An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.
Markedly reduced or absent REPERFUSION in an infarct zone following the removal of an obstruction or constriction of an artery.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Hemorrhagic necrosis that was first demonstrated in rabbits with a two-step reaction, an initial local (intradermal) or general (intravenous) injection of a priming endotoxin (ENDOTOXINS) followed by a second intravenous endotoxin injection (provoking agent) 24 h later. The acute inflammation damages the small blood vessels. The following intravascular coagulation leads to capillary and venous THROMBOSIS and NECROSIS. Shwartzman phenomenon can also occur in other species with a single injection of a provoking agent, and during infections or pregnancy. Its susceptibility depends on the status of IMMUNE SYSTEM, coagulation, FIBRINOLYSIS, and blood flow.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Visual sensation derived from sensory stimulation by objects or shadows inside the eye itself, such as floating vitreous fibers, tissues, or blood.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)
Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
A mild form of LIMITED SCLERODERMA, a multi-system disorder. Its features include symptoms of CALCINOSIS; RAYNAUD DISEASE; ESOPHAGEAL MOTILITY DISORDERS; sclerodactyly, and TELANGIECTASIS. When the defect in esophageal function is not prominent, it is known as CRST syndrome.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Mechanisms and underlying psychological principles of mental processes and their applications.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The noninvasive microscopic examination of the microcirculation, commonly done in the nailbed or conjunctiva. In addition to the capillaries themselves, observations can be made of passing blood cells or intravenously injected substances. This is not the same as endoscopic examination of blood vessels (ANGIOSCOPY).
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Disappearance of a neoplasm or neoplastic state without the intervention of therapy.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Wiener process Fractional Brownian motion Russ, John C. (1994). Fractal surfaces, Volume 1. p. 167. ISBN 0-306-44702-9. Xie, ... ISBN 90-5410-133-4. Vicsek, Tamás (1992). Fractal growth phenomena. p. 40. ISBN 981-02-0668-2. Kroese, D.P.; Botev, Z.I. (2015 ... Since the Brownian surface represents a Gaussian process with a nonstationary covariance function, one can use the Cholesky ... A more efficient method is Stein's method, which generates an auxiliary stationary Gaussian process using the circulant ...
Tapper, Andrew; Tapper, Nigel (2006). "Sub-Synoptic-Scale Processes and Phenomena". In Gray, Kathleen (ed.). The weather and ...
This phenomenon is known as compensation, and occurs at the p-n junction in the vast majority of semiconductor devices. Partial ... This process is characterized by a constant concentration of sulfur on the surface. In the case of semiconductors in general, ... A doping process was formally developed by John Robert Woodyard working at Sperry Gyroscope Company during World War II. Though ... There are two primary methods of doping a conductive polymer, both of which use an oxidation-reduction (i.e., redox) process. ...
ASIN B0007ILKPE.[ISBN missing] Kingman, J. F. C. (1972). Regenerative Phenomena. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. ISBN 0-471-47905-5. ... ISBN 0-89871-166-5. Kingman, J. F. C. (1993). Poisson Processes. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-853693-3.. ... on regenerative phenomena, and on mathematical genetics". He was also awarded the Guy Medal in silver by the Royal Statistical ... Some Problems in Limit Theory for Stochastic Processes and Sums of Random Variables. (DPhil thesis). ...
Many important biological processes involve redox reactions. Before some of these processes can begin iron must be assimilated ... James, Bruce R.; Brose, Dominic A. (2012). "Oxidation-reduction phenomena". In Huang, Pan Ming; Li, Yuncong; Sumner, Malcolm E ... The process of electroplating uses redox reactions to coat objects with a thin layer of a material, as in chrome-plated ... The processes of oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously and cannot happen independently of one another, similar to acid- ...
Dorna, B.; M. Kramar Fijavžb; R. Nagela; A. Radla (2009-06-21). "The semigroup approach to transport processes in networks" ( ... PDF). Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena. 239 (15): 1416. Bibcode:2010PhyD..239.1416D. doi:10.1016/j.physd.2009.06.012. Retrieved ...
... of a point process) summed over all the points in the point process. These random sums over point processes have applications ... ISBN 978-0-19-853693-2. Campbell, N. (1909). "The study of discontinuous phenomena". Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 15: 117-136. ... For general point processes, Campbell's theorem is only for sums of functions of a single point of the point process. To ... see Point process notation). For a point process N {\displaystyle N} , Campbell's theorem relates the above expectation with ...
For a realistic description of optical processes in solid materials, it is essential to go beyond the simple picture of the ... The few examples given above represent only a small subset of several further phenomena which demonstrate that the coherent ... As a result of the many-body Coulomb interaction and possibly further interaction processes, the transition energy Δ ε k {\ ... To consistently treat this phenomenon of disorder induced dephasing the SBEs need to be solved including biexciton correlations ...
... interfacial processes, capillarity and wetting; biomaterials and nanomedicine; and novel phenomena and techniques. The editor- ...
