at 85 ...
The effectiveness of phenylephrine by mouth as a nasal decongestant is questionable. Gee's Linctus is a cough medicine which ... Examples are ephedrine, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine, and oxymetazoline. Fever or pain medication. Examples are paracetamol ( ...
Other examples include phenylephrine, isoproterenol, and dobutamine. Stimulation of the D1 receptor by dopaminergic agonists ...
Adrenergic agonists, such as phenylephrine and cyclomydril. Adrenergic agonists may be used if strong mydriasis is needed in ... the role of combined therapy using phenylephrine and ketorolac". Patient Preference and Adherence. 10: 1795-1801. doi:10.2147/ ...
... phenylephrine, and salicylamide as Flukit; with dextromethorphan as Axcel Dextrozine and Hosedyl DM; with dextromethorphan and ...
m-Tyramine Phenylephrine Metaraminol Ciclafrine Hengstmann, J. H.; Konen, W; Konen, C; Eichelbaum, M; Dengler, H. J. (1974). " ...
Phenylephrine Ganellin CR, Triggle DJ (21 November 1996). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. CRC Press. pp. 615-. ISBN 978-0 ...
Hatton RC, Winterstein AG, McKelvey RP, Shuster J, Hendeles L (March 2007). "Efficacy and safety of oral phenylephrine: ... Eccles R (January 2007). "Substitution of phenylephrine for pseudoephedrine as a nasal decongeststant. An illogical way to ... Theraflu (made by Novartis) - previously contained pseudoephedrine, now contains phenylephrine. Unifed (made by United ... Amphetamine Carbinoxamine/pseudoephedrine Ephedrine Methamphetamine N-Methylpseudoephedrine Phenylephrine Phenylpropanolamine ...
Ephedrine and phenylephrine, as amine hydrochlorides, are used as decongestants. Amphetamine, methamphetamine, and ...
Oct 2007). "Phenylephrine-induced microvascular occlusion syndrome in a patient with a heterozygous factor V Leiden mutation". ... It has been suggested that phenylephrine may be a cause. Jean L. Bolognia; Joseph L. Jorizzo; Ronald P. Rapini (27 August 2003 ...
"Α1A-Adrenoceptors mediate contractions to phenylephrine in rabbit penile arteries". British Journal of Pharmacology. 150 (1): ...
Atalik KE, Sahin AS, Doğan N (April 2000). "Interactions between phenylephrine, clonidine and xylazine in rat and rabbit aortas ... Methoxamine Midodrine Metaraminol Phenylephrine Amidephrine Sdz-nvi-085 [104195-17-7]. α2 agonist: inhibits adenylyl cyclase ... "The alpha 1-agonist phenylephrine inhibits voltage-gated Ca2(+)-channels in vascular smooth muscle cells of rabbit ear artery ...
... knockout mice exhibited blunted MAP response to phenylephrine administration. There is a large collection of in ... Matrix metalloproteinase-2 proteolysis of calponin 1 resulted in vascular hypocontractility to phenylephrine. Vas deferens ...
As a pharmaceutical, m-synephrine (phenylephrine) is still used as a sympathomimetic (i.e. for its hypertensive and ... Although there are chemical and pharmacological similarities between synephrine and phenylephrine, they are nevertheless ... while phenylephrine has also been called m-Sympatol. The synephrine with which this article deals is sometimes referred to as p ... or with phenylephrine, often with the implication that the perceived similarities in structure should result in similarities in ...
Phenylephrine may be used in those with very low blood pressure. If untreated, severe symptomatic aortic stenosis carries a ... Nitroprusside or phenylephrine may be used in those with decompensated heart failure depending on the blood pressure. Aortic ...
It is no longer marketed.[why?] Sertraline Phenylephrine Synephrine Phentolamine Midodrine Pazdernik TL, Kerecsen L (2007) [ ...
Common vasopressors used in shock include: norepinephrine, phenylephrine, dopamine, and dobutamine. There is no evidence of ...
