Mixed Function Oxygenases
The direct spectrophotometric observation of benzo(a)pyrene phenol formation by liver microsomes. (1/4452)Optical spectral repetitive scan analysis during the oxidative metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by liver microsomal suspensions reveals the time-dependent formation of an intermediate(s) of which the visible spectra resemble those of several benzo(a)pyrene phenols. Liver microsomes from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats showed a greater rate of formation of the phenols than did microsomes from control animals; the rate of formation catalyzed by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats was intermediate. When 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was used as a standard for comparison of activity, the rates of formation of phenols were compared when measured by fluorometric, spectrophotometric, or high-pressure liquid chromatographic analytical techniques. An epoxide hydrase inhibitor, 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide, enhanced phenol formation regardless of the source of liver microsomes, and 7,8-benzoflavone inhibited control and 3-methylcholanthrene-induced microsomal metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, 7,8-Benzoflavone did not effect benzo(a)pyrene metabolism by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats. The effect of inhibitors on the spectrophotometric assay correlates well with the results obtained from benzo(a)pyrene metabolite analysis using high-pressure liquid chromatography. (+info)
Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (2/4452)The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis. (+info)
Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199. (3/4452)The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes. (+info)
Isolation from estuarine sediments of a Desulfovibrio strain which can grow on lactate coupled to the reductive dehalogenation of 2,4, 6-tribromophenol. (4/4452)Strain TBP-1, an anaerobic bacterium capable of reductively dehalogenating 2,4,6-tribromophenol to phenol, was isolated from estuarine sediments of the Arthur Kill in the New York/New Jersey harbor. It is a gram-negative, motile, vibrio-shaped, obligate anaerobe which grows on lactate, pyruvate, hydrogen, and fumarate when provided sulfate as an electron acceptor. The organism accumulates acetate when grown on lactate and sulfate, contains desulfoviridin, and will not grow in the absence of NaCl. It will not utilize acetate, succinate, propionate, or butyrate for growth via sulfate reduction. When supplied with lactate as an electron donor, strain TBP-1 will utilize sulfate, sulfite, sulfur, and thiosulfate for growth but not nitrate, fumarate, or acrylate. This organism debrominates 2-, 4-, 2,4-, 2,6-, and 2,4,6-bromophenol but not 3- or 2,3-bromophenol or monobrominated benzoates. It will not dehalogenate monochlorinated, fluorinated, or iodinated phenols or chlorinated benzoates. Together with its physiological characteristics, its 16S rRNA gene sequence places it in the genus Desulfovibrio. The average growth yield of strain TBP-1 grown on a defined medium supplemented with lactate and 2,4,6-bromophenol is 3.71 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced, and the yield was 1.42 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced when 4-bromophenol was the electron acceptor. Average growth yields (milligrams of protein per millimole of electrons utilized) for Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 grown with 2,4,6-bromophenol, 4-bromophenol, or sulfate are 0.62, 0.71, and 1.07, respectively. Growth did not occur when either lactate or 2,4,6-bromophenol was omitted from the growth medium. These results indicate that Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 is capable of growth via halorespiration. (+info)
In vivo demonstration of H3-histaminergic inhibition of cardiac sympathetic stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine and its prodrug BP 2.94 in the dog. (5/4452)1. The aim of this study was to investigate whether histamine H3-receptor agonists could inhibit the effects of cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation in the dog. 2. Catecholamine release by the heart and the associated variation of haemodynamic parameters were measured after electrical stimulation of the right cardiac sympathetic nerves (1-4 Hz, 10 V, 10 ms) in the anaesthetized dog treated with R-alpha-methyl-histamine (R-HA) and its prodrug BP 2.94 (BP). 3. Cardiac sympathetic stimulation induced a noradrenaline release into the coronary sinus along with a tachycardia and an increase in left ventricular pressure and contractility without changes in mean arterial pressure. Intravenous administration of H3-receptor agonists significantly decreased noradrenaline release by the heart (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +77 +/- 25 vs +405 +/- 82; BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +12 +/- 11 vs +330 +/- 100 pg ml(-1) in control conditions, P < or = 0.05), and increases in heart rate (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +26 +/- 8 vs +65 +/- 10 and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +30 +/- 8 vs 75 +/- 6 beats min(-1), in control conditions P < or = 0.05), left ventricular pressure, and contractility. Treatment with SC 359 (1 mg kg(-1)) a selective H3-antagonist, reversed the effects of H3-receptor agonists. Treatment with R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1) and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1) tended to decrease, while that with SC 359 significantly increased basal heart rate (from 111 +/- 3 to 130 +/- 5 beats min(-1), P < or = 0.001). 4. Functional H3-receptors are present on sympathetic nerve endings in the dog heart. Their stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine or BP 2.94 can inhibit noradrenaline release by the heart and its associated haemodynamic effects. (+info)