The process expands until the last effect when the final desired concentration is achieved. There are several process ... Amir Faghri; Yuwen Zhang (2006). Transport Phenomena In Multiphase Systems. London: Elsevier Inc. Luopeng Yang; Xue Chen; ... A surface condenser is used to condense the vapor that produced in the second effect process. In order to recover the heat that ... Nucleate boiling will cause fouling to occur, thus affecting the rate of heat transfer of the process. In order to avoid ...
The term convection is used to describe the combination of both transport phenomena. If a diffusion process can be described by ... An example of a process where both bulk motion and diffusion occur is human breathing. First, there is a "bulk flow" process. ... This process generates current, referred to as diffusion current. Diffusion current can also be described by Fick's first law J ... Third, there is another "bulk flow" process. The pumping action of the heart then transports the blood around the body. As the ...
As a form of analysis, problematization seeks to answer the questions of "how and why certain things (behavior; phenomena, ... As an object of inquiry, problematization is described as a process of objects becoming problems by being "characterized, ... Problematization is a critical thinking and pedagogical dialogue or process and may be considered demythicisation. Rather than ... Crotty, Michael J. (1998). Foundations of Social Research: Meaning and Perspective in the Research Process. SAGE Publications. ...
Hayler, M. (2015-05-07). Challenging the Phenomena of Technology. Springer. ISBN 9781137377869. Pim, Joám Evans (2009). Toward ... Boilès, Charles L. (1982). "Processes of Musical Semiosis". ...
Wolfgang Pietsch (11 July 2008). Agglomeration Processes: Phenomena, Technologies, Equipment. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 469-. ISBN ...
... as the results of due processes or as spontaneous phenomena. For many people in the West problems may be considered as ... as directly experienceable phenomena or as indirect implications of seemingly innocent phenomena; as inherently comprehensible ... The Goals, Processes and Indicators of Development project (led by Johan Galtung) of the United Nations University, in which ... For the future, it can be seen on the UIA website that a participative and interactive process is in place, which might allow ...
Langton, C. G. (1984). "Self-Reproduction in Cellular Automata" (PDF). Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena. 10 (1-2): 135-144. doi: ... Banks, Edwin (1971). Information Processing and Transmission in Cellular Automata. PhD thesis, MIT, Department of Mechanical ...
Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites. Solid State Phenomena. 116-117 (published 15 October 2006). pp. 513-517. doi: ... "Development of Aluminum-Lithium alloys processed by the Rheo container process" (PDF). In Kang, C .G.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, S. Y. ( ... Grushko, Olga; Ovsyannikov, Boris; Ovchinnokov, Viktor (2016). Eskin, D. G. (ed.). Aluminum-Lithium Alloys: Process Metallurgy ... 2014). Aluminum-Lithium Alloys: Processing, Properties, and Applications. Elsevier/Butteworth-Heinemann (published 20 September ...
Mental (psychological) phenomena are changing processes of consciousness. They can only be determined as an actuality, an " ... Process theory. Psychology is interested in the current process, i.e. the mental changes and functional relationships between ... Interpretation only became the characteristic process of the humanities through criticism. It is a process that is set against ... 3. Psychology is concerned with conscious processes. Wundt rejected making subconscious mental processes a topic of scientific ...
These are not merely photobiological phenomena; light pollution acts by interrupting critical dark-requiring processes. But ... In many of these biological processes the critical point is the length of the dark period rather than that of the light. For ... An important aspect of any scotobiological phenomenon is the level and quality (wavelength) of light that is below the ... threshold of detection for that phenomenon and in any specific organism. This important variable in scotobiological studies is ...
In L.S. Cermak and F.I.M. Craik (Eds.) Levels of processing in human memory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum Associates, pp. 429-446. ... Jenkins, J. J. (1964). A mediational account of grammatical phenomena. Journal of Communication, 14, 86-97. Jenkins, J. J., & ... In R.R. Hoffman and D. S. Palermo (Eds.), Cognition and the symbolic processes: Applied and ecological perspectives. New York: ... In R.R. Hoffman and D. S. Palermo (Eds.), Cognition and the symbolic processes: Applied and ecological perspectives. New York: ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Tapper, Andrew; Tapper, Nigel (2006). "Sub-Synoptic-Scale Processes and Phenomena". In ...
... phenomena and processes. ISBN 9780415270809. "Murzyn , definition in the Polish-English Dictionary - Cambridge Dictionary". ...
The activation process is the process used to select particular procedural records. For example, if a parent disciplined a ... Greene, J. (1984). Evaluating cognitive explanations of communication phenomena. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 70, 241-254. ... For example, assembly is considered a top-to-bottom process that begins with more general strategy and goes to a more specific ... For example, assembly is considered a top-down process that begins with general strategy and goes to more specific ideas about ...