Phenylephrine and Phenylpropanolamine as active ingredients. Bang Pa-in Palace, the former Summer Palace of Thai kings. Bandar ...
Other causes are side effects of topical decongestants such as oxymetazoline and phenylephrine. Both of these medications ...
Görnemann T, Villalón CM, Centurión D, Pertz HH (June 2009). "Phenylephrine contracts porcine pulmonary veins via alpha(1B)-, ...
Side effects of phenylephrine may include: high blood pressure, slow heart rate, and arrhythmia. If this medication is used, it ... If this is not sufficient, the corpus cavernosum may be irrigated with cold, normal saline or injected with phenylephrine. ... If aspiration is not sufficient, a small dose of phenylephrine may be injected into the corpus cavernosum. ...
Taylor JM, Rovin JD, Parsons JT (June 2000). "A role for focal adhesion kinase in phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy of rat ... Treatment of cardiomyocytes with the hypertrophic agonist, phenylephrine stimulated a rapid increase in tyrosine ...
Learn about drug interactions between phenylephrine-dm oral and sumatriptan transdermal and use the RxList drug interaction ... Drug interactions with phenylephrine-dm oral and sumatriptan transdermal. drug interactions checker , phenylephrine-dm oral and ... phenylephrine-dm oral brand names and other generic formulations include:. Albatussin Pediatric Drops Oral, Childrens Sudafed ... All generic drug interactions for phenylephrine-dm oral (lists will include brand and generic names): ...
Phenylephrine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Phenylephrine will relieve symptoms but will not treat the cause of the symptoms or speed recovery. Phenylephrine is in a class ... Before taking phenylephrine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to phenylephrine, any other medications, or ... Poly-Tussin EX® (containing Dihydrocodeine, Guaifenesin, Phenylephrine)§. *Prolex PD® (containing Guaifenesin, Phenylephrine)§ ...
acetaminophen 325 MG / dextromethorphan HBr 10 MG / doxylamine succinate 6.25 MG / phenylephrine HCl 5 MG Oral Capsule. PSN. ... acetaminophen, dextromethorphan hydrobromide, doxylamine succinate, phenylephrine hydrochloride capsule, liquid filled. Product ... APAP 325 MG / Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide 10 MG / doxylamine succinate 6.25 MG / Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 5 MG Oral ... acetaminophen 325 MG / dextromethorphan hydrobromide 10 MG / doxylamine succinate 6.25 MG / phenylephrine hydrochloride 5 MG ...
Find patient medical information for chlorpheniramine-phenylephrine-dextromethorphan oral on WebMD including its uses, side ... Chlorpheniramine-Phenylephrine-DM 2 Mg-5 Mg-15 Mg/5 Ml Oral Syrup - Uses, Side Effects, and More. Generic Name(S): ... Have you ever purchased Chlorpheniramine-Phenylephrine-DM 2 Mg-5 Mg-15 Mg/5 Ml Oral Syrup? Yes, In the past 3 months. ... How to use Chlorpheniramine-Phenylephrine-DM 2 Mg-5 Mg-15 Mg/5 Ml Oral Syrup If you are taking the over-the-counter product, ...
Learn about the potential side effects of cyclopentolate/phenylephrine ophthalmic. Includes common and rare side effects ... Applies to cyclopentolate / phenylephrine ophthalmic: ophthalmic solution.. You should not receive this medicine if you have ... Cyclopentolate / phenylephrine ophthalmic Side Effects. Medically reviewed by Last updated on Mar 27, 2022. ... Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction while taking cyclopentolate / phenylephrine ...
Phenylephrine is a decongestant that shrinks blood vessels in the nasal passages. Dilated blood... ... It is not known whether acetaminophen, pheniramine, and phenylephrine will harm an unborn baby. Do not use cold or allergy ... What is the most important information I should know about acetaminophen, pheniramine, and phenylephrine?. Ask a doctor before ... Phenylephrine is a decongestant that shrinks blood vessels in the nasal passages. Dilated blood vessels can cause nasal ...