Antioxidative and chelating activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides from Pedicularis striata. (6/4452)AIM: To study the antioxidative and iron chelating activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPG) isolated from a Chinese herb Pedicularis striata. METHODS: Antioxidative effects of PPG on lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4-edetic acid in linoleic acid were measured by thiobarbituric acid method. Chelating activities of PPG for Fe2+ were tested by differential spectrum method. RESULTS: The reaction rates (A532.min-1) of lipid peroxidation were 0.0046 in the control, 0.0021 in verbascoside group, and 0.0008 in isoverbascoside group. The chelating activity of isoverbascoside was 2-fold stronger than that of verbascoside. Permethyl verbascoside showed neither antioxidative nor chelating activities. CONCLUSION: The inhibitory effects of PPG with phenolic hydroxy groups on lipid peroxidation are owing to their chelating properties. Under physiological condition PPG-Fe2+ chelates are sufficiently stable. Thus PPG are able to inhibit the Fe(2+)-dependent lipid peroxidation in vivo through chelating Fe2+ and exhibit their therapeutic potential by the same mechanism in vitro. (+info)
Developing hypothalamic dopaminergic neurones as potential targets for environmental estrogens. (7/4452)Environmental chemicals which mimic the actions of estrogen have the potential to affect any estrogen responsive tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate their potential to mimic the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on developing primary rat hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) neurones maintained in a chemically defined medium. We now show that both E2 and octylphenol (OP), but not the non-aromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone, enhanced the uptake of [3H]DA by the cultured cells, whereas they had no effect on the uptake of [14C]GABA. Although the sensitivity of responses may change with the age of the developing cultures, the dose response curves for E2 and OP were typically 'bell-shaped', with a rise in response followed by a decline to control levels with increasing concentrations. Effects were seen as low as 10(-14) M for E2 and 10(-11) M for OP. Responses to E2 (10(-12) M) and OP (10(-9) M) were reversed in the presence of the antiestrogen, ZM 182780 (10(-5) M). This study thus provides direct evidence, using a mechanistic rather than toxicological end-point, in support of the hypothesis that inappropriate exposure to environmental estrogens at critically sensitive stages of development, could potentially perturb the organisational activities of estrogen on selected neuronal populations in the CNS. (+info)
Characterization of the pyoluteorin biosynthetic gene cluster of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. (8/4452)Ten genes (plt) required for the biosynthesis of pyoluteorin, an antifungal compound composed of a bichlorinated pyrrole linked to a resorcinol moiety, were identified within a 24-kb genomic region of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. The deduced amino acid sequences of eight plt genes were similar to the amino acid sequences of genes with known biosynthetic functions, including type I polyketide synthases (pltB, pltC), an acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (pltE), an acyl-CoA synthetase (pltF), a thioesterase (pltG), and three halogenases (pltA, pltD, and pltM). Insertions of the transposon Tn5 or Tn3-nice or a kanamycin resistance gene in each of these genes abolished pyoluteorin production by Pf-5. The presumed functions of the eight plt products are consistent with biochemical transformations involved in pyoluteorin biosynthesis from proline and acetate precursors. Isotope labeling studies demonstrated that proline is the primary precursor to the dichloropyrrole moiety of pyoluteorin. The deduced amino acid sequence of the product of another plt gene, pltR, is similar to those of members of the LysR family of transcriptional activators. pltR and pltM are transcribed divergently from the pltLABCDEFG gene cluster, and a sequence with the characteristics of a LysR binding site was identified within the 486-bp intergenic region separating pltRM from pltLABCDEFG. Transcription of the pyoluteorin biosynthesis genes pltB, pltE, and pltF, assessed with transcriptional fusions to an ice nucleation reporter gene, was significantly greater in Pf-5 than in a pltR mutant of Pf-5. Therefore, PltR is proposed to be a transcriptional activator of linked pyoluteorin biosynthesis genes. (+info)
Phenol is a colorless, crystalline solid that has a strong, distinctive odor. It is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as an antiseptic and disinfectant. Phenol is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is often used to clean wounds, instruments, and surfaces in medical settings to prevent the spread of infection. Phenol is also used as a preservative in some medications and vaccines. However, it can be toxic if ingested or inhaled in large amounts, and it can cause skin irritation and burns.