C. N. R. Rao and Ajay K. Sood (2013). Graphene: Synthesis, Properties, and Phenomena. Wiley-VCH. p. 438. ISBN 978-3527332588. ... Processes, Packaging, and Systems (Proceedings of Spie). Society of Photo Optical. p. 488. ISBN 978-0819447319.CS1 maint: ... thus generating nonequilibrium phenomena, an invention that has relevance to the medical field. He has developed a medical ... generated electrical signals by passing liquids over solids or through nanotubes and this phenomenon has now been termed by the ...
London: Process Press. ch. 8 *^ Young, R. M. (1989). "Transitional phenomena: production and consumption", in B. Richards, ed ... Transitional objects and phenomena, he said, are neither subjective nor objective but partake of both. In Mental Space, Robert ... Young, R. M. (1989). "Transitional phenomena: production and consumption", in B. Richards, ed., Crises of the Self: Further ... A transitional object can be used in this process. The transitional object is often the first "not me" possession that really ...
These two phenomena differ, yet share some common things. Similar processes form fog and mist. Fog is denser and generally ... Mist is a phenomenon caused by small droplets of water suspended in air. Physically, it is an example of a dispersion. It is ... The phenomenon is called fog if the visibility is 1 km (1,100 yd) or less. In the U.K., the definition of fog is visibility ...
Basic activities at research process[change , change source]. *Studying available information on the subject. ... Measuring the phenomena.. *Comparing the obtained results.. *Interpreting the results with the current knowledge, considering ... Research must pass the peer review process in order to be published. ...
Analysis of Elementary Processes in Dispersed Multiphase Flows; Multiphase Flow with Heat/Mass Transfer in Process Technology; ... Transport Phenomena in Mixing; Turbulent Flows; Urban Fluid Mechanics; Fluid Dynamic Behavior of Complex Particles; ... In addition, the solution process of MPS method differs to that of the original SPH method as the solutions to the PDEs are ... H. Xie, S. Koshizuka and Y. Oka, "Simulation of drop deposition process in annular mist flow using three-dimensional particle ...
Kolata, Gina (June 25, 1996). "Inquiry lacking due process". The New York Times Books. Cohen, Jon (December 9, 1984). "The ... Duesberg Phenomenon" (PDF). Science. 266 (5191): 1643-1644. Bibcode:1994Sci...266.1642C. doi:10.1126/science.7992043. PMID ...
Phenomena observed[edit]. Acquisition[edit]. During acquisition, the CS and US are paired as described above. The extent of ... Information processing in animals: Memory mechanisms. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. pp. 5-47. ISBN 978-1-317-75770-2.. ... and other related phenomena (see "Recovery from extinction" below). These phenomena can be explained by postulating ... However, no single model seems to account for all the phenomena that experiments have produced.[4][15] Following are brief ...
Sensory processing[edit]. Early models of sensory processing understood within a theoretical framework are credited to Horace ... collaborate closely with experimentalists in analyzing novel data and synthesizing new models of biological phenomena. ... Koch, Christof (1999). Biophysics of computation: information processing in single neurons. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford ... Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS)- a leading annual conference covering other machine learning topics as well. ...
"of the phenomenon. The court reasoned that, "[f]or process claims that encompass natural phenomen[a], the process steps . . . ... If a method of detecting a natural phenomenon is always "directed to" that natural phenomenon, as the Federal Circuit suggests ... 1) a researcher is the first to discover a natural phenomenon;. (2) that unique knowledge motivates him to apply a new ... The district court said: "[T]he claims at issue pose a substantial risk of preempting the natural phenomenon of paternally ...
Review of germanium processing worldwide,issue = 3,author = Moskalyk, R. R.,volume = 17}} {{doi,10.1016/j.mineng.2003.11.014 ... Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena,volume=101-103,page=233}},/ref, ...
An illustrative example of this phenomenon is scaphocephaly; the name providing a direct hint regarding the deformity of the ... Neurobehavioural impairment includes problems with attention and planning, processing speed, visual spatial skills, language, ...
This process began in the 11th century with the Investiture Controversy and was more or less concluded with the 1648 Peace of ... The gradual Germanization of these lands was a complex phenomenon that should not be interpreted in the biased terms of 19th- ... "Mediatization" was the process of annexing the lands of one imperial estate to another, often leaving the annexed some rights. ... The process varied greatly among the various lands and was most advanced in those territories that were almost identical to the ...
The other method is the Linde process, with a variation of the Linde process, called the Claude process, being sometimes used. ... This phenomenon is also called auto-refrigeration. Boil-off gas from land based LNG storage tanks is usually compressed and fed ... Philips Cascade process is the second most-used, used in 10 trains with a total capacity of 36.16 MTPA. The Shell DMR process ... There are two processes for liquefying natural gas in large quantities. The first is the cascade process, in which the natural ...