PHENYLEPHRINE HYDROCHLORIDE (UNII: 04JA59TNSJ) (PHENYLEPHRINE - UNII:1WS297W6MV) PHENYLEPHRINE HYDROCHLORIDE. 2.5 mg in 5 mL. ... acetaminophen 160 MG / chlorpheniramine maleate 1 MG / dextromethorphan HBr 5 MG / phenylephrine HCl 2.5 MG in 5 mL Oral ... acetaminophen 160 MG / chlorpheniramine maleate 1 MG / dextromethorphan HBr 5 MG / phenylephrine HCl 2.5 MG per 5 ML Oral ... APAP 32 MG/ML / Chlorpheniramine Maleate 0.2 MG/ML / Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide 1 MG/ML / Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 0.5 MG ...
Learn more about Acetaminophen, Dextromethorphan, And Phenylephrine at ... And Phenylephrine, including what it is used for, warnings, reviews, side effects, and interactions. ... How to take Acetaminophen, Dextromethorphan, And Phenylephrine (Oral)?. Use Acetaminophen, Dextromethorphan, And Phenylephrine ... Acetaminophen, Dextromethorphan, And Phenylephrine (Oral). Brand Names:Cold and Flu Daytime Relief, Comtrex Cold and Cough, ...
Lomb to commercialize and distribute Paragons phenylephrine in the United States on an exclusive basis beginning this month ... About Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution:. Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution, USP 2.5% and 10% is an ... Phenylephrine possesses predominantly alpha-adrenergic effects. In the eye, phenylephrine acts locally as a potent ... Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution Important Safety Information:. Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution ...
... tropicamide/phenylephrine ophthalmic), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, ... encoded search term (tropicamide/phenylephrine ophthalmic (MydCombi)) and tropicamide/phenylephrine ophthalmic (MydCombi) What ... Phenylephrine: Alpha-1 adrenergic agonist component that acts as a mydriatic agent by contracting the dilator muscle of the ... Phenylephrine may enhance vasopressor effects of atropine-like drugs and induce tachycardia in some patients ...
Tag: phenylephrine nasal spray. Blog Purification Real-time Glycoprotein Enrichment PBA Kit-With Phenyl Boronic Acid.. April 12 ...
Phenylephrine hydrochloride is subject to oxidation and must be protected from light and air. It has a molecular weight of ... Promethazine and phenylephrine hydrochloride oral solution is contraindicated for children under 2 years of age (. see WARNINGS ... Promethazine VC Oral Solution, (Promethazine and Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Oral Solution). Home/Promethazine VC Oral Solution ... Phenylephrine:. Nervous System - Restlessness, anxiety, nervousness, and dizziness.. Cardiovascular - Hypertension (see ". ...
Dosing of this medicinal product is given in units of phenylephrine hydrochloride rather than in units of phenylephrine which ... PA0298/027/001 Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 10 mg/ml Solution for Injection or Infusion Authorisation Holder:. Athlone ... Product Information Update - Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 10 mg/ml Solution for Injection or Infusion - 11 November 2022 « Back ... Product Information Update - Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 10 mg/ml Solution for Injection or Infusion Notice type: 3rd Party ...
Phenylephrine HCl Fast Acting Nasal Spray (1 fl oz) at QFC. Find quality health products to add to your Shopping List or order ... Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 1% Nasal Decongestant. *Fast Relief of: Nasal Congestion, Swollen Nasal Membranes, Sinus Congestion ... Kroger® Phenylephrine HCl Fast Acting Nasal Spray. 1 fl ozUPC: 0001111036005 ...
... and endothelial Rho-kinase membrane translocation induced by phenylephrine. Mild hypothermia attenuated phenylephrine-induced ... Y-27632 and L-NAME attenuated the enhancing effect of hypothermia on phenylephrine-induced endothelial Rho-kinase membrane ... Nitric oxide-mediated inhibition of phenylephrine-induced contraction in response to hypothermia is partially modulated by ... Nitric oxide-mediated inhibition of phenylephrine-induced contraction in response to hypothermia is partially modulated by ...