Phenols are a class of organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to an aromatic ring. In the medical field, phenols are commonly used as antiseptics and disinfectants due to their ability to kill bacteria, viruses, and fungi. They are also used as topical anesthetics and as ingredients in certain medications. Phenols can be found naturally in many plants and fruits, such as cloves, cinnamon, and citrus fruits. They are also used in the production of a variety of consumer products, including soaps, shampoos, and cleaning agents. However, some phenols can be toxic and can cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and other health issues if they are not used properly. Therefore, it is important to follow proper safety guidelines when handling and using phenols in the medical field.
Phenolsulfonphthalein, also known as BSP or Bismuth Subsalicylate Sulfone Phthalein, is a medication that is used as a laxative. It works by softening the stool and increasing the frequency of bowel movements. It is usually taken orally and is available in tablet or powder form. In addition to its use as a laxative, phenolsulfonphthalein is also used as a diagnostic aid in the medical field. It is often used in tests to measure the function of the liver and gallbladder, as well as to diagnose certain digestive disorders such as bile duct obstruction or gallstones. Phenolsulfonphthalein is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is important to follow the instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to avoid taking larger doses than recommended.
Chlorophenols are a group of organic compounds that contain a chloro group (-Cl) attached to a phenol group (-OH). They are commonly used as disinfectants, preservatives, and as intermediates in the production of other chemicals. In the medical field, chlorophenols have been used as antiseptics and disinfectants for wounds and surfaces. They have also been used as preservatives in medical devices and pharmaceuticals. However, some chlorophenols have been associated with adverse effects on human health, including skin irritation, respiratory problems, and liver damage. As a result, the use of chlorophenols in some medical applications has been limited or banned in some countries.
Phenolphthaleins are a class of organic compounds that are commonly used as indicators in chemical reactions and medical tests. They are colorless in acidic solutions, but turn pink or red in basic solutions. In the medical field, phenolphthaleins are used as laxatives to relieve constipation. The active ingredient in phenolphthalein, which is called phenolphthalein hydrochloride, works by softening the stool and increasing the frequency of bowel movements. However, the use of phenolphthalein as a laxative has been controversial due to concerns about its safety. Some studies have suggested that long-term use of phenolphthalein may increase the risk of cancer, particularly colon cancer. As a result, the use of phenolphthalein as a laxative has been restricted or banned in some countries.
Arylsulfotransferase (AST) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of various substances in the body, including drugs, hormones, and toxins. It catalyzes the transfer of a sulfate group from adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) to an aromatic compound, such as a phenol or a benzene ring. This reaction is an important step in the detoxification of many substances that are harmful to the body. In the medical field, AST is often measured in blood tests as a marker of liver function. High levels of AST in the blood can indicate liver damage or disease, such as hepatitis or cirrhosis. AST is also used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of certain types of cancer, such as liver cancer and colon cancer. Additionally, AST is an important enzyme in the synthesis of some drugs, and its activity is often monitored in the development and testing of new medications.
Cresols are a group of organic compounds that contain a benzene ring with a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to one of the carbon atoms. There are three types of cresols: m-cresol, o-cresol, and p-cresol, which differ in the position of the hydroxyl group on the benzene ring. In the medical field, cresols are used as disinfectants and antiseptics. They have bactericidal, fungicidal, and virucidal properties and are effective against a wide range of microorganisms. Cresols are commonly used in hospitals, clinics, and laboratories to disinfect surfaces, equipment, and instruments. However, cresols can also be toxic to humans and animals if ingested or inhaled in high concentrations. Exposure to cresols can cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and damage to the liver and kidneys. Therefore, proper handling and disposal of cresols are essential to prevent accidental exposure and minimize the risk of adverse health effects.
