An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.
Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.
A sulfotransferase that catalyzes the sulfation of a phenol in the presence of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate as sulfate donor to yield an aryl sulfate and adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate. A number of aromatic compounds can act as acceptors; however, organic hydroxylamines are not substrates. Sulfate conjugation by this enzyme is a major pathway for the biotransformation of phenolic and catechol drugs as well as neurotransmitters. EC 2.8.2.1.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.1 and EC 1.99.2.2.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria able to anaerobically oxidize and degrade toluene.
Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.2.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein. The enzyme also forms pyruvate from D-tyrosine, L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, L-serine, and D-serine, although at a slower rate. EC 4.1.99.2.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 1.14.18.1.
Excessive lateral nail growth into the nail fold. Because the lateral margin of the nail acts as a foreign body, inflammation and granulation may result. It is caused by improperly fitting shoes and by improper trimming of the nail.
Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Large aggregates of CELESTIAL STARS; COSMIC DUST; and gas. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A frozen dairy food made from cream or butterfat, milk, sugar, and flavorings. Frozen custard and French-type ice creams also contain eggs.
Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.
Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.

The direct spectrophotometric observation of benzo(a)pyrene phenol formation by liver microsomes. (1/4452)

Optical spectral repetitive scan analysis during the oxidative metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by liver microsomal suspensions reveals the time-dependent formation of an intermediate(s) of which the visible spectra resemble those of several benzo(a)pyrene phenols. Liver microsomes from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats showed a greater rate of formation of the phenols than did microsomes from control animals; the rate of formation catalyzed by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats was intermediate. When 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was used as a standard for comparison of activity, the rates of formation of phenols were compared when measured by fluorometric, spectrophotometric, or high-pressure liquid chromatographic analytical techniques. An epoxide hydrase inhibitor, 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide, enhanced phenol formation regardless of the source of liver microsomes, and 7,8-benzoflavone inhibited control and 3-methylcholanthrene-induced microsomal metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, 7,8-Benzoflavone did not effect benzo(a)pyrene metabolism by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats. The effect of inhibitors on the spectrophotometric assay correlates well with the results obtained from benzo(a)pyrene metabolite analysis using high-pressure liquid chromatography.  (+info)

Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (2/4452)

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis.  (+info)

Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199. (3/4452)

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

Isolation from estuarine sediments of a Desulfovibrio strain which can grow on lactate coupled to the reductive dehalogenation of 2,4, 6-tribromophenol. (4/4452)

Strain TBP-1, an anaerobic bacterium capable of reductively dehalogenating 2,4,6-tribromophenol to phenol, was isolated from estuarine sediments of the Arthur Kill in the New York/New Jersey harbor. It is a gram-negative, motile, vibrio-shaped, obligate anaerobe which grows on lactate, pyruvate, hydrogen, and fumarate when provided sulfate as an electron acceptor. The organism accumulates acetate when grown on lactate and sulfate, contains desulfoviridin, and will not grow in the absence of NaCl. It will not utilize acetate, succinate, propionate, or butyrate for growth via sulfate reduction. When supplied with lactate as an electron donor, strain TBP-1 will utilize sulfate, sulfite, sulfur, and thiosulfate for growth but not nitrate, fumarate, or acrylate. This organism debrominates 2-, 4-, 2,4-, 2,6-, and 2,4,6-bromophenol but not 3- or 2,3-bromophenol or monobrominated benzoates. It will not dehalogenate monochlorinated, fluorinated, or iodinated phenols or chlorinated benzoates. Together with its physiological characteristics, its 16S rRNA gene sequence places it in the genus Desulfovibrio. The average growth yield of strain TBP-1 grown on a defined medium supplemented with lactate and 2,4,6-bromophenol is 3.71 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced, and the yield was 1.42 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced when 4-bromophenol was the electron acceptor. Average growth yields (milligrams of protein per millimole of electrons utilized) for Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 grown with 2,4,6-bromophenol, 4-bromophenol, or sulfate are 0.62, 0.71, and 1.07, respectively. Growth did not occur when either lactate or 2,4,6-bromophenol was omitted from the growth medium. These results indicate that Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 is capable of growth via halorespiration.  (+info)

In vivo demonstration of H3-histaminergic inhibition of cardiac sympathetic stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine and its prodrug BP 2.94 in the dog. (5/4452)

1. The aim of this study was to investigate whether histamine H3-receptor agonists could inhibit the effects of cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation in the dog. 2. Catecholamine release by the heart and the associated variation of haemodynamic parameters were measured after electrical stimulation of the right cardiac sympathetic nerves (1-4 Hz, 10 V, 10 ms) in the anaesthetized dog treated with R-alpha-methyl-histamine (R-HA) and its prodrug BP 2.94 (BP). 3. Cardiac sympathetic stimulation induced a noradrenaline release into the coronary sinus along with a tachycardia and an increase in left ventricular pressure and contractility without changes in mean arterial pressure. Intravenous administration of H3-receptor agonists significantly decreased noradrenaline release by the heart (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +77 +/- 25 vs +405 +/- 82; BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +12 +/- 11 vs +330 +/- 100 pg ml(-1) in control conditions, P < or = 0.05), and increases in heart rate (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +26 +/- 8 vs +65 +/- 10 and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +30 +/- 8 vs 75 +/- 6 beats min(-1), in control conditions P < or = 0.05), left ventricular pressure, and contractility. Treatment with SC 359 (1 mg kg(-1)) a selective H3-antagonist, reversed the effects of H3-receptor agonists. Treatment with R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1) and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1) tended to decrease, while that with SC 359 significantly increased basal heart rate (from 111 +/- 3 to 130 +/- 5 beats min(-1), P < or = 0.001). 4. Functional H3-receptors are present on sympathetic nerve endings in the dog heart. Their stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine or BP 2.94 can inhibit noradrenaline release by the heart and its associated haemodynamic effects.  (+info)

Antioxidative and chelating activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides from Pedicularis striata. (6/4452)

AIM: To study the antioxidative and iron chelating activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPG) isolated from a Chinese herb Pedicularis striata. METHODS: Antioxidative effects of PPG on lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4-edetic acid in linoleic acid were measured by thiobarbituric acid method. Chelating activities of PPG for Fe2+ were tested by differential spectrum method. RESULTS: The reaction rates (A532.min-1) of lipid peroxidation were 0.0046 in the control, 0.0021 in verbascoside group, and 0.0008 in isoverbascoside group. The chelating activity of isoverbascoside was 2-fold stronger than that of verbascoside. Permethyl verbascoside showed neither antioxidative nor chelating activities. CONCLUSION: The inhibitory effects of PPG with phenolic hydroxy groups on lipid peroxidation are owing to their chelating properties. Under physiological condition PPG-Fe2+ chelates are sufficiently stable. Thus PPG are able to inhibit the Fe(2+)-dependent lipid peroxidation in vivo through chelating Fe2+ and exhibit their therapeutic potential by the same mechanism in vitro.  (+info)

Developing hypothalamic dopaminergic neurones as potential targets for environmental estrogens. (7/4452)

Environmental chemicals which mimic the actions of estrogen have the potential to affect any estrogen responsive tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate their potential to mimic the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on developing primary rat hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) neurones maintained in a chemically defined medium. We now show that both E2 and octylphenol (OP), but not the non-aromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone, enhanced the uptake of [3H]DA by the cultured cells, whereas they had no effect on the uptake of [14C]GABA. Although the sensitivity of responses may change with the age of the developing cultures, the dose response curves for E2 and OP were typically 'bell-shaped', with a rise in response followed by a decline to control levels with increasing concentrations. Effects were seen as low as 10(-14) M for E2 and 10(-11) M for OP. Responses to E2 (10(-12) M) and OP (10(-9) M) were reversed in the presence of the antiestrogen, ZM 182780 (10(-5) M). This study thus provides direct evidence, using a mechanistic rather than toxicological end-point, in support of the hypothesis that inappropriate exposure to environmental estrogens at critically sensitive stages of development, could potentially perturb the organisational activities of estrogen on selected neuronal populations in the CNS.  (+info)

Characterization of the pyoluteorin biosynthetic gene cluster of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. (8/4452)

Ten genes (plt) required for the biosynthesis of pyoluteorin, an antifungal compound composed of a bichlorinated pyrrole linked to a resorcinol moiety, were identified within a 24-kb genomic region of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. The deduced amino acid sequences of eight plt genes were similar to the amino acid sequences of genes with known biosynthetic functions, including type I polyketide synthases (pltB, pltC), an acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (pltE), an acyl-CoA synthetase (pltF), a thioesterase (pltG), and three halogenases (pltA, pltD, and pltM). Insertions of the transposon Tn5 or Tn3-nice or a kanamycin resistance gene in each of these genes abolished pyoluteorin production by Pf-5. The presumed functions of the eight plt products are consistent with biochemical transformations involved in pyoluteorin biosynthesis from proline and acetate precursors. Isotope labeling studies demonstrated that proline is the primary precursor to the dichloropyrrole moiety of pyoluteorin. The deduced amino acid sequence of the product of another plt gene, pltR, is similar to those of members of the LysR family of transcriptional activators. pltR and pltM are transcribed divergently from the pltLABCDEFG gene cluster, and a sequence with the characteristics of a LysR binding site was identified within the 486-bp intergenic region separating pltRM from pltLABCDEFG. Transcription of the pyoluteorin biosynthesis genes pltB, pltE, and pltF, assessed with transcriptional fusions to an ice nucleation reporter gene, was significantly greater in Pf-5 than in a pltR mutant of Pf-5. Therefore, PltR is proposed to be a transcriptional activator of linked pyoluteorin biosynthesis genes.  (+info)