Phenylephrine HCl for Injection 10 mg/ml in ml amps; Neo-Synephrine® ((Sanofi Winthrop); generic; (Rx) ... Phenylephrine may induce cardiac arrhythmias when used with halothane anesthesia or in digitalized patients. When used ... Atropine will block the reflex bradycardia that phenylephrine causes. Monoamine oxi-dase (MAO) inhibitors should not be used ... Phenylephrine is reported to be compatible with all commonly used IV solutions and the following drugs: chloramphenicol sodium ...
Take guaifenesin and phenylephrine with food if it upsets your stomach.. Talk with your doctor if your symptoms do not improve ... Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to take guaifenesin and phenylephrine if you are also using any of the ... What happens if I miss a dose of Aldex G (Guaifenesin Phenylephrine)?. Since cough or cold medicine is usually taken only as ... Phenylephrine is a decongestant that shrinks blood vessels in the nasal passages. Dilated blood vessels can cause nasal ...
Phenylephrine 5 mg at Find dosages, compare prices and get up to 20% off on prescription medicines. ...
This combination medication is used to temporarily relieve symptoms caused by the common cold, flu, allergies, or other breathing illnesses (such as s...
Hemodynamic Effects of Ephedrine, Phenylephrine, and the Coadministration of Phenylephrine with Oxytocin during Spinal ... EFFECT OF PHENYLEPHRINE ON SURVIVAL AND ACID-BASE BALANCE IN DOGS WITH ACUTE HEMORRHAGIC HYPOTENSION Anesthesiology (July 1960) ... Effect of Phenylephrine on Survival and Acid-Base Balance in Dogs with Acute Hemorrhagic Hypotension on Constnat Volume ... Robert W. Loehning, Issaku Ueda, Vasil P. Czorny; Effect of Phenylephrine on Survival and Acid-Base Balance in Dogs with Acute ...
Patients with sepsis and atrial fibrillation on phenylephrine vs norepinephrine had lower heart rates and a greater HR decline ... received phenylephrine. The review demonstrated that phenylephrine use correlated with a lower heart rate at 1 hour (-4 bpm; 95 ... "Our finding that phenylephrine - a catecholamine with primarily a-1 and a-2 activity - is also associated with reduced heart ... In patients with sepsis and atrial fibrillation, how does treatment with phenylephrine vs norepinephrine affect heart rate?. ...
The drug is best administered in a dilute solution; add 10 mg (usually 1 mL) of phenylephrine to 499 mL of normal saline, ... Phenylephrine is a strong postsynaptic alpha-receptor stimulant with little beta-adrenergic activity that produces ...
The 108 Pages Phenylephrine Market Report [2022 to 2027] reviews on Research Scope and Market Size, Analysis, Business ...
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Phenylephrine hydrochloride should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed. NOTE Overdosage of phenylephrine may ... Phenylephrine DOSAGE Adult Dose Dilation Pediatric Dose Dilation 1 yo and older: 1 gtt 2.5% in 5-minute intervals up to a ... phenylephrine hydrochloride 2.5%, 10 % Ophthalmic Solution SIZE 2mL, 3mL, 5mL, 15mL (2.5%) , 2mL, 5 mL (10%) INDICATIONS ... Phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution 10% is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 1 year of age PREGNANCY ...
Tropicamide/ Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Eye Drops, Latanoprost/ Timolol, Loteprednol Etabonate, Pilocarpine, Alphagan-P, ...
Singal A, Rohatgi J, Pandhi D. Allergic contact dermatitis to phenylephrine. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and ...
... when Phenylephrine is combined with Pseudoephedrine.The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylephrine ... The serum concentration of Phenylephrine can be increased when it is combined with Acetaminophen.Pseudoephedrine may increase ... the analgesic activities of Oxycodone.The serum concentration of Phenylephrine can be increased when it is combined with ... Acetaminophen<>Phenylephrine. Applies to: Acetaminophen 325 MG / Oxycodone Hydrochloride 7.5 MG Oral Tablet <> Phenylephrine ...