Catechols are a class of organic compounds that contain a catechol group, which is a hydroxybenzene group with two hydroxyl (-OH) groups attached to a benzene ring. Catechols are found naturally in many plants and animals, and they are also synthesized in the body as part of various metabolic processes. In the medical field, catechols are often used as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents. They have been shown to have a number of potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of heart disease, improving blood flow, and protecting against oxidative stress. Catechols are also used in the production of a variety of pharmaceuticals and medical devices, including drugs for treating high blood pressure, heart disease, and Parkinson's disease. They are also used in the manufacturing of dyes, pigments, and other industrial chemicals.
In the medical field, parabens are a class of preservatives that are commonly used in a variety of products, including personal care products such as shampoos, lotions, and cosmetics. Parabens are synthetic esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, which are effective at inhibiting the growth of bacteria, fungi, and yeast. Parabens are used in medical products such as topical creams, ointments, and gels to prevent the growth of microorganisms and extend the shelf life of the product. They are also used in some pharmaceutical products to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi that can cause infections. However, there has been some concern in recent years about the potential health effects of parabens. Some studies have suggested that parabens may mimic the hormone estrogen in the body, which could potentially lead to reproductive problems, breast cancer, and other health issues. As a result, some medical professionals and consumers have chosen to avoid products containing parabens or to use alternative preservatives.
Benzene is a colorless, sweet-smelling liquid that is commonly used as a solvent in various industries, including the production of plastics, rubber, dyes, and detergents. In the medical field, benzene is not typically used as a treatment or medication, but it can be a hazardous substance that can cause health problems if exposure occurs. Long-term exposure to benzene can lead to a range of health problems, including leukemia, a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. Benzene can also cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system, and it can affect the immune system and cause anemia. In the workplace, benzene exposure is regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which sets limits on the amount of benzene that workers can be exposed to over a certain period of time. Workers who are exposed to benzene may be required to wear protective clothing and equipment, and they may need to take breaks or use respiratory protection to reduce their exposure. In addition to workplace exposure, benzene can also be found in the environment, including in air, water, and soil. People who live in areas with high levels of benzene exposure may be at increased risk of health problems, including cancer and other types of illness.
Mixed-function oxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of substrates, including drugs, toxins, and endogenous compounds. These enzymes typically contain a non-heme iron or copper atom in their active site, which is coordinated by a variety of amino acid residues. Mixed-function oxygenases are involved in a variety of biological processes, including drug metabolism, xenobiotic detoxification, and the synthesis of important biological molecules such as cholesterol and bile acids. They are also involved in the metabolism of many environmental pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons. In the medical field, mixed-function oxygenases are important because they play a key role in the metabolism of many drugs, which can affect their efficacy and toxicity. For example, the cytochrome P450 family of mixed-function oxygenases is responsible for the metabolism of many commonly prescribed drugs, including anti-inflammatory drugs, antidepressants, and anticoagulants. Understanding the role of these enzymes in drug metabolism is important for optimizing drug therapy and minimizing adverse drug reactions.
Catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12D) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of catecholamines, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, into two smaller molecules: a quinone and a hydroxylamine. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the metabolism of catecholamines in the body, particularly in the breakdown of excess catecholamines that may accumulate in certain medical conditions, such as pheochromocytoma or neuroblastoma. C12D is a member of the family of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases, which use molecular oxygen to cleave substrates. The enzyme is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, kidney, and adrenal gland, and is also present in some microorganisms. In the medical field, C12D is often studied in the context of its role in the metabolism of catecholamines, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target for the treatment of certain diseases. For example, drugs that inhibit C12D activity have been shown to be effective in reducing the levels of catecholamines in the body, which may be beneficial in the treatment of conditions such as hypertension and heart disease.
Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23D) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of catecholamines, which are a group of neurotransmitters and hormones that include dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. C23D is involved in the breakdown of catecholamines by catalyzing the oxidative cleavage of the catechol ring to form a quinone intermediate and a hydroxylated product. This enzyme is primarily found in the liver and kidneys, but it is also present in other tissues such as the brain, heart, and adrenal gland. In the medical field, C23D is of interest because it is involved in the metabolism of drugs that are substrates for catecholamine metabolism, such as cocaine and amphetamines. These drugs can be metabolized by C23D to produce toxic metabolites that can cause adverse effects. Additionally, C23D has been implicated in the pathogenesis of certain diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia, where it may play a role in the regulation of dopamine levels in the brain.
