Phenylbutazone: A butyl-diphenyl-pyrazolidinedione that has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activities. It has been used in ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; and REACTIVE ARTHRITIS.Oxyphenbutazone: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Oxyphenbutazone eyedrops have been used abroad in the management of postoperative ocular inflammation, superficial eye injuries, and episcleritis. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2000) It had been used by mouth in rheumatic disorders such as ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis but such use is no longer considered justified owing to the risk of severe hematological adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p27)Kidney Papillary Necrosis: A complication of kidney diseases characterized by cell death involving KIDNEY PAPILLA in the KIDNEY MEDULLA. Damages to this area may hinder the kidney to concentrate urine resulting in POLYURIA. Sloughed off necrotic tissue may block KIDNEY PELVIS or URETER. Necrosis of multiple renal papillae can lead to KIDNEY FAILURE.Platelet Factor 3: A phospholipid from the platelet membrane that contributes to the blood clotting cascade by forming a phospholipid-protein complex (THROMBOPLASTIN) which serves as a cofactor with FACTOR VIIA to activate FACTOR X in the extrinsic pathway of BLOOD COAGULATION.Apazone: An anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It also has uricosuric properties and has been used to treat gout.Naproxen: An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Sulfinpyrazone: A uricosuric drug that is used to reduce the serum urate levels in gout therapy. It lacks anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic properties.Calotropis: A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. The downy akund floss fiber from the seeds is used like kapok.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Hypoprothrombinemias: Absence or reduced levels of PROTHROMBIN in the blood.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Lameness, Animal: A departure from the normal gait in animals.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Polyneuropathies: Diseases of multiple peripheral nerves simultaneously. Polyneuropathies usually are characterized by symmetrical, bilateral distal motor and sensory impairment with a graded increase in severity distally. The pathological processes affecting peripheral nerves include degeneration of the axon, myelin or both. The various forms of polyneuropathy are categorized by the type of nerve affected (e.g., sensory, motor, or autonomic), by the distribution of nerve injury (e.g., distal vs. proximal), by nerve component primarily affected (e.g., demyelinating vs. axonal), by etiology, or by pattern of inheritance.Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial: Inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system associated with the deposition of AMYLOID in nerve tissue. The different clinical types based on symptoms correspond to the presence of a variety of mutations in several different proteins including transthyretin (PREALBUMIN); APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I; and GELSOLIN.Amyloid Neuropathies: Disorders of the peripheral nervous system associated with the deposition of AMYLOID in nerve tissue. Familial, primary (nonfamilial), and secondary forms have been described. Some familial subtypes demonstrate an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Clinical manifestations include sensory loss, mild weakness, autonomic dysfunction, and CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1349)Prealbumin: A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.

Racing problems in the U.S.A. (1/149)

The major problems of racing in the United States at the present time are caused by too much racing. This has led to too few horses and small fields. Consequently many owners and trainers are trying to enter their horses too frequently and to race them when they are not really fit to run. The desire to race horses as frequently as possible has led to constant pressure from horsemen through their organizations for so called "permissive medication". Started in the state of Colorado approximately ten years ago this has grown until finally there are only a few states, notably New York and New Jersey that have resisted the pressure. The drug that gave the opening wedge to permissive medication was phenylbutazone, but this in many states has led to the inclusion of other drugs including analgesics and drugs that veterinarians claim are needed for therapeutic purposes. Some states have endeavoured to control phenylbutazone medication by quantitation and while lower limits cause little difficulty, maximum allowable limits have caused problems and are not practical. While there has been no publicity to my knowledge about frusemide (furosemide, lasix) the abuse of this drug for so called "bleeders" is an example that may seriously interfere with drug detection in urine and its use should be confined to proven "bleeders" (i.e. horses suffering from epistaxis). Pre-race blood testing began roughly ten years ago at the harness tracks and has been resisted by our flat tracks rather successfully up to the present time. The blood testing methods and those used by the same laboratories in post-race urine testing is inadequate and will not detect many illegal drugs.  (+info)

Anti-ulcer effects of 4'-(2-carboxyetyl) phenyl trans-4-aminomethyl cyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride (cetraxate) on various experimental gastric ulcers in rats. (2/149)

Anti-ulcer effects of cetraxate, a new compound possessing anti-plasmin, anti-casein and anti-trypsin actions were investigated by using experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. Cetraxate, 300 mg/kg p.o. showed significant inhibitory effects of 65.3%, 70.0%, 30.2%, and 67.1% against aucte types of ulcers producing by aspirin, phenylbutazone, indomethacin, and pyloric ligature (Shay's ulcer), respectively. These effects were greater than those obtained by gefarnate and aluminum sucrose sulfate may be mainly attributed to the protecting action of this drug on gastric mucosa. Ctraxate further revealed remarkable inhibitory effects on chronic types of ulcers produced by acetic acid, clamping, and clamping-cortisone. In acetic acid ulcer in particular, cetraxate was found to have a dose-dependent inhibitory effect at doses over 50 mg/kg. Of test drugs including L-glutamine and methylmethionine sulfonium chloride, cetraxate showed the most remarkable inhibitory effect on beta-glucuronidase activity in ulcer tissue of these three types of ulcers. These findings suggest that cetraxate may prevent the connective tissue in the ulcer location from decomposition due to lysosomal enzymes such as beta-glucuronidase, thereby accelerating the recovery from ulcer.  (+info)

The effect of streptomycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and phenylbutazone on spermatogenesis in bulls. (3/149)

To determine whether declining semen quality associated with health problems may be due to certain antibiotic or anti-inflammatory treatments, semen was collected 3 times per week for up to 42 d from 6 normal bulls after treatment with oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, dihydrostreptomycin, or phenylbutazone. No adverse effects on semen quality were observed.  (+info)

Antinative DNA antibodies as a reaction to pyrazole drugs. (4/149)

A case history is presented of the occurrence of a high binding capacity for native DNA in the serum of a patient on phenylbutazone. This reverted to normal on stopping the drug. The patient also had a reversible neutropenia and leucopenia, and it is suggested that the high anti-DNA binding capacity was a feature of a drug-induced lupus-like phenomenon.  (+info)

Effect of 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-3-N,N-dimethyl-carbamoyl-5-methoxypyrazole (PZ-177) on drug-metabolizing enzyme on rat liver. (5/149)

Effect of 1-(m-chlorphenyl)-3-N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl-5-methoxypyrazole (PZ-177) (62.5 and 250 mg/kg) on rat liver was investigated by measuring liver weight and drug-metabolizing enzyme activity. The effects of PZ-177 were compared with those of phenobarbital, phenylbutazone, and tiaramide hydrochloride. Increase of liver weight and liver/body weight ratio was observed in the rats treated with PZ-177 or phenobarbital, however, normal values were reverted to 1--2 weeks after treatment. PZ-177 similar to phenobarbital, significantly enhanced the activity of aminopyrine demethylase and aniline hydroxylase after 1,2, and 4 weeks of treatment. In contrast, tiaramide hydrochloride decreased the activity of aminopyrine demethylase and aniline hydroxylase after 1 week of treatment, and significantly enhanced the activity of these enzymes after 4 weeks. The content of cytochrome P-450 and the activity of NADPH cytochrome C reductase were also increased by treatment with PZ-177. The sleeping time by hexobarbital was shortened significantly by the administration of PZ-177. Vmax for both aminopyrine demethylase and aniline hydroxylase increased by treatment with PZ-177. However, only the Km for aniline hydroxylase was increased by treatment with PZ-177. From the results of these experiments, PZ-177 may be classified as a phenobarbital-type inducer.  (+info)

Feprazone, a new anti-inflammatory agent. Studies of potency and gastrointestinal tolerance. (6/149)

Two studies are reported; a double-blind cross-over trial of feprazone 600 mg daily and aspirin 3.6 g daily in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and an uncontrolled open study of gastrointestinal tolerance in twenty rheumatoid arthritis patients with known intolerance to other drugs. The first study showed that feprazone was significantly superior to aspirin in all the parameters tested. In the second study all twenty patients showed an improvement of their gastrointestinal symptoms, nineteen reporting no symptoms at all when taking the new preparation.  (+info)

Reiter's disease in three boys. (7/149)

Three cases of Reiter's disease occurring in boys under the age of 16 are reported. One of these presented with a Salmonella enteritidis diarrhoea. This conforms to the 'dysenteric' form of Reiter's disease usually seen in Europe and rarely reported in England. Another presented with a monarticular arthritis of the knee, and the third has developed a chronic relapsing erosive arthritis as a result of sexually acquired Reiter's disease--an occurrence not previously reported in this age group. We draw attention to the frequency of diarrhoea in these children and the sex incidence of 1 female to 4--5 males, which agrees more with Reiter's disease of dysenteric origin than that acquired venereally.  (+info)

Molecular characteristics of the inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. (8/149)

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs(NSAIDs) are known as clinically effective agents for treatment of inflammatory diseases. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase has been thought to be a major facet of the pharmacological mechanism of NSAIDs. However, it is difficult to ascribe the antiinflammatory effects of NSAIDs solely to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Human neutrophil elastase (HNElastase; HNE, EC has been known as a causative factor in inflammatory diseases. To investigate the specific relationship between HNElastase inhibition and specificity of molecular structure of several NSAIDs, HNElastase was purified by Ultrogel AcA54 gel filtration, CM-Sephadex ion exchange, and HPLC (with TSK 250 column) chromatography. HNElastase was inhibited by aspirin and salicylate in a competitive manner and by naproxen, ketoprofen, phenylbutazone, and oxyphenbutazone in a partial competative manner, but not by ibuprofen and tolmetin. HNElastase-phenylbutazone-complex showed strong Raman shifts at 200, 440, 1124, 1194, 1384, 1506, and 1768 cm(-1). The Raman bands 1194, 1384, and 1768 cm(-1) may represent evidences of the conformational change at -N=N-phi radical, pyrazol ring, and -C=O radical of the elastase-drug complex, respectively. Phenylbutazone might be bound to HNElastase by ionic and hydrophobic interaction, and masked the active site. Inhibition of HNElastase could be another mechanism of action of NSAIDs besides cyclooxygenase inhibition in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Different inhibition characteristics of HNE-lastase by NSAIDs such as aspirin, phenylbutazone-like drugs and ineffective drugs could be important points for drawing the criteria for appropriate drugs in clinical application.  (+info)

  • For the third consecutive day, Belmont Stakes Presented by NYRA Bets (G1) entrant Epicharis did not go to the track June 9, two days after he received a treatment of phenylbutazone for 'lameness' in his right front leg. (
  • No withdrawal period has been established for phenylbutazone and no marker compound or tissue exists for PBZ in cattle. (
  • Parent phenylbutazone was the major excretory product in cattle urine. (
  • One sample of cattle live was found to contain phenylbutazone. (
  • This work by Creme Global has uncovered results which are crucial to our understanding of the current situation and even more important for future scenarios and developments as more test results emerge on meat products across Europe (in particular the tests for Phenylbutazone). (
  • Following the request from the European Commission, the European Medicines Agency and the European Food Safety Authority jointly concluded on the risk assessment on residues of phenylbutazone in horse meat in the context of recent fraudulent practices. (
  • The pharmacokinetics, metabolism, excretion and tissue residues of phenylbutazone (PBZ) in the horse were studied following both intravenous and oral administration of the drug at a dose rate of 4.4 mg/kg. (
  • Phenylbutazone can be administered orally (via paste, powder or feed-in) or intravenously. (
  • a single administration of 3 g intravenously, or - a 3-g intravenous dose, once daily for 3 days or - a single administration of 3 g orally or - a 3-g oral dose once daily for three days, the concentration of phenylbutazone was shown to decrease below detection level 96 hours after the last treatment. (
  • Animals were induced for gastric ulcer with Phenylbutazone (100mg/kg bodyweight) and treated orally with ARE (250 and 500 mg/kg bodyweight). (
  • Phenylbutazone may be given orally or by the intravenous route. (
  • When giving phenylbutazone orally, follow instructions for proper administration of gel or paste forms. (
  • The Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products assessed the consumer safety for phenylbutazone in 1997 and identified the main risks for the consumer as idiosyncratic blood dyscrasias and the genotoxic/carcinogenic potential for which no thresholds could be identified and no maximum residue limits could be established. (
  • Measures proposed to further minimise the risk include strengthening of the horse passport system, harmonised monitoring of phenylbutazone and its main metabolite and better reporting of monitoring of veterinary drug residues and other substances across the EU. (
  • 2017. (
  • More detailed information about the symptoms , causes , and treatments of Toxic polyneuropathy -- Phenylbutazone is available below. (
  • Below are symptoms of a phenylbutazone overdose in different parts of the body. (
  • Phenylbutazone Sodium. (
  • Phenylbutazone may cause decreased blood flow to the kidneys and result in sodium and water retention. (
  • It is supplied with each mL containing 200 mg of phenylbutazone, 10.45 mg of benzyl alcohol as preservative, sodium hydroxide to adjust pH to 9.5 to 10.0, and water for injection, Q.S. (
  • Phenylbutazone may cause decreased renal blood flow and sodium and water retention, and should be used cautiously in animals with preexisting renal disease or CHF. (
  • Positive phenylbutazone tests in horse meat were uncommon in the UK, however. (
  • Exposure to phenylbutazone from horse meat consumed as such or present in beef-based products was assessed on the basis of limited monitoring data provided by 19 Member States and of conservative assumptions. (
  • The risk of carcinogenicity to humans from exposure was considered very low based on the available experimental data on organ toxicity and carcinogenicity, as well as on the low exposure levels and the infrequent exposure to phenylbutazone from horse meat or adulterated beef-based products. (
  • Phenylbutazone (Butazolidine) is no longer available in the United States. (
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus whole plant extract (ARE) on Phenylbutazone induced chronic gastric damage in experimental rats. (
  • Phenylbutazone and its metabolites are included in the list of drugs in the Drug Surveillance Program of the Canadian Pari-Mutuel Agency (CPMA), which regulates the Canadian racehorse industry. (
  • Contraindications/Precautions - Phenylbutazone is contraindicated in patients with a his-tory of, or preexisting hematologic or bone marrow abnormalities, preexisting GI ulcers, and in food producing animals or lactating dairy cattle. (
  • Phenylbutazone is generally used with caution in patients taking blood thinning medications (anticoagulants), such as warfarin ( Coumadin ), because of an increased risk of bleeding. (
  • Chemistry - A synthetic pyrazolone derivative related chemically to aminopyrine, phenylbutazone occurs as a white to off-white, odorless crystalline powder that has a pK a of 4.5. (
  • Adverse Effects/Warnings - The primary concerns with phenylbutazone therapy in hu-mans include its bone marrow effects (agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia), renal and cardio-vascular effects (fluid retention to acute renal failure), and GI effects (dyspepsia to perfo-rated ulcers). (
  • Phenylbutazone has been removed from the United States market due to the availability of newer drugs with less adverse effects. (
  • Which drugs or supplements interact with phenylbutazone? (
  • Effective May 29, 2003, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will prohibit extralabel use of phenylbutazone animal and human drugs in female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older. (
  • As with most drugs Phenylbutazone has legal uses and also illegal uses. (
  • Phenylbutazone is contraindicated in patients demonstrating previous hypersensitivity re-actions to it, and should be used very cautiously in patients that have a history of allergies to other drugs. (
  • Phenylbutazone was originally made available for use in humans for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and gout in 1949. (
  • The FDA is issuing the order based on evidence that extralabel use of phenylbutazone in female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older will likely cause an adverse event in humans. (
  • Phenylbutazone has been rescheduled as a Schedule 7 substance (previously a Schedule 6 medicine) and consequently declared a prohibited substance, effective as from 8 May 2014, the date of publication of the Amendment to the Schedules (including Schedule 7) published in terms of section 22A of Act 101 of 1965 in Government Gazette Number 37622 under Notice Number R352. (
  • Phenylbutazone is occasionally used in dogs for the longer-term management of chronic pain, particularly due to osteoarthritis. (
  • Pharmacokinetics - Following oral administration, phenylbutazone is absorbed from both the stomach and small intestine. (
  • Phenylbutazone has a plasma elimination half-life of 4-8 hours, however the inflammatory exudate half life is 24 hours, so single daily dosing can be sufficient, although it is often used twice per day. (
  • However, because of a unique risk of bone marrow suppression (causing dangerously low white blood counts), phenylbutazone is generally reserved only for short-term use in selected patients. (
  • Phenylbutazone significantly improved morning stiffness, finger-to-floor distance, chest expansion, overall joint pain, spinal pain, the physician's assessment of disease activity and ESR. (
  • Published in silico , in vitro , in vivo laboratory animal and human data, together with information on biotransformation and data from structure-activity analyses with two decision-tree systems (ACToR and Toxtree), have been used in a weight-of-evidence (WoE) assessment to determine whether phenylbutazone (PBZ) is a genotoxic or a non-genotoxic carcinogen. (
  • Phenylbutazone is extremely irritating to tissues and can cause extensive swelling, pain, tissue damage, and even loss of tissues if injected outside the vein. (
  • No withdrawal period has been established for phenylbutazone and no marker compound or tissue exists for PBZ in cattle. (