Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Phenolsulfonphthalein: Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Phenolphthaleins: A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.Arylsulfotransferase: A sulfotransferase that catalyzes the sulfation of a phenol in the presence of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate as sulfate donor to yield an aryl sulfate and adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate. A number of aromatic compounds can act as acceptors; however, organic hydroxylamines are not substrates. Sulfate conjugation by this enzyme is a major pathway for the biotransformation of phenolic and catechol drugs as well as neurotransmitters. EC A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC and EC A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria able to anaerobically oxidize and degrade toluene.Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase: Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Pentachlorophenol: An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.Tyrosine Phenol-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein. The enzyme also forms pyruvate from D-tyrosine, L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, L-serine, and D-serine, although at a slower rate. EC A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Trichosporon: A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.HydroquinonesBenzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Guaiacol: An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)NitrophenolsBenzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Monophenol Monooxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC, Ingrown: Excessive lateral nail growth into the nail fold. Because the lateral margin of the nail acts as a foreign body, inflammation and granulation may result. It is caused by improperly fitting shoes and by improper trimming of the nail.Humic Substances: Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Galaxies: Large aggregates of CELESTIAL STARS; COSMIC DUST; and gas. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ice Cream: A frozen dairy food made from cream or butterfat, milk, sugar, and flavorings. Frozen custard and French-type ice creams also contain eggs.Stars, Celestial: Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Coal Tar: A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).Dictionaries, MedicalHistoryDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Frozen FoodsFood Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Aminohippuric Acids: A group of glycine amides of aminobenzoic acids.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.

The direct spectrophotometric observation of benzo(a)pyrene phenol formation by liver microsomes. (1/4452)

Optical spectral repetitive scan analysis during the oxidative metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by liver microsomal suspensions reveals the time-dependent formation of an intermediate(s) of which the visible spectra resemble those of several benzo(a)pyrene phenols. Liver microsomes from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats showed a greater rate of formation of the phenols than did microsomes from control animals; the rate of formation catalyzed by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats was intermediate. When 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was used as a standard for comparison of activity, the rates of formation of phenols were compared when measured by fluorometric, spectrophotometric, or high-pressure liquid chromatographic analytical techniques. An epoxide hydrase inhibitor, 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide, enhanced phenol formation regardless of the source of liver microsomes, and 7,8-benzoflavone inhibited control and 3-methylcholanthrene-induced microsomal metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, 7,8-Benzoflavone did not effect benzo(a)pyrene metabolism by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats. The effect of inhibitors on the spectrophotometric assay correlates well with the results obtained from benzo(a)pyrene metabolite analysis using high-pressure liquid chromatography.  (+info)

Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (2/4452)

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis.  (+info)

Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199. (3/4452)

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

Isolation from estuarine sediments of a Desulfovibrio strain which can grow on lactate coupled to the reductive dehalogenation of 2,4, 6-tribromophenol. (4/4452)

Strain TBP-1, an anaerobic bacterium capable of reductively dehalogenating 2,4,6-tribromophenol to phenol, was isolated from estuarine sediments of the Arthur Kill in the New York/New Jersey harbor. It is a gram-negative, motile, vibrio-shaped, obligate anaerobe which grows on lactate, pyruvate, hydrogen, and fumarate when provided sulfate as an electron acceptor. The organism accumulates acetate when grown on lactate and sulfate, contains desulfoviridin, and will not grow in the absence of NaCl. It will not utilize acetate, succinate, propionate, or butyrate for growth via sulfate reduction. When supplied with lactate as an electron donor, strain TBP-1 will utilize sulfate, sulfite, sulfur, and thiosulfate for growth but not nitrate, fumarate, or acrylate. This organism debrominates 2-, 4-, 2,4-, 2,6-, and 2,4,6-bromophenol but not 3- or 2,3-bromophenol or monobrominated benzoates. It will not dehalogenate monochlorinated, fluorinated, or iodinated phenols or chlorinated benzoates. Together with its physiological characteristics, its 16S rRNA gene sequence places it in the genus Desulfovibrio. The average growth yield of strain TBP-1 grown on a defined medium supplemented with lactate and 2,4,6-bromophenol is 3.71 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced, and the yield was 1.42 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced when 4-bromophenol was the electron acceptor. Average growth yields (milligrams of protein per millimole of electrons utilized) for Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 grown with 2,4,6-bromophenol, 4-bromophenol, or sulfate are 0.62, 0.71, and 1.07, respectively. Growth did not occur when either lactate or 2,4,6-bromophenol was omitted from the growth medium. These results indicate that Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 is capable of growth via halorespiration.  (+info)