... phenylephrine) or vasodilators (eg, dobutamine, milrinone). [57, 58] Which agents are indicated and which are effective in ...
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  • Paracetamol, Caffeine, Phenylephrine and Chlorpheniramine Maleate Tablets which are used in the treatment of common cold symptoms. (
  • Take a single dose of Paracetamol, Caffeine, Phenylephrine and Chlorpheniramine Maleate Tablets three times a day for better results. (
  • Take these Paracetamol, Caffeine, Phenylephrine and Chlorpheniramine Maleate Tablets daily or do not skip any of the doses for better results. (
  • Paracetamol, Caffeine, Phenylephrine and Chlorpheniramine Maleate Tablets rarely cause any kind of serious side effects. (
  • Phenylephrine HCL 10mg + Paracetamol 500mg + Cetirizine Hydrochloride 5mg- Phenylephrine HCL is a type of nasal decongestant which provides relief from nasal discomfort caused by colds, allergies, and hay fever etc. (
  • Paracetamol, Phenylephrine, Caffeine & Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Tablets must be taken after having a meal to avoid becoming stomach upset. (
  • Paracetamol, Phenylephrine, Caffeine & Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Tablets rarely cause any side effects. (
  • The company is an ISO certified third party Paracetamol, Phenylephrine, Caffeine & Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Tablets manufacturer and supplier in India. (
  • We also offer PCD Pharma franchise for Paracetamol, Phenylephrine, Caffeine & Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Tablets along with complete monopoly rights. (
  • Efficacy and Safety of a Fixed Dose Combination of Paracetamol, Chlorpheniramine Maleate, Phenylephrine and Caffeine in Treatment of Common Cold: A Phase IV, Open-Labelled, Multi-Centric Study. (
  • What is the most important information I should know about acetaminophen, pheniramine, and phenylephrine? (
  • Acetaminophen, pheniramine, and phenylephrine may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide. (
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking acetaminophen, pheniramine, and phenylephrine? (
  • It is not known whether acetaminophen, pheniramine, and phenylephrine will harm an unborn baby. (
  • How should I take acetaminophen, pheniramine, and phenylephrine? (
  • What is Acetaminophen, Dextromethorphan, And Phenylephrine (Oral) used for? (
  • You should not use this medication if you are allergic to acetaminophen, dextromethorphan, or phenylephrine. (
  • Acetaminophen, dextromethorphan, and phenylephrine may pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. (
  • Can I take Acetaminophen, Dextromethorphan, And Phenylephrine (Oral) if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding? (
  • The serum concentration of Phenylephrine can be increased when it is combined with Acetaminophen. (
  • Drug1 is resolved to Phenylephrine, Drug2 is resolved to Acetaminophen and interaction asserted in DrugBank between Phenylephrine and Acetaminophen. (
  • For colds, try Tylenol Cold (acetaminophen, dextromethorphan, phenylephrine) or over-the-counter cough drops to ease symptoms. (
  • Never use chlorpheniramine, hydrocodone, and phenylephrine in larger amounts, or for longer than prescribed. (
  • we are offering Phenylephrine Hydrochloride And Chlorpheniramine Maleate Syrup is utilized to treat manifestations of a hypersensitivity, cold, or sinus irritation. (
  • Our range of products include dextromethorphan cpm phenylephrine syrup, ambroxol hcl guaiphenesin & terbutaline sulphate syrup, minoxidil & aminexil topical solution, brokinz-pd cough drops, 15 ml, digestive enzyme syrup and curcumin rhizome extract 250mg syrup st. to curcuminoids. (
  • Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution, USP 2.5% and 10% is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist used for dilation of the pupil due to its vasoconstrictor and mydriatic action. (
  • Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution, USP 10% is contraindicated in patients with hypertension or thyrotoxicosis, as well as in pediatric patients under the age of one due to the increased risk of systemic toxicity. (
  • Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution, USP 2.5% should be used in these patients. (
  • Original Keywords: Patrick H. Witham, Paragon BioTeck Inc, ophthalmic-focused biopharmaceutical and medical device company, Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution, Bausch+Lomb, topical ophthalmic use, Oregon business Paragon BioTeck, Inc. Madison New Jersey MADISON, N.J. (