Author: Moosmann, B. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1999; Title: The antioxidant neuroprotective effects of estrogens and phenolic compounds are independent from their estrogenic properties.
Levels of inflammatory cytokines are raised in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD). A diet rich in antioxidant vitamins may protect against the development of COPD. This study examined the effects of phenolic compounds and food sources on cytokine and antioxidant production by A549 cells. The effects of the following phenolic compounds on basal and interleukin ( IL)-1- stimulated release of IL-8, IL-6, and reduced glutathione (GSH) were examined: resveratrol; Bouvrage, a commercially available raspberry juice ( Ella Drinks Ltd., Alloa, Clacksmannanshire, UK); and quercetin 3 - sulfate. Purification of the raspberry juice by high- performance liquid chromatography gave three fractions: Fraction 1 contained phenolic acid and vitamin C, Fraction 2 contained flavonoids and ellagic acid, and Fraction 3 contained anthocyanins and ellagitannins. IL-8 production was increased in the presence of IL-1 ( 165 vs. 6,011 pg/mL, P ,.0001). None of the compounds tested had any significant effect on ...
abstractNote = {One of the main problems in Mexico and in the World is the waste water pollution of a great variety of industrial processes by organic compounds. Among those ones the phenol compounds which are highly toxic, refractories (to the chemical degradation) and poorly biodegradable. This is due in a large extent to the problem created by the accelerated increase in the environmental pollution in the cities and industrial centers. The phenol compounds are used in a great variety of industries such as the production of resins, plasticizers, antioxidants, pesticides, colourings, disinfectants, etc. These phenol compounds are specially harmful, since they have repercussions on the flora of plants of biological treatment of water affecting its operation. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the capacities of phenol detention and its derivatives in an hydrotalcite type compound and diminishing with it the presence in water, in this case, of solutions prepared in the laboratory. In ...
Introduction: Octylphenol (OP) is a degradation product of alkylphenol ethoxylates that are widely used to in rubber, pesticides and paints. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound with two functional phenol groups and used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, along with other applications. OP and BPA are known as endocrine disruptors that can induce inappropriate estrogenic action, and may disturb natural calcium metabolism. In the present study, the effects of OP and BPA on the calcium levels of serum and urine, and calcium transport genes were investigated in the duodenum, kidney and placenta of the pregnant mice.. Methods: From 6.5 to 16.5 days after post coitus (dpc), pregnant mice were orally given with ethylestradiol (EE, 0.2 mg/kg/day), OP (15, 45, or 135 mg/kg/day) or BPA (5 or 50 mg/kg/day) dissolved in corn oil. The duodenum, kidney, placenta, blood and urine were obtained from mice at day 18.5 of pregnancy.. Results: As a result, serum and urinary calcium levels were ...
Xenoestrogens such as alkylphenols and the structurally related plastic byproduct bisphenol A have recently been shown to act potently via nongenomic signaling pathways and the membrane version of estrogen receptor-α. Though the responses to these compounds are typically measured individually, they usually contaminate organisms that already have endogenous estrogens present. Therefore, we used quantitative medium-throughput screening assays to measure the effects of physiologic estrogens in combination with these xenoestrogens. We studied the effects of low concentrations of endogenous estrogens (estradiol, estriol, and estrone) at 10 pM (representing pre-development levels), and 1 nM (representing higher cycle-dependent and pregnancy levels) in combinations with the same levels of xenoestrogens in GH3/B6/F10 pituitary cells. These levels of xenoestrogens represent extremely low contamination levels. We monitored calcium entry into cells using Fura-2 fluorescence imaging of single cells. Prolactin
[103 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States 2-Fluorophenol Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States 2-Fluorophenol market is...
Exposure to toxic industrial chemicals that have capacity to disrupt the endocrine system, also known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has been increasingly associated with reproductive problems in human population. Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol) are among the most common environmental contaminants possessing endocrine disruption properties and are present in plastics, epoxy resins, detergents and other commercial products of common personal and industrial use. A metabolite of BPA, 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) is about 1000 times more biologically active compared to BPA. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have shown association of BPA and OP with adverse effects on male and female reproductive system in human and animals. The endocrine disruption activity can occur through multiple pathways including binding to steroid receptors. Androgen receptor (AR) and progesterone
Background & Objectives: Due to increase in  bacterial drug resistance, discovering new antibacterial compounds is really important. The objective of this study is to evaluate the phenol compounds effect on antibacterial activity of herbal extracts of Fasa-Fars province in vitro. Materials & Methods: The antibacterial activity of 26 plants was ...
Finnish softwood bark contains large amounts of water-soluble tannin-polyphenols, which can be used as renewable alternatives to the fossil and toxic phenol compounds widely used in glues.
Stagnant water bodies have generally received little attention regarding the presence of endocrine disruptive compounds, although they can integrate diverse pollutants from multiple different sources. Many compounds of anthropogenic as well as natural origin can contribute to the overall estrogenicity of surface waters and some of them can exhibit adverse effects on aquatic biota even in very low concentrations. This study focused on freshwater ponds and reservoirs affected by water blooms and determined the estrogenic activity of water by in vitro bioassay as well as concentrations of several important groups of estrogenic compounds (estrogenic hormones, alkylphenols, and phytoestrogens) by LC-MS/MS analyses. Estrogenic hormones were found at concentrations up to 7.1 ng.L-1, similarly to flavonoids, whose concentrations did not exceed 12.5 ng.L-1. Among alkylphenols, only bisphenol A and 4-tert-octylphenol were detected in levels reaching 100 ng.L-1 at maximum. Estrogenic activity of water ...
Phenolic compounds are plant secondary metabolites playing important roles in plant resistance. Their chemical structure is based on at least one aromatic ring bonded to one or more hydroxyl groups. They are mainly synthetized from amino acid phenylalanine which is converted to cinnamic acid. Phenolics are one of the largest and most diverse groups of plant active substances. These compounds take part in the regulation of seed germination and cooperate in regulating the growth of plants, also taking part in defence responses during infection, excessive sun exposure, injuries and heavy metal stress. One of the most important features of phenolic compounds is antioxidant activity which is closely related to their chemical structure. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of phenolic compounds in the interactions of plants with various stress factors, both biotic and abiotic with special attention to their antioxidant properties ...
Is Bakuchiol a natural alternative to retinol? Ive put Boots Ingredients Bakuchiol Serum to the test to find out. Heres what happened...
Total Beauty posted Bakuchiol Is the Natural Retinol Alternative Thats Gentle on Skin featuring Dr. Purvisha Patel. The article includes Dr. Patels expert commentary on bakuchiol, a natural retinol alternative. Have you heard of bakuchiol before? Its been gaining a lot of traction lately as a natural form of retin
The delicate skin on your neck needs special attention in order to age well. Our neck cream was carefully crafted to address the look of fine lines, wrinkles and loss of firmness in thinner, more fragile skin on the jawline, neck and décolletage. In addition to Bakuchiol - a vegan retinol alternative that has been shown to be well-tolerated by the skin- this advanced neck cream also features Caffeine to minimise visible signs of ageing along with hydrating Peptides and Sustainable Edelweiss Flower Stem Cell Extract for skin the looks and feels smoother. Formulated to help improve the appearance of skin tone, texture and firmness between the chin and chest, this Bakuchiol neck cream can help all skin types appearance (including sensitive) withstand the test of time. Dermatologist-tested. , 1.7 oz. / 50 g. Mind. Body. Skin.™ Tip: Our ever-increasing reliance on (or addiction to) devices such as smartphones, tablets and laptop computers may be responsible for skin damage caused by blue light, ...
This page contains information on the chemical 2,4-Dimethyl-3-(Chloromethyl)-6-Tert-Butylphenol including: 7 synonyms/identifiers.
Ahmed S, Atlas E. 2016. Bisphenol S- and bisphenol A-induced adipogenesis of murine preadipocytes occurs through direct peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma activation. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 40(10):1566-1573, PMID: 27273607, 10.1038/ijo.2016.95. Alonso-Magdalena P, Quesada I, Nadal Á. 2015. Prenatal exposure to BPA and offspring outcomes. Dose Response 13(2):1559325815590395, PMID: 26676280, 10.1177/1559325815590395. Alonso-Magdalena P, Vieira E, Soriano S, Menes L, Burks D, Quesada I, et al. 2010. Bisphenol A exposure during pregnancy disrupts glucose homeostasis in mothers and adult male offspring. Environ Health Perspect 118(9):1243-1250, PMID: 20488778, 10.1289/ehp.1001993. Anderson OS, Peterson KE, Sanchez BN, Zhang Z, Mancuso P, Dolinoy DC. 2013. Perinatal bisphenol A exposure promotes hyperactivity, lean body composition, and hormonal responses across the murine life course. FASEB J 27(4):1784-1792, PMID: 23345456, 10.1096/fj.12-223545. Angle BM, Do RP, Ponzi D, ...
Alkylphenols are widely used industrial chemicals that act as detergents or surfactants. They are added to cosmetics, paints, pesticides, detergents and cleaning products. As a group they are highly toxic to aquatic organisms. Dozens of recent studies have documented the in-vitro and in-vivo estrogenic activity of alkylphenols in human cell lines and animals (Bechi 2006). Alkylphenols have been detected recently in surface waters contaminated with urban runoff and in wastewater effluent (Espejo 2002; Oros 2003).. Alkylphenols have been measured in air samples. One study found that newer homes, especially those with PVC materials, have more alkylphenol residues than older houses or outdoor air (Saito 2004).. ...
Provided is a styrenated phenol compound represented by Formula 1 in which styrenated phenol and hydroxylamine bind to each other: In Formula 1, n is one of integers of 1 to 3, and R 1 and R 2 are each hydrogen or one of C1 to C4 alkyl groups. The styrenated phenol compound may maintain curing stimulation property and plasticity, and prevent discoloration when being mixed with a curing agent ...
A Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) The primary biodegradability of nonionic alkylphenol ethoxylate (APEO) surfactants meets the demands imposed by environmental protection agencies. However, the intermediate products formed during biodegradation are relatively persistent and much more toxic to fish
Among the commonly reported tapentadol ER side effects are headaches, nausea, and constipation. This eMedTV page offers an overview of other possible reactions, listing common ones as well potentially serious problems that require medical treatment.
Anti-agers may have a new play in the wrinkle-reduction game. Bakuchiol was shown in a recent study to match the established benefits of retinol.
Phenol; Carbolic acid; Benzenol; Hydroxybenzene; Izal; Monohydroxybenzene; Monophenol; Oxybenzene; Phenic acid; Phenyl alcohol; Phenyl hydrate; Phenyl hydroxide; Phenylic acid; Phenylic alcohol; PhOH; Benzene, hydroxy-; Benzophenol; Acide carbolique; Bakers P & S liquid & Ointment; Fenol; Fenolo; NCI-C50124; Paoscle; Phenole; ...
Available in: Hardcover. A collection of current knowledge of phytochemicals and health Interest in phenolic phytochemicals has increased as
A HPLC method for simultaneous determination of 25 phenolic compounds in grape juice was optimized, validated and applied in the characterization of juices produced in São Francisco Valley (SFV), Brazil. The performance char- acteristics of the method were established by assays with standard solutions of phenolic compounds, spiked and unspiked samples. Linearity, matrix effects, trueness, precision, detection and quantification limits were evaluated. Linearity was demonstrated in the concentration ranges tested for all phenolic compounds. Significant matrix ef- fects were not identified for the studied compounds. Mean recoveries ranged from 86.18 to 106.50%, demonstrat- ing no lack of trueness. Precision of the method was confirmed for the 25 phenolic compounds, with acceptable repeatability relative standard deviations (from 0.71 to 9.24%) and within-reproducibility relative standard devia- tions (from 1.34 to 9.26%) for unspiked and spiked samples. The theoretical limits of detection and ...
Phenolic compounds are important components of grapes and wines. They have been found to have important roles in grape and wine systems and properties that are beneficial for human health. Vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy ...
Bisphenol A BPA Definition - Bisphenol A (BPA), is a chemical found in clear plastics. Medical research has determined that exposure to BPA has a direct...
This topic contains 40 study abstracts on Bisphenol A indicating it may contribute to Prenatal Chemical Exposures, Bisphenol-A Toxicity, and Obesity
This topic contains 40 study abstracts on Bisphenol A indicating it may contribute to Prenatal Chemical Exposures, Bisphenol-A Toxicity, and Obesity
New research presents another cause for concern in regard to the chemical bisphenol A (BPA). The study is the first to examine what impact BPA has on the DNA of mammary glands as they age.
If one researches what ingredients are in various standard cosmetics and skincare products on the market, it is a minefield of science! Here are some of the ingredients you may find in your skin and beauty products and the dangers they can cause: Alkylphenol EthoxylatesFound to reduce sperm countBenzene/Benzoic Acid/Be
Bisphenol A is an endocrine disrupting chemicals that can give someone with mild PMS a really bad case of PMS. When toxicity of Bisphenol A builds in the body, hormones throughout the body are effected.
The ACQUITY UPLC Bisphenol A Method Kit is fully compliant with ASTM Method D7574-09. As described in this method, the ACQUITY solution provides optimum resolution and sensitivity for the analysis of Bisphenol A in water.