About eighty to ninety percent of the energy is expended for the organism's life processes or is lost as heat or waste. Only ... These characterizations stem from the ecosystem concept, which assumes that the phenomena under investigation (interactions and ... The energy ingested is utilized for metabolic processes and transformed into biomass. The energy flow continues on its path if ... This energy flow diagram illustrates how energy is lost as it fuels the metabolic process that transform the energy and ...
... may lead to a false understanding of the body and of the process of science.[169][178] Steven Novella, a ... and holistic medicine are among many rebrandings of the same phenomenon. Alternative therapies share in common that they reside ... Ernst cites as evidence the phenomenon whereby 100% of a sample of acupuncture trials originating in China had positive ... medicine is based on a belief that the body heals itself using a supernatural vital energy that guides bodily processes.[50] In ...
Fractionation processEdit. General method of fractionation: Cell sample is stored in a suspension which is: *Buffered - neutral ... In order to investigate this phenomenon, a centrifuge with even higher speeds was needed, and thus the ultracentrifuge was ... In the chemical and food industries, special centrifuges can process a continuous stream of particle-laden liquid. ... Microcentrifuges are used to process small volumes of biological molecules, cells, or nuclei. Microcentrifuge tubes generally ...
This phenomenon forms the basis for Steps B and C. Step B: If the integer is between 1,001 and one million, find a repeating ... In some cases the process can be iterated until the divisibility is obvious; for others (such as examining the last n digits) ...
This process eventually resulted in the establishment of several different distinct regional genres, such as soukous.[78] ... but he mistook its accents as indicators of meter rather than the counter-metric phenomena they are. Similarly, while Anthony ...
This article is about the optical phenomenon. For the magnetic phenomenon, see Rayleigh law. For the stochastic distribution, ... Parametric Process. *Bragg's law. Works[edit]. *. Strutt, J.W (1871). "XV. On the light from the sky, its polarization and ...
Middle Galician is characterized by a series of phonetic processes which led to a further separation from Portuguese, and to ... as the two linguistic varieties differed only in dialectal minor phenomena. ... this process did not take place: A-G vecía, Ancarese vecĩa vs. standard veciña '(female) neighbor' (Port. vizinha), A-G úa, ... followed by a process of de-affrication which led to different results in the west and in the east.[33] ...
An associative process may contribute to addiction, for environmental stimuli associated with drug taking may increase craving ... Cross-sensitization is a phenomenon in which sensitization to a stimulus is generalized to a related stimulus, resulting in the ... Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administration of a stimulus results in the progressive ... This process may increase the risk for relapse in addicts attempting to quit.[12] ...
... developed over a process of several hundred years, in which writers tried to write in a way that was understood in the largest ... also a commonplace phenomenon in southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Alsace, and South Tyrol. The fairly common aspect of ...
"Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 105 (1): 98-121. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.05.002. PMC 2702783 . PMID ... The psychological phenomenon of illusory superiority was identified as a form of cognitive bias in Kruger and Dunning's 1999 ... Other investigations of the phenomenon, such as "Why People Fail to Recognize Their Own Incompetence" (2003), indicate that ...
... process.[47] He proposed the MOS process could be used to build the first working silicon FET, which he began working on ... Using this knowledge, he began researching the phenomenon of "interference" in 1947. By June 1948, witnessing currents flowing ... and signal processing. The first discrete-transistor audio amplifiers barely supplied a few hundred milliwatts, but power and ... Its importance in today's society rests on its ability to be mass-produced using a highly automated process (semiconductor ...
... (also known as listening fatigue or ear fatigue) is a phenomenon that occurs after prolonged exposure to an ... It has been seen that this process can reduce sound waves by up to 50 decibels. Although this mechanism can decrease the sound ... Common groups at risk of becoming victim to this phenomenon include avid listeners of music and others who listen or work with ...
... and of his contribution to understanding how genetic processes specify spatial information. ... and extensive contributions in the field of invertebrate zoology and to our understanding of general biological phenomena. ...
The above processes are part and parcel to tissue integrity and repair. Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in ... "Elevated CSF levels of substance P and high incidence of Raynaud phenomenon in patients with fibromyalgia: new features for ... SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.[15][16]. Substance P is a key first responder to most noxious/extreme stimuli ... Unique among biological processes, SP release (and expression of its NK1 Receptor (through autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine- ...
However, recent research has shown that such lineage infidelity does not occur as a normal phenomenon[citation needed]. ... They are collected from the blood through a process known as apheresis. The donor's blood is withdrawn through a sterile needle ... Graft-versus-tumor effect (GVT) or "graft versus leukemia" effect is the beneficial aspect of the Graft-versus-Host phenomenon ... fresh HSC are preferred in order to avoid cell loss that might occur during the freezing and thawing process. Allogeneic cord ...
Engineering is the goal-oriented process of designing and making tools and systems to exploit natural phenomena for practical ... The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery and of evolution. Early humans evolved from a species of ... Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of ... Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for ...
3. Power laws in the degree distributions of scale-free networks are a phenomenon in which the number of vertices of a given ... Graph canonization is the process of computing a canonical form.. card. A graph formed from a given graph by deleting one ...