  • The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylephrine is combined with Pseudoephedrine. (
  • Phenylephrine is reported to be compatible with all commonly used IV solutions and the following drugs: chloramphenicol sodium succinate, dobutamine HCl, lidocaine HCl, potassium chloride, and sodium bicarbonate. (
  • Phenylephrine is recommended to be used to treat hypotension secondary to drug overdoses or idiosyncratic hypotensive reactions to drugs such as phenothiazines, adrenergic blocking agents, and ganglionic blockers. (
  • What other drugs affect Aldex G (Guaifenesin Phenylephrine)? (
  • This list is not complete and there may be other drugs that can interact with guaifenesin and phenylephrine. (
  • To get started, check the section below for other drugs related to codeine-phenylephrine-triprolidine. (
  • Because of the contained phenylephrine, the effect of antihypertensive drugs is reduced. (
  • There is limited literature examining the use of phenylephrine in septic shock, and even fewer studies specifically examining the effect of phenylephrine on heart rate compared to norepinephrine during AF," the authors observed. (
  • The combination of guaifenesin and phenylephrine is used to treat stuffy nose and sinus congestion, and to reduce chest congestion caused by the common cold or flu. (
  • There are many brands and forms of guaifenesin and phenylephrine available and not all brands are listed on this leaflet. (
  • Phenylephrine is a decongestant that shrinks blood vessels in the nasal passages. (
  • In the eye, phenylephrine acts locally as a potent vasoconstrictor and mydriatic by constricting ophthalmic blood vessels and the radial muscle of the iris. (
  • Phenylephrine is called decongestant which narrows the small blood vessels offering short-term relief from stuffiness in the nose. (
  • Phenylephrine is a decongestant that narrows the tiny blood vessels in the nose, offering a temporary relief from congestion or stuffiness. (
  • In patients with sepsis and atrial fibrillation (AF), treatment with phenylephrine is associated with a moderately lower heart rate than treatment with norepinephrine. (
  • Moreover, patients with a higher heart rate when initiating phenylephrine experience greater heart rate declines than patients receiving norepinephrine, according to findings of a recent analysis published in Chest . (
  • Researchers from the Boston University School of Medicine therefore sought to compare how phenylephrine vs norepinephrine affect heart rate in patients with sepsis and AF. (
  • Investigators performed a systematic search of the Medical Information Mart in Intensive Care (MIMIC)-IV database for patients with sepsis and AF who were given norepinephrine or phenylephrine. (
  • 110) and analyzed the treatment effect of norepinephrine and phenylephrine by heart rate . (
  • Of the 1847 patients with sepsis and AF identified in the search, 946 (51%) were given norepinephrine and 901 (49%) received phenylephrine. (
  • The data also showed that the higher the heart rate before vasopressor administration, the greater the decline in the heart rate of patients receiving phenylephrine compared with those getting norepinephrine. (
  • On the basis of cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR), other vasoactive agents indicated in the treatment of shock may include vasoconstrictors (eg, norepinephrine, phenylephrine) or vasodilators (eg, dobutamine, milrinone). (
  • at admission she exhibited hypotension (83/43 mm Hg) and tachycardia (159 bpm), despite having received high doses of vasoactive medications (norepinephrine 1.0 µg/kg/min, phenylephrine 2.0 µg/kg/min). (
  • Phenylephrine possesses predominantly alpha-adrenergic effects. (
  • Pharmacology - Phenylephrine has predominantly post-synaptic alpha-adrenergic effects at therapeutic doses. (
  • Phenylephrine has been used to treat both hypotension and to prolong the effects of spinal anesthesia. (
  • The Effect of ß2-Adrenoceptor Genotype on Phenylephrine Dose Administered During Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery. (
  • isocarboxazid increases effects of phenylephrine ophthalmic by pharmacodynamic synergism. (
  • linezolid increases effects of phenylephrine ophthalmic by pharmacodynamic synergism. (
  • selegiline transdermal increases effects of phenylephrine by pharmacodynamic synergism. (