If youre someone who tries to recycle everything, you might toss cash-register receipts in the recycling bin along with other paper. But most receipts are printed on thermal paper that requires coatings of the chemical BPA (Bisphenol A) or BPS (Bisphenol S) for the numbers to appear. BPA is a hormone disruptor that poses greatest risk to pregnant women, infants, and children; in addition, it has been linked to the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and liver toxicity. Bisphenol S has been shown to have similar effects. So if thermal paper gets recycled with other kinds of paper, it can end up in products like shopping bags, paper towels, or even toilet paper - a scary thought, indeed, since BPA can be absorbed through the skin.. So what to do, besides tossing these thermal paper receipts into the trash? For one, you could opt out of getting a sales receipt by letting the clerk know you dont want one. Or if you really need the receipt, you could request to have it emailed to you, as many ...
86 per cent of teenagers have traces of Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical compound used to make plastics, in their body, an Engaged Research public engagement project in collaboration with the University of Exeter has found.
Get Bisphenol A type Compounds at Spectrum Chemical. SpectrumChemical.com carries a full line of fine chemicals, lab appliances and lab supplies. Spectrum Chemical offers fine chemicals in lab and production sizes.
The TriRNA Pure Kit is a spin column system for purification of high-quality total RNA from a variety of samples. Initially, samples are homogenized in TRIzol® Reagent, GENEzol™ Reagent or other phenol, guanidine isothiocyanate reagents. Chloroform phase separation or isopropanol RNA precipitation is not required.
The TriRNA Pure Kit is a spin column system for purification of high-quality total RNA from a variety of samples. Initially, samples are homogenized in TRIzol® Reagent, GENEzol™ Reagent or other phenol, guanidine isothiocyanate reagents. Chloroform phase separation or isopropanol RNA precipitation is not required.
Exposure to bisphenol A may reduce the effectiveness of chemotherapy treatments by inducing a group of proteins that protect cancer cells from the toxic effects of chemotherapy.
Bisphenol a diacetate. CAS Number: 10192-62-8. Catalog Number: AA0005VW. MDL Number: MFCD00026194. Molecular Formula: C19H20O4. Molecular Weight: 312.3597. AA Blocks.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 4,4-(2,3-diisocyano-1,3-butadiene-1,4-diyl)bisphenol (C18H14N2O2) from the PQR.
[169 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2017-2022 Global Top Countries Hydrogenated Bisphenol A Market Report report by LP Information INC. ...
Dietary phenolic compound with the presence of C2=C3 double bond take the pre-emptive opportunities to enhance its biological effects., Lei Chen
Mounting evidence against a chemical we are exposed to daily is being ignored. What more do regulators need, ask David Melzer and Tamara Galloway
phenomenon can be attributed to several factors: First, due to the changes in the content of various phenolic compounds and second, to an increase in cell sap pH level. Sood and Nagar (2003) and Sood et al. (2006) investigated the levels of acidic and. ...
New research also shows that sanitiser can cause your skin to absorb more bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is a chemical used in the production of almost all plastics. ...
In the current study, all infants had detectable urinary concentrations of total BPA, ranging from 2.0 to 196 µg/L. The median urinary BPA concentration in this group of premature infants was considerably higher (17.2 μg/L) than in healthy term infants aged 1 to 5 months (,0.45 μg/L) without known BPA exposure.21 Although immaturity of phase II metabolism may account for some of the association of urinary BPA concentrations with prematurity, premature infants have the ability to conjugate BPA.16 Interestingly, medical devices, but not nutritional intake, were positively associated with urinary BPA concentrations. On average, premature infants requiring ≥4 medical devices had urinary total BPA concentrations 1.6 times higher than those requiring fewer devices independent of their gestational age, gender, or nutritional intake. Respiratory devices were associated with higher urinary BPA concentrations than other devices. These findings suggest that medical devices were an important source of ...
Gestational urinary BPA concentrations were associated with some neurobehavioral measures at 3 years of age in this cohort. In particular, gestational BPA exposure was associated with higher scores for measures of anxiety, hyperactivity, emotional control, and behavioral inhibition. Similar to our previous findings, the effects of gestational BPA exposure on these behavioral domains were larger among girls than boys.2 The different responses to gestational BPA exposure were especially pronounced for hyperactivity; girls exhibited increases in hyperactivity, and boys exhibited decreases in hyperactivity. In contrast, childhood urinary BPA concentrations were less important predictors of behavior or executive functions in this study.. The findings presented are consistent with numerous studies demonstrating altered neurobehavior among BPA-exposed animals.14,38 Gestational BPA exposures might affect endocrine or other neurotransmitter pathways and disrupt sexual differentiation of the brain, to ...
NIEHS Grant P30ES000002. A study, supported in part by the NIEHS, identified medical devices as a potential source of exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) among premature infants in neonatal intensive care units. BPA is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics, which are used in medical devices such as intravenous administration sets, syringes, and catheters. The researchers looked at the urinary BPA concentration for 55 infants and categorized each infants medical device use as low or high based on the number and invasiveness of devices. They found that the median urinary total BPA concentration of infants who had required four or more medical devices for three previous days was significantly higher, 36.6 micrograms per liter (µg/l), than for the infants requiring three or less devices, who had a BPA concentration of 13.9 µg/l. The researchers also collected and analyzed breast milk or formula samples, and found that the increased BPA concentration was not associated with the infants nutritional ...
ALBERTO, María R.; MANCA DE NADRA, María C. and ARENA, Mario E.. Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium. Braz. J. Microbiol. [online]. 2012, vol.43, n.1, pp.167-176. ISSN 1517-8382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822012000100018.. The influence of seven phenolic compounds, normally present in wine, on the growth and arginine deiminase system (ADI) of Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, a wine lactic acid bacterium, was established. This system provides energy for bacterial growth and produces citrulline that reacts with ethanol forming the carcinogen ethyl carbamate (EC), found in some wines. The influence of phenolic compounds on bacterial growth was compound dependent. Growth and final pH values increased in presence of arginine. Arginine consumption decreased in presence of protocatechuic and gallic acids (31 and 17%, respectively) and increased in presence of quercetin, rutin, catechin and the caffeic and vanillic phenolic ...
It is in your food containers, water bottles, and 90 percent of us have it in our bloodstream. It may also be a prime candidate for causing wheezing in children if pregnant mothers come into contact with it. Experimental research in bisphenol A, (BPA) suggests that prenatal BPA exposure causes asthma in mice. No firm data yet exists for humans but results are not looking good.. Adam Spanier, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of pediatrics at Penn State College of Medicine, studied 367 children, 99 percent of whom were born to mothers who had detectable BPA levels during pregnancy. Twice a year for three years, the parents reported back with any signs of wheezing in the children. At six months of age, twice as many children were reported with wheezing from mothers who had higher BPA than those who had mothers with lower BPA levels. These effects may have diminished as the children aged however.. Researchers then looked at the levels of BPA in the women during certain times of their pregnancies and ...
Early buyers will receive 10% customization on reports.. This growth is driven by rising demand from Asia-Pacific region due to highly industrialized countries, such as China. Phenol derivatives are preferred for the production of polycarbonates, epoxy resins, bakelite, and nylon.. Bisphenol -A: The most-widely used derivative of phenol derivatives. Bisphenol-A is a phenol derivative commonly used for producing polycarbonates and epoxy resins. The bisphenol-A is the most-widely used derivative of phenol. Polycarbonate finds application in food and drink packaging such as water & baby bottles, compact discs, impact-resistant safety equipment, and medical devices. Further, epoxy resins used to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes. BPA is also be found in certain thermal paper products, including cash register and ATM receipts.. Asia-Pacific: The largest market for phenol derivatives. The Asia-Pacific region is the largest market in the global phenol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of cyclodextrin-solubilized flavonoids, resveratrol and astaxanthin as measured with the ORAC-EPR method. AU - Sueishi, Yoshimi. AU - Ishikawa, Misa. AU - Yoshioka, Daisuke. AU - Endoh, Nobuyuki. AU - Oowada, Shigeru. AU - Shimmei, Masashi. AU - Fujii, Hirotada. AU - Kotake, Yashige. PY - 2012/3. Y1 - 2012/3. N2 - Recently, we proposed an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method that directly quantifies the antioxidants scavenging capacity against free radicals and evaluated the radical scavenging abilities for water soluble antioxidant compounds. In this study, we determined the radical scavenging abilities of lipophilic antioxidants which were solubilized by cyclodextrin in water. Commonly employed fluorescence-based method measures the antioxidants protection capability for the fluorescent probe, while we directly quantify free-radical level using electron para- magnetic resonance spin trapping technique. In addition, the spin ...
Data from limited dietary intervention trials suggest that the cardiovascular health benefit of EVOOs may increase as their phenolic antioxidants content increases. However, while EVOOs contain an array of bioactive compounds, little information exists regarding the physiological effects of specific chemical species. Among the EVOO-derived phenolics with demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in animal and in vitro models is oleocanthal, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX). The current study compared the impact of acute intake (40 mL) of EVOO on platelet reactivity in healthy adult males (n=9). Three EVOOs were characterized and chosen for equivalency in their total phenolic content and fatty acid profiles, but differing in their oleocanthal to oleacein ratio. In a randomized double-blind cross-over study design, subjects consumed EVOOs that provided either a ~2:1 oleocanthal/oleacein (Oleo+) or 2:1 oleacein compared to oleocanthal (Olea+). A third EVOO served as a control, ...
Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against ultraviolet radiation or aggression by pathogens. In the last decade, there has been much interest in the potential health benefits of dietary plant polyphenols as antioxidant. Epidemiological studies and associated meta-analyses strongly suggest that long term consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols offer protection against development of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we present knowledge about the biological effects of plant polyphenols in the context of relevance to human health.
NIEHS Grants: R01ES016541, P01ES022844, P30ES017885, R01ES017005, R01ES017005, R01ES016001, R01ES017524. NIEHS grantees report that exposure to the endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy can cause oxidative damage that may increase a childs risk of developing diabetes or heart disease later in life. The researchers tested multiple species of animals to replicate and strengthen human studies that showed BPA exposure during pregnancy can bring about a specific type of oxidative stress.. Oxidative stress is associated with insulin resistance and inflammation, which are risk factors for diabetes and other metabolic disorders as well as cardiovascular disease. For the human study, the researchers analyzed blood samples from 24 mother and infant pairs. The women were divided into two groups based on their levels of BPA determined from blood draws taken during their first trimester of pregnancy. Mothers and their infants with higher levels of BPA showed increased levels of ...
New Study from CCCEH Finds Exposure to Bisphenol-A in the Womb is Linked to Behavioral Problems in Young Children. NEW YORK (April 28, 2012) Over the past few years two new phrases have been introduced to our everyday language-bisphenol-A (BPA) and endocrine disrupting chemicals. According to a new study by researchers at Columbia Center for Childrens Environmental Health at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, exposure to BPA in the womb may be linked to behavioral problems in young children.. The study was published in an advance online edition of Environmental Health Perspectives entitled Prenatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Child Behavior.. BPA is found in many products we use every day, ranging from polycarbonate plastics like those used in food and beverage storage containers, the lining of canned food and beverages, thermal paper cashier receipts, to dental sealants. As a result of the high volume production and use, the majority of Americans are exposed to BPA. ...
In this study, the concentration of alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were determined in fish samples, Labeo umbratus and Carp, collected from the Vaal River in South Africa. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction technique was used to extract the organic contaminants from fish samples, and the resulting extract was purified by sulphuric acid lipid removal followed by Strata X-cartridge SPE clean-up. The APEs and BFRs were derivatized using heptafluorobutyric anhydride before analysis with GC-MS. In both types of fish samples, lower oligomers of APEs were more abundant than the higher oligomers, while HBCD, BDE99 and PBB101 were the dominant BFRs. The concentrations of these pollutants ranged from 1.061 ng/g lipids (t-BP) in Labeo umbratus to 11.860 ng/g lipids (HBCD) in Carp.
Alfa Aesar ButylPhenol, Honeywell ButylPhenol, VWR ButylPhenol, Spectrum ButylPhenol,BDH ButylPhenol,Acros ButylPhenol, Panreac ButylPhenol, FisherScientific ButylPhenol, Suvchem ButylPhenol, GFS ButylPhenol