In the medical field, oxygenases are enzymes that catalyze the addition of oxygen to a substrate molecule. These enzymes are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including the metabolism of drugs, the synthesis of hormones and other signaling molecules, and the detoxification of harmful substances. There are many different types of oxygenases, each with its own specific substrate and reaction mechanism. Some examples of oxygenases include cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics, and peroxidases, which are involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Oxygenases play a critical role in maintaining the health of living organisms, and their dysfunction can lead to a variety of diseases and disorders. For example, mutations in certain cytochrome P450 enzymes can lead to drug metabolism disorders, while deficiencies in peroxidases can contribute to the development of oxidative stress-related diseases.
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a colorless to yellowish solid that is used as a wood preservative, disinfectant, and insecticide. It is a chlorinated aromatic compound that contains five chlorine atoms attached to a phenol ring. In the medical field, PCP has been used as an antiseptic and disinfectant for skin and wounds. However, it has also been associated with adverse health effects, including respiratory irritation, skin irritation, and liver damage. PCP has also been used as a recreational drug, but its use as a drug has been banned in many countries due to its potential for abuse and harmful effects on the brain and nervous system. In recent years, PCP has been found in some illegal drugs, such as Ecstasy and methamphetamine, which has led to increased concern about its potential for harm.
Tyrosine phenol-lyase (TPL) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of tyrosine, an amino acid that is an essential building block of proteins. TPL is involved in the breakdown of tyrosine into acetaldehyde and phenylpyruvate, which can then be further metabolized by the body. In the medical field, TPL is of interest because it is involved in the metabolism of certain drugs and toxins, including the neurotransmitter dopamine. Abnormalities in TPL activity have been linked to a number of neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. In addition, TPL has been studied as a potential target for the development of new drugs for the treatment of these and other neurological disorders. For example, researchers have developed small molecules that can inhibit TPL activity, which may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Anisoles are a class of organic compounds that contain a benzene ring with an oxygen atom bonded to one of the carbon atoms. They are also known as phenols or phenolic ethers. In the medical field, anisoles are used as antiseptics, disinfectants, and antifungal agents. They are also used as flavoring agents in food and beverages. Some common examples of anisoles include anisole, estragole, and thymol.
Hydroquinones are a class of organic compounds that are commonly used in the medical field as skin lightening agents. They work by inhibiting the production of melanin, a pigment that gives skin its color. Hydroquinones are often used to treat conditions such as melasma, a type of skin discoloration that is more common in women and is often caused by hormonal changes or sun exposure. They are also used to treat other types of skin discoloration, such as age spots and freckles. Hydroquinones are available in a variety of forms, including creams, lotions, and gels, and are typically applied to the skin once or twice a day. It is important to note that hydroquinones can cause skin irritation and should be used with caution, especially in individuals with sensitive skin.
Benzopyrenes are a group of organic compounds that consist of a fused benzene ring and a pyrene ring. They are commonly found in the environment, including in tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust, and certain types of coal tar. In the medical field, benzopyrenes are of concern because they are known to be carcinogenic, meaning they can cause cancer. Exposure to benzopyrenes has been linked to an increased risk of lung cancer, skin cancer, and other types of cancer. They are also mutagenic, meaning they can cause changes in DNA that can lead to the development of cancer.
Guaiacol is a colorless to yellowish liquid organic compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a diagnostic tool for detecting bleeding in the digestive tract. It is also used as an antiseptic and analgesic. In the medical field, guaiacol is used in a test called the "guaiac test" or "Guthrie test" to detect the presence of bilirubin in the stool of newborn babies. Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment that is produced when red blood cells break down, and high levels of bilirubin in the stool can indicate liver problems or other health issues. Guaiacol is also used in the treatment of respiratory infections, such as bronchitis and pneumonia, as an expectorant to help loosen and expel mucus from the lungs. It is also used as a local anesthetic to numb the skin and reduce pain during medical procedures. Overall, guaiacol is a versatile compound with a range of medical applications, and its use continues to be an important part of modern medicine.