In vivo demonstration of H3-histaminergic inhibition of cardiac sympathetic stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine and its prodrug BP 2.94 in the dog. (5/4452)

1. The aim of this study was to investigate whether histamine H3-receptor agonists could inhibit the effects of cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation in the dog. 2. Catecholamine release by the heart and the associated variation of haemodynamic parameters were measured after electrical stimulation of the right cardiac sympathetic nerves (1-4 Hz, 10 V, 10 ms) in the anaesthetized dog treated with R-alpha-methyl-histamine (R-HA) and its prodrug BP 2.94 (BP). 3. Cardiac sympathetic stimulation induced a noradrenaline release into the coronary sinus along with a tachycardia and an increase in left ventricular pressure and contractility without changes in mean arterial pressure. Intravenous administration of H3-receptor agonists significantly decreased noradrenaline release by the heart (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +77 +/- 25 vs +405 +/- 82; BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +12 +/- 11 vs +330 +/- 100 pg ml(-1) in control conditions, P < or = 0.05), and increases in heart rate (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +26 +/- 8 vs +65 +/- 10 and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +30 +/- 8 vs 75 +/- 6 beats min(-1), in control conditions P < or = 0.05), left ventricular pressure, and contractility. Treatment with SC 359 (1 mg kg(-1)) a selective H3-antagonist, reversed the effects of H3-receptor agonists. Treatment with R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1) and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1) tended to decrease, while that with SC 359 significantly increased basal heart rate (from 111 +/- 3 to 130 +/- 5 beats min(-1), P < or = 0.001). 4. Functional H3-receptors are present on sympathetic nerve endings in the dog heart. Their stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine or BP 2.94 can inhibit noradrenaline release by the heart and its associated haemodynamic effects.  (+info)

Antioxidative and chelating activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides from Pedicularis striata. (6/4452)

AIM: To study the antioxidative and iron chelating activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPG) isolated from a Chinese herb Pedicularis striata. METHODS: Antioxidative effects of PPG on lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4-edetic acid in linoleic acid were measured by thiobarbituric acid method. Chelating activities of PPG for Fe2+ were tested by differential spectrum method. RESULTS: The reaction rates (A532.min-1) of lipid peroxidation were 0.0046 in the control, 0.0021 in verbascoside group, and 0.0008 in isoverbascoside group. The chelating activity of isoverbascoside was 2-fold stronger than that of verbascoside. Permethyl verbascoside showed neither antioxidative nor chelating activities. CONCLUSION: The inhibitory effects of PPG with phenolic hydroxy groups on lipid peroxidation are owing to their chelating properties. Under physiological condition PPG-Fe2+ chelates are sufficiently stable. Thus PPG are able to inhibit the Fe(2+)-dependent lipid peroxidation in vivo through chelating Fe2+ and exhibit their therapeutic potential by the same mechanism in vitro.  (+info)

Developing hypothalamic dopaminergic neurones as potential targets for environmental estrogens. (7/4452)

Environmental chemicals which mimic the actions of estrogen have the potential to affect any estrogen responsive tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate their potential to mimic the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on developing primary rat hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) neurones maintained in a chemically defined medium. We now show that both E2 and octylphenol (OP), but not the non-aromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone, enhanced the uptake of [3H]DA by the cultured cells, whereas they had no effect on the uptake of [14C]GABA. Although the sensitivity of responses may change with the age of the developing cultures, the dose response curves for E2 and OP were typically 'bell-shaped', with a rise in response followed by a decline to control levels with increasing concentrations. Effects were seen as low as 10(-14) M for E2 and 10(-11) M for OP. Responses to E2 (10(-12) M) and OP (10(-9) M) were reversed in the presence of the antiestrogen, ZM 182780 (10(-5) M). This study thus provides direct evidence, using a mechanistic rather than toxicological end-point, in support of the hypothesis that inappropriate exposure to environmental estrogens at critically sensitive stages of development, could potentially perturb the organisational activities of estrogen on selected neuronal populations in the CNS.  (+info)

Characterization of the pyoluteorin biosynthetic gene cluster of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. (8/4452)