Possible link between high prenatal BPA levels and neonatal neurobehavioral abnormalities; study advises pregnant women to reduce exposure levels. A new case study examining an infants neurobehavioral abnormalities and extremely high bisphenol A (BPA) concentration of the babys mother suggests a link between the two. The study, Environmental Health Perspectives: A Case Study of High Prenatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Infant Neonatal Neurobehavior, was led by researcher Sheela Sathyanarayana, MD of Seattle Childrens Research Institute, and recently published online in Environmental Health Perspectives.. BPA, a synthetic, man-made chemical, is used in a wide variety of products including: can linings; hard polycarbonate plastics such as baby bottles and reusable cups; and dental sealants. Food may be the single largest source of BPA exposure due to contamination of foods during preparation and processing. BPA has estrogenic (hormone-like) properties. In animal studies, exposure to BPA early in ...
Arnold J. Schecter and colleagues note that BPA is used in lining metal cans and in polycarbonate plastics such as baby bottles, although some manufacturers are switching to BPA-free products. In humans, BPA is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and male sexual dysfunction in exposed workers, they state. Food is a major exposure source. We know of no studies reporting BPA in U.S. fresh food, canned food, and food in plastic packaging in peer reviewed journals. To fill that gap in scientific knowledge, the scientists measured BPA levels in 105 human, cat, and dog foods. They detected BPA in 63 of 105 human food samples from grocery stores in Dallas, and present a detailed list of foods, brands, and BPA levels in the text of the study. The levels were lower than the 50 micrograms per kilogram of body weight standard used by EPA and EFSA and comparable to levels detected in the past. Schecter noted that some studies have shown adverse effects associated with exposure to BPA at ...
If youre going through fertility treatments you may want to limit your BPA exposure. A Harvard study links BPA exposure to lower IVF success rates.
2,4-Di-tert-butyl-6-({4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]piperazin-1-yl}methyl)phenol | C34H54N2O2 | CID 24854213 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
The amounts of total polyphenol and flavonoids in the Korean EEP samples ranged from 49 to 239 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g EEP (Brazilian, Chinese, and Australian samples, 127-142 mg GAE/g EEP) and from 21 to 50 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g EEP (Brazilian, Chinese, and Australian samples, 33-53 mg QE/g EEP), respectively. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that total polyphenol contents may be negatively correlated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (r = -0.872) and total flavonoid content has no correlation with the activity (r = 0.071). No direct correlation between BACE-1 inhibition, AChE inhibition, or antiproliferative activity and total polyphenol or total flavonoid content in Korean EEP samples was found. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were observed to have different degrees of antimicrobial susceptibility to the EEP samples examined, although ciprofloxacin susceptibility among the bacterial groups did not differ greatly ...
MSNBC is reporting on a new study that found eating canned food every day may raise the levels of the compound bisphenol A (BPA) in a persons urine more than previously suspected, a new study suggests.. The study found people who ate a serving of canned soup every day for five days showed higher levels of BPA in their systems than those who ate no soup. The participants who ate soup during the five day test had BPA levels of 20.8 micrograms per liter of urine, whereas people who instead ate fresh soup had levels of 1.1 micrograms per liter, according to the study.. Food Court previously reported on BPA findings in popular childrens soups. In that case, and here, BPA is found in many canned foods - it is a byproduct of the chemicals used to prevent corrosion.. When the researchers looked at the rise in BPA levels seen in the average participant who ate canned soup compared with those who ate fresh soup, they found a 1,221 percent jump.. The FDA does not currently regulate BPA levels and is ...
The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) carried out an analysis of the potential for bisphenol A to trigger opposed results on copy and growth in people. The CERHR Expert Panel on Bisphenol A accomplished its analysis in August 2007. CERHR chosen bisphenol A for analysis as a result of of the: widespread human publicity; public concern for doable well being results from human exposures; high manufacturing quantity; proof of reproductive and developmental toxicity in laboratory animal research Bisphenol A (CAS RN: 80-05-7) is a high manufacturing quantity chemical used primarily in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins.. Polycarbonate plastics are used in some meals and drink containers; the resins are used as lacquers to coat steel merchandise similar to meals cans, bottle tops, and water provide pipes. To a lesser extent bisphenol A is used in the manufacturing of polyester resins, polysulfone resins, ...
The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) carried out an analysis of the potential for bisphenol A to trigger opposed results on copy and growth in people. The CERHR Expert Panel on Bisphenol A accomplished its analysis in August 2007. CERHR chosen bisphenol A for analysis as a result of of the: widespread human publicity; public concern for doable well being results from human exposures; high manufacturing quantity; proof of reproductive and developmental toxicity in laboratory animal research Bisphenol A (CAS RN: 80-05-7) is a high manufacturing quantity chemical used primarily in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins.. Polycarbonate plastics are used in some meals and drink containers; the resins are used as lacquers to coat steel merchandise similar to meals cans, bottle tops, and water provide pipes. To a lesser extent bisphenol A is used in the manufacturing of polyester resins, polysulfone resins, ...
An ongoing debate about the health impacts of bisphenol A (BPA), the ubiquitous chemical used in production of polycarbonate - that hard clear plastic we use for eating, drinking, and storing food - continues, according to a recent article by Janet Raloff published in the September 29 issue of Science News. Her analysis provides good insight into why we often hear conflicting reports when it comes to environmental and health impacts of chemicals.. Raloff reports on the conflicting results of two different panels recruited by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and charged with reviewing and evaluating the potential developmental and reproductive impacts of BPA. While one panel labeled as confident its assessment that BPA at low doses has had negative effects on experimental animals, and that such findings were suggestive of impacts in humans, the other panel concluded that current BPA exposures appear to pose little risk to humans.. According to Raloff, one of the differences cited in ...
The adsorption of phenol on flat and stepped Pt and Rh surfaces and the dissociation of hydrogen from the hydroxyl group of phenol on Pt(111) and Rh(111) were studied by density functional calculations. On both Pt(111) and Rh(111), phenol adsorbs with the aromatic ring parallel to the surface and the hydroxyl group tilted away from the surface. Furthermore, adsorption on stepped surfaces was concluded to be unfavourable compared to the (111) surfaces due to the repulsion of the hydroxyl group from the step edges. Transition state calculations revealed that the reaction barriers, associated with the dissociation of phenol into phenoxy, are almost identical on Pt and Rh. Furthermore, the oxygen in the dissociated phenol is strongly attracted by Rh(111), while it is repelled by Pt(111).
Several activated carbons (ACs) were used as metal-free catalysts for degradation of a toxic organiccompound, phenol, in the presence of different oxidants, H2O2, peroxydisulfate (PS) and peroxymonosulfate (PMS). It was found that ACs were effective in heterogeneous activation of PMS toproduce sulfate radicals for degradation of phenol, much better than H2O2 and PS. Particle size of AC significantly influenced AC activity, and powder AC was much more effective than granular AC. The complete phenol removal could be achieved in 15 min on powder activated carbon (PAC) under the conditions of [phenol] = 25 mg L-1, [PAC] = 0.2 g L-1, [PMS] = 6.5 mmol L-1, and T = 25 degrees Celcius. It was also found that phenol degradation was significantly influenced by PMS loading, catalyst loading, phenol concentration and temperature. Surface activation of PMS and phenol adsorption played important roles in phenol degradation. Surface coverage by intermediate adsorption and structural change induced deactivation ...
Stearyl .beta.-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate Stearyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate Stearyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate Sumilizer BP 76 THANOX 1076 U 276 Total tonnage band Total range: 10 000+ tonnes per annum REACH Registered as: FULL Submitted: Joint Submission Publication dates First published ...
Introduction. 1. Give an account of the properties and uses of phenol. (1) Phenol is acidic and its conjugate base, phenoxide ion is stabilized by resonance. However, phenol is not acidic enough to liberate CO2 from phenol because an aqueous solution of carbon dioxide is a stronger acid than phenol. An aqueous solution of phenol has a pH value of 9. This means phenol reacts with NaOH but not NaHCO3. Phenol dissolves in NaOH(aq) to form sodium phenoxide, an ionic salt. (2) Phenol is corrosive and is a useful antiseptic. (3) Phenol is a colorless solid of low melting point. Its pink appearance is due to the presence of impurities. (4) When attached to a benzene ring, a hydroxyl group does not show the properties of an alcohol. The delocalization of electrons into the ring makes the -OH group inert towards replacement. On the other hand, the -OH group activates the ring toward electrophilic substitution at the ortho- and para-positions. Therefore, phenol reacts with (a) NO2+, (b) CH3+, (c) CH3CO+, ...
Unscramble phenols, Unscramble letters phenols, Point value for phenols, Word Decoder for phenols, Word generator using the letters phenols, Word Solver phenols, Possible Scrabble words with phenols, Anagram of phenols
Subjects and methods subjects and samples collected 42 male workers, their job was to spray badges in a machine factory and two related factories in Aichi Prefecture using mixed organic solvents as epoxy resin hardening agents as exposure workers in this study ...
Background: Flavonoids have been implicated in the prevention of cardiovascular disease; however, their mechanisms of action have yet to be elucidated, possibly because most previous in vitro studies have used supraphysiological concentrations of unmetabolized flavonoids, overlooking their more bioavailable phenolic metabolites. Objective: We aimed to explore the effects of phenolic metabolites and their precursor flavonoids at physiologically achievable concentrations, in isolation and combination, on soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1). Method: Fourteen phenolic acid metabolites and 6 flavonoids were screened at 1 μM for their relative effects on sVCAM-1 secretion by human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The active metabolites were further studied for their response at different concentrations (0.01 μM-100 μM), structure-activity relationships, and effect on vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 mRNA ...
The study conducted by researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) found that a group of volunteers who consumed a serving of canned soup each day for five days had a more than 1,000 percent increase in urinary bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations compared with when the same individuals consumed fresh soup daily for five days ...
The list of adverse health effects from BPA exposure continues to grow. Bisphenol A, or BPA, is commonly used to line food and beverage cans, and helps to keep plastics flexible, but studies suggest the compound can leach into the foods we eat.
The list of adverse health effects from BPA exposure continues to grow. Bisphenol A, or BPA, is commonly used to line food and beverage cans, and helps to keep plastics flexible, but studies suggest the compound can leach into the foods we eat.
Figure 6: Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Antiproliferative Activities and Total Polyphenol Contents of the Extracts of |i|Geissospermum reticulatum|/i| Bark
Phenol is one of toxic pollutants in many kinds of hypersaline industrial effluents which should be treated properly before discharged into water bodies. In this work, a halophilic strain which could utilize phenol as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated. Based on 16S rRNA results, it was identified as a member of Citrobacter. The phenol biodegradation ability and cell growth of the strain was evaluated with the variation of initial phenol concentration and salinity. The effect of temperature and pH on phenol removal was also investigated. The results showed that the strain was capable of withstanding high phenol (up to 1,100 mg L−1) environment with varying salinity conditions (0-10% of NaCl). The optimal initial phenol concentration was 400 mg L−1, with which the average removal rates of phenol peaked at 10.8 mg L−1 h−1. The higher initial concentration of phenol could inhibit the microbial metabolism. The optimal temperature, pH and salinity were 35 °C, 6.0, and 0%, ...
Current human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical used in many polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, is of some concern for effects on development of the prostate gland and brain and for behavioral effects in fetuses, infants and children, according to a final report released today by the National Toxicology Program (NTP).
Data & statistics on Bisphenol India: Dilution table for bisphenol A and bisphenol F., Properties of two types of polycarbonates, that is, Bisphenol A polycarbonate (BPAPC) and Poly(diethylene glycol di(allyl carbonate)) (PDEGDAC) [2]., Gharravi AM, et al: Altered pituitary hormone in male rats exposed to Bisphenol A...
Oleocanthal is a natural phenolic compound found in Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO). The importance and uniqueness of Oleocanthal is that it has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
New research led by researchers at North Carolina State University shows that exposure to the chemical bisphenol A (BPA) early in life results in high levels of anxiety by causing significant gene expression changes in a specific region of the brain called the amygdala. The researchers also found that a soy-rich diet can mitigate these effects.. We knew that BPA could cause anxiety in a variety of species, and wanted to begin to understand why and how that happens, says Dr. Heather Patisaul, an associate professor of biology at NC State and lead author of a paper describing the work. BPA is a chemical used in a wide variety of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, and is used in consumer products such as some food containers.. In the study, rats were exposed to low doses of BPA during gestation, lactation (nursing) and through puberty. One group of animals was fed only soy; one group was fed a soy-free diet; one group was fed only soy and exposed to BPA; and one group was fed no soy and ...