In the medical field, Nitrophenols are a class of organic compounds that contain a nitro group (-NO2) attached to a phenol group (-OH). They are commonly used as dyes, antioxidants, and as intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds. Some nitrophenols have been found to have pharmacological properties and are used in the treatment of various medical conditions. For example, nitrofurantoin is a nitrophenol antibiotic used to treat urinary tract infections. Nitroglycerin, another nitrophenol, is a vasodilator used to treat angina pectoris and heart attacks. However, some nitrophenols can also be toxic and have been associated with adverse effects on the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. Therefore, their use in medicine is carefully regulated and monitored.
Benzoic acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that is commonly used in the medical field as an antiseptic and preservative. It is a white crystalline solid that has a characteristic odor and is slightly soluble in water. In the medical field, benzoic acid is used in a variety of applications, including as a preservative in topical medications, such as creams and ointments, to prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms. It is also used as an antiseptic in mouthwashes and other oral care products, and as a food preservative to prevent the growth of mold and bacteria in food and beverages. Benzoic acid is generally considered safe for use in humans, but high concentrations can cause skin irritation and other adverse effects. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and use instructions when using benzoic acid-containing products.
Monophenol monooxygenase (MMO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of monophenols to o-diphenols. It is involved in the biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, lignans, and alkaloids, in plants and microorganisms. MMO is also found in some bacteria and fungi, where it plays a role in the degradation of aromatic compounds. In the medical field, MMO has been studied for its potential use in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.
Ingrown nails, also known as onychocryptosis, is a common condition in which the edges of the nail grow into the surrounding skin, causing pain, redness, swelling, and sometimes infection. This can occur when the nail is cut too short, causing the edge to dig into the skin, or when the nail is curved and grows into the skin at the sides. Ingrown nails can be treated with home remedies such as soaking the affected area in warm water, applying antibiotic ointment, and using over-the-counter pain medication. In more severe cases, a doctor may need to perform a procedure to remove the affected portion of the nail or to remove the entire nail.
Naturally occurring phenols
Oxidative coupling of phenols
Auramine phenol stain
Polychloro phenoxy phenol
Sodium orthophenyl phenol
Phenol formaldehyde resin
Great Phenol Plot
Antioxidant effect of polyphenols and natural phenols
Phenol sulfur transferase deficiency
Dictionary of natural phenols and polyphenols molecular formulas
Acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction
Phenol | NIOSH | CDC
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Phenol for molecular biology 108-95-2
Chemical Database: Phenol, 4-(2,3-epoxypropyl)-2-methoxy- (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)
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Strain Engineering for Phenol
Meilleur site testostérone, phenol stéroïde | Fagana Stone
- Range of 2-56 ppb in waterways in and Environmental Medicine not exposed to phenol or benzene. (cdc.gov)
Sickeningly sweet and tarry3
- Ingestion of high concentrations of phenol has resulted in internal burns and death. (cdc.gov)
- Exposure to high concentrations of phenol in the air for several weeks caused paralysis and severe injury to the heart, liver, kidneys, and lungs, and in some cases, death. (cdc.gov)
- Some animals that drank water with very high concentrations of phenol suffered muscle tremors and loss of coordination. (cdc.gov)
- High concentrations of phenol in the odor. (cdc.gov)
- For example, phenol itself is used(in low concentrations) as a disinfectant in household cleaners and in mouthwash.Phenol may have been the first surgical antiseptic. (polymerupdate.com)
- Phenol (108952) concentrations were below 0.01ppm. (cdc.gov)
- The use of higher concentrations of phenol may predispose to a higher incidence of vascular injury. (medscape.com)
- Derivatives of phenol such as nitro phenols and alkyl phenols can be used in the production of pharmaceuticals, fuels, fragrances, and various additives. (biosynsis.com)
- Phenol is used primarily in the production of phenolic resins and in the manufacture of nylon and other synthetic fibers. (cdc.gov)
- Phenol is primarily used in the duration inhalation MRLs were derived cause dermal inflammation and production of phenolic resins and in the Dermal - Use of ointments and cleaners for phenol. (cdc.gov)
- Phenol is a basic chemical raw material, mainly used in the production of certain resins, adipic acid, etc. (biosynsis.com)
