Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Phenolsulfonphthalein: Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Phenolphthaleins: A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.Arylsulfotransferase: A sulfotransferase that catalyzes the sulfation of a phenol in the presence of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate as sulfate donor to yield an aryl sulfate and adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate. A number of aromatic compounds can act as acceptors; however, organic hydroxylamines are not substrates. Sulfate conjugation by this enzyme is a major pathway for the biotransformation of phenolic and catechol drugs as well as neurotransmitters. EC 2.8.2.1.CresolsCatechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.1 and EC 1.99.2.2.Thauera: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria able to anaerobically oxidize and degrade toluene.Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase: Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.2.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Pentachlorophenol: An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.Tyrosine Phenol-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein. The enzyme also forms pyruvate from D-tyrosine, L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, L-serine, and D-serine, although at a slower rate. EC 4.1.99.2.Anisoles: A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Trichosporon: A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.HydroquinonesBenzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Guaiacol: An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)NitrophenolsBenzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Monophenol Monooxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 1.14.18.1.Nails, Ingrown: Excessive lateral nail growth into the nail fold. Because the lateral margin of the nail acts as a foreign body, inflammation and granulation may result. It is caused by improperly fitting shoes and by improper trimming of the nail.

The direct spectrophotometric observation of benzo(a)pyrene phenol formation by liver microsomes. (1/4452)

Optical spectral repetitive scan analysis during the oxidative metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by liver microsomal suspensions reveals the time-dependent formation of an intermediate(s) of which the visible spectra resemble those of several benzo(a)pyrene phenols. Liver microsomes from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats showed a greater rate of formation of the phenols than did microsomes from control animals; the rate of formation catalyzed by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats was intermediate. When 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was used as a standard for comparison of activity, the rates of formation of phenols were compared when measured by fluorometric, spectrophotometric, or high-pressure liquid chromatographic analytical techniques. An epoxide hydrase inhibitor, 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide, enhanced phenol formation regardless of the source of liver microsomes, and 7,8-benzoflavone inhibited control and 3-methylcholanthrene-induced microsomal metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, 7,8-Benzoflavone did not effect benzo(a)pyrene metabolism by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats. The effect of inhibitors on the spectrophotometric assay correlates well with the results obtained from benzo(a)pyrene metabolite analysis using high-pressure liquid chromatography.  (+info)

Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (2/4452)

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis.  (+info)

Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199. (3/4452)

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

Isolation from estuarine sediments of a Desulfovibrio strain which can grow on lactate coupled to the reductive dehalogenation of 2,4, 6-tribromophenol. (4/4452)

Strain TBP-1, an anaerobic bacterium capable of reductively dehalogenating 2,4,6-tribromophenol to phenol, was isolated from estuarine sediments of the Arthur Kill in the New York/New Jersey harbor. It is a gram-negative, motile, vibrio-shaped, obligate anaerobe which grows on lactate, pyruvate, hydrogen, and fumarate when provided sulfate as an electron acceptor. The organism accumulates acetate when grown on lactate and sulfate, contains desulfoviridin, and will not grow in the absence of NaCl. It will not utilize acetate, succinate, propionate, or butyrate for growth via sulfate reduction. When supplied with lactate as an electron donor, strain TBP-1 will utilize sulfate, sulfite, sulfur, and thiosulfate for growth but not nitrate, fumarate, or acrylate. This organism debrominates 2-, 4-, 2,4-, 2,6-, and 2,4,6-bromophenol but not 3- or 2,3-bromophenol or monobrominated benzoates. It will not dehalogenate monochlorinated, fluorinated, or iodinated phenols or chlorinated benzoates. Together with its physiological characteristics, its 16S rRNA gene sequence places it in the genus Desulfovibrio. The average growth yield of strain TBP-1 grown on a defined medium supplemented with lactate and 2,4,6-bromophenol is 3.71 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced, and the yield was 1.42 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced when 4-bromophenol was the electron acceptor. Average growth yields (milligrams of protein per millimole of electrons utilized) for Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 grown with 2,4,6-bromophenol, 4-bromophenol, or sulfate are 0.62, 0.71, and 1.07, respectively. Growth did not occur when either lactate or 2,4,6-bromophenol was omitted from the growth medium. These results indicate that Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 is capable of growth via halorespiration.  (+info)

In vivo demonstration of H3-histaminergic inhibition of cardiac sympathetic stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine and its prodrug BP 2.94 in the dog. (5/4452)

1. The aim of this study was to investigate whether histamine H3-receptor agonists could inhibit the effects of cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation in the dog. 2. Catecholamine release by the heart and the associated variation of haemodynamic parameters were measured after electrical stimulation of the right cardiac sympathetic nerves (1-4 Hz, 10 V, 10 ms) in the anaesthetized dog treated with R-alpha-methyl-histamine (R-HA) and its prodrug BP 2.94 (BP). 3. Cardiac sympathetic stimulation induced a noradrenaline release into the coronary sinus along with a tachycardia and an increase in left ventricular pressure and contractility without changes in mean arterial pressure. Intravenous administration of H3-receptor agonists significantly decreased noradrenaline release by the heart (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +77 +/- 25 vs +405 +/- 82; BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +12 +/- 11 vs +330 +/- 100 pg ml(-1) in control conditions, P < or = 0.05), and increases in heart rate (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +26 +/- 8 vs +65 +/- 10 and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +30 +/- 8 vs 75 +/- 6 beats min(-1), in control conditions P < or = 0.05), left ventricular pressure, and contractility. Treatment with SC 359 (1 mg kg(-1)) a selective H3-antagonist, reversed the effects of H3-receptor agonists. Treatment with R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1) and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1) tended to decrease, while that with SC 359 significantly increased basal heart rate (from 111 +/- 3 to 130 +/- 5 beats min(-1), P < or = 0.001). 4. Functional H3-receptors are present on sympathetic nerve endings in the dog heart. Their stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine or BP 2.94 can inhibit noradrenaline release by the heart and its associated haemodynamic effects.  (+info)

Antioxidative and chelating activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides from Pedicularis striata. (6/4452)

AIM: To study the antioxidative and iron chelating activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPG) isolated from a Chinese herb Pedicularis striata. METHODS: Antioxidative effects of PPG on lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4-edetic acid in linoleic acid were measured by thiobarbituric acid method. Chelating activities of PPG for Fe2+ were tested by differential spectrum method. RESULTS: The reaction rates (A532.min-1) of lipid peroxidation were 0.0046 in the control, 0.0021 in verbascoside group, and 0.0008 in isoverbascoside group. The chelating activity of isoverbascoside was 2-fold stronger than that of verbascoside. Permethyl verbascoside showed neither antioxidative nor chelating activities. CONCLUSION: The inhibitory effects of PPG with phenolic hydroxy groups on lipid peroxidation are owing to their chelating properties. Under physiological condition PPG-Fe2+ chelates are sufficiently stable. Thus PPG are able to inhibit the Fe(2+)-dependent lipid peroxidation in vivo through chelating Fe2+ and exhibit their therapeutic potential by the same mechanism in vitro.  (+info)

Developing hypothalamic dopaminergic neurones as potential targets for environmental estrogens. (7/4452)

Environmental chemicals which mimic the actions of estrogen have the potential to affect any estrogen responsive tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate their potential to mimic the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on developing primary rat hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) neurones maintained in a chemically defined medium. We now show that both E2 and octylphenol (OP), but not the non-aromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone, enhanced the uptake of [3H]DA by the cultured cells, whereas they had no effect on the uptake of [14C]GABA. Although the sensitivity of responses may change with the age of the developing cultures, the dose response curves for E2 and OP were typically 'bell-shaped', with a rise in response followed by a decline to control levels with increasing concentrations. Effects were seen as low as 10(-14) M for E2 and 10(-11) M for OP. Responses to E2 (10(-12) M) and OP (10(-9) M) were reversed in the presence of the antiestrogen, ZM 182780 (10(-5) M). This study thus provides direct evidence, using a mechanistic rather than toxicological end-point, in support of the hypothesis that inappropriate exposure to environmental estrogens at critically sensitive stages of development, could potentially perturb the organisational activities of estrogen on selected neuronal populations in the CNS.  (+info)