Silica-gel column chromatography (clean-up). The chromatographic column (20 cm × 8 mm I.D.) was packed with 5.0 g of activated silica gel, which was made into a slurry with 1.5% (v/m) petroleum ether and then stirred well before use. About 1 mℓ of anhydrous sodium sulphate was placed at the top of the column to absorb any water in the sample or the solvent. The column was pre-eluted with 15 mℓ of petroleum ether and before exposure to sodium sulphate. The reduced 5 mℓ extract resulting from the extraction processes was placed in the column and allowed to sink below the sodium sulphate layer. APEs extracts were eluted with 2 × 10 mℓ portions of the extracting solvents. The eluant was collected, bubbled with nitrogen gas to dryness and reconstituted with 2 mℓ of extracting solvent. Then 1.0 µℓ was injected into the GC.. Sampling protocol. Description of the study area. The study area for this research work was the Jukskei River catchment area, which is located in the Gauteng and ...
Research has called into question the role of plant polyphenols in cardiovascular health, by finding that their supposed anti-platelet activities are only relevant at high, and physiologically unattainable, concentrations.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the manufacture of many products and is ubiquitous in the environment. Adverse effects of BPA on animal reproductive health have been reported, however most of the studies relied on the approaches in the assessment of conventional histology and anatomical features. The mechanistic actions of BPA are not clear. In the present study, a murine model was used to study potential effects of BPA exposure during perinatal and postnatal periods on endocrine functions of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG)-axis. At the hypothalamic-pituitary level, BPA exposure resulted in the up-regulation of the expression levels of KiSS-1, GnRH and FSH mRNA in both male and female pups. At the gonadal levels, BPA caused inhibition in the expressions of testicular steroidogenic enzymes and the synthesis of testosterone in the male pups. Conversely exposure to BPA resulted in a greater aromatase expression level and the synthesis of estrogen in the female pups. BPA is a weak estrogen agonist ...
Title: Polyphenols: Biological Activities, Molecular Targets, and the Effect of Methylation. VOLUME: 1 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):K. R. Landis-Piwowar and Q. P. Dou. Affiliation:Karmanos Cancer Institute, 540.01 HWCRC 4100 John R Road, Detroit, Michigan 48201-2013, USA.. Keywords:Proteasome inhibitor, molecular target, natural product, drug discovery, anticancer. Abstract: Polyphenolic compounds are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and the anticancer benefits obtained from their consumption have been studied extensively. However, polyphenols are subject to various biotransformation reactions within the human body including methylation. Likewise, naturally occurring polyphenols may contain O-methylations in place of the hydroxyls of the parent compounds. While some studies suggest that methylations can increase the bioavailability of polyphenols, other studies indicate a decrease in the anticancer benefits of methylated polyphenols. This review will focus on the cellular activities of ...
Exposure to the endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A during pregnancy can cause oxidative damage that may put the baby at risk of developing diabetes or heart disease later in life, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Societys journal Endocrinology.
The aim of the study was to determine total phenolics, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity in some Eulophia species (Orchidaceae). Rhizomes of Eulophia species viz. E. nuda, E. ochreata, E. herbacea, E. ramentacea, E. andamanensis and E. epidendrea were extracted with petroleum ether, methanol, acetone and Distilled water.
Phenols[edit]. Polyphenols, such as bisphenol A or novolacs can react with epoxy resins at elevated temperatures (130-180 °C ... Reaction of phenols with formaldehyde and subsequent glycidylation with epichlorohydrin produces epoxidised novolacs, such as ... Common classes of hardeners for epoxy resins include amines, acids, acid anhydrides, phenols, alcohols and thiols. Relative ... Tertiary amines, carboxylic acids and alcohols (especially phenols) are effective accelerators. Bisphenol A is a highly ...
Red wines will also have the phenols found in white wines. Wine simple phenols are further transformed during wine aging into ... Natural phenols and polyphenols from cork stoppers[edit]. Extracted cork closure inscribed with "Bottled at origin" in Spanish ... 4 Natural phenols and polyphenols from cork stoppers. *5 Phenolic content in relation with wine making techniques *5.1 ... The phenolic content in wine refers to the phenolic compounds-natural phenol and polyphenols-in wine, which include a large ...
Phenol[edit]. Phenol exhibit a strong molecular ion peak. Loss of H· is observed (M - 1), CO (M - 28) and formyl radical (HCO ...
... phenol contamination incident[edit]. Main article: 1991 Nakdong river phenol contamination incident ... The phenol ended up at a water processing facility used for drinking water in Daegu and began to smell after becoming ... In 1991, there were two incidents where phenol was leaked into the river from Doosan Electronics. There were two leaks, the ...
... sometimes called phenols, consist of an aromatic 6-carbon ring bonded to a hydroxy group. Some phenols have antiseptic ... "Phenols". Plant Defense Systems & Medicinal Botany. Retrieved 2007-05-21. Van Soest, Peter J. (1982). Nutritional ecology of ...
Musliner, Walter J.; Gates, Jr, John W. (1971). "Dehydroxylation of Phenols; Hydrogenolysis of Phenolic Ethers: Biphenyl". ...
PhenolsEdit. Main article: Phenols. The word phenol is also used to refer to any compound that contains a six-membered aromatic ... Phenol is also used as a preservative in some vaccines.[25]. Phenol spray is used medically to help sore throat.[26] It is the ... Phenol is reduced to benzene when it is distilled with zinc dust, or when phenol vapour is passed over granules of zinc at 400 ... "Phenol_msds".. *^ a b c d e NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0493". National Institute for Occupational Safety and ...
V. Breder (1967). "Ortho bromination of phenols". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 32 (7): 2358-2360. doi:10.1021/jo01282a063. D. ...
Asymmetric oxidation of phenols. Atropisomerism and optical activity. Archived from the original on 2015-01-06. Retrieved 2015- ... He subsequently obtained a PhD degree at the same university in 1978, with the thesis titled "Asymmetric oxidation of phenols. ...
... phenols, hydrocarbons • and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons • other acute and chronic toxicants In many cases, huge ponds sit ...
Tyman, J.H.P. (1996-08-21). Synthetic and Natural Phenols. p. 7. ISBN 9780080542195. Losch, P; Kolb, J.F.; Astafan, A; Daou, T. ... The Raschig-Hooker process is a chemical process for the production of phenol. The main steps in this process are the ... Due to the two step nature, the Raschig-Hooker process can be used to produce either chlorobenzene or phenol.[citation needed] ... Kropf, H. (1964). "Moderne technische Phenol-Synthesen I". Chemie Ingenieur Technik. 36 (7): 759-768. doi:10.1002/cite. ...
2004). The Chemistry of Phenols. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470869451. Sharma, Vinita; McKone, Harold T.; Markow, ...
Tyman, J.H.P. (1996). Synthetic and Natural Phenols. Burlington: Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-054219-0. ed.-in-chief, George M. Garrity ...
Curtis, R. F.; Hassall, C. H.; Nazar, M. (1968). "The biosynthesis of phenols. Part XV. Some metabolites of Penicillium ...
Kharasch, M. S.; Joshi, B. S. (1957). "Reactions of Hindered Phenols. II. Base-Catalyzed Oxidations of Hindered Phenols". J. Am ... It may be synthesized by oxidation of the parent phenol with lead dioxide or potassium hexacyanoferrate(III). Its radical ...
Due to the high presence of phenol in the early manufacturing of pine tar, it was deemed carcinogenic. However, now much of the ... "Phenols and Related Compounds". The Merck Veterinary Manual. Merck Manuals. Retrieved 16 April 2015. Laura Bryant. Chickens: A ... phenol has been removed. Pine tar was banned by the FDA along with many other ingredients categorized as over the counter drugs ...
... is prepared from phenol and chloroform by heating with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide in a Reimer- ... Salicylaldehydes in general may be prepared by other ortho-selective formylation reactions from the corresponding phenol, for ... "Ortho-Formylation of Phenols; Preparation of 3-Bromosalicylaldehyde". Organic Syntheses. 82: 64. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.089.0220. ... Tiemann reaction: Alternatively, it is produced by condensation of phenol or its derivatives with formaldehyde to give ...
"Alcohols, phenols, and ethers". University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Britannica.com. Retrieved 22 January 2016. "12 Ways to Use ...
ISBN 978-81-7648-743-6. Asymmetric oxidation of phenols. Atropisomerism and optical activity. Archived from the original on 6 ...
At one time, chlorobenzene was the main precursor for the manufacture of phenol: C6H5Cl + NaOH → C6H5OH + NaCl The reaction ... nov., a novel bioprocessor isolated actinomycete with the ability to degrade chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and phenol as sole ... nov., a novel bioprocessor isolated actinomycete with the ability to degrade chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and phenol as sole ... Weber, Manfred; Weber, Markus; Kleine-Boymann, Michael (2004). "Phenol". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi: ...
... (INN) (brand name Nopron) is a sedative-hypnotic drug of the phenylpiperazine group.[1][2] It has been used in the treatment of sleep disturbances since the early 1970s in several European countries including France, Italy, and Luxembourg.[3][4] It is commonly used with children and adolescents on account of its favorable safety and tolerability profile and lack of abuse potential.[5][6][7][8][9][10] Originally believed to act as an antihistamine and anticholinergic,[11] niaprazine was later discovered to have low or no binding affinity for the H1 and mACh receptors (Ki = , 1 μM), and was instead found to act as a potent and selective 5-HT2A and α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist (Ki = 75 nM and 86 nM, respectively).[12] It possesses low or no affinity for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT2B, D2, and β-adrenergic, as well as at SERT and VMAT (Ki = all , 1 μM), but it does have some affinity for the α2-adrenergic receptor (Ki = 730 nM),[12] likely acting as an antagonist there as well. Niaprazine ...
... (INN), also known as captodiamine, is an antihistamine sold under the trade names Covatine, Covatix, and Suvren which is used as a sedative and anxiolytic. The structure is related to diphenhydramine.[1] A 2004 study suggested captodiame may be helpful in preventing benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in people discontinuing benzodiazepine treatment.[1] In addition to its actions as an antihistamine, captodiamine has been found to act as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and σ1 receptor and D3 receptor agonist.[2] It produces antidepressant-like effects in rats.[2] However, captodiamine is unique among antidepressant-like drugs in that it increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hypothalamus but not in the frontal cortex or hippocampus.[2] This unique action may be related to its ability to attenuate stress-induced anhedonia and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the hypothalamus.[2] ...
... is the cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde molecules.[2] Formally, it is a derivative of 1,3,5-trioxane. The corresponding tetramer is metaldehyde. A colourless liquid, it is sparingly soluble in water and highly soluble in ethanol. Paraldehyde slowly oxidizes in air, turning brown and producing an odour of acetic acid. It quickly reacts with most plastics and rubber. Paraldehyde was first observed in 1835 by the German chemist Justus Liebig; its empirical formula was determined in 1838 by Liebig's student Hermann Fehling.[3][4] Paraldehyde was first synthesized in 1848 by the German chemist Valentin Hermann Weidenbusch (1821-1893), another student of Liebig; he obtained paraldehyde by treating acetaldehyde with acid (either sulfuric or nitric acid).[5][6] It has uses in industry and medicine. ...
... is generally considered a non-polar solvent. Owing to the good polarizability of the chlorine atoms, it is a superior solvent for organic compounds that do not dissolve well in hydrocarbons such as hexane. It is an excellent solvent for many organic materials and also one of the least toxic of the chlorinated hydrocarbons. Prior to the Montreal Protocol, it was widely used for cleaning metal parts and circuit boards, as a photoresist solvent in the electronics industry, as an aerosol propellant, as a cutting fluid additive, and as a solvent for inks, paints, adhesives, and other coatings. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane is also used as an insecticidal fumigant. It was also the standard cleaner for photographic film (movie/slide/negatives, etc.). Other commonly available solvents damage emulsion, and thus are not suitable for this application. The standard replacement, Forane 141 is much less effective, and tends to leave a residue. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane was used as a thinner in ...
... , also known as validolum, is the menthyl ester of isovaleric acid. It is a transparent oily, colorless liquid with a smell of menthol. It is very slightly soluble in ethanol, while practically insoluble in water. It is used as a food additive for flavor and fragrance.[1] ...
Phenols (e.g., propofol). *Phenytoin. *Piperidinediones (e.g., glutethimide). *Propanidid. *Pyrazolopyridines (e.g., etazolate) ...
... , also known as cyclobarbitol or cyclobarbitone, is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative.[1] It is primarily available in fixed-dose combination with diazepam under the brand name Reladorm (100 mg cyclobarbital + 10 mg diazepam) and is used to treat insomnia in Russia.[2] ...
When given slowly by an intravenous route, sodium amobarbital has a reputation for acting as a so-called truth serum. Under the influence, a person will divulge information that under normal circumstances they would block. This was most likely due to loss of inhibition. As such, the drug was first employed clinically by Dr. William Bleckwenn at the University of Wisconsin to circumvent inhibitions in psychiatric patients.[7] The use of amobarbital as a truth serum has lost credibility due to the discovery that a subject can be coerced into having a "false memory" of the event.[8](subscription required)[citation needed] The drug may be used intravenously to interview patients with catatonic mutism, sometimes combined with caffeine to prevent sleep.[9] It was used by the United States armed forces during World War II in an attempt to treat shell shock and return soldiers to the front-line duties.[10] This use has since been discontinued as the powerful sedation, cognitive impairment, and ...