- Phenol (C 6 H 6 O or C 6 H 5 OH) is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid with a sweet, acrid odor. (cdc.gov)
- Phenol is a crystalline solid white in colour.It is also known as phenolic acid.If a compound is consisting of a six-membered aromatic ring and bonded to a hydroxyl group directly, then it can be referred to as phenol.Phenols are widely used in household products and as intermediates for industrial synthesis. (polymerupdate.com)
- Currently, there are seven main chemical synthesis methods for phenol. (biosynsis.com)
- However, the chemical synthesis methods of phenol suffer from a series of disadvantages such as high production costs, high environmental pollution, and more by-products. (biosynsis.com)
- We are able to apply genetic engineering regulation to regulate the expression of key genes involved in phenol synthesis. (biosynsis.com)
- We are able to apply metabolic engineering to regulate and construct a new pathway for phenol synthesis in E. coli . (biosynsis.com)
- We are able to use computer-aided simulation to perform targeted mutagenesis of key enzymes involved in phenol synthesis. (biosynsis.com)
- If you would like to develop phenol synthesis using glycerol as a carbon source in other microbial chassis, please fill out the online application form or call us to let us know your requirements. (biosynsis.com)
- We can achieve phenol synthesis by constructing multi-enzyme systems, and we offer optimization services for multi-enzyme systems for co-phenol production. (biosynsis.com)
Hazardous waste sites1
- You may be exposed to phenol if you live near landfills or hazardous waste sites that contain phenol or near facilities manufacturing phenol. (cdc.gov)
- Phenol evaporates more slowly than water, and a moderate amount can form a solution with water. (cdc.gov)
- Phenol is used as a disinfectant and is found in a number of consumer products. (cdc.gov)
- Significant exposure route for Phenol is also used as a general can cause cardiac arrhythmias and may workers in contact with phenol vapors or for acute-duration oral exposure disinfectant and antiseptic in various produce tremors and seizures. (cdc.gov)
Produce internal burns2
- The pathways for phenol biosynthesis via 4HB and TYR. (biosynsis.com)
- MCDB 131 Medium, Without L-Glutamin, Without Glucose and No Phenol Red - 500ml - 1 kit is backordered and will ship as soon as it is back in stock. (dnamethsoc.com)
- CD Biosynsis is committed to developing more productive methods of phenol biosynthesis using glycerol, glucose, etc. as carbon sources to provide customers with high-quality phenol products and their derivatives. (biosynsis.com)
- The biosynthesis methods of phenol mainly use glycerol and glucose as carbon sources. (biosynsis.com)
- E. coli uses the shikimic acid pathway as a basis for phenol production, using glucose as a carbon source. (biosynsis.com)
- Our scientists have been working on the development and optimization of glucose-based biosynthesis of phenol in E. coli . (biosynsis.com)
- Phenol can have beneficial effects when used medically as an antiseptic or anesthetic. (cdc.gov)
- NIOSHTIC-2 search results on phenol - A searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
- Once absorbed, phenol is widely specific biomarkers of exposure to products that contain phenol such as distributed throughout the body and the phenol. (cdc.gov)
- Workers may be harmed from exposure to phenol.The level of harm depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done. (cdc.gov)
- The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to phenol. (cdc.gov)
- Presents a standard to prevent the adverse effects of exposure to phenol over a working lifetime. (cdc.gov)
- People who had skin exposure to high amounts of phenol had skin burns, liver damage, dark urine, irregular heart beat, and some died. (cdc.gov)
- Phenol has caused minor birth defects and low birth weight in animals generally at exposure levels that also were toxic to the pregnant mothers. (cdc.gov)
- Aspirin was in short supply in Germany during World War I. Bayer, it's producer, was an international company with headquarters in Germany, one of its major processing plants in America, and its supplier of a chemical called phenol in the United Kingdom. (gizmodo.com)
- Over in America, which was technically neutral but drifting more towards the British side every day, Thomas Edison found that, without phenol, he was running low on materials to make phonograph disks. (gizmodo.com)
- He could have publicly sold phenol to a nation with a fair amount of public support in a war that America officially had no intention of joining. (gizmodo.com)
- If you work in an industry that uses phenol, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheet for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
- You may be exposed to phenol if you undergo "chemical peels" to remove skin lesions with phenol-containing products or are treated for chronic pain or spasticity with injections of phenol. (cdc.gov)
- Phenol has the chemical formula C6H60 and a molecular weight of 94.11 g/mol. (businessbuzzfire.com)