  • This study examined the possible upstream cellular signaling pathway associated with nitric oxide (NO)-mediated inhibition of phenylephrine-induced contraction in isolated rat aortae in response to mild hypothermia, with a particular focus on endothelial Rho-kinase. (
  • Finally, we examined the effects of mild hypothermia, wortmannin, Y-27632 and L-NAME, alone and combined, on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelial Rho-kinase membrane translocation induced by phenylephrine. (
  • Infants and children may be more likely to have side effects from cyclopentolate and phenylephrine ophthalmic. (
  • Phenylephrine hydrochloride is a sympathomimetic amine salt which is chemically designated as (-)-m-Hydroxy-α-[(methylamino)methyl] benzyl alcohol hydrochloride. (
  • Chemistry - An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, phenylephrine HCl occurs as bitter-tasting, odorless, white to nearly white crystals with a melting point of 145 - 146°C. It is freely soluble in water and alcohol. (
  • desflurane increases toxicity of phenylephrine by Mechanism: unknown. (
  • Uses/Indications - Phenylephrine has been used to treat hypotension and shock (after ad-equate volume replacement), but many clinicians prefer to use an agent that also has car-diostimulatory properties. (
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to phenylephrine, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in phenylephrine preparations. (
  • Do not use this medication if you are allergic to guaifenesin or phenylephrine, or to other decongestants, diet pills, stimulants, or ADHD medications. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Allergic contact dermatitis to phenylephrine. (
  • Singal A, Rohatgi J, Pandhi D. Allergic contact dermatitis to phenylephrine. (
  • The magnitude of mitral regurgitation was altered by phenylephrine infusion. (
  • Significant increases in the color flow area, but not in color jet width measurements, were seen after phenylephrine infusion for each regurgitant orifice. (
  • Phenylephrine will relieve symptoms but will not treat the cause of the symptoms or speed recovery. (
  • If your symptoms do not get better within 7 days or if you have a fever, stop taking phenylephrine and call your doctor. (
  • Promethazine and phenylephrine hydrochloride oral solution is indicated for the temporary relief of upper respiratory symptoms, including nasal congestion, associated with allergy or the common cold. (
  • Teach the patient has experienced gastrointestinal symptoms, such as absorbable gelatin, oxidized cellulose, topical adrenaline, or phenylephrine, if pressure and left common iliac arteries are transferred to another disorder. (
  • Nonprescription cough and cold combination products, including products that contain phenylephrine, can cause serious side effects or death in young children. (
  • Category C: Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with topical phenylephrine. (
  • Pharmacokinetics - After oral administration, phenylephrine is rapidly metabolized in the GI tract and cardiovascular effects are generally unattainable via this route of administra-tion. (
  • Drug1 (rxcui = 1049182, name = Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 10 MG Oral Tablet, tty = SCD). (
  • epinephrine, felypressin, phenylephrine and noradrenaline. (
  • Phenylephrine is contraindicated in patients with hypertension or with peripheral vascular insufficiency (ischemia may result with risk of gangrene or thrombosis of compromised vascular beds). (
  • Prepared vascular beds were constricted with phenylephrine to induce 70-75% of maximal constriction (0.001 M). Mg2+ at concentrations of 10-4 to 10-1 M were added into the medium and perfusion pressure was recorded. (
  • Phenylephrine is a strong postsynaptic alpha-receptor stimulant with little beta-adrenergic activity that produces vasoconstriction of arterioles in the body. (
  • Safety and Efficacy of Phenylephrine Administration for the Treatment of Ischemic Priapism: An Opportunity for Quality Improvement in Periprocedural Safety Assessment. (
  • To determine the safety and efficacy of hourly, high dose phenylephrine (>1000 µg) for acute ischemic priapism (AIP) through monitoring adverse hemodynamic events amongst risk profiles. (
  • Before you give a phenylephrine product to a child, check the package label to find out how much medication the child should receive. (
  • When you get a codeine-phenylephrine-triprolidine discount card for free from rxless, you'll pay the lowest possible price for your medication. (