... has potential for either medical misuse when the drug is continued long term without or against medical advice, or for recreational use when the drug is taken to achieve a "high".[53][54] The transition from medical use of zolpidem to high-dose addiction or drug dependence can occur with use, but some believe it may be more likely when used without a doctor's recommendation to continue using it, when physiological drug tolerance leads to higher doses than the usual 5 mg or 10 mg, when consumed through inhalation or injection, or when taken for purposes other than as a sleep aid.[53] Recreational use is more prevalent in those having been dependent on other drugs in the past, but tolerance and drug dependence can still sometimes occur in those without a history of drug dependence. Chronic users of high doses are more likely to develop physical dependence on the drug, which may cause severe withdrawal symptoms, including seizures, if abrupt withdrawal from zolpidem occurs.[55] Other ...
... (also known as clonitrazolam) is a benzodiazepine that has had very little research done about its effects and metabolism, and has been sold online as a designer drug.[1][2][3][4][5] The synthesis of clonazolam was first reported in 1971 and the drug was described as the most active compound in the series tested.[6][7] Clonazolam is reported to be highly potent, and concerns have been raised that clonazolam and flubromazolam in particular may pose comparatively higher risks than other designer benzodiazepines, due to their ability to produce strong sedation and amnesia at oral doses of as little as 0.5 mg.[8] ...
Natural sources of phenols on www.britannica.com. Databases[edit]. *Phenol-Explorer (phenol-explorer.eu), a database dedicated ... Phenol extraction[edit]. Phenol extraction is a processing technology used to prepare phenols as raw materials, compounds or ... For the molecule alone, see Phenol.. In biochemistry, naturally occurring phenols refers to phenol functional group that is ... Unfiltered olive oil has the higher levels of phenols, or polar phenols that form a complex phenol-protein complex. ...
Exposure to phenol may cause irritation to the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and nervous system. Some symptoms of exposure to ... Phenol (C6H6O or C6H5OH) is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid with a sweet, acrid odor. ... phenol are weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, muscle aches, and pain ... Phenol (C6H6O or C6H5OH) is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid with a sweet, acrid odor. Exposure to phenol may cause ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Phenol&oldid=46487425" ...
https://www.bafu.admin.ch/content/bafu/en/home/topics/chemicals/glossary-of-pollutants/phenols.html Footer. Federal Office for ...
When the hydroxyl group is joined to an aryl ring, a phenol results (shown above). Both alcohols and phenols are widespread in ... The hydroxyl group of alcohols and phenols is responsible for an interesting variety of physical and ... Alcohols and phenols: An oxygen atom normally forms two σ bonds with other atoms; the water molecule, H2O, is the simplest and ... When the hydroxyl group is joined to an aryl ring, a phenol results (shown above). Both alcohols and phenols are widespread in ...
... has role mouse metabolite (CHEBI:75771) phenol (CHEBI:15882) is a phenols (CHEBI:33853) phenol (CHEBI: ... phenol (CHEBI:15882) has role antiseptic drug (CHEBI:48218) phenol (CHEBI:15882) has role disinfectant (CHEBI:48219) phenol ( ... phenol O-(β-D-glucuronide) (CHEBI:64681) has functional parent phenol (CHEBI:15882). phenoxenium (CHEBI:52245) has functional ... tert-butyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate (CHEBI:142523) is a phenol (CHEBI:15882). piperlactam S (CHEBI:132657) is a phenol ( ...
The substance and the vapour are corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Corrosive on ingestion. Inhalation of the vapour may cause lung oedema, but only after initial corrosive effects on eyes and/or airways have become manifest. See Notes. The substance may cause effects on the central nervous system, heart and kidneys. This may result in convulsions, coma, cardiac disorders, respiratory failure and collapse. The effects may be delayed. Medical observation is indicated. Exposure could cause death ...
Skin exposure to high levels of phenol has resulted in liver damage, diarrhea, dark urine, and hemolytic anemia. Phenol has ... Phenol is a manufactured substance found in a number of consumer products. ... normal concentration of phenol in the urine may suggest recent exposure to phenol or to substances that are converted to phenol ... Phenol can remain in water for a week or more.. *Larger or repeated releases of phenol can remain in the air, water, and soil ...
Toxicological Profile for Phenol. CAS#: 108-95-2. Toxicological Profile Information. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly ... Toxicological profile for Phenol. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
Phenols undergo esterification. Phenol esters are active esters, being prone to hydrolysis. Phenols are reactive species toward ... Phenolic compounds are classified as simple phenols or polyphenols based on the number of phenol units in the molecule. Phenols ... Phenols are more acidic than typical alcohols. The acidity of the hydroxyl group in phenols is commonly intermediate between ... Phenol is readily alkylated at the ortho positions using alkenes in the presence of a Lewis acid such as aluminium phenoxide: ...
Phenols synonyms, Phenols pronunciation, Phenols translation, English dictionary definition of Phenols. n. 1. A caustic, ... phenol. (redirected from Phenols). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. phe·nol. (fē′nôl′, -nōl′, -nŏl′) ... phenol index).. Delivery of the cfa flow analyzer for determination of free cyanide / general and phenols (phenol index) ... inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferase by phenols and chlorinated phenols.. Characterization of Phenol Degrading Bacteria ...
Rouge de phenol, Vert brillant et Rouge de Phénol, Rouge phenol, Phénolsulfonephtaléine (fr) ... Media in category "Phenol red". The following 24 files are in this category, out of 24 total. ... Phenol red, 4,4-(3H-2,1-benzoxathiol-3-ylidene)bisphenol S,S-dioxide, PSP, 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-3H-2,1-benzoxathiole 1,1- ... phenol red (fa); Fenol crveno (sh); феноловый красный (ru); Fenol kırmızısı (tr); Phenolrot (de); vermelho de fenol (pt); ...
... is used in sclerotherapy to treat piles (haemorrhoids). It is injected into the base of the piles, in ... Oily phenol injection. Oily phenol injection is used in sclerotherapy to treat piles (haemorrhoids). It is injected into the ... Oily phenol injection is used in sclerotherapy to treat piles (haemorrhoids). It is injected into the base of the piles, in ...
Phenol is potentially capable of causing both systemic toxicity and direct adverse effects on the skin following dermal ... phenol are capable of causing skin corrosion, whereas diluted solutions (1 to 3% phenol) are irritating to the skin [European ... Phenol is potentially capable of causing both systemic toxicity and direct adverse effects on the skin following dermal ... The following section provides additional detail about the potential health hazards of skin contact with phenol and the ...
... alcohol; Phenol, molten; Rcra waste number U188; UN 1671; UN 2312; UN 2821; Phenic alcohol; NSC 36808; Campho-Phenique ...
Evans J.C., The vibrational spectra phenol and phenol-OD, Spectrochim. Acta, 1960, 16, 1382-1392. [all data] ... Phenol alcohol; Phenol, molten; Rcra waste number U188; UN 1671; UN 2312; UN 2821; Phenic alcohol; NSC 36808; Campho-Phenique ... Bartmess, J.E.; Scott, J.A.; McIver, R.T., Jr., The gas phase acidity scale from methanol to phenol, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1979, ... Capponi, M.; Gut, I.G.; Hellrung, B.; Persy, G.; Wirz, J., Ketonization equilibria of phenol in aqueous solution, Can. J. Chem. ...
Natural sources of phenols on www.britannica.com. DatabasesEdit. *Phenol-Explorer (phenol-explorer.eu), a database dedicated to ... Phenol extractionEdit. Phenol extraction is a processing technology used to prepare phenols as raw materials, compounds or ... Unfiltered olive oil has the higher levels of phenols, or polar phenols that form a complex phenol-protein complex. ... Synthesis of phenolsEdit. Several laboratory methods for the synthesis of phenols:. *by an ester rearrangement in the Fries ...
Phenol definition, Also called carbolic acid, hydroxybenzene, oxybenzene, phenylic acid. a white, crystalline, water-soluble, ... phenol phe·nol (fēnôl, -nōl). n. *. A caustic, poisonous, white crystalline compound derived from benzene and used in ... Some phenols occur naturally in the essential oils of plants. Phenols are used in industry to make plastics and detergents. ... Word Origin and History for phenol Expand. n. "carbolic acid," 1844, from pheno- + -ol. Discovered in coal tar in 1834; used as ...
About PHENOL: Phenol is an aromatic compound. In the United States, Phenol may be used as an active ingredient in OTC drug ... Synonym(s): BENZENOL; CARBOLIC ACID; HYDROXYBENZENE; LIQUID PHENOL; OXYBENZENE; PHENOL,; PHENYL ALCOHOL; ACIDE CARBOLIQUE ( ... When used as an active drug ingredient, the established name is Phenol.. Function(s): Antimicrobial Agent; Cosmetic Biocide; ...
Unfiltered olive oil has the higher levels of phenols, or polar phenols that form a complex phenol-protein complex. Phenolic ... Natural sources of phenols on www.britannica.com Phenol-Explorer (phenol-explorer.eu), a database dedicated to phenolics found ... Some phenols are sold as dietary supplements. Phenols have been investigated as drugs. For instance, Crofelemer (USAN, trade ... Phenol extraction is a processing technology used to prepare phenols as raw materials, compounds or additives for industrial ...
... the End jgraham at bronze.ucs.indiana.edu Fri Oct 29 07:42:55 EST 1993 *Previous message: Phenol source ... Interesting, we distill enough phenol for over 6 months (eg. 2 L) in an afternoon. A simple electrical heating ring and coiled ...
Phenols are employed in medicinal products such as ear and nose drops, throat lozenges and mouthwashes. The substituted phenols ... Phenols are also wide-spread in nature. Phenols substituted with bulky groups at ortho- positions, like butylated ... Depending on the number of phenolic units in the molecule, they are classified as simple phenols and polyphenols. Phenols are ... Phenols are employed in the preparation of resins, dyes, explosives, lubricants, and plastics. Phenol and its derivatives are ...
While the goal of this work was to learn how to improve plant biofuel feedstocks, knowing how to manipulate plant phenols may ... For example, the set of molecular tools identified in this study might be used to increase the synthesis of certain phenols ... The conventional approach takes aim at the regulation of genes that instruct plant cells to make enzymes involved in phenol ... These enzymes are proteins that serve as catalysts to speed up the chemical reactions that synthesize phenols. Instead of ...
Also known as phenolic resins, phenol-formaldehyde polymers were the first completely synthetic polymers to be commercialized. ... In 1872 the German chemist Adolf von Baeyer condensed trifunctional phenol and ... applied for a patent on a phenol-formaldehyde thermoset that eventually became known by the trademarked name Bakelite. ... Phenol formaldehyde: Many people date the beginning of the modern plastics industry to 1907, when Leo Hendrik Baekeland, a ...
Phenol Topical rated 5.2/10 in overall patient satisfaction. ... Compare Phenol Topical head-to-head for uses, ratings, cost, ... phenol topical may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. ...
Phenol-soluble modulins.. Otto M1.. Author information. 1. Pathogen Molecular Genetics Section, Laboratory of Human Bacterial ... Biofilm; Cytolysis; Leukotoxin; Neutrophils; Phenol-soluble modulins; Staphylococcus aureus; Staphylococcus epidermidis; Toxins ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Phenol (EHC 161, 1994) Phenol (HSG 88, 1994) PHENOL (JECFA Evaluation) Phenol (PIM 412) ...
I have a brand new bottle of phenol ph 6.7. What do I need to add to ,, make acid phenol/chloroform? Thanks. ,, -Ed ,, ,, ... I suppose it means to melt phenol , (Sigma) and add the same volume of chloroform - you will get acid , phenol/chloroform. The ... Ed Jasenka Pigac wrote: , Phenol is acid as such when melted. If you add either water or , chloroform it will remain acid. ... Acid Phenol/chloroform. Ed Siefker via methods%40net.bio.net (by ebs15242 from creighton.edu). Wed Nov 7 12:05:49 EST 2007 * ...
Principle: Phenol Red Fermentation medium contains peptone, phenol red (a pH indicator) and the carbohydrate to be tested. ... Phenol red is yellow at a pH , 6.8 and red at a pH of > 7.4, therefore if a bacterium ferments a sugar to acid a yellow color ... Phenol Red Fermentation Tubes. Purpose: To determine if a bacterium can ferment a particular carbohydrate and determine the end ... Possible phenol red tube results include: (A) Formation of acid and gas (bubble is indicated by arrow), (B) Formation of acid ...
... today informed its phenol customers that it is declaring force majeure as a result of shortages and delivery delays of its key ... AdvanSix (ASIX) today informed its phenol customers that it is declaring force majeure as a result of shortages and delivery ... The force majeure has been declared only for phenol and will not impact shipments of other products produced at the Companys ... As a result of this force majeure event, phenol production at the Companys Frankford, Pennsylvania facility and caprolactam ...
  • Many people date the beginning of the modern plastics industry to 1907, when Leo Hendrik Baekeland , a Belgian-born American chemist, applied for a patent on a phenol-formaldehyde thermoset that eventually became known by the trademarked name Bakelite . (britannica.com)
  • Also known as phenolic resins , phenol-formaldehyde polymers were the first completely synthetic polymers to be commercialized. (britannica.com)
  • In 1872 the German chemist Adolf von Baeyer condensed trifunctional phenol and difunctional formaldehyde, and in subsequent decades Baeyer's student Werner Kleeberg and other chemists investigated the products, but they failed to pursue the reaction because they were unable to crystallize and characterize the amorphous resinous products. (britannica.com)
  • Two methods are used to make phenol-formaldehyde polymers. (britannica.com)
  • In one, an excess of formaldehyde is reacted with phenol in the presence of a base catalyst in water solution to yield the resole, which is a low-molecular-weight prepolymer with CH 2 OH groups attached to the phenol rings. (britannica.com)
  • The other method involves reacting formaldehyde with an excess of phenol using an acid catalyst to produce prepolymers called novolacs. (britannica.com)
  • Phenol-formaldehyde polymers make excellent wood adhesives for plywood and particleboard because they form chemical bonds with the phenollike lignin component of wood. (britannica.com)