Characterization of the pyoluteorin biosynthetic gene cluster of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. (8/4452)

Ten genes (plt) required for the biosynthesis of pyoluteorin, an antifungal compound composed of a bichlorinated pyrrole linked to a resorcinol moiety, were identified within a 24-kb genomic region of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. The deduced amino acid sequences of eight plt genes were similar to the amino acid sequences of genes with known biosynthetic functions, including type I polyketide synthases (pltB, pltC), an acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (pltE), an acyl-CoA synthetase (pltF), a thioesterase (pltG), and three halogenases (pltA, pltD, and pltM). Insertions of the transposon Tn5 or Tn3-nice or a kanamycin resistance gene in each of these genes abolished pyoluteorin production by Pf-5. The presumed functions of the eight plt products are consistent with biochemical transformations involved in pyoluteorin biosynthesis from proline and acetate precursors. Isotope labeling studies demonstrated that proline is the primary precursor to the dichloropyrrole moiety of pyoluteorin. The deduced amino acid sequence of the product of another plt gene, pltR, is similar to those of members of the LysR family of transcriptional activators. pltR and pltM are transcribed divergently from the pltLABCDEFG gene cluster, and a sequence with the characteristics of a LysR binding site was identified within the 486-bp intergenic region separating pltRM from pltLABCDEFG. Transcription of the pyoluteorin biosynthesis genes pltB, pltE, and pltF, assessed with transcriptional fusions to an ice nucleation reporter gene, was significantly greater in Pf-5 than in a pltR mutant of Pf-5. Therefore, PltR is proposed to be a transcriptional activator of linked pyoluteorin biosynthesis genes.  (+info)

*Granulicoccus phenolivorans

nov., a Gram-positive, phenol-degrading coccus isolated from phenol-degrading aerobic granules". International Journal of ... Granulicoccus phenolivorans is a Gram-positive and phenol-degrading bacterium from the genus of Granulicoccus which has been ...

*Phenols

Unfiltered olive oil has the higher levels of phenols, or polar phenols that form a complex phenol-protein complex. Phenolic ... Natural sources of phenols on www.britannica.com Phenol-Explorer (phenol-explorer.eu), a database dedicated to phenolics found ... Phenols are oxidized to hydroquinones in the Elbs persulfate oxidation Phenolate anions (deriving from phenols by the loss of ... Some phenols are sold as dietary supplements. Phenols have been investigated as drugs. For instance, Crofelemer (USAN, trade ...

*Phenol coefficient

To calculate phenol coefficient, the concentration of phenol at which the compound kills the test organism in 10 minutes, but ... The Phenol coefficient, is now largely of historical interest, although the principles upon which it is based are still used. ... It is a measure of the bactericidal activity of a chemical compound in relation to phenol. When listed numerically, the figure ... The Chick-Martin test was then widely used until replaced by more suitable tests not reliant on phenol and reflecting the ...

*Phenol Charles

... is a former Haitian international football player. He is best known for scoring a hat-trick in the 1957 CCCF ... in French) Soccer DB - Charles, Phenol "This Week in CONCACAF History: August 23-31". CONCACAF.com. Retrieved 11 April 2013. ...

*Phenol extraction

After phenol has been added to the sample it is centrifuged and the aqueous and organic ("Phenol") phases form. Phenol is often ... when phenol is added to a cell sample solution the water and phenol remain separate. Two "phases" form when phenol is added to ... Chloroform and phenol mix well together, unlike phenol and water. The density of chloroform is 1.47 g/cm3, higher than that of ... Mixing chloroform and phenol creates a denser solution than phenol alone, and therefore the separation of the organic from the ...

*Phenol red

Guardex Solution 2 - Phenol Red Material Safety Data Sheet Effect of Bromine on Phenol Red in pH Tests Video of phenol red ... Phenol red (also known as phenolsulfonphthalein or PSP) is a pH indicator frequently used in cell biology laboratories. Phenol ... Phenol red solution is administered intravenously, the urine produced is collected. By measuring the amount of phenol red ... many types of tissue culture media are also available without phenol red. Phenol red is a weak estrogen mimic, and in cell ...

*Phenol-Explorer

... is a comprehensive database on natural phenols and polyphenols including food composition, food processing, and ... "Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods", Database, 2010: bap024, doi:10.1093/ ...

*Phenol sulfotransferase

... may refer to: SULT1A1, a human gene encoding a sulfotransferase SULT1A2, a human gene encoding a ...

*Phenol 2-monooxygenase

In enzymology, a phenol 2-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.13.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction phenol + NADPH + H+ + ... Neujahr HY, Gaal A (1975). "Phenol hydroxylase from yeast. Sulfhydryl groups in phenol hydroxylase from Trichosporon cutaneum ... Other names in common use include phenol hydroxylase, and phenol o-hydroxylase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic ... Neujahr HY, Gaal A (1973). "Phenol hydroxylase from yeast. Purification and properties of the enzyme from Trichosporon cutaneum ...

*Tyrosine phenol-lyase

... phenol + pyruvate + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-tyrosine and H2O, whereas its 3 products are phenol, ... In enzymology, a tyrosine phenol-lyase (EC 4.1.99.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-tyrosine + H2O ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-tyrosine phenol-lyase (deaminating; pyruvate-forming). Other names in common use ... Kumagai H, Yamada H, Matsui H, Ohkishi H, Ogata K (1970). "Tyrosine phenol lyase. II. Cofactor requirements". J. Biol. Chem. ...

*Phenol O-methyltransferase

In enzymology, a phenol O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.25) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:phenol O-methyltransferase. This enzyme is also called PMT ... Axelrod J, Daly J (1968). "Phenol-O-methyltransferase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 159 (3): 472-8. doi:10.1016/0005-2744(68)90131- ... methionine + phenol ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + anisole Thus, the two substrates of this ...

*Phenol-soluble modulin

... s (PSMs) are a family of protein toxins that are soluble in phenols that are produced by staphylococcus ... "Phenol-soluble modulins and staphylococcal infection" (PDF). Graves, S. F.; Kobayashi, S. D.; Deleo, F. R. (2010). "Community- ...

*Sodium orthophenyl phenol

... is a compound used as a disinfectant. It is the sodium salt of 2-phenylphenol. As a food additive, it ...

*Polychloro phenoxy phenol

Polychloro phenoxy phenols (polychlorinated phenoxy phenols, PCPPs) are a group of organic polyhalogenated compounds. Among ...

*Phenol beta-glucosyltransferase

In enzymology, a phenol beta-glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-glucose + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucose:phenol beta-D-glucosyltransferase. Other names in common use include ... a phenol ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP + an aryl beta-D-glucoside Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP- ... glucose and phenol, whereas its two products are UDP and aryl beta-D-glucoside. This enzyme belongs to the family of ...

*Auramine phenol stain

... is a stain used in clinical microbiology and histology to identify tuberculosis mycobacteria. There are ... Smears are prepared just like that for ZN staining Stain with Auramine-Phenol for 20 mins Rinse with water Decolourise in acid ... two types of auramine phenol stains, 1 and 2 to stain mycobacterium species and cryptosporidium respectively. Both are ...

*Phenol formaldehyde resin

Base-catalysed phenol-formaldehyde resins are made with a formaldehyde to phenol ratio of greater than one (usually around 1.5 ... Novolacs are phenol-formaldehyde resins with a formaldehyde to phenol molar ratio of less than one. The polymerization is ... Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted ... When the molar ratio of formaldehyde:phenol reaches one, in theory every phenol is linked together via methylene bridges, ...

*Great Phenol Plot

... who could no longer import phenol from Britain. At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, most phenol used by American ... Pennsylvania capable of manufacturing twelve tons of phenol per day. Edison's excess phenol seemed destined for American ... This allowed the phenol plot to continue for a short while longer. By the time the plot was discontinued, it had succeeded in ... The Great Phenol Plot was a conspiracy by the German Government during the early years of World War I to divert American- ...

*Phenol-chloroform extraction

... is a liquid-liquid extraction technique in molecular biology used to purify nucleic acids and ... The aqueous phase is on top because it is less dense than the organic phase (phenol:chloroform). The proteins and hydrophobic ... Aqueous samples, lysed cells, or homogenised tissue are mixed with equal volumes of a phenol:chloroform mixture. After mixing, ... Acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction Ethanol precipitation Spin column-based nucleic acid purification ...

*Phenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferase

... may refer to: UGT1A3, a human gene UGT1A4, a human gene UGT1A5, a human gene UGT1A6, a human ...

*Health effects of natural phenols and polyphenols

The least well-absorbed phenols are the proanthocyanidins, galloylated tea catechins, and anthocyanins. A review published in ...

*Antioxidant effect of polyphenols and natural phenols

Serafini M, Laranjinha JA, Almeida LM, Maiani G (November 2000). "Inhibition of human LDL lipid peroxidation by phenol-rich ... natural phenols (including flavonoids) and polyphenols, tocopherols, etc.[citation needed] A few of these appeared more ...

*3-(hydroxyamino)phenol mutase

In enzymology, a 3-(hydroxyamino)phenol mutase (EC 5.4.4.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-(hydroxyamino)phenol hydroxymutase. Other names in common use include 3- ...

*1-Nonyl-4-phenol

... is an organic compound consisting of a n-nonyl group attached to the 4-position of phenol. The related ...

*Dictionary of natural phenols and polyphenols molecular formulas

Natural polyphenols molecular formulas are generally formed from C, H and O.[according to whom?][citation needed] The entries are sorted by mass ...
Introduction: Octylphenol (OP) is a degradation product of alkylphenol ethoxylates that are widely used to in rubber, pesticides and paints. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound with two functional phenol groups and used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, along with other applications. OP and BPA are known as endocrine disruptors that can induce inappropriate estrogenic action, and may disturb natural calcium metabolism. In the present study, the effects of OP and BPA on the calcium levels of serum and urine, and calcium transport genes were investigated in the duodenum, kidney and placenta of the pregnant mice.. Methods: From 6.5 to 16.5 days after post coitus (dpc), pregnant mice were orally given with ethylestradiol (EE, 0.2 mg/kg/day), OP (15, 45, or 135 mg/kg/day) or BPA (5 or 50 mg/kg/day) dissolved in corn oil. The duodenum, kidney, placenta, blood and urine were obtained from mice at day 18.5 of pregnancy.. Results: As a result, serum and urinary calcium levels were ...
Xenoestrogens such as alkylphenols and the structurally related plastic byproduct bisphenol A have recently been shown to act potently via nongenomic signaling pathways and the membrane version of estrogen receptor-α. Though the responses to these compounds are typically measured individually, they usually contaminate organisms that already have endogenous estrogens present. Therefore, we used quantitative medium-throughput screening assays to measure the effects of physiologic estrogens in combination with these xenoestrogens. We studied the effects of low concentrations of endogenous estrogens (estradiol, estriol, and estrone) at 10 pM (representing pre-development levels), and 1 nM (representing higher cycle-dependent and pregnancy levels) in combinations with the same levels of xenoestrogens in GH3/B6/F10 pituitary cells. These levels of xenoestrogens represent extremely low contamination levels. We monitored calcium entry into cells using Fura-2 fluorescence imaging of single cells. Prolactin
[103 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States 2-Fluorophenol Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States 2-Fluorophenol market is...
INTRODUCTION. Phenolic compounds are considered to be a major group of hazardous environmental pollutants. Several industries, such as petroleum processing plants, oil refineries, coke oven and pharmaceuticals, generate large amounts of phenolic wastewaters (Lepik and Tenno, 2011; Pramparo et al., 2012). Phenol is used as an intermediate in the production of phenolic resins, which are used in the plywood, adhesive, construction, automotive and appliance industries, in the production of synthetic fibres and for epoxy resin precursors. Besides, phenolic compounds are naturally present in some foodstuffs, in human and animal wastes, and in decomposing organic material, and are produced from the metabolism of proteins (Lin and Juang, 2009).. Phenols can be removed from industrial effluents by several physicochemical methods. Separation technologies include distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption over activated carbons and polymeric and inorganic adsorbents, membrane pervaporation and ...
Exposure to toxic industrial chemicals that have capacity to disrupt the endocrine system, also known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has been increasingly associated with reproductive problems in human population. Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol) are among the most common environmental contaminants possessing endocrine disruption properties and are present in plastics, epoxy resins, detergents and other commercial products of common personal and industrial use. A metabolite of BPA, 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) is about 1000 times more biologically active compared to BPA. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have shown association of BPA and OP with adverse effects on male and female reproductive system in human and animals. The endocrine disruption activity can occur through multiple pathways including binding to steroid receptors. Androgen receptor (AR) and progesterone
Ahmed S, Atlas E. 2016. Bisphenol S- and bisphenol A-induced adipogenesis of murine preadipocytes occurs through direct peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma activation. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 40(10):1566-1573, PMID: 27273607, 10.1038/ijo.2016.95. Alonso-Magdalena P, Quesada I, Nadal Á. 2015. Prenatal exposure to BPA and offspring outcomes. Dose Response 13(2):1559325815590395, PMID: 26676280, 10.1177/1559325815590395. Alonso-Magdalena P, Vieira E, Soriano S, Menes L, Burks D, Quesada I, et al. 2010. Bisphenol A exposure during pregnancy disrupts glucose homeostasis in mothers and adult male offspring. Environ Health Perspect 118(9):1243-1250, PMID: 20488778, 10.1289/ehp.1001993. Anderson OS, Peterson KE, Sanchez BN, Zhang Z, Mancuso P, Dolinoy DC. 2013. Perinatal bisphenol A exposure promotes hyperactivity, lean body composition, and hormonal responses across the murine life course. FASEB J 27(4):1784-1792, PMID: 23345456, 10.1096/fj.12-223545. Angle BM, Do RP, Ponzi D, ...
Alkylphenols are widely used industrial chemicals that act as detergents or surfactants. They are added to cosmetics, paints, pesticides, detergents and cleaning products. As a group they are highly toxic to aquatic organisms. Dozens of recent studies have documented the in-vitro and in-vivo estrogenic activity of alkylphenols in human cell lines and animals (Bechi 2006). Alkylphenols have been detected recently in surface waters contaminated with urban runoff and in wastewater effluent (Espejo 2002; Oros 2003).. Alkylphenols have been measured in air samples. One study found that newer homes, especially those with PVC materials, have more alkylphenol residues than older houses or outdoor air (Saito 2004).. ...
The Phytochemical Society of Europe (PSE) exists to serve all those with an interest in the chemistry and biochemistry of plants and in the applications of such knowledge in industry and agriculture.. The Society organises two or three conferences each year in the United Kingdom and Continental Europe.. The Society originated as the Plant Phenolics Group which was inaugurated in Cambridge, U.K. in 1957 as an informal group of chemists and biologists interested in the phenolic constituents of plants. As the interest of members widened, many wished to include their own fields within the activities of the group and it was resolved at the 7th Annual General Meeting of the Plant Phenolics Group at Leeds in 1964 to become the Phytochemical Group. As a result continued expansion of the membership the Group became the Phytochemical Society at the Annual General Meeting at Imperial College, London on the 11th April 1967. In recognition of the growing membership of Continental Europe the Society adopted ...
Among the commonly reported tapentadol ER side effects are headaches, nausea, and constipation. This eMedTV page offers an overview of other possible reactions, listing common ones as well potentially serious problems that require medical treatment.
A HPLC method for simultaneous determination of 25 phenolic compounds in grape juice was optimized, validated and applied in the characterization of juices produced in São Francisco Valley (SFV), Brazil. The performance char- acteristics of the method were established by assays with standard solutions of phenolic compounds, spiked and unspiked samples. Linearity, matrix effects, trueness, precision, detection and quantification limits were evaluated. Linearity was demonstrated in the concentration ranges tested for all phenolic compounds. Significant matrix ef- fects were not identified for the studied compounds. Mean recoveries ranged from 86.18 to 106.50%, demonstrat- ing no lack of trueness. Precision of the method was confirmed for the 25 phenolic compounds, with acceptable repeatability relative standard deviations (from 0.71 to 9.24%) and within-reproducibility relative standard devia- tions (from 1.34 to 9.26%) for unspiked and spiked samples. The theoretical limits of detection and ...
Bisphenol A BPA Definition - Bisphenol A (BPA), is a chemical found in clear plastics. Medical research has determined that exposure to BPA has a direct...
The evidence BPA (bisphenol A) is having toxic effects on humans is becoming more and more solid. Just recently a paper in JAMA found BPA may be associated heart disease and other probelms in humans. Other research has shown possible association with metabolic disorders (one thing I didnt note in the second post is that the two studies reinforce each other with the metabolic findings like diabetes). Furthermore, the FDAs own panel called FDAs okey-dokie/industry-studies-only assessment of BPA flawed and it was announced yesterday that the FDA has called a do-over.. Therefore, it may surprise you to know that there exist (and have existed for a while), FDA-approved alternative coatings as Chemical and Engineering News reports. Why arent they being used? From the C&EN article it seems that the simple reason that BPA is still being used is that you would have to use different coating for different applications (gasp!) as opposed to the one-toxic-chemical-fits-all approach.. Sigh…. PS Reading ...
This topic contains 40 study abstracts on Bisphenol A indicating it may contribute to Prenatal Chemical Exposures, Bisphenol-A Toxicity, and Obesity
This topic contains 40 study abstracts on Bisphenol A indicating it may contribute to Prenatal Chemical Exposures, Bisphenol-A Toxicity, and Obesity
Cleaning products are released to the environment during normal use through evaporation of volatile components and rinsing down the drain of residual product from cleaned surfaces, sponges, etc. Janitorial staff and others who perform cleaning can be exposed to concentrated cleaning products. However, proper training and use of a chemical management system (a set of formal procedures to ensure proper storage, handling and use) can greatly minimize or prevent exposure to concentrated cleaning product during handling and use.. Certain ingredients in cleaning products can present hazard concerns to exposed populations (such as skin and eye irritation in workers) or toxicity to aquatic species in waters receiving inadequately treated wastes. (Standard sewage treatment effectively reduces or removes most cleaning product constituents). For example, alkylphenol ethoxylates, a common surfactant ingredient in cleaners, have been shown in laboratory studies to function as an "endocrine disrupter," ...
New research presents another cause for concern in regard to the chemical bisphenol A (BPA). The study is the first to examine what impact BPA has on the DNA of mammary glands as they age.
2,5-Dimethylfuran (DMF) and phenol are considered as one of the new-fashioned liquid transportation biofuels and a key motif for industrial chemicals, respectively. Herein, a highly efficient vapor-phase dehydrogenation-hydrogenation coupling process over bimetallic Ni-Cu alloy nanocatalysts was established for the
Bisphenol A is an endocrine disrupting chemicals that can give someone with mild PMS a really bad case of PMS. When toxicity of Bisphenol A builds in the body, hormones throughout the body are effected.
The ACQUITY UPLC Bisphenol A Method Kit is fully compliant with ASTM Method D7574-09. As described in this method, the ACQUITY solution provides optimum resolution and sensitivity for the analysis of Bisphenol A in water.
Bisphenols are prepared by a) reacting a phenolic compound with a carbonyl compound in a reaction mixture, containing the carbonyl compound, a stoichiometric excess of the phenolic compound and a cata
86 per cent of teenagers have traces of Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical compound used to make plastics, in their body, an Engaged Research public engagement project in collaboration with the University of Exeter has found.
The TriRNA Pure Kit is a spin column system for purification of high-quality total RNA from a variety of samples. Initially, samples are homogenized in TRIzol® Reagent, GENEzol™ Reagent or other phenol, guanidine isothiocyanate reagents. Chloroform phase separation or isopropanol RNA precipitation is not required.
The TriRNA Pure Kit is a spin column system for purification of high-quality total RNA from a variety of samples. Initially, samples are homogenized in TRIzol® Reagent, GENEzol™ Reagent or other phenol, guanidine isothiocyanate reagents. Chloroform phase separation or isopropanol RNA precipitation is not required.
Exposure to bisphenol A may reduce the effectiveness of chemotherapy treatments by inducing a group of proteins that protect cancer cells from the toxic effects of chemotherapy.
The Global Bisphenol Sulfone Market 2017 report gives a detailed overview of the key segments in market & The key emerging opportunities of the fastest growing market segments.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 4,4-(2,3-diisocyano-1,3-butadiene-1,4-diyl)bisphenol (C18H14N2O2) from the PQR.
[169 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2017-2022 Global Top Countries Hydrogenated Bisphenol A Market Report report by LP Information INC. ...
Mounting evidence against a chemical we are exposed to daily is being ignored. What more do regulators need, ask David Melzer and Tamara Galloway
BACKGROUND: Few human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in men, and results are divergent. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between urinary BPA concentration and reproductive hormones, as well as semen quality, in young men from the general population. METHODS: Our study population consisted of 308 young men from the general population. Urinary BPA concentration was measured by isotope dilution TurboFlow-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analysis to estimate associations between BPA concentration and reproductive hormones and semen quality, adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: We found that 98% of the men had detectable urinary levels of BPA. Median (5th-95th percentiles) BPA concentration was 3.25 ng/mL (0.59-14.89 ng/mL). Men with BPA concentrations above the lowest quartile had higher concentrations of serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and ...
In the current study, all infants had detectable urinary concentrations of total BPA, ranging from 2.0 to 196 µg/L. The median urinary BPA concentration in this group of premature infants was considerably higher (17.2 μg/L) than in healthy term infants aged 1 to 5 months (,0.45 μg/L) without known BPA exposure.21 Although immaturity of phase II metabolism may account for some of the association of urinary BPA concentrations with prematurity, premature infants have the ability to conjugate BPA.16 Interestingly, medical devices, but not nutritional intake, were positively associated with urinary BPA concentrations. On average, premature infants requiring ≥4 medical devices had urinary total BPA concentrations 1.6 times higher than those requiring fewer devices independent of their gestational age, gender, or nutritional intake. Respiratory devices were associated with higher urinary BPA concentrations than other devices. These findings suggest that medical devices were an important source of ...
Gestational urinary BPA concentrations were associated with some neurobehavioral measures at 3 years of age in this cohort. In particular, gestational BPA exposure was associated with higher scores for measures of anxiety, hyperactivity, emotional control, and behavioral inhibition. Similar to our previous findings, the effects of gestational BPA exposure on these behavioral domains were larger among girls than boys.2 The different responses to gestational BPA exposure were especially pronounced for hyperactivity; girls exhibited increases in hyperactivity, and boys exhibited decreases in hyperactivity. In contrast, childhood urinary BPA concentrations were less important predictors of behavior or executive functions in this study.. The findings presented are consistent with numerous studies demonstrating altered neurobehavior among BPA-exposed animals.14,38 Gestational BPA exposures might affect endocrine or other neurotransmitter pathways and disrupt sexual differentiation of the brain, to ...
NIEHS Grant P30ES000002. A study, supported in part by the NIEHS, identified medical devices as a potential source of exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) among premature infants in neonatal intensive care units. BPA is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics, which are used in medical devices such as intravenous administration sets, syringes, and catheters. The researchers looked at the urinary BPA concentration for 55 infants and categorized each infants medical device use as low or high based on the number and invasiveness of devices. They found that the median urinary total BPA concentration of infants who had required four or more medical devices for three previous days was significantly higher, 36.6 micrograms per liter (µg/l), than for the infants requiring three or less devices, who had a BPA concentration of 13.9 µg/l. The researchers also collected and analyzed breast milk or formula samples, and found that the increased BPA concentration was not associated with the infants nutritional ...
ALBERTO, María R.; MANCA DE NADRA, María C. and ARENA, Mario E.. Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium. Braz. J. Microbiol. [online]. 2012, vol.43, n.1, pp.167-176. ISSN 1517-8382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822012000100018.. The influence of seven phenolic compounds, normally present in wine, on the growth and arginine deiminase system (ADI) of Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, a wine lactic acid bacterium, was established. This system provides energy for bacterial growth and produces citrulline that reacts with ethanol forming the carcinogen ethyl carbamate (EC), found in some wines. The influence of phenolic compounds on bacterial growth was compound dependent. Growth and final pH values increased in presence of arginine. Arginine consumption decreased in presence of protocatechuic and gallic acids (31 and 17%, respectively) and increased in presence of quercetin, rutin, catechin and the caffeic and vanillic phenolic ...
Background Bisphenol A is widely used in food and drinks packaging. There is evidence of associations between raised urinary bisphenol A (uBPA) and increased incidence of reported cardiovascular diagnoses. Methodology/Principal Findings To estimate associations between BPA exposure and angiographically graded coronary atherosclerosis. 591 patients participating in The Metabonomics and Genomics in Coronary Artery Disease (MaGiCAD) study in Cambridgeshire UK, comparing urinary BPA (uBPA) with grades of severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) on angiography. Linear models were adjusted for BMI, occupational social class and diabetes status. Severe (one to three vessel) CAD was present in 385 patients, 86 had intermediate disease (n = 86) and 120 had normal coronary arteries. The (unadjusted) median uBPA concentration was 1.28 ng/mL with normal coronary arteries, and 1.53 ng/mL with severe CAD. Compared to those with normal coronary arteries, uBPA concentration was significantly higher in those with
It is in your food containers, water bottles, and 90 percent of us have it in our bloodstream. It may also be a prime candidate for causing wheezing in children if pregnant mothers come into contact with it. Experimental research in bisphenol A, (BPA) suggests that prenatal BPA exposure causes asthma in mice. No firm data yet exists for humans but results are not looking good.. Adam Spanier, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of pediatrics at Penn State College of Medicine, studied 367 children, 99 percent of whom were born to mothers who had detectable BPA levels during pregnancy. Twice a year for three years, the parents reported back with any signs of wheezing in the children. At six months of age, twice as many children were reported with wheezing from mothers who had higher BPA than those who had mothers with lower BPA levels. These effects may have diminished as the children aged however.. Researchers then looked at the levels of BPA in the women during certain times of their pregnancies and ...
Early buyers will receive 10% customization on reports.. This growth is driven by rising demand from Asia-Pacific region due to highly industrialized countries, such as China. Phenol derivatives are preferred for the production of polycarbonates, epoxy resins, bakelite, and nylon.. Bisphenol -A: The most-widely used derivative of phenol derivatives. Bisphenol-A is a phenol derivative commonly used for producing polycarbonates and epoxy resins. The bisphenol-A is the most-widely used derivative of phenol. Polycarbonate finds application in food and drink packaging such as water & baby bottles, compact discs, impact-resistant safety equipment, and medical devices. Further, epoxy resins used to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes. BPA is also be found in certain thermal paper products, including cash register and ATM receipts.. Asia-Pacific: The largest market for phenol derivatives. The Asia-Pacific region is the largest market in the global phenol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of cyclodextrin-solubilized flavonoids, resveratrol and astaxanthin as measured with the ORAC-EPR method. AU - Sueishi, Yoshimi. AU - Ishikawa, Misa. AU - Yoshioka, Daisuke. AU - Endoh, Nobuyuki. AU - Oowada, Shigeru. AU - Shimmei, Masashi. AU - Fujii, Hirotada. AU - Kotake, Yashige. PY - 2012/3. Y1 - 2012/3. N2 - Recently, we proposed an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method that directly quantifies the antioxidants scavenging capacity against free radicals and evaluated the radical scavenging abilities for water soluble antioxidant compounds. In this study, we determined the radical scavenging abilities of lipophilic antioxidants which were solubilized by cyclodextrin in water. Commonly employed fluorescence-based method measures the antioxidants protection capability for the fluorescent probe, while we directly quantify free-radical level using electron para- magnetic resonance spin trapping technique. In addition, the spin ...
NIEHS Grants: R01ES016541, P01ES022844, P30ES017885, R01ES017005, R01ES017005, R01ES016001, R01ES017524. NIEHS grantees report that exposure to the endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy can cause oxidative damage that may increase a childs risk of developing diabetes or heart disease later in life. The researchers tested multiple species of animals to replicate and strengthen human studies that showed BPA exposure during pregnancy can bring about a specific type of oxidative stress.. Oxidative stress is associated with insulin resistance and inflammation, which are risk factors for diabetes and other metabolic disorders as well as cardiovascular disease. For the human study, the researchers analyzed blood samples from 24 mother and infant pairs. The women were divided into two groups based on their levels of BPA determined from blood draws taken during their first trimester of pregnancy. Mothers and their infants with higher levels of BPA showed increased levels of ...
Bakuchiol con fórmula química C18H24O, es un meroterpeno (un compuesto químico que tiene una estructura parcial de terpenoides) en la clase terpenophenol. Se encuentra en Psoralea corylifolia[2]​[3]​[4]​ y en Otholobium pubescens.[5]​ Un estudio en ratas sugiere que los extractos bakuchiol y etanol de la planta medicinal china Psoralea corylifolia podrían proteger contra la pérdida ósea.[6]​ Bakuchiol aislado de P. corylifolia ha mostrado actividad frente a numerosos patógenos orales grampositivos y gramnegativos. Fue capaz de inhibir el crecimiento de Streptococcus mutans en virtud de un rango de concentraciones de sacarosa, valores de pH y en presencia de ácidos orgánicos en una manera dependiente de la temperatura y también inhibió el crecimiento de células adheridas a una superficie de vidrio.[7]​ Número CAS Biosynthesis of bakuchiol, a meroterpene from Psoralea corylifolia. Asok Banerji and Chintalwar G. J., Phytochemistry, 1983, vol. 22, no9, pp. 1945-1947, ...
INTRODUCTION. Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are anthropogenic compounds which are often referred to as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) because they have been reported to interact with oestrogen receptors (Stehmann and Schröder, 2004). Studies have shown that APE metabolites are more toxic than their parent compounds, are persistent, and accumulate in fatty tissues (Ying et al., 2002; Petrovic et al., 2003; Gatidou et al., 2007; Sibali et al., 2010). Despite their benefits for reducing fire-related injury and property damage, concern about BFRs is growing because of their occurrence and persistence, and they have been detected in the environment, biota and humans (Alaee et al., 2001; Hyötyläinen and Hartonen, 2002; Polder et al., 2008; Vetter et al., 2008; Yu et al., 2008; Odusanya et al., 2009; Segev et al., 2009; Olukunle et al., 2012).. Determination of low volatility polar compounds such as phenolic analytes has been achieved by indirect ...
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Possible link between high prenatal BPA levels and neonatal neurobehavioral abnormalities; study advises pregnant women to reduce exposure levels. A new case study examining an infants neurobehavioral abnormalities and extremely high bisphenol A (BPA) concentration of the babys mother suggests a link between the two. The study, Environmental Health Perspectives: A Case Study of High Prenatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Infant Neonatal Neurobehavior, was led by researcher Sheela Sathyanarayana, MD of Seattle Childrens Research Institute, and recently published online in Environmental Health Perspectives.. BPA, a synthetic, man-made chemical, is used in a wide variety of products including: can linings; hard polycarbonate plastics such as baby bottles and reusable cups; and dental sealants. Food may be the single largest source of BPA exposure due to contamination of foods during preparation and processing. BPA has estrogenic (hormone-like) properties. In animal studies, exposure to BPA early in ...
Arnold J. Schecter and colleagues note that BPA is used in lining metal cans and in polycarbonate plastics such as baby bottles, although some manufacturers are switching to BPA-free products. "In humans, BPA is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and male sexual dysfunction in exposed workers," they state. "Food is a major exposure source. We know of no studies reporting BPA in U.S. fresh food, canned food, and food in plastic packaging in peer reviewed journals." To fill that gap in scientific knowledge, the scientists measured BPA levels in 105 human, cat, and dog foods. They detected BPA in 63 of 105 human food samples from grocery stores in Dallas, and present a detailed list of foods, brands, and BPA levels in the text of the study. The levels were lower than the 50 micrograms per kilogram of body weight standard used by EPA and EFSA and comparable to levels detected in the past. Schecter noted that some studies have shown adverse effects associated with exposure to BPA at ...
If youre going through fertility treatments you may want to limit your BPA exposure. A Harvard study links BPA exposure to lower IVF success rates.
Phenol is an important chemical in biological research. It is used primarily for isolation and purification of DNA and RNA. Pure phenol is solid at room temperature. Almost all biochemical uses of phenol use a water saturated phenol solution, or a mixture of phenol in chloroform. The purity and pH of phenol solutions used in biochemical work is very important. Oxidized phenol can result in DNA damage, and cannot be used. The pH of phenol solutions dramatically changes the solubility of DNA. Phenol is effective at denaturing and precipitating most proteins, and is an effective means of purifying DNA or RNA from protein contaminants. Water saturated phenol is typically shipped and stored with an upper layer of buffer, containing Tris-HCl at the appropriate pH. It is important to pipet from the lower layer, which is the layer containing phenol. Phenol chloroform solutions are stored similarly. Phenol is sometimes stored with an antioxidant to preserve its quality. It should be stored refrigerated ...
Phenol is an important chemical in biological research. It is used primarily for isolation and purification of DNA and RNA. Pure phenol is solid at room temperature. Almost all biochemical uses of phenol use a water saturated phenol solution, or a mixture of phenol in chloroform. The purity and pH of phenol solutions used in biochemical work is very important. Oxidized phenol can result in DNA damage, and cannot be used. The pH of phenol solutions dramatically changes the solubility of DNA. Phenol is effective at denaturing and precipitating most proteins, and is an effective means of purifying DNA or RNA from protein contaminants. Water saturated phenol is typically shipped and stored with an upper layer of buffer, containing Tris-HCl at the appropriate pH. It is important to pipet from the lower layer, which is the layer containing phenol. Phenol chloroform solutions are stored similarly. Phenol is sometimes stored with an antioxidant to preserve its quality. It should be stored refrigerated ...
The amounts of total polyphenol and flavonoids in the Korean EEP samples ranged from 49 to 239 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g EEP (Brazilian, Chinese, and Australian samples, 127-142 mg GAE/g EEP) and from 21 to 50 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g EEP (Brazilian, Chinese, and Australian samples, 33-53 mg QE/g EEP), respectively. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that total polyphenol contents may be negatively correlated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (r = -0.872) and total flavonoid content has no correlation with the activity (r = 0.071). No direct correlation between BACE-1 inhibition, AChE inhibition, or antiproliferative activity and total polyphenol or total flavonoid content in Korean EEP samples was found. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were observed to have different degrees of antimicrobial susceptibility to the EEP samples examined, although ciprofloxacin susceptibility among the bacterial groups did not differ greatly ...
MSNBC is reporting on a new study that found eating canned food every day may raise the levels of the compound bisphenol A (BPA) in a persons urine more than previously suspected, a new study suggests.. The study found people who ate a serving of canned soup every day for five days showed higher levels of BPA in their systems than those who ate no soup. The participants who ate soup during the five day test had BPA levels of 20.8 micrograms per liter of urine, whereas people who instead ate fresh soup had levels of 1.1 micrograms per liter, according to the study.. Food Court previously reported on BPA findings in popular childrens soups. In that case, and here, BPA is found in many canned foods - it is a byproduct of the chemicals used to prevent corrosion.. When the researchers looked at the rise in BPA levels seen in the average participant who ate canned soup compared with those who ate fresh soup, they found a 1,221 percent jump.. The FDA does not currently regulate BPA levels and is ...
An ongoing debate about the health impacts of bisphenol A (BPA), the ubiquitous chemical used in production of polycarbonate - that hard clear plastic we use for eating, drinking, and storing food - continues, according to a recent article by Janet Raloff published in the September 29 issue of Science News. Her analysis provides good insight into why we often hear conflicting reports when it comes to environmental and health impacts of chemicals.. Raloff reports on the conflicting results of two different panels recruited by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and charged with reviewing and evaluating the potential developmental and reproductive impacts of BPA. While one panel "labeled as confident its assessment that BPA at low doses has had negative effects on experimental animals," and that such findings were suggestive of impacts in humans, the other panel "concluded that current BPA exposures appear to pose little risk to humans.". According to Raloff, one of the differences cited in ...
Several activated carbons (ACs) were used as metal-free catalysts for degradation of a toxic organiccompound, phenol, in the presence of different oxidants, H2O2, peroxydisulfate (PS) and peroxymonosulfate (PMS). It was found that ACs were effective in heterogeneous activation of PMS toproduce sulfate radicals for degradation of phenol, much better than H2O2 and PS. Particle size of AC significantly influenced AC activity, and powder AC was much more effective than granular AC. The complete phenol removal could be achieved in 15 min on powder activated carbon (PAC) under the conditions of [phenol] = 25 mg L-1, [PAC] = 0.2 g L-1, [PMS] = 6.5 mmol L-1, and T = 25 degrees Celcius. It was also found that phenol degradation was significantly influenced by PMS loading, catalyst loading, phenol concentration and temperature. Surface activation of PMS and phenol adsorption played important roles in phenol degradation. Surface coverage by intermediate adsorption and structural change induced deactivation ...
Introduction. 1. Give an account of the properties and uses of phenol. (1) Phenol is acidic and its conjugate base, phenoxide ion is stabilized by resonance. However, phenol is not acidic enough to liberate CO2 from phenol because an aqueous solution of carbon dioxide is a stronger acid than phenol. An aqueous solution of phenol has a pH value of 9. This means phenol reacts with NaOH but not NaHCO3. Phenol dissolves in NaOH(aq) to form sodium phenoxide, an ionic salt. (2) Phenol is corrosive and is a useful antiseptic. (3) Phenol is a colorless solid of low melting point. Its pink appearance is due to the presence of impurities. (4) When attached to a benzene ring, a hydroxyl group does not show the properties of an alcohol. The delocalization of electrons into the ring makes the -OH group inert towards replacement. On the other hand, the -OH group activates the ring toward electrophilic substitution at the ortho- and para-positions. Therefore, phenol reacts with (a) NO2+, (b) CH3+, (c) CH3CO+, ...
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BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to produce polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are widely used in everyday products, such as food and beverage containers, toys and medical devices. Human biomonitoring studies have suggested that a large proportion of the population may be exposed to BPA. Recent epidemiological studies have reported correlations between increased BPA urinary concentrations and cardiovascular disease; yet the direct effects of BPA on the heart are unknown. OBJECTIVES: The goal of our studies was to measure BPAs effect (0.1-100 μM) on cardiac impulse propagation ex vivo, using excised whole hearts from adult rats. METHODS: We measured atrial and ventricular activation times during sinus and paced rhythms using epicardial electrodes and optical mapping of transmembrane potential. Atrioventricular activation intervals and epicardial conduction velocities were computed using recorded activation times. RESULTS: Cardiac BPA exposure resulted in prolonged PR segment and
The study conducted by researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) found that a group of volunteers who consumed a serving of canned soup each day for five days had a more than 1,000 percent increase in urinary bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations compared with when the same individuals consumed fresh soup daily for five days ...
The list of adverse health effects from BPA exposure continues to grow. Bisphenol A, or BPA, is commonly used to line food and beverage cans, and helps to keep plastics flexible, but studies suggest the compound can leach into the foods we eat.
The list of adverse health effects from BPA exposure continues to grow. Bisphenol A, or BPA, is commonly used to line food and beverage cans, and helps to keep plastics flexible, but studies suggest the compound can leach into the foods we eat.
The University of Melbourne study, headed by Dr Mark Green from the Faculty of Science, looked at the impact of environmentally relevant levels of BPA on bovine embryos during early days post-fertilisation. It found BPA exposure over just four days significantly decreased the percentage of embryos developing further in vitro. Exposure within the first week of pregnancy also notably led to a substantial rise in the consumption of glucose - the embryos main food source.
Phenol is one of toxic pollutants in many kinds of hypersaline industrial effluents which should be treated properly before discharged into water bodies. In this work, a halophilic strain which could utilize phenol as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated. Based on 16S rRNA results, it was identified as a member of Citrobacter. The phenol biodegradation ability and cell growth of the strain was evaluated with the variation of initial phenol concentration and salinity. The effect of temperature and pH on phenol removal was also investigated. The results showed that the strain was capable of withstanding high phenol (up to 1,100 mg L−1) environment with varying salinity conditions (0-10% of NaCl). The optimal initial phenol concentration was 400 mg L−1, with which the average removal rates of phenol peaked at 10.8 mg L−1 h−1. The higher initial concentration of phenol could inhibit the microbial metabolism. The optimal temperature, pH and salinity were 35 °C, 6.0, and 0%, ...
A process to decontaminate soil containing a chlorinated phenol compound. Water is added to the soil to produce a solution of the chlorinated phenol compound containing at most about 2% by weight of the compound. Ozone is then passed through the solution to decompose the chlorinated phenol compound. The invention is of particular application in decontaminating soil containing chlorophenols, dibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans.
Data & statistics on Bisphenol India: Dilution table for bisphenol A and bisphenol F., Properties of two types of polycarbonates, that is, Bisphenol A polycarbonate (BPAPC) and Poly(diethylene glycol di(allyl carbonate)) (PDEGDAC) [2]., Gharravi AM, et al: Altered pituitary hormone in male rats exposed to Bisphenol A...
Our research has shown that the polyphenols found in fruits and vegetables are broken down by bacteria in the colon. Our studies in the lab have shown that these simpler products influence the microorganisms in the digestive system to support optimum gut health.". She said the next step was to check this was also the case in the gut environment, highlighting that if the teams studies were proven correct, it may be possible to extract plant polyphenols for use as ingredients in functional foods that promote gut health.. A French study in 2006 found strawberries, litchis and grapes contained the highest polyphenol content with more than 180mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per 100g of fresh edible portion (FEP). For vegetables, artichokes, parsley and brussel sprouts had the highest levels of more than 250mg GAE per 100g FEP.. Acting as antioxidants, polyphenols can be broken down into four subgroups - phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes and lignans.. Photo: ...
The researchers recruited physically active men with an average age of 31 and randomly assigned them to receive 500 mg of polyphenols or placebo at two separate testing sessions.. The results showed that, compared to placebo, the time to exhaustion mean increased significantly by 9.7%, while the fatigue barrier was reached 12.8% later with polyphenols.. Commenting on the potential mechanism of action, the study authors noted that the polyphenols may be beneficially impacting endurance through an action on nitric oxide (NO), which is a potent vasodilator that improves blood flow.. "Additionally, polyphenols such as green tea or grape have been associated to improved endothelial function," ​they wrote. "Based on in vivo and ex vivo preclinical unpublished observations with ViNitrox, we could speculate that performance benefits might be due to the modulation of NO-dependent vasodilation with NO synthesis increase and protection."​. Guillemet confirmed that Nexira is planning additional studies ...
New research led by researchers at North Carolina State University shows that exposure to the chemical bisphenol A (BPA) early in life results in high levels of anxiety by causing significant gene expression changes in a specific region of the brain called the amygdala. The researchers also found that a soy-rich diet can mitigate these effects.. "We knew that BPA could cause anxiety in a variety of species, and wanted to begin to understand why and how that happens," says Dr. Heather Patisaul, an associate professor of biology at NC State and lead author of a paper describing the work. BPA is a chemical used in a wide variety of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, and is used in consumer products such as some food containers.. In the study, rats were exposed to low doses of BPA during gestation, lactation (nursing) and through puberty. One group of animals was fed only soy; one group was fed a soy-free diet; one group was fed only soy and exposed to BPA; and one group was fed no soy and ...
Research has called into question the role of plant polyphenols in cardiovascular health, by finding that their supposed anti-platelet activities are only relevant at high, and physiologically unattainable, concentrations.
Adults with high urinary levels of the polycarbonate plastic chemical bisphenol A may be more likely to report heart disease and diabetes, new research shows.
Exposure to the endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A during pregnancy can cause oxidative damage that may put the baby at risk of developing diabetes or heart disease later in life, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Societys journal Endocrinology.
Cytokines play a critical role in pregnancy, particularly in the early stages during blastocyst implantation and placental development (Chaouat et al. 2007; Moffett and Loke 2006; Paria et al. 2002; Saito 2001; Schäfer-Somi 2003). Therefore, it is extremely useful to study cytokines secreted by the placenta in the first trimester of pregnancy, as well as potential interfering factors.. Using an in vitro model of chorionic villous explants, we showed here that p-NP, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant with estrogenic activity, interfered with first-trimester human placenta cytokine secretion. In particular, we assayed a set of 10 cytokines (GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α) in the culture medium of chorionic villous explants exposed to p-NP or only to vehicle (control). The findings revealed an increase of GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-10, with a maximum activity at 109 M p-NP for GM-CSF and 1011 M p-NP for the other cytokines, with a significant ...
2,4-Di-tert-butyl-6-(tert-butylamino)phenol | C18H31NO | CID 534770 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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gave the highest values of flavonoid (741.36mg/NGN/g DW and 220.53mg/NGN/g DW), phenolic acid (42.71mg/GAE/g DW and 22.03mg/GAE/g DW) and polyphenols (39.38mg/GAE/g DW and 38.01mg/GAE/g DW) respectively. Significant and positive linear correlations were found between Total antioxidant capacity and Phenolic compounds (R = 0.65 - 0.96 ...
Most of us are aware that there are lots of dangerous materials like additives, dyes, pesticides and carcinogens in our foods. What many of us are not aware of is that in the containers that our foods come in, especially take out, there are chemicals in the materials that may be even more harmful than the additives, dyes and pesticides.. By now you have probably heard of the dangers of the toxic chemical Bisphenol A (BPA). This chemical can be found in polycarbonate plastic food containers, bottles and takeout food containers. Numerous articles have been written on breast cancer and prostate cancer that result from exposure to the BPA contained in packaging and containers that carry food stuffs.. Recent, important environmental health study findings were published in March in the online journal Environmental Health Perspectives. A study was conducted by two organizations concerned with the environmental causes of breast cancer, the Breast Cancer Fund and Silent Spring Institute. The study was on ...
Phenols are among the highest-volume chemicals in production [ 3]. International organizations such as Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) [ 1] have documented phenol toxicity and recommend the monitoring of phenol exposure for groups at risk. The toxicity includes CNS depression and other symptoms such as skin burns, nausea, profuse sweating [ 1]. In exposure- and risk- evaluation, the monitoring of phenol by peripheral biomarker has several advantages over technical assessment of exposure. The urine methyl hippuric level is an acceptable peripheral biomarker for phenol exposure [ 1]. It was concluded that the phenol can be used for crude phenol exposure categorizations. Phenol is an important contamination in traffic fume [ 3]. High phenol exposure among the population living in the urban area of big city can be expected. Here, the author studied the urine phenol level among healthy subjects in urban area in Bangkok. We recommend that annual check up and monitoring for ...
* found in: Phenol:Chloroform(pH6.7/8.0), Phenol:Chloroform 5:1 (pH4.5), Phenol S/P Buffer-Saturtd, Phenol:Chloroform Low pH, Phenol, Crystalline, Phenol..
Canadian Health Minister Tony Clement (pictured left) announced yesterday that Bisphenol A would be listed as a toxic substance and banned the use of polycarbonate plastic baby bottles. His Ministry will also tell baby food manufacturers to get it out of
Article Removal of phenol from saline water by polyamine chelating resin. Removal of phenol from saline water was carried out with chelating resin. A polyamine chelating resin, Diaion CR-20, removed phenol compounds selectively from industrial wastew...
Abstract The ORAC-fluorescein (ORAC-FL) method recently validated using automatic liquid handling systems has now been adapted to manual handling and using a conventional fluoresce..
There are strong indications that (combinations of) polyphenols may be attractive candidates in the prevention of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes through modulation of pathways of fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial function. We hypothesize that the combination of specific polyphenols, with partly distinct mechanisms of action, may have physiologically significant effects on fat oxidation through additive or synergistic effects, thereby improving body composition, insulin sensitivity and preventing type 2 diabetes. The following objective will be addressed in the current study:. (1) to test short term (3 day) effects of combinations of polyphenols (supplements of EGCG either in combination with resveratrol or with resveratrol and genistein) to affect systemic lipolysis and fat oxidation during overnight fasted conditions and after ingestion of a high fat meal in overweight subjects ...
Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria. A biosensor can be created by placing a reporter gene under control of an inducible promoter. The reporter gene produces a signal when a cognate transcriptional activator senses the inducing chemical. Creation of bacterial biosensors is currently restricted by limited knowledge of the genetic systems of bacteria that catabolize xenobiotics. By using mutagenic PCR to change the chemical specificity of the Pseudomonas species CF600 DmpR protein, the potential for engineering novel biosensors for detection of phenols has been demonstrated. DmpR, a well-characterized transcriptional activator of the P. CF600s dmp operon mediates growth on simple phenols. Transcription from Po, the promoter heading the dmp operon, is activated when the sensor domain of DmpR interacts with phenol and mono-substituted phenols. By altering the sensor domain of the DmpR, a group of DmpR derivatives that activate transcription of a Po-lacZ fusion in response to eight of the EPAs
To account for the observed anticancer properties of plant polyphenols, we have earlier proposed a mechanism which involves the mobilization of endogenous copper ions by polyphenols leading to the gen
Octylphenol (OP) and nonylphenol (NP) are known to be endocrine disrupting agents and found as degradation products of industrial detergents, OP- and NP-polyethoxylates, in the natural environment. Previously, a bacterium (YTT) able to degrade OP and NP was isolated from a river sediment sample and identified as a novel species, Sphingobium amiense, in the class Alphaproteobacteria. In this study, we analyzed the whole genome sequence of strain YTT to characterize the OP degradation gene. Genomic DNA of the strain YTT sequenced by the whole-genome sequencing method with MiSeq and annotated using the BLASTP program. The total assembled genome was 4,565 kbp, for which 4,445 coding sequences were predicted. Prior to the genomic study, the mass spectrometry analysis revealed that octylhydroquinone and hydroquinone (HQ) were the intermediates of 4-tert-OP degradation by strain YTT . From the genomic analysis, the strain was found to possess the gene encoding octylphenol 4-monooxygenase, catalyzing ...
Coating the mouth with BPA-containing food, like soup, does not lead to higher than expected levels of BPA in blood, a new study in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology shows. The study authors conclude that oral exposure does not create a risk for high exposures of BPA, also known as bisphenol A.
Phenol is moderately soluble in water - about 8 g of phenol will dissolve in 100 g of water. If you try to dissolve more than this, you get two layers of liquid. The top layer is a solution of phenol in water, and the bottom one a solution of water in phenol. Phenol is somewhat soluble in water because of its ability to form hydrogen bonds with the water.. ...
If youve been paying any attention to the headlines lately, then youve probably heard the uproar about bisphenal A (BPA). If youre worried about BPA showing up in in unlikely places, like your canned chicken noodle soup, for instance, then youre not the only one.. When I first heard about the dangers of BPA it seemed as if it was limited to baby bottles and water bottles, Nalgene bottles in particular. So I ditched my Nalgene and went with a stainless steel bottle. I thought that was the end of the story.. But, BPA is in a lot of the things we use everyday. And, thats disturbing to me. So, Im putting on my Sherlock hat and going investigating.. What Is BPA?. Bisphenal A is a chemical compound that was originally discovered in 1891. It was shelved in favor of other chemicals at the time, but revived many years later when a polymer chemist discovered it could be used to form polycarbonate plastic.. The bad news is that the ester bonds that link the BPA monomers together are not very stable. ...
Increased intakes of polyphenols may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by an impressive 46%, according to the results of the international PREDIMED (Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea) study.
Comparison of the total phenol content and the antioxidant activities of three cultivars of Opuntiaficus-indica (L.) Mill. have been evaluated. The results showed that total phenolic compounds were abundant
Exposure to hormone disrupting chemicals such as BPA, or bisphenol A, can be reduced significantly by eating fewer foods packaged in metal cans or plastic, according to a new report from the Breast Cancer Fund and the Silent Spring Institute.
Last year, FDA disappointed us by insisting that there was no cause for concern about the presence of the chemical bisphenol A in food and beverage containers. An expert panel charged with evaluating the FDAs draft assessment strongly criticized the agency for its severely limited exposure assessment and the criteria it used to assess BPA studies. Then, Suzanne Rust and Meg Kissinger of the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (whove won multiple awards for their coverage of BPA and other chemicals) reported that FDAs report "was written largely by the plastics industry and others with a financial stake in the controversial chemical.". Yesterday, the agency finally announced that its reviewing new studies about BPA and will let us know by the end of November whether its safe to use the chemical in food and beverage containers. Meg Kissinger has the story, and you can check out the Journal Sentinels "Chemical Fallout" series for more background.. ...
Children and adolescents with higher concentrations of urinary bisphenol A (BPA), a manufactured chemical found in consumer products, had significantly increased odds of being obese, a study has found. Leonardo Trasande, M.D., M.P.P., of the NYU
Emerging research reveals that the ubiquitous polycarbonate plastics chemical, bisphenol A (BPA), has adverse effects in expectant mothers.. According to the new UC Berkeley study, BPA appears to change thyroid hormones, which are critical to healthy growth, said SFGate. The change was evident in both pregnant women and newborn baby boys, said the researchers.. As weve long explained, BPAs links to reproductive system diseases are staggering and span to fetal development, likely due to its hormone-mimicking and -blocking properties. Issues include effects on uterine health and mammalian reproduction; a deadly uterine infection; premature puberty; Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and other female fertility and endocrine issues; and erectile dysfunction and male sexual problems. Significantly, BPAs effects have been found to be immediate, long lasting, and trans-generational, meaning effects could carry years into the future. Despite all this, the FDA said the information on BPA does not ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. Intense Research has been recently published a fresh research report- Global 2-Methoxy-5-nitro Phenol (CAS 636-93-1) Market - By - Manufacturers, States, Type and Application, Forecast to 2021 - By - Manufacturers, States, Type and Application, Forecast to 2021. This added to the companys collection of research reports. This report offers a deep examination of the 2-Methoxy-5-nitro Phenol (CAS 636-93-1) market for the period 2013-2023. As per the report, the 2-Methoxy-5-nitro Phenol (CAS 636-93-1) market is estimated to grow at elevated CAGR recorded in 2017. The towering competitive 2-Methoxy-5-nitro Phenol (CAS 636-93-1) market has been observing huge and whooping investments in development and research from government as well as private firms.. This report divides the market on the basis of regions, manufacturers, application, and type. It also showcases the growing factors, reasons for decline in the market, ...
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... are highly corrosive and poisonous crystals. The lethal dose for a human is about 15 g but as small quantity as 1 g has caused deaths. Phenol is used in the production of colourants, explosives and detergents.. ...
This research paper studies the development of a sustainable process for the extraction of antioxidants from oat. Experimentation covered two factorials to evaluate significance among temperature, time, particle size and solvent. Total polyphenolic content (TPC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were the response variables. ANOVA was applied to find significance among variables and predict optimum conditions though a regression model. Extractions at different solid/solvent ratios were developed to study solvents solubility. Process simulation in Aspen Process Developer was carried out to evaluate energy cost, raw material cost, campaign time, and process mass intensity. Solvent and particle size showed significance as main effects, whereas temperature and time presented significance as interactions. From an industrial and sustainable perspective, ethanol (EtOH) in a 1/20 (w/v) ratio was the best choice since it presented the lowest cost for energy and raw material. It also showed the lowest
Greenmedinfo.com - Natural Health Resource - The worlds most widely referenced, open access, natural medicine database, with 30,000+ study abstracts and growing daily
EHN.org investigation finds regulatory push to discredit independent evidence of harm while favoring pro-industry science despite significant shortcomings.
Virgin olive oil is slightly more acidic than extra virgin olive oil. Virgin olive oils may not meet the high flavor, aroma, and color standards of extra virgin olive oils, but they can still be very nice quality oils. You can expect to pay less for virgin olive oils. As you might suspect by now, the top rank of olive oil is somewhat subjective. Even among top rated extra virgin olive oils there can be considerable differences - some can have very strong pungent peppery qualities, while others can be very fruity.. Richard Gawel, an internationally known olive oil consultant and olive oil judge describes refined olive oil:. "Pure,light and those simply labelled as olive oil are those which have been refined. Refining is a complex process that involves the use of acids, alkalis, steam and other deodorising agents. The refining process removes all of the aroma and flavour substances out of olive including its natural antioxidants. Artificial antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) ...
7 Benefits of Extra Virgin Olive Oil - Olive oil or commonly known as the olive oil is made from olives. The olive tree grows normally dry areas, such as the region of the Middle East and northern Africa. The olive tree usually grows slowly, has a trunk wrinkled and gray colored slim with form of branches cracked. The growth of the olive tree