- We have built a microbial fermentation platform and developed high-quality microbial chassis for phenol production using molecular biology and fermentation process optimization techniques based on principles such as metabolic engineering to help our customers improve the yield of phenol biosynthesis. (biosynsis.com)
- You can taste and smell phenol at levels lower than those that are associated with harmful effects. (cdc.gov)
- Phenol could be also be changed into trinitophenol, or picric acid. (gizmodo.com)
- Following small, single releases, phenol is rapidly removed from the air (generally, half is removed in less than a day). (cdc.gov)
- Q.21 The reaction of phenol with conc. (ustadfoundation.com)
- The biosynthesis of phenol depends on the catalysis of a series of enzymes in microorganisms. (biosynsis.com)
- Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) kinetics of phenol over Ag/TiO 2 catalyst was investigated at 415-600 K and 1 atm. (lancs.ac.uk)
- A significant decrease in the contents of phenols and alkaloids was observed in leaves inoculated with PVX (X-I). However, there was an increase in the percentage of phenols in leaves rubbed with phosphate buffer (C1-I) and in leaves from the nodes immediately above, possibly induced by mechanical injury. (scielo.br)
- Since war generally uses a lot of explosives, the availability of phenol went down and the price went up. (gizmodo.com)
- Procurement Resource does an in-depth analysis of the price trend to bring forth the monthly, quarterly, half-yearly, and yearly information on the phenol price, cellulose price and lithium carbonate price etc. in its latest pricing dashboard. (businessbuzzfire.com)
- The phenol price trend , pricing database, and analysis can prove valuable for procurement managers, directors, and decision-makers to build up their strongly backed-up strategic insights to attain progress and profitability in the business. (businessbuzzfire.com)
- The industrial uses of phenol, such as its inclusion in plastics, explosives, and the production of medications like aspirin, have an impact on its price trend. (businessbuzzfire.com)
- Phenol is majorly used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The medicines below all contain the following active ingredient(s): coal tar solution + phenol + precipitated sulfur. (healthdirect.gov.au)
- Phenol can remain in water for a week or more. (cdc.gov)
- Low levels of phenol can be present in air and drinking water. (cdc.gov)
- of phenol or its metabolites in human water. (cdc.gov)
- Application of phenol to the skin can water. (cdc.gov)
- Phenol pollutes water bodies and inhibits the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR)-coupled chloride ATPase function in the fish brain. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Phenol is a white, salt-like compound that can make the salicylic acid in aspirin. (gizmodo.com)
- Our scientists are developing phenol biosynthesis services using glycerol as a carbon source and E. coli as a biological chassis by introducing exogenous genes in E. coli . (biosynsis.com)
- Phenol has been found in at least 595 of the 1,678 National Priority List (NPL) sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (cdc.gov)
- Low levels of phenol are found in some foods, including smoked summer sausage, fried chicken, mountain cheese, and some species of fish. (cdc.gov)
- We have now found that the apparent smallness or complete absence of the expected isotope effect is most probably due to the very rapid exchange that occurs between a deuterated phenol dissolved in an organic substrate and traces of moisture or the hydroperoxide products of oxidation. (canada.ca)
- Phenol is a solid at room temperature, with colour ranging from white to colourless in its purest form. (businessbuzzfire.com)
- products that contain phenol. (cdc.gov)
- Smoking or inhaling second hand smoke will expose you to phenol. (cdc.gov)
- Phenols are also used in the production of skin-lightening lotions, hair dyes, and sunscreens. (businessbuzzfire.com)
- Therefore, biosynthesis of phenol is a more promising method for phenol production that is inexpensive and environmentally friendly. (biosynsis.com)
- We use cofactor regeneration technology to increase enzyme activity and thus reduce the cost of phenol production. (biosynsis.com)
- By optimizing the fermentation parameters, we can help our customers to develop the maximum potential of phenol production. (biosynsis.com)
- We are committed to helping our customers solve all problems encountered in phenol production to advance their applications in a wide range of fields. (biosynsis.com)
- Un Duo dIngrédients brevetés pour un maximum defficacité, phenol stéroïde. (organizationalhappiness.org)
- The present paper reports results of the effect of Potato virus X (PVX) on the contents of total phenols and alkaloids in leaves of Datura stramonium. (scielo.br)
- The results showed that ultrasound combined with low temperature pretreatment increased the total and monomer contents of anthocyanins and phenols , affected the color of the wine , and significantly increased its antioxidant capacity. (bvsalud.org)