A similar phenomenon has since been described in the bacterium Escherichia coli, which gives rise to morphologically similar ... Each process activated by the proteins of the cell cycle engine involve a cascade of many reactions. The longest subsystem ...
From niche phenomenon to integral part of the industry". Convergence. doi:10.1177/1354856517735795.. ... The authors then suggest that GitHub, as a tool, can aid in this process by supporting "checkbox" features on a team's open ...
It has been used not only in the study of neuronal plasticity and information processing but also in drug and toxin effects on ... Nevertheless, plasticity in neuronal networks is a phenomenon that is well-established in the neuroscience community, and one ... Harvesting neural stem cells requires sacrificing the developing fetus, a process considered too costly to perform on many ... and information processing. Cultured neurons are often connected via computer to a real or simulated robotic component, ...
These vortices often create small areas of heavier damage along the main tornado path.[5][17] This is a phenomenon that is ... However, the step from supercell, or other respective formative processes, to tornadogenesis and the prediction of tornadic vs ... opposite phenomena are the derechoes (/dəˈreɪtʃoʊ/, from Spanish: derecho [deˈɾetʃo], "straight"). A tornado is also commonly ... The phenomenon can occur over water, when cold arctic air passes over relatively warm water.[24] ...
it was Protestantism that gave birth to the Ku Klux Klan, one of the worst specific social phenomena which the religious pride ... "one of the worst specific social phenomena which the religious pride of a people has ever developed". Only one of their several ...
Implications for tectonic processes on Triton". Icarus 207 (2): 972-977. Bibcode:2010Icar..207..972Y. doi:10.1016/j.icarus. ... three centuries attempts to approach the absolute zero of temperature have led to the discovery of many important phenomena, ...
Process orientation: implicit ←. → explicit Practice attitude: doctor/model-centered ←. → patient/situation-centered ... Electronic voice phenomenon. *Feng shui. *Flat Earth theory. *Germ theory denialism. *Graphology ...
603b) A Novel Ex-Situ Scale Observation Detector (Exsod) for Mineral Scale Characterization and Online Ro Process Monitoring ...
Selection from Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology [Book] ... Transport Phenomena: Fluid Flow 10.1 Shear Rate and Viscosity 10.2 Laminar versus Turbulent Flow 10.3 Vectors and Tensors 10.4 ... This chapter, as well as Chapters 11, "Transport Phenomena: Heat Transfer," and 12, "Transport Phenomena: Mass Transfer," will ... Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology by T. David Griffith. Stay ahead with the worlds most comprehensive ...
Abstract The study concerns two deep sources of tectonic processes in Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic which influence is transferred ... The study concerns two deep sources of tectonic processes in Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic which influence is transferred and ... Coupled with total mantle convection it defines plate tectonic processes and lithosphere density loose, bringing rise ... phases occurrences and synchronicity for superposition of modern mountain formation main phase with plate tectonic processes. ...
Transport Phenomena and Protein Stability in Downstream Processing of Biopharmaceuticals. Professor Giorgio Carta ... Transport Phenomena and Protein Stability in Downstream Processing of Biopharmaceuticals. *Chemical Engineering Seminar Series ... Transport Phenomena and Protein Stability in Downstream Processing of Biopharmaceuticals-Chemical Engineering - Carnegie Mellon ... Chemical Engineering, , Upcoming Events , Recent Events , Transport Phenomena and Protein Stability in Downstream Processing of ...
A Signal Processing Approach to Social Network Phenomena. Authors: Roy, Suman Deb, Zeng, Wenjun ... A Signal Processing Approach to Social Network Phenomena. Authors. * Suman Deb Roy ... Understanding social network phenomena from a signal processing point of view; The existence and popularity of multimedia as ... the potential in exploring social multimedia signals collected from social network data quantitatively from a signal processing ...
Processes and Phenomena on the Boundary Between Biogenic and Abiogenic Nature. Editors: Frank-Kamenetskaya, O.V., Vlasov, D., ... Processes and Phenomena on the Boundary Between Biogenic and Abiogenic Nature. Editors. * Olga V. Frank-Kamenetskaya ... Singlet Oxygen in the Lower Atmosphere: Origin, Measurement and Participation in Processes and Phenomena at the Boundary ... Experience of Large-Scale Analysis of the Spatial Patterns of Plain Forest Ecosystem Productivity and Biogeochemical Processes ...
We introduce criteria for efficient processing of data and then use these criteria to demonstrate that efficient processing of ... A strictly deterministic process that also yields Malus law is analyzed in detail. We present a performance analysis of the ... This additional feature has recently been shown to be sufficient to perform event-byevent simulations of interference phenomena ... Efficient data processing and quantum phenomena: Single-particle systems - We study the relation between the acquisition and ...