  • Methacholine and phenylephrine desensitized both muscle preparations toward FMLP. (
  • The contractions occurred in muscle preparations desensitized by methacholine or phenylephrine. (
  • Phenylephrine is in a class of medications called nasal decongestants. (
  • Clears nasal congestion better than other decongestants like phenylephrine. (
  • If your doctor has told you to take phenylephrine regularly, take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. (
  • Nonoperative resolution of AIP with phenylephrine does not appear to be dose -dependent and hemodynamic changes secondary to phenylephrine administration may be underreported. (
  • L-NAME, wortmannin, ODQ and methylene blue increased phenylephrine-induced contraction of endothelium-intact aortae pretreated at 33°C. Wortmannin did not significantly alter the L-NAME-induced enhancement of phenylephrine-induced maximal contraction of endothelium-intact aortae pretreated at 33°C. Wortmannin abolished the ability of Y-27632 to magnify the hypothermic inhibition of maximal phenylephrine-induced contraction. (
  • We examined the effects of mild hypothermia (33°C), wortmannin, N ω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), Y-27632, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) and methylene blue, alone and combined, on phenylephrine-induced contraction in isolated rat aortae. (
  • Mild hypothermia attenuated phenylephrine-induced contraction only in endothelium-intact aortae. (
  • The results suggest that hypothermia-induced, NO-dependent inhibition of phenylephrine-induced contraction is mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase and inhibited by endothelial Rho-kinase activation. (
  • phenylephrine acts directly on α-adrenergic receptors in the eye, producing contraction of the dilator muscle of the pupil and constriction of the arterioles in the conjunctiva. (
  • Exposure of resistance arteries to OPG induced endothelial (decreased relaxation to acetylcholine) and VSMC (decreased relaxation to sodium nitroprusside - SNP) dysfunction, as well as, increased contraction to phenylephrine. (
  • Phenylephrine should not be used in patients known to be hypersensitive to the drug or in those receiving a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). (
  • Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with the drug combination-promethazine and phenylephrine. (
  • Phenylephrine is reported to be incom-patible with ferric salts, oxidizing agents, and metals. (
  • if you have phenylketonuria (PKU, an inherited condition in which a special diet must be followed to prevent damage to your brain that can cause severe intellectual disability), you should know that some phenylephrine products may be sweetened with aspartame, a source of phenylalanine. (
  • Contraindications/Precautions - Phenylephrine is contraindicated in patients with severe hypertension, ventricular tachycardia or those who are hypersensitive to it. (
  • Phenylephrine comes alone and in combination with other medications. (
  • do not take phenylephrine if you are taking a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam, Zelapar), and tranylcypromine (Parnate), or if you have stopped taking one of these medications within the past 2 weeks. (
  • Phenylephrine is not a replacement for adequate volume therapy in patients with shock. (
  • Our finding that phenylephrine - a catecholamine with primarily a-1 and a-2 activity - is also associated with reduced heart rates in patients with septic shock, provides evidence that avoidance of b-1 stimulation may mediate heart rate differences," they affirmed. (
  • This study sought to compare, in post-myocardial infarction patients, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) measured by the phenylephrine method (Phe-BRS) with that estimated by the Robbe (Robbe-BRS) and Pagani (alpha-low frequency [LF] and alpha-high frequency [HF]) spectral techniques. (
  • The safety profile of phenylephrine for patients at risk for adverse hemodynamic events was examined. (
  • 05). Twenty-one patients (17.1%) were deemed at risk for phenylephrine complication of which 4 (4.1%) had phenylephrine discontinued due to hemodynamic changes. (
  • If you become pregnant while taking phenylephrine, call your doctor. (
  • Promethazine and phenylephrine should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed. (
  • It is also not known whether phenylephrine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. (