Ten genes (plt) required for the biosynthesis of pyoluteorin, an antifungal compound composed of a bichlorinated pyrrole linked to a resorcinol moiety, were identified within a 24-kb genomic region of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. The deduced amino acid sequences of eight plt genes were similar to the amino acid sequences of genes with known biosynthetic functions, including type I polyketide synthases (pltB, pltC), an acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (pltE), an acyl-CoA synthetase (pltF), a thioesterase (pltG), and three halogenases (pltA, pltD, and pltM). Insertions of the transposon Tn5 or Tn3-nice or a kanamycin resistance gene in each of these genes abolished pyoluteorin production by Pf-5. The presumed functions of the eight plt products are consistent with biochemical transformations involved in pyoluteorin biosynthesis from proline and acetate precursors. Isotope labeling studies demonstrated that proline is the primary precursor to the dichloropyrrole moiety of pyoluteorin. The deduced amino acid sequence of the product of another plt gene, pltR, is similar to those of members of the LysR family of transcriptional activators. pltR and pltM are transcribed divergently from the pltLABCDEFG gene cluster, and a sequence with the characteristics of a LysR binding site was identified within the 486-bp intergenic region separating pltRM from pltLABCDEFG. Transcription of the pyoluteorin biosynthesis genes pltB, pltE, and pltF, assessed with transcriptional fusions to an ice nucleation reporter gene, was significantly greater in Pf-5 than in a pltR mutant of Pf-5. Therefore, PltR is proposed to be a transcriptional activator of linked pyoluteorin biosynthesis genes.  (+info)

  • Ethoxylates are the hydrocarbons manufactured by ethoxylation process in which Ethylene Oxide ( 1, 2 Epoxethane) is added to some hydrophobe like phenols, alcohols, fatty acids, amines make them more soluble in water. (
  • Among those ones the phenol compounds which are highly toxic, refractories (to the chemical degradation) and poorly biodegradable. (
  • These phenol compounds are specially harmful, since they have repercussions on the flora of plants of biological treatment of water affecting its operation. (
  • The detention of these phenol compounds in the HTC is due to the memory effect by the hydrotalcite regeneration starting from the oxides which are formed by the burning material. (
  • Sorcion de fenol y derivados de fenol en hidrotalcita} author = {Avina G, E I} abstractNote = {One of the main problems in Mexico and in the World is the waste water pollution of a great variety of industrial processes by organic compounds. (
  • Tri Styrenated Phenol Ethoxylate : competitive WE are providing of Tri Styrenated Phenol Ethoxilate from our side is a strong example of the same. (
  • With the obtained results when the sorption properties are evaluated the calcined hydrotalcite (HTC) for detaining phenol and p-chloro phenol it was observed that it is detained greater quantity of p-chloro phenol than phenol in the HTC. (
  • If you work in an industry that uses phenol, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheet for hazard information. (
  • A critical review of available data indicates that contact of a significant area of skin with subjectively low concentrations of phenol (5-6%) may be extremely hazardous and life-threatening [ATSDR (
  • Phenol (C 6 H 6 O or C 6 H 5 OH) is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid with a sweet, acrid odor. (
  • Phenol has a distinct odor that is sickeningly sweet and tarry. (
  • Phenol is a flammable, highly corrosive chemical with a sickeningly sweet, acrid odor. (
  • When pure, phenol has a sweet, tar-like odor that is readily detected at low concentrations (0.05 ppm in air). (
  • In biochemistry , naturally occurring phenols refers to phenol functional group that is found in natural products . (
  • This review will discuss the most recent advances in the search of naturally occurring phenols and their synthetic derivatives that inhibit the CAs and their mechanisms of action at molecular level. (
  • 7. The tar processing method according to claim 1, wherein the amount of steam added to the tar is 1% to 15% by weight of the phenol tar introduced into the reactor. (
  • 13. The process according to claim 10, wherein the amount of steam added to the tar is 1% to 15% by weight of the phenol tar. (
  • In a specific aspect, the phenol resin composition of the present invention is characterized in that it contains boehmite having an aspect ratio within a range from 1 to 100 and also contains an alumina-based compound as a filler, an amount of the boehmite being from 1 to 150 parts by weight based on 100 parts by weight of the phenol resin. (
  • 5 . A phenol resin composition comprising a phenol resin and acicular or cylindrical boehmite having an average particle diameter (minor diameter) of 100 nm or less, the amount of the boehmite being from 1 to 150 parts based on 100 parts by weight of the phenol resin. (
  • Dejong JI, Dejong J (1953) Kinetics of the hydroxymethylation of phenols in dilute aqueous solution. (
  • Equal volumes of a phenol:chloroform mixture and the aqueous DNA sample are mixed, forming a biphasic mixture. (
  • This study provides an experimental and theoretical account of the reaction of singlet oxygen O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) with the biodegradable-resistant species of phenol in an aqueous medium. (
  • Phenol is used as a disinfectant and is found in a number of consumer products. (
  • Phenols are used to make plastics and as a disinfectant in both household cleaning products and consumer products, such as mouthwashes. (
  • Although ethers contain two polar carbon-oxygen bonds, they are much less reactive than alcohols or phenols. (
  • We have now found that the brown crystalline cupric complexes having the empirical formula i \CH=CH 2 2 n where X is selected from the group consisting of chlorine and bromine, and n is an integrer and is at least 1, are extremely active catalysts for the oxidation of phenols, either to phenylene ether polymers, also known as polyphenylene ethers and polyphenylene om'des, or to diphenoquinones. (
  • This invention relates to novel reactive diluents for use with bismaleimide formulatioss, and more particularly to ethylenically-unsaturated ethers of alkenyl phenols as novel reactive liquid diluents, and to thermosetting bismaleimide formulations comprising bismaleimides and the novel reactive diluents of this invention. (
  • Electrocatalytic hydrogenation and catalytic thermal hydrogenation of substituted phenols and diaryl ethers were studied on carbon-supported Rh. (
  • Low levels of phenol are found in some foods, including smoked summer sausage, fried chicken, mountain cheese, and some species of fish. (
  • Low levels of phenol can be present in air and drinking water. (
  • In animals, breathing air with high levels of phenol resulted in irritation of the lungs. (
  • Children exposed to the same levels of phenol vapor as adults may receive larger doses because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and increased minute volumes:weight ratios. (
  • In addition, they may be exposed to higher levels than adults in the same location because of their short stature and the higher levels of phenol vapor found nearer to the ground. (
  • Aldersley JW, Hope P (1972) A study of the methylolation of phenol using gel permeation chromatography. (
  • A recent in silico comparison of the gas phase acidities of the vinylogues of phenol and cyclohexanol in conformations that allow for or exclude resonance stabilization leads to the inference that about ​ 1 ⁄ 3 of the increased acidity of phenol is attributable to inductive effects, with resonance accounting for the remaining difference. (
  • INEOS Phenol is the largest producer of Phenol and Acetone in the world. (
  • The registration includes all INEOS Phenol sites worldwide to ensure unrestricted trade of our products. (
  • Persons whose clothing or skin is contaminated with liquid phenol can secondarily contaminate personnel by direct contact or through off-gassing vapor. (
  • You may be exposed to phenol if you live near landfills or hazardous waste sites that contain phenol or near facilities manufacturing phenol. (
  • Is there an alternate source of Vit K for neonates which does not contain phenol? (
  • Two natural phenols from two different categories, for instance a flavonoid and a lignan, can combine to form a hybrid class like the flavonolignans . (
  • Many natural phenols are chiral . (
  • Natural phenols chemically interact with many other substances. (
  • Phenol is both a manufactured chemical and a natural substance. (
  • You may be exposed to phenol if you undergo "chemical peels" to remove skin lesions with phenol-containing products or are treated for chronic pain or spasticity with injections of phenol. (
  • These enzymes are proteins that serve as catalysts to speed up the chemical reactions that synthesize phenols. (
  • But the phenol - a deadly chemical used in Aristech's processes that is known to cause internal burns, muscle spasms and organ failure - indicated that something might have gone wrong. (
  • Phenol and its chemical derivatives are essential for production of polycarbonates , epoxies , Bakelite , nylon , detergents , herbicides such as phenoxy herbicides , and numerous pharmaceutical drugs . (
  • Dow Chemical U.S.A. is increasing the selling price for phenol by 8 cents a pound less a 2 cent/lb. (
  • In the paper published online in Biotechnology Journal, a Korean research team led by Distinguished Professor Sang Yup Lee at the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) reported the successful development of an engineered Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain which can produce phenol from glucose. (
  • Phenol is obtained by fractional distillation of coal tar and by organic synthesis. (
  • Phenol was first extracted from coal tar , but today is produced on a large scale (about 7 billion kg/year) from petroleum . (
  • Biodegradation of Phenol and Emulsification Properties of Native Microorganisms from Coal Carbonization Plant. (
  • In support of the second explanation, the p K a of the enol of acetone in water is 10.9, making it only slightly less acidic than phenol (p K a 10.0). (
  • More specifically, this invention relates to the use of a cupric complex having the empirical formula CH=C11 z 2 n where X is selected from the group consisting of chlorine and bromine and n is an integer and is at least 1, as catalysts for the oxidation of phenols, and more particularly to the oxidation of phenols to either phenylene oxide polymers or to diphenoquinones. (
  • The antioxidant properties of phenols, tyrosol and hydoxytyrosol, may increase bone formation, act as free radical scavengers and prevent oxidation-induced damage to bone cells. (
  • AdvanSix ( ASIX ) today informed its phenol customers that it is declaring force majeure as a result of shortages and delivery delays of its key raw material, cumene. (
  • Phenol tar is a heavy, viscous byproduct produced in the industrial synthesis of phenol and acetone from cumene. (
  • It is shown that the fractions of heavy phenolics mostly decreased as a result of catalytic reforming, while those of light phenols, such as phenol and methyl phenols , rather increased, particularly when Al-MCM-48 was used. (
  • The presence of substituting methyl or methoxy groups led to lower rates compared to unsubstituted phenol or diphenyl ether. (
  • Whether to purchase isoamyl alcohol separately or mixed in with the phenol and chloroform stocks is largely an individual choice, although it is sensible to coordinate with the rest of the lab so reagents can be shared. (
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on phenol - A searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (
  • The force majeure has been declared only for phenol and will not impact shipments of other products produced at the Company's Frankford facility, including acetone and alpha-methylstyrene due to adequate inventory levels. (
  • In making this conclusion, we cite the pK a of acetone enol, which is 10.9 (in comparison to phenol with a pK a of 10.0). (
  • We produce just under 1.9 million tonnes of Phenol and around 1.2 million tonnes of Acetone annually. (
  • In making this conclusion, one can examine the pK a of the enol of acetone , which is 10.9 in comparison to phenol with a pK a of 10.0. (
  • The sodium salt of phenol, sodium phenoxide , is far more water-soluble. (
  • Phenol-Soluble Modulin α Peptide Toxins from Aggressive Staphylococcus aureus Induce Rapid Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps through a Reactive Oxygen Species-Independent Pathway. (
  • We show here that NET-like structures can also be formed by neutrophils after interaction with phenol-soluble modulin α (PSMα) that are cytotoxic membrane-disturbing peptides, secreted from community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). (
  • Phenol is naturally somewhat water-soluble, and gives a 'fuzzy' interface that is sharpened by the presence of chloroform. (
  • Several members of the staphylococcal phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptide family exhibit pronounced capacities to lyse eukaryotic cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and erythrocytes. (
  • : 104 Some phenols are germicidal and are used in formulating disinfectants. (
  • Even the Environmental Protection Agency lists disinfectants that contain phenols as "corrosive and toxic. (
  • So why take your chances with phenol-containing products when safer alternatives, like PerfectClean terry cloths that clean down to a microscopic level without the use of harmful disinfectants, are available? (
  • And phenols are not the only dangerous ingredients in common disinfectants. (
  • Experiments consisting of suspended cultures demonstrated the native ability of this organism to utilize phenol for its metabolic pathways enabling degradation, at levels of nearly 100 ppm within 24 hours. (
  • University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Data- base, Phenol Family Degradation Pathway Map. (
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to phenol.The level of harm depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done. (
  • Presents a standard to prevent the adverse effects of exposure to phenol over a working lifetime. (
  • People who had skin exposure to high amounts of phenol had skin burns, liver damage, dark urine, irregular heart beat, and some died. (
  • Phenol has caused minor birth defects and low birth weight in animals generally at exposure levels that also were toxic to the pregnant mothers. (
  • Phenol is well absorbed by all routes of exposure. (
  • And if exposure to PHENOL inspires something in you to go head first into modular synths, your initial investment can be incorporated into your more ambitious modular systems. (
  • Finding ways to effectively tailor phenol synthesis toward these different purposes could have a large impact on society," said Chang-Jun Liu, who led the team conducting this research. (
  • The scientists' main finding was the discovery of three such components (called F-box proteins) that specifically recognize the first key enzyme in the series of phenol synthesis reactions. (
  • For example, the set of molecular tools identified in this study might be used to increase the synthesis of certain phenols that have been shown to exhibit antioxidant properties, which could potentially enhance the health benefits of so-called functional foods. (
  • Modular synthesis was the root inspiration for the PHENOL, and a cosdt and sizxe that is a fraction of the original modular systems as well as modular systems that are available today, PHENOL offers the creative potential, sound and hands-on experience of a modular synth in a sleek, compact and affordable package. (
  • Phenol and chloroform are both hazardous and inconvenient materials, and the extraction is laborious, so in recent years many many companies now offer many alternative ways to isolate DNA. (