Rapid processing techniques require a better understanding and a more efficient control of phenomena such as heating, ... The description of the phenomena controlling the processing rate is useful, knowing that better tailoring and control of the ... The time scales of the material phenomena controlling the processing of thermoplastic composites are presented. It is shown for ... Material physical properties, material microstructure and processing conditions set the theoretical limits for rapid processing ...
Relationships between physical phenomena, distance metrics, and best-bands selection in hyperspectral processing Author(s): ... The objective of hyperspectral processing algorithms is to efficiently capitalize on the wealth of information in the scene ...
The learning phenomenon means that the actual jobs processing time of a job is a non-increasing function of the sum of ... processing times of jobs already processed. Under single machine, some properties firstly are presented to solve the objectives ... finally show that the makespan problem and the total completion time problem under more specialized proportional job processing ... p style=text-indent:20px;,This paper addresses single machine and flowshop machines with the learning phenomenon. ...
... the basic thermophysics and transport principles that underlie the mechanisms of condensation and vaporization processes. The ... Liquid Vapor Phase Change Phenomena. An Introduction to the Thermophysics of Vaporization and Condensation Processes in Heat ... Based on the shipping address you selected, the following changes will be made to your order before it is processed: *Currency ... The importance of basic phenomena to a wide variety of applications is emphasized and illustrated throughout using examples and ...
Transport Phenomena in Manufacturing and Materials Processing has 1 available editions to buy at Alibris ... Transport Phenomena in Manufacturing and Materials Processing by Wen-Jei Yang, W -J Yang, S Mochizuki starting at $56.11. ... Transport Phenomena in Manufacturing and Materials Processing. by Wen-Jei Yang, W -J Yang, S Mochizuki Write The First Customer ... namely by presenting the available knowledge on transport phenomena in manufacturing and materials processing. It is divided ...
The field-induced desorption phenomenon [1] of surface atoms or adsorbed molecules gives direct information about the ... Non-Adiabatic Processes in Field Desorption Phenomena. In: Yoshimori A., Tsukada M. (eds) Dynamical Processes and Ordering on ... Dynamical Processes and Ordering on Solid Surfaces pp 43-50 , Cite as ... The field-induced desorption phenomenon [1] of surface atoms or adsorbed molecules gives direct information about the ...
An ACT-R Process Model of the Signal Duration Phenomenon of Vigilance. ... An ACT-R Process Model of the Signal Duration Phenomenon of Vigilance. ... An ACT-R Process Model of the Signal Duration Phenomenon of Vigilance ... A viable model of the ability to maintain vigilance ought to account for these phenomena. In this paper, we focus on one of ...
Investigation of orange peel phenomenon related to powder deterioration and relevant process parameters ... The main aim of the research was to determine the ranges of process parameters and ratios of glass/polyamide and used/virgin ... PA3200 is used to produce sintered parts via a rapid prototyping process known as Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) or simply ...
Data generation methods across the empirical sciences: differences in the study phenomenas accessibility and the processes of ... in the processes involved in the encoding of information from these phenomena in the signs (symbols) used as data. These ... differences in the study phenomenas accessibility and the processes of data encoding. Quality and Quantity. pp. 1-26. ISSN ... It highlights that empirical data can reveal information about the phenomena under study only if relevant properties of these ...
EQUILIBRIUM AND NON-EQUILIBRIUM PHENOMENA IN ARCS AND TORCHES. Joost J. A. M. van der Mullen. Department of Applied Physics, ... Inicio , Portal Digitalde Begell , Plataforma de libros electrónicos Begell , Progress in Plasma Processing of Materials, 2001 ... general treatment of non-equilibrium plasma aspects is obtained by relating transport fluxes to equilibrium restoring processes ...
... and reaction processes inside biofi Recent HOT articles ... technology to the conventional activated sludge process for ... The oxygen-infusion processes within the biofilm produced by a rotating biological contactor (RBC) were measured by an oxygen ... This catastrophe point phenomenon was observed for the first time and was analyzed using the three-dimensional diffusion- ... metabolic activity microdistribution in biofilms based on the catastrophe point phenomenon during oxygen-infusion processes ...
Volume 2 , VISUALIZATION OF FLOW PATTERNS IN COOLING AND FREEZING PROCESSES OF WATER AROUND TWO HORIZONTAL TUBES ... The processes were visualized and measured using mainly real-time laser holographic interferometry technique. As a result, the ... This paper investigated the cooling and freezing processes of water around two horizontal tubes as basic research for an ice ... Главная , Begell Электронный Портал , Begell eBook Platform , Transport Phenomena in Thermal Engineering. ...
... K-REx Repository. Search K-REx. This Collection. ... The sociology of knowledge as process meaning in socio-cultural phenomena. Pretzer, Garrett J ...
Boateng has an MS in thermo-fluids mechanics, and a Ph.D. in metals and materials process engineering with a focus on rotary ... minerals and materials process engineering in flagship journals. Dr. Boateng is now a Lead Scientist with the Agricultural ... as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. This new edition contains an updated CFD ... heat transfer and heating and material balancesNew edition contains information on pyrolysis processes with low temperatures ...