  • It is also used in the production of drugs (it is the starting material in the industrial production of aspirin ), weedkiller, and synthetic resins ( Bakelite , one of the first synthetic resins to be manufactured, is a polymer of phenol with formaldehyde ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Reaction of formaldehyde with phenols: a computational chemistry study. (usda.gov)
  • A method of manufacturing a lignosulfonate-phenol-formaldehyde resin includes heating a mixture of phenol, formaldehyde, lignosulfonate and alkali at a temperature of 60 C. to 100 C. and a pH of 8-13. (google.com)
  • The lignosulfonate comprises about 5 to about 80 percent of the total weight of phenol, formaldehyde. (google.com)
  • The lignosulfonate comprises about 5 to about 80 percent of the total weight of phenol, formaldehyde and lignosulfonate and the lignosulfonate is mixed with said phenol and formaldehyde before substantial reaction between said phenol and said formaldehyde. (google.com)
  • heating a mixture of phenol, formaldehyde, lignosulfonate and alkali wherein said lignosulfonate comprises about 5 to about 80 percent of the total weight of phenol, formaldehyde and lignosulfonate.Iadd. (google.com)
  • heating said mixture to form a lignosulfonate-phenol-formaldehyde polymer. (google.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 wherein said phenol, formaldehyde and lignosulfonate are mixed prior to heating. (google.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 wherein said lignosulfonate comprises abouit 30% to about 60% by total weight of lignosulfonate, phenol and formaldehyde. (google.com)
  • The rates ( k) of hydroxymethylation of phenol, resorcinol, phloroglucinol, and several methylphenols in diluted 10% dimethylformamide aqueous alkaline solution were calculated based on the consumption of phenols and formaldehyde. (springer.com)
  • Dijkstra R, DeJonge J, Lammers MF (1962) The kinetics of the reaction of phenol and formaldehyde. (springer.com)
  • 1. Mechanisms and kinetics of phenol and of the first polycondensates towards formaldehyde in solution. (springer.com)
  • Zavitsas AA, Beaulieu RD, Leblanc JR (1968) Base-catalyzed hydroxymethylation of phenol by aqueous formaldehyde: kinetics and mechanism. (springer.com)
  • The soy-based resin is considered to be a copolymer of soy and phenol formaldehyde. (usda.gov)
  • Thermosetting water-immiscible phenol-formaldehyde resins in which a large proportion of the linkages between the benzene rings are benzyl ether linkages located ortho to the phenolic hydroxyl groups are produced by reaction of at least one mole of formaldehyde with 1 mole of phenol in an aqueous reaction. (google.es)
  • Methods of control of the exothermic addition of formaldehyde to phenol are described. (google.es)
  • 2. The process of claim 1 wherein said mole ratio of formaldehyde to phenol is about 1.5:1 to about 2.5:1. (google.es)
  • Joseph Lister (1827-1912), an English surgeon at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary, used solutions of phenol dissolved in water, known as carbolic acid , to kill germs in wounds and to sterilize medical equipment, drastically cutting down the number of deaths caused by infections. (angelo.edu)
  • phenol , better known as carbolic acid, finds a use as a developer. (dictionary.com)
  • Phenol , also known under an older name of carbolic acid , is a toxic, colorless crystalline solid with a distinctive sweet tarry odor. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Phenol was also the main ingredient of the Carbolic Smoke Ball, a device sold in London designed to protect the user against influenza and other ailments. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The simplest of the class is phenol, which is also called carbolic acid C6H5OH. (homedistiller.org)
  • phenol (carbolic acid), molecular model. (pond5.com)
  • Phenol is used primarily in the production of phenolic resins and in the manufacture of nylon and other synthetic fibers. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol is an important commodity chemical, and is a starting material for the production of numerous industrial chemicals and polymers, including bisphenol A and phenolic resins, and others. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, they have huge market potential, since phenol-based glue resins have a global market of around 4 million tonnes per year and a value of EUR 10 billion. (eurekalert.org)
  • In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenols are susceptible to Electrophilic aromatic substitutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aromatic compounds such as phenols vastly occur in wastewater, being generated in petroleum refining, petrochemical, plastics, coal conversion industries and steel industries [1]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Phenols can have two or more hydroxy groups bonded to the aromatic ring(s) in the same molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among these aromatic substances are indol, phenol , and skatol. (dictionary.com)
  • Phenol is an aromatic compound. (ewg.org)
  • Organic compounds with a hydroxyl group directly attached to an aromatic carbon atom are called phenols. (alfa.com)
  • Phenols are efficient partners in a variety of reactions such as electrophilic aromatic substitutions, Bucherer carbazole synthesis and oxidative de-aromatization to quinones in the Teuber reaction. (alfa.com)
  • The aromatic amino acid phenylalanine, synthesized in the shikimic acid pathway, is the common precursor of phenol containing amino acids and phenolic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word phenol is also used to refer to any compound which contains a six-membered aromatic ring, bonded directly to a hydroxyl group (-OH). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Phenol is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C 6 H 5 OH. (wikipedia.org)
  • One explanation for why phenol is more acidic than aliphatic compounds containing an -OH group is resonance stabilization of the phenoxide anion by the aromatic ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several kinds of atomic charge of the carbons on the aromatic ring of phenols were calculated using the semiempirical or ab initio method. (springer.com)
  • When the hydroxyl group is joined to an aryl ring, a phenol results (shown above). (britannica.com)
  • The hydroxyl group of alcohols and phenols is responsible for an interesting variety of physical and chemical properties. (britannica.com)
  • The polar bonds of the hydroxyl group are responsible for the major reaction characteristics of alcohols and phenols. (britannica.com)
  • Phenols are organic compounds which contain a hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to a carbon atom in a benzene ring. (angelo.edu)
  • The acidity of the hydroxyl group in phenols is commonly intermediate between that of aliphatic alcohols and carboxylic acids (their pKa is usually between 10 and 12). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenols are a class of compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) bonded directly to a benzene ring. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although similar to alcohols , phenols have unique properties and are not classified as alcohols (since the hydroxyl group is not bonded to a saturated carbon atom). (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of a hydrogen cation (H + ) from the hydroxyl group of a phenol forms a corresponding negative phenolate ion or phenoxide ion , and the corresponding salts are called phenolates or phenoxides , although the term aryloxides is preferred according to the IUPAC Gold Book . (wikipedia.org)
  • The simplest phenol, consisting of a benzene ring attached to a hydroxyl group (OH). (dictionary.com)
  • The phenols that have methyl or hydroxyl groups at the C-3 or C-5 position (or both) have larger rate constants than phenols with substituents at other positions. (springer.com)
  • For the molecule alone, see Phenol . (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenolic compounds are classified as simple phenols or polyphenols based on the number of phenol units in the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article is about the class of chemicals containing a phenol group. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the group of chemicals containing a phenol group, see Phenols . (wikipedia.org)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to phenol.The level of harm depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to phenol. (cdc.gov)
  • Presents a standard to prevent the adverse effects of exposure to phenol over a working lifetime. (cdc.gov)
  • Short-term exposure to phenol in the air can cause respiratory irritation, headaches, and burning eyes. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol has antiseptic properties and was used by Sir Joseph Lister (1827-1912) in his pioneering technique of antiseptic surgery, though the skin irritation caused by continual exposure to phenol eventually led to the substitution of aseptic (germ-free) techniques in surgery. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • And if exposure to PHENOL inspires something in you to go head first into modular synths, your initial investment can be incorporated into your more ambitious modular systems. (musiciansfriend.com)
  • Phenols are reactive species toward oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenols are oxidized to hydroquinones in the Elbs persulfate oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural phenols are reactive species toward oxidation, notably the complex mixture of phenolics, found in food for example, can undergo autoxidation during the ageing process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenol can be made from the partial oxidation of benzene or benzoic acid , by the cumene process, or by the Raschig process. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • You can prepare phenols in large quantities by the pyrolysis of the sodium salt of benzene sulfonic acid, by the Dow process, and by the air oxidation of cumene. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • You can also prepare small amounts of phenol by the peroxide oxidation of phenylboronic acid and the hydrolysis of diazonium salts. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The air oxidation of cumene (isopropyl benzene) leads to the production of both phenol and acetone, as shown in the following figure. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Blanchard rmqn L. Hume/g7 b ,ym/ff United States Patent This invention relates to a method of utilization new compounds as catalysts in the oxidation of phenols. (google.es)
  • More specifically, this invention relates to the use of a cupric complex having the empirical formula CH=C11 z 2 n where X is selected from the group consisting of chlorine and bromine and n is an integer and is at least 1, as catalysts for the oxidation of phenols, and more particularly to the oxidation of phenols to either phenylene oxide polymers or to diphenoquinones. (google.es)
  • We have now found that the brown crystalline cupric complexes having the empirical formula i \CH=CH 2 2 n where X is selected from the group consisting of chlorine and bromine, and n is an integrer and is at least 1, are extremely active catalysts for the oxidation of phenols, either to phenylene ether polymers, also known as polyphenylene ethers and polyphenylene om'des, or to diphenoquinones. (google.es)
  • The antioxidant properties of phenols, tyrosol and hydoxytyrosol, may increase bone formation, act as free radical scavengers and prevent oxidation-induced damage to bone cells. (oliveoiltimes.com)
  • They can therefore be called simple phenols or monophenols , with only one phenolic group, or di- ( bi- ), tri- and oligophenols , with two, three or several phenolic groups respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • A diverse family natural phenols are the flavonoids , which include several thousand compounds, among them the flavonols , flavones , flavan-3ol ( catechins ), flavanones , anthocyanidins , and isoflavonoids . (wikipedia.org)
  • In effect, phenols are a class of organic compounds of which the phenol discussed in this article is the simplest member. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Finnish softwood bark contains large amounts of water-soluble tannin-polyphenols, which can be used as renewable alternatives to the fossil and toxic phenol compounds widely used in glues. (eurekalert.org)
  • The phenolic compounds, in particular phenol and cresol along with eugenol and guaiacol are the source of particularly strong, smoky and bitter flavours and aromas found within whisky. (homedistiller.org)
  • Phenol, cresols, xylenol and guaiacol are amongst the most important phenolic compounds in whisky, in terms of contribution to flavor. (homedistiller.org)
  • They observed that the phenolic compounds in the extracts altered the cells' development, reducing the adipocytes' fat content from 8%-56%, depending on the differing phenols used. (scienceblog.com)
  • S. Thomas, S. Sarfaraz, L. C. Mishra and L. Iyengar "Degradation of Phenol and Phenolic Compounds by a Defined Denitrifying Bacterial Culture," World Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2002, pp. 57-63. (scirp.org)
  • Many common disinfectants out there contain phenols-caustic, poisonous and dangerous compounds that are used to cover smells. (sixwise.com)
  • Many common household disinfectants co-ntain phenols-caustic and dangerous compounds that could be harming your family's health. (sixwise.com)
  • Natural phenols show optical properties characteristic of benzene, e.g. absorption near 270 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenol , or hydroxybenzene, is the parent compound of the phenols, consisting of an OH group directly connected to a benzene ring. (angelo.edu)
  • They are typically produced by the alkylation of benzene/toluene with propylene to form cumene then O 2 is added with H 2SO 4 to form phenol (Hock process). (wikipedia.org)
  • phenol is obtained from coal-tar, or made synthetically from benzene. (dictionary.com)
  • At present, the production of phenol entirely depends on the chemical synthesis from benzene, and its annual production exceeds 8 million tons worldwide. (innovations-report.com)
  • The force majeure has been declared only for phenol and will not impact shipments of other products produced at the Company's Frankford facility, including acetone and alpha-methylstyrene due to adequate inventory levels. (yahoo.com)
  • In making this conclusion, we cite the pK a of acetone enol, which is 10.9 (in comparison to phenol with a pK a of 10.0). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In support of the second explanation, the p K a of the enol of acetone in water is 10.9, making it only slightly less acidic than phenol (p K a 10.0). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenol tar is a heavy, viscous byproduct produced in the industrial synthesis of phenol and acetone from cumene. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • INEOS Phenol is the largest producer of Phenol and Acetone in the world. (ineos.com)
  • We produce just under 1.9 million tonnes of Phenol and around 1.2 million tonnes of Acetone annually. (ineos.com)
  • INEOS Phenol's products (Phenol, Acetone, Alphamethylstyrene, Cumene) are all registered with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). (ineos.com)
  • In making this conclusion, one can examine the pK a of the enol of acetone , which is 10.9 in comparison to phenol with a pK a of 10.0. (wikidoc.org)
  • Phenols are named after the parent compound, phenol (hydroxybenzene). (angelo.edu)
  • Dejong JI, Dejong J (1953) Kinetics of the hydroxymethylation of phenols in dilute aqueous solution. (springer.com)
  • The product of this reaction is sodium phenoxide, which is acidified with aqueous acid to yield phenol. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Effectiveness of photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous solution using semiconductor oxides (SO) prepared by a sol-gel method was examined. (hindawi.com)
  • Equal volumes of a phenol:chloroform mixture and the aqueous DNA sample are mixed, forming a biphasic mixture. (bionity.com)
  • If you work in an industry that uses phenol, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheet for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol is both a manufactured chemical and a natural substance. (cdc.gov)
  • You may be exposed to phenol if you undergo "chemical peels" to remove skin lesions with phenol-containing products or are treated for chronic pain or spasticity with injections of phenol. (cdc.gov)
  • These enzymes are proteins that serve as catalysts to speed up the chemical reactions that synthesize phenols. (redorbit.com)
  • But the phenol - a deadly chemical used in Aristech's processes that is known to cause internal burns, muscle spasms and organ failure - indicated that something might have gone wrong. (propublica.org)
  • Phenol and its chemical derivatives are essential for production of polycarbonates , epoxies , Bakelite , nylon , detergents , herbicides such as phenoxy herbicides , and numerous pharmaceutical drugs . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dow Chemical U.S.A. is increasing the selling price for phenol by 8 cents a pound less a 2 cent/lb. (joc.com)
  • In the paper published online in Biotechnology Journal, a Korean research team led by Distinguished Professor Sang Yup Lee at the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) reported the successful development of an engineered Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain which can produce phenol from glucose. (innovations-report.com)
  • Para Bromo Phenol provided by our company, is a type of chemical which is insoluble in water as well as soluble in 5% ethanol. (tradeindia.com)
  • Phenols are used in industry to make plastics and detergents. (dictionary.com)
  • Friends of the Earth (FoE) has called for a ban on alkyl phenol ethoxylate (APE) detergents and alkyl phenols. (endsreport.com)
  • 7. The tar processing method according to claim 1, wherein the amount of steam added to the tar is 1% to 15% by weight of the phenol tar introduced into the reactor. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 13. The process according to claim 10, wherein the amount of steam added to the tar is 1% to 15% by weight of the phenol tar. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In a specific aspect, the phenol resin composition of the present invention is characterized in that it contains boehmite having an aspect ratio within a range from 1 to 100 and also contains an alumina-based compound as a filler, an amount of the boehmite being from 1 to 150 parts by weight based on 100 parts by weight of the phenol resin. (google.com.au)
  • 5 . A phenol resin composition comprising a phenol resin and acicular or cylindrical boehmite having an average particle diameter (minor diameter) of 100 nm or less, the amount of the boehmite being from 1 to 150 parts based on 100 parts by weight of the phenol resin. (google.com.au)
  • Although ethers contain two polar carbon-oxygen bonds, they are much less reactive than alcohols or phenols. (britannica.com)
  • This invention relates to novel reactive diluents for use with bismaleimide formulatioss, and more particularly to ethylenically-unsaturated ethers of alkenyl phenols as novel reactive liquid diluents, and to thermosetting bismaleimide formulations comprising bismaleimides and the novel reactive diluents of this invention. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Electrocatalytic hydrogenation and catalytic thermal hydrogenation of substituted phenols and diaryl ethers were studied on carbon-supported Rh. (osti.gov)
  • Both alcohols and phenols are widespread in nature, with alcohols being especially ubiquitous . (britannica.com)
  • The chemists show the reaction works with a broad scope of allylic alcohols and phenols, and even successfully swaps the phenol for cumene hydroperoxide in several examples. (acs.org)
  • Reaction of naphtols and hydrazines and sodium bisulfite in the Bucherer carbazole synthesis Many phenols of commercial interest are prepared by elaboration of phenol or cresols. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activity of semiconductor oxides prepared by the sol-gel methods was investigated under the same conditions for searching of the most effective system in the reaction of the phenol photodegradation. (hindawi.com)
  • The parent of the class of phenols. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Anthocyanins are one class of phenols, and studies have associated the consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer. (scienceblog.com)
  • People who had skin exposure to high amounts of phenol had skin burns, liver damage, dark urine, irregular heart beat, and some died. (cdc.gov)
  • Aldersley JW, Hope P (1972) A study of the methylolation of phenol using gel permeation chromatography. (springer.com)
  • Ingestion of high concentrations of phenol has resulted in internal burns and death. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to high concentrations of phenol in the air for several weeks caused paralysis and severe injury to the heart, liver, kidneys, and lungs, and in some cases, death. (cdc.gov)
  • Some animals that drank water with very high concentrations of phenol suffered muscle tremors and loss of coordination. (cdc.gov)
  • A critical review of available data indicates that contact of a significant area of skin with subjectively low concentrations of phenol (5-6%) may be extremely hazardous and life-threatening [ATSDR 2008]. (cdc.gov)
  • A recent in silico comparison of the gas phase acidities of the vinylogues of phenol and cyclohexanol in conformations that allow for or exclude resonance stabilization leads to the inference that about ​ 1 ⁄ 3 of the increased acidity of phenol is attributable to inductive effects, with resonance accounting for the remaining difference. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenol can have beneficial effects when used medically as an antiseptic or anesthetic. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol was also the first compound to be used in antiseptic surgery. (angelo.edu)
  • Finding ways to effectively tailor phenol synthesis toward these different purposes could have a large impact on society," said Chang-Jun Liu, who led the team conducting this research. (redorbit.com)
  • The scientists' main finding was the discovery of three such components (called F-box proteins) that specifically recognize the first key enzyme in the series of phenol synthesis reactions. (redorbit.com)
  • For example, the set of molecular tools identified in this study might be used to increase the synthesis of certain phenols that have been shown to exhibit antioxidant properties, which could potentially enhance the health benefits of so-called functional foods. (redorbit.com)
  • Modular synthesis was the root inspiration for the PHENOL, and a cosdt and sizxe that is a fraction of the original modular systems as well as modular systems that are available today, PHENOL offers the creative potential, sound and hands-on experience of a modular synth in a sleek, compact and affordable package. (musiciansfriend.com)
  • The registration includes all INEOS Phenol sites worldwide to ensure unrestricted trade of our products. (ineos.com)
  • You may be exposed to phenol if you live near landfills or hazardous waste sites that contain phenol or near facilities manufacturing phenol. (cdc.gov)
  • Is there an alternate source of Vit K for neonates which does not contain phenol? (bio.net)
  • Two natural phenols from two different categories, for instance a flavonoid and a lignan, can combine to form a hybrid class like the flavonolignans . (wikipedia.org)
  • Many natural phenols are chiral . (wikipedia.org)
  • Simple natural phenols can lead to the formation of B-type procyanidins in wines or in model solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants, the phenolic units are esterified or methylated and are submitted to conjugation, which means that the natural phenols are mostly found in the glycoside form instead of the aglycone form. (wikipedia.org)
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on phenol - A searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • This review will discuss the most recent advances in the search of naturally occurring phenols and their synthetic derivatives that inhibit the CAs and their mechanisms of action at molecular level. (mdpi.com)
  • Phenols substituted with bulky groups at ortho- positions, like butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), are endowed with antioxidant property and are used as antioxidants in many formulations such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, electrical transformer oil, solvents, and organic reactions. (alfa.com)
  • Phenol derivatives find use in the preparation of cosmetics comprising sunscreens, hair colourings and skin lightening preparations. (alfa.com)
  • V. Coman and Z. Moldovan, "RP-HPLC Method for the Separation of Some Phenol Derivatives Using Gradient Elution and UV Detection," Journal of High Resolution Chromatography, Vol. 23, No. 12, 2000, pp. 699-701. (scirp.org)
  • Iocamfen is a liquid composed of iodine, camphor and phenol . (dictionary.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about allantoin, camphor, and phenol topical? (cigna.com)
  • Camphor and phenol are mild topical (for the skin) pain relievers. (cigna.com)
  • Allantoin, camphor, and phenol topical is a combination medicine used to treat pain, itching, or severe lip dryness caused by chapped lips or cold sores (fever blisters). (cigna.com)
  • Allantoin, camphor, and phenol topical may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (cigna.com)
  • What should I discuss with my health care provider before using allantoin, camphor, and phenol topical? (cigna.com)
  • How should I use allantoin, camphor, and phenol topical? (cigna.com)
  • AdvanSix ( ASIX ) today informed its phenol customers that it is declaring force majeure as a result of shortages and delivery delays of its key raw material, cumene. (yahoo.com)
  • Most solutions also have an antioxidant, as oxidized phenol will damage the DNA. (bionity.com)
  • If you are using glycerin/phenol spray for relief of sore throat irritation or pain, apply to the affected area as directed by your doctor or the package labeling. (drugs.com)
  • Phenol (C 6 H 6 O or C 6 H 5 OH) is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid with a sweet, acrid odor. (cdc.gov)
  • In animals, breathing air with high levels of phenol resulted in irritation of the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol is an organic compound appreciably soluble in water, with about 84.2 g dissolving in 1000 mL (0.895 M ). Homogeneous mixtures of phenol and water at phenol to water mass ratios of ~2.6 and higher are possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present invention is particularly useful for separating valuable products from phenol tar and/or mixtures of phenol tar with bisphenol-A tar. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • For phenol:chloroform mixtures or for chloroform, glass pipettes should be used, or micropipettors exclusively, as the chloroform is usually able to attack plastic pipettes. (bionity.com)
  • Phenol is used as a disinfectant and is found in a number of consumer products. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol has a distinct odor that is sickeningly sweet and tarry. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenols are similar to alcohols but are more soluble in water, and occur as colorless solids or liquids at room temperature. (dictionary.com)
  • Phenol has caused minor birth defects and low birth weight in animals generally at exposure levels that also were toxic to the pregnant mothers. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the National Institutes of Health, phenol is toxic and people who are hypersensitive to it could experience death or serious side effects at very low exposures. (sixwise.com)
  • Even the Environmental Protection Agency lists disinfectants that contain phenols as "corrosive and toxic. (sixwise.com)
  • The sodium salt of phenol, sodium phenoxide , is far more water-soluble. (wikipedia.org)
  • This notice announces the availability of EPA's preliminary risk assessment, and related documents for the antimicrobial pesticide Phenol/Sodium phenate, and opens a 12-day public comment period on these documents. (federalregister.gov)
  • EPA is developing a Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for Phenol/Sodium Phenate using a modified, 4-phase public participation process. (federalregister.gov)
  • The optimal conditions of the photocatalytic degradation of phenol using prepared titanium dioxide sample were defined. (hindawi.com)
  • Dinda and Icli found that ZnO was as reactive as TiO 2 for the photocatalytic degradation of phenol under concentrated sunlight [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Experiments consisting of suspended cultures demonstrated the native ability of this organism to utilize phenol for its metabolic pathways enabling degradation, at levels of nearly 100 ppm within 24 hours. (scirp.org)
  • University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Data- base, Phenol Family Degradation Pathway Map. (scirp.org)
  • We developed a model system for the biodegradation of phenol-contaminated wastewater by the bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum . (scirp.org)
  • Phenol-soluble modulins. (nih.gov)
  • Phenol-soluble modulins and staphylococcal infection. (nih.gov)
  • Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) have recently emerged as a novel toxin family defining the virulence potential of highly aggressive S. aureus isolates. (nih.gov)
  • Phenol is naturally somewhat water-soluble, and gives a 'fuzzy' interface that is sharpened by the presence of chloroform. (bionity.com)
  • Vomiting and lethargy were the most frequent signs of toxicity observed in children who accidentally ingested phenol and were treated at a poison control center. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol is potentially capable of causing both systemic toxicity and direct adverse effects on the skin following dermal exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Microbial production of phenol seems to be a non-viable process considering the high toxicity of phenol to the cell. (innovations-report.com)
  • Furthermore, the team developed a biphasic extractive fermentation process to minimize the toxicity of phenol to E. coli cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Glycerol tributyrate was found to have low toxicity to E. coli and allowed efficient extraction of phenol from the culture broth. (innovations-report.com)