Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Actigraphy: The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Sleep Apnea, Central: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Disorders of Excessive Somnolence: Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)Sleep Bruxism: A sleep disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth and forceful lateral or protrusive jaw movements. Sleep bruxism may be associated with TOOTH INJURIES; TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS; sleep disturbances; and other conditions.Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic: Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Sleep Medicine Specialty: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.Sleep Arousal Disorders: Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Snoring: Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.Delta Rhythm: Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Dreams: A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.Sleep Paralysis: A common condition characterized by transient partial or total paralysis of skeletal muscles and areflexia that occurs upon awakening from sleep or less often while falling asleep. Stimuli such as touch or sound may terminate the episode, which usually has a duration of seconds to minutes. This condition may occur in normal subjects or be associated with NARCOLEPSY; CATAPLEXY; and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS. The pathophysiology of this condition is closely related to the normal hypotonia that occur during REM sleep. (From Adv Neurol 1995;67:245-271)REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome: Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Raynaud Disease: An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Habits: Acquired or learned responses which are regularly manifested.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cataplexy: A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)Restless Legs Syndrome: A disorder characterized by aching or burning sensations in the lower and rarely the upper extremities that occur prior to sleep or may awaken the patient from sleep.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Sleep Phase Chronotherapy: A progressive advance or delay of bedtime until the desired bedtime is achieved.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.No-Reflow Phenomenon: Markedly reduced or absent REPERFUSION in an infarct zone following the removal of an obstruction or constriction of an artery.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Somnambulism: A parasomnia characterized by a partial arousal that occurs during stage IV of non-REM sleep. Affected individuals exhibit semipurposeful behaviors such as ambulation and are difficult to fully awaken. Children are primarily affected, with a peak age range of 4-6 years.Adenoidectomy: Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Tonsillectomy: Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Uvula: A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Activity Cycles: Bouts of physical irritability or movement alternating with periods of quiescence. It includes biochemical activity and hormonal activity which may be cellular. These cycles are shorter than 24 hours and include sleep-wakefulness cycles and the periodic activation of the digestive system.Azabicyclo Compounds: Bicyclic bridged compounds that contain a nitrogen which has three bonds. The nomenclature indicates the number of atoms in each path around the rings, such as [2.2.2] for three equal length paths. Some members are TROPANES and BETA LACTAMS.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Chronobiology Disorders: Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
  • A common cause of hyperglycemia in people with diabetes is the dawn phenomenon. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Not all high blood sugar levels in the morning are the result of the dawn phenomenon, however. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Waking up during the night and testing blood sugar can be an effective way to determine whether these peaks are a result of the dawn phenomenon or down to other causes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A linear model was used to fit the optimal linear formula of the magnitude of dawn phenomenon (ΔDawn) and self-monitoring of blood glucose values. (hindawi.com)
  • Dawn phenomenon could be partly assessed by blood glucose self-monitoring in Chinese people with T2DM using the abovementioned formula. (hindawi.com)
  • The incidence of dawn phenomenon was similar among patients in different oral antidiabetic drug groups. (hindawi.com)
  • Continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS), which has been widely used for decades, effectively improves the qualitative and quantitative detection of dawn phenomenon. (hindawi.com)
  • Using CGMS, dawn phenomenon is determined using the absolute differences between the nocturnal glucose nadir and the prebreakfast glucose values at a threshold of 20 mg/dL [ 2 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • showed that the approximate impact of the dawn phenomenon on HbA 1c level was 0.4%, while its impact on averaged 24 h mean glucose concentrations was 12.4 mg/dL [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although dawn phenomenon is not considered a main control target in the management of T2DM, we should not ignore it. (hindawi.com)
  • 5 ] published a simple method for assessing and quantifying the presence of the dawn phenomenon using SMBG. (hindawi.com)
  • Y (magnitude of dawn phenomenon, mg/dL) = 0.49 × (prebreakfast glucose average prelunch and predinner glucose, mg/dL) + 15 (mg/dL) [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that prebreakfast glucose minus the average prelunch and predinner cutoff value of 10 mg/dL could predict the dawn phenomenon at a threshold of 20 mg/dL [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This formula might be a practical, feasible, and reliable method for evaluating dawn phenomenon using SMBG. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been reported that the frequency of dawn phenomenon was 33.3% to 78.8% in Chinese people with T2DM [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This slideshow will address readers' questions about the difference between two possibilities: the Somogyi effect and the dawn phenomenon. (dlife.com)
  • Hieronder staan het programma en de vakomschrijvingen van BSc LS&T: major Behaviour and Neurosciences (cohort 2018 and 2019) Klik op de naam van een vak in een schema om naar de omschrijving te gaan. (rug.nl)
  • Blood moons , ' orange snow ' and multiple rainbows are some of the strangest natural phenomena that have been spotted over the years. (countryliving.com)
  • From jelly that falls from the sky to unexplained explosions that flatten hundreds of miles of forest to apocalyptic bloodred skies, here are the top 10 baffling natural phenomena. (listverse.com)
  • Data from a meta-analysis of six randomized-controlled trials, supports the use of prazosin in reducing trauma nightmares and improving overall PTSD symptoms including hyperarousal, total sleep time, and sleep quality in both veteran combat related and civilian noncombat related chronic PTSD [Singh 2016] . (drugs.com)
  • The Lazarus phenomenon is a grossly underreported event," notes Maxillofacial Surgeon Dr. Vaibhav Sahni in a 2016 report . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • From a biological perspective, a good night's sleep is important for building a stronger immune system against infections, heart disease, and numerous of other illnesses. (lifehack.org)
  • There are all manner of things people endure in their quest for a good night's sleep , including barking dogs, crying babies, work stress and an array of electronic devices. (howstuffworks.com)
  • A few years earlier, Anderson had done some creative googling to discover that the sensations she had experienced as a child were being called ASMR in an online forum, and one December night in 2013, looking for a distraction that would help her sleep, she used the term in another search. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Sleep Walking. (fpnotebook.com)
  • On random nights I will suffer from sleep paralysis and my eyes will be wide open but my brain will be asleep and see something horrific in my room that directly addresses me before I get sent into a dreamlike state where I am living someone else's life. (unexplained-mysteries.com)
  • Cai thinks that REM sleep catalyses the creative process by allowing the brain to form connections between unrelated ideas. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Whittaker further explained that human beings tend to dream vividly even though the big limbs of the body such as the legs, arms and torso of the body are automatically switched off by the brain which causes the lack in movement while sleeping. (thepatriot.com.na)
  • Don't fight it - fighting back sleep paralysis only intensifies the experience and increases the fear and triggers the emotional centres of the brain. (thepatriot.com.na)
  • Such findings have led to the universal acknowledgement that sleep restores brain function. (mentalfloss.com)
  • In cetaceans (whales and dolphins), half of the brain goes to sleep at a time for one to two hours on an irregular schedule throughout the day and night. (mentalfloss.com)
  • Leila Tarokh, PhD emphasized the suitability of EEG as the central tool for this project as it is a non-invasive measure of brain activity, reflects both inter-individual variability and intra-individual stability over time and there is a strong genetic contribution to various power and density neurophysiological sleep metrics. (nih.gov)
  • Ruth Benca, MD, PhD emphasized the dynamic nature of the sleep process, its putative integral role in brain maturation and the oft overlooked three-dimensional temporal aspects of sleep (sleep dissipation, etc. (nih.gov)
  • Normally the brain causes the muscles to relax and be still while sleeping so that the sleeper does not act out their dreams. (mattressworldnorthwest.com)
  • The New York Times summarized his study as such, "On days when the subjects had not had proper sleep, fattening foods like potato chips and sweets stimulated stronger responses in a part of the brain that helps govern the motivation to eat. (wikipedia.org)
  • A brain that has been deprived of sleep for one night is more likely to respond more intensely to junk food but also has the decreased ability to curb that desire. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenosine is cleared from the brain during sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now scientists are finally devoting research to unravelling what ASMR means in terms of brain activity, among them a group at the University of Sheffield's psychology department that has just published research to show that it is a real, physiologically rooted phenomenon. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Brain regions associated with waking thought that are normally inactive during REM sleep, like the prefrontal cortex, start to activate. (everydayhealth.com)
  • EEG recordings tend to show characteristic "sleep spindles", which are short bursts of high frequency brain activity, and "K-complexes" during this stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sleep spindles involve activation in the brain in the areas of the thalamus, anterior cingulate and insular cortices, and the superior temporal gyri. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we propose a generalized connectionist framework in which the emergence of "conscious networks" is not exclusive of large brain areas, but can be identified in subcellular networks exhibiting nontrivial quantum phenomena. (mdpi.com)
  • After a traumatic brain injury (TBI), people also experience major sleep problems, including changes in their sleep-wake cycle. (news-medical.net)
  • Polysomnography ( poly ="many," somnus ="sleep," graphein ="to write") comprises of a series of electrodes (the electroencephalogram, or EEG) designed to measure cortical brain activity. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Although quantitative analysis of the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) has uncovered important aspects of brain activity during sleep in adolescents and adults, similar findings from preschool-age children remain scarce. (hindawi.com)
  • This is true during early childhood, a period of rapid maturation of brain activity during sleep and a time when the amplitude of slow waves is relatively high [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • When going to sleep the brain causes the muscles to relax throughout the body. (ipl.org)
  • REM is the stage of sleep during which we have the most vivid dreams and during which our brain is quite active," he says. (popularmechanics.com)
  • When his eyes received bright light before the lowest drop in core body temperature, then the internal clock in the brain was being reset to a later time and actually delaying the sleep onset for the next night. (cnn.com)
  • Scientists once thought that sleep was a passive state, a time when a person's brain and body shut down for the night to rest and recover. (livescience.com)
  • The stage of sleep a person is in also affects how active the brain and body are. (livescience.com)
  • During sleep, the brain repeatedly cycles through four distinct stages of REM and non-REM sleep in a specific sequence. (livescience.com)
  • Live Science asked Quan for a more detailed explanation of what happens in the body and brain during each of these four stages of sleep. (livescience.com)
  • Body temperature decreases, and brain waves, if observed on an electroencephalogram (EEG) in a sleep lab, would be seen to slow. (livescience.com)
  • Delta' waves are a type of slow brain wave typically seen during this stage on EEG in a sleep lab. (livescience.com)
  • Typically lasting 20 to 40 minutes, N3 sleep is when the brain becomes less responsive to external stimuli, and as a result, it is most difficult to wake a person up from this stage, Quan said. (livescience.com)
  • It has been found through several experiments that low levels of stage 3 sleep are found in about 40-50% of people with acute and chronic schizophrenia who typically portray abnormal non-rapid eye movement sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, if you typically have about 100 minutes of slow-wave sleep on an average night but then completely miss a night of sleep, you'll almost certainly have around 200 minutes of slow-wave sleep on your recovery night. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Shortly after N1 sleep ends, a person enters this second stage of non-REM sleep, which typically lasts 10 to 25 minutes, Quan told Live Science. (livescience.com)
  • A person typically spends more time in the N3 stage during the first half of sleep than the second half, but why this happens is not known. (livescience.com)
  • A person experiencing sleep paralysis has a brief loss of muscle control, known as atonia, which means they are unable to move or speak. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Under typical circumstances, atonia and vivid visions are normal aspects of REM sleep. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Using an optogenetic tool, in this paper we show that the acute activation of DRN serotonin neuron terminals in the amygdala, but not in nuclei involved in regulating rapid eye-movement sleep and atonia, suppressed CLEs. (pnas.org)
  • Large interindividual differences in sleep oscillations and their characteristics (e.g., "ultrafast" spindle-like oscillations, theta oscillation incidence/frequency) also existed. (hindawi.com)
  • David Gozal, MD reviewed the literature and consensus understanding in the field surrounding the negative effects of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) on neurodevelopment in children, affecting both attention and behavioral regulation in addition to changes in the cardiovascular system and metabolic homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • At the University of Chicago Medical Center, Eve Van Cauter, a research professor of medicine, is beginning a major sleep-debt study that will, in her words, ''delineate the consequences of sleep curtailment for not only mood, not only cognition, not only performance, but also metabolism, cardiovascular function and immune function. (nytimes.com)
  • The extract of the scientific research of WHO's medical commission was published in New York and Geneva in 1976, confirming science's inability to explain the phenomenon. (freerepublic.com)
  • There is no clear answer as to what these sleep spindles mean, but ongoing research hopes to illuminate their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, unlike sleep spindles, they can be voluntarily induced by transient noises such as a knock at the door. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visual detection of some features of the sleep EEG (e.g., sleep spindles) can be challenging because such events may be masked by high-amplitude slow waves. (hindawi.com)
  • Most times when humans wake up in the middle of their sleep while experiencing paralysis they usually find it to be very disturbing, which jump starts a high inducing anxiety dream which causes them to wake up out of fear, says Whittaker. (thepatriot.com.na)
  • At the whole animal behavioral level, the functions of sleep seem clear: energy is saved, performance is restored, and (in humans) affect becomes more positive. (mentalfloss.com)
  • In our never-ending quest to understand what happens to us after we die, humans have long seen the rare phenomenon of near-death experiences as providing some hints. (medicalxpress.com)
  • they are in fact sleeping less -- perhaps as much as one and a half hours less each night than humans did at the beginning of the century -- often because they choose to do so. (nytimes.com)
  • Humans have a 24-hour sleep/wake cycle that is linked to the 24-hour cycle of the sun. (cnn.com)
  • The basic premise of the full moon's effect on sleep is that, before the invention of artificial light, humans had only the moon to provide light at night. (howstuffworks.com)
  • She found that our brains are better at integrating disparate pieces of information after a short bout of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep - a deep, dream-rich slumber that involves a rapid fluttering of the eyes. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Stage 3 and 4 which is the slow wave sleep where human beings get deep into their sleep and then the final Stage 5 which is Rapid eye Movement. (thepatriot.com.na)
  • Rapid eye movement sleep (REM) is not included. (wikipedia.org)
  • Periodic phenomena which are in direct or indirect contact with each other naturally adapt to one another. (indiana.edu)
  • My 24-hour sleep staycation at the Hotel Café Royal was a joy - but did it solve my lockdown insomnia? (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Like every scientist I talked to, Van Cauter regards as utterly unfounded the recent American fascination with, and embrace of, melatonin as a sleeping potion and all-purpose medicament. (nytimes.com)
  • We also use melatonin , but not as a sleep aid. (cnn.com)
  • Such is the Isakower phenomenon, as it opens a window on the very ancient sensory history of the child, particularly the child at the breast if not, indeed, in the uterus. (encyclopedia.com)