Processes and Phenomena on the Boundary Between Biogenic and Abiogenic Nature pp 137-153 , Cite as ... In: Frank-Kamenetskaya O., Vlasov D., Panova E., Lessovaia S. (eds) Processes and Phenomena on the Boundary Between Biogenic ... Singlet Oxygen in the Lower Atmosphere: Origin, Measurement and Participation in Processes and Phenomena at the Boundary ... Measurement and Participation in Processes and Phenomena at the Boundary Between Biogenic and Abiogenic Nature. ...
Results indicate the appropriateness of the method for the study of important learning and memory phenomena. A bibliography is ... In four experiments, it shows that the behavioral bioassay effect is stimulus specific, response specific, process specific, ... Studies of the Stimulus Specificity, Response Specificity, Process Specificity, and Task Specificity of the Behavioral Bioassay ...
From a signal processing point of view, the Gibbs phenomenon is the step response of a low-pass filter, and the oscillations ... In signal processing, the Gibbs phenomenon is undesirable because it causes artifacts, namely clipping from the overshoot and ... Prandoni, Paolo, "Gibbs Phenomenon".. *Radaelli-Sanchez, Ricardo, and Richard Baraniuk, "Gibbs Phenomenon". The Connexions ... Using a continuous wavelet transform, the wavelet Gibbs phenomenon never exceeds the Fourier Gibbs phenomenon.[12] Also, using ...
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  • Some of the most common examples of transport analysis in engineering are seen in the fields of process, chemical, biological, and mechanical engineering, but the subject is a fundamental component of the curriculum in all disciplines involved in any way with fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and mass transfer. (
  • Transport phenomena encompass all agents of physical change in the universe. (
  • However, the scope here is limited to the relationship of transport phenomena to artificial engineered systems. (
  • In physics, transport phenomena are all irreversible processes of statistical nature stemming from the random continuous motion of molecules, mostly observed in fluids. (
  • Every aspect of transport phenomena is grounded in two primary concepts : the conservation laws, and the constitutive equations. (
  • The conservation laws, which in the context of transport phenomena are formulated as continuity equations, describe how the quantity being studied must be conserved. (
  • These equations also demonstrate the deep connection between transport phenomena and thermodynamics, a connection that explains why transport phenomena are irreversible. (
  • Examples of transport processes include heat conduction (energy transfer), fluid flow (momentum transfer), molecular diffusion (mass transfer), radiation and electric charge transfer in semiconductors. (
  • Transport phenomena have wide application. (
  • Another example is in biomedical engineering, where some transport phenomena of interest are thermoregulation, perfusion, and microfluidics. (
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  • An important principle in the study of transport phenomena is analogy between phenomena. (
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  • Almost all of these physical phenomena ultimately involve systems seeking their lowest energy state in keeping with the principle of minimum energy. (
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  • Chemical Engineering (105) Process Design Decisions and Project Economics. (
  • Examples of applied spectroscopy might include VNIR sensing and processing for food characterization and process control, optical techniques used in forensics, chem/bio detection and warning applications, and chemical analysis. (
  • The Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering (CPE) degree programme offers a cutting edge curriculum in the fields of molecular engineering and process science focused on the pharmaceutical industry. (
  • The doctorate programme prepares graduates for dynamic careers in industrial research and development centres, research institutes, or academic departments interested in pharmaceutical research, molecular engineering, and chemical engineering processes. (
  • Learn the core knowledge and technical skills of chemical engineering and focus on the environmental challenges of new technologies, processes and products. (
  • This paper investigated the cooling and freezing processes of water around two horizontal tubes as basic research for an ice thermal storage system of the ice-on-coil type. (
  • During a thermal spraying process, the heat flux reaches a few hundreds M W/m2 while the spreading duration is extremely short, being about a microsecond. (
  • Phytochemical profiles and health-promoting effects of cool-season food legumes as influenced by thermal processing. (
  • The second edition includes significant new material on the nanoscale and microscale thermophysics of boiling and condensation phenomena and the use of advanced computational tools to create new models of phase-change events. (
  • This approach enables the exploration of oxygen transfer-reaction micro-processes, dynamic OUR microdistribution, and microbial microdistribution inside biofilms. (
  • The first part discusses the correlation of mass transfer phenomena in the ultrafiltration of spent cooking liquor. (
  • The main interest throughout the thesis is to develop useful and scientifically justified methods for correlating mass transfer and filtration mechanisms in order to interpret the phenomena taking place in the studied unit operations. (
  • new data on hazardous processes in the hydrosphere), on geosystems in the hydrosphere and on their evolution, the evolution of the hydrosphere, the methods and results of research and modeling of hazardous processes in the hydrosphere, the research methodology of the hydrosphere, modern trends and conceptual approaches in the research of the hydrosphere and on the results of interdisciplinary studies of dangerous phenomena and processes occurring in the hydrosphere. (
  • Most eruptive phenomena carry a distinct seismic signature suitable for eruption forecasting and modeling. (
  • Mercedes Nicole Roberson Souvenir d'Amour, an Wavelet-based download Dielectric phenomena lists: Function and friend, with Posture and in the 1996,42(3):800-807 document, voting 3D publishers and measured to both an 456( electricity and download is from throughout the such children. (
  • Pak, JJ , Min, DJ & You, BD 1996, ' Slag foaming phenomena and its suppression techniques in BOF steelmaking process ', Steelmaking Conference Proceedings , pp. 763-769. (
  • As the dissolution of the electrode takes place during the process, some of its constituents may alloy with the machined surface under appropriate machining conditions. (
  • It states that the expected residence time of a particle in a processing vessel with steady and constant in- and outflow is given by the volume of the vessel divided by the in-/outflowrate. (
  • The simulation of the different units and components of processes has become increasingly popular as computational resources have made it easier to perform them. (
  • Computational models of social and biological phenomena have often focused on the finite-state case. (
  • In: Yoshimori A., Tsukada M. (eds) Dynamical Processes and Ordering on Solid Surfaces. (
  • Magma at depth contains dissolved volatiles (or gases) and because each volatile has a unique magma solubility, changes in volcanic gas emissions can reveal subvolcanic processes such as magma ascent and changes in conduit permeability. (
  • The study concerns two deep sources of tectonic processes in Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic which influence is transferred and enforced on the spheroid surface - Earth crust. (
  • It highlights that empirical data can reveal information about the phenomena under study only if relevant properties of these phenomena have been encoded systematically in the data. (
  • Results indicate the appropriateness of the method for the study of important learning and memory phenomena. (
  • We employ the combination of experiment, theory, and simulation to quantitatively study these information processes. (
  • We study the atomic structure of macromolecules involved in crucial cellular processes and the interactions between them. (
  • We study the time that the simple exclusion process on the complete graph needs to reach equilibrium in terms of total variation distance. (
  • Finally, the mathematical model is applied to a case study to show a practical application, which can be used for engineers to study the phenomenon in real pipelines to make decisions about performing of the emptying operation. (
  • This study is aimed at investigating the effects of soaking followed by hydrothermal processing on the cooking times. (
  • This catastrophe point phenomenon was observed for the first time and was analyzed using the three-dimensional diffusion-reaction model. (
  • Its implementation for discrete Markov chains and onedimensional diffusion processes is shown. (
  • Therefore relations of the theory of strongly continuous semigroups and their generators to diffusion processes are presented and used. (
  • Diffusion is a slow process over macroscopic distances. (
  • Follow Muscles for warehousing download Dielectric phenomena in solids: with emphasis on physical concepts Muscles with point Muscles: measurement and development. (
  • See Started When completing at a useful download Dielectric phenomena in solids: with emphasis on physical details: Testing and Function,, we Do to come which variable has high-speed to describe and voice or to maximize Testing whole. (
  • Ashman phenomenon illustrated by 12th and 15th beats, which follow a premature ventricular complex and long R-R cycle respectively. (
  • This research starts with the analysis of a transient phenomenon during emptying maneuvers in single pipelines, which is a previous stage to understand the emptying operation in pipelines of irregular profiles. (
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  • This article attempts to answer the following research question: "What factors and methods of foresight methodology enable the identification, analysis and minimization of the effects of uncertainty in the process of holistic inquiry of the future? (
  • Focus is on answering the research question while allowing the methods to emerge in the process. (
  • This meeting was held to develop strategies for long-term global monitoring of coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change, specifically mangroves and coral reefs. (
  • misc{etde_6219267, title = {UNEP-IOC-WMO-IUCN meeting of experts on a long-term global monitoring system of coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change, pilot projects and mangroves and coral reefs} author = {Not Available} abstractNote = {This meeting was held to develop strategies for long-term global monitoring of coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change, specifically mangroves and coral reefs. (
  • Small-Scale Phenomena in the Flow of Dispersions. (
  • Rapid processing techniques require a better understanding and a more efficient control of phenomena such as heating, impregnation, bonding and solidification. (
  • Understanding the microbial activity microdistribution in heterogeneous biofilms will enable exploration of microbial microdistribution, substrate transfer, and reaction processes inside biofilms. (
  • Building on readers' newly acquired fundamental understanding of nonlinear systems and associated signal processing, the book then demonstrates the use of such applications in real-world, practical environments. (
  • Being able to simulate fluid flow is an integral part of understanding, designing, and optimizing process engineering applications. (
  • Designing processes and systems to remove contaminants from groundwater requires an understanding of the complex way miscible and immiscible fluids and mixtures move through soil. (
  • Biofilm reactors are an alternative technology to the conventional activated sludge process for treating wastewater. (
  • In this work, I present a mathematical result, the Probabilistic Pumping Lemma, that constrains the behavior of all finite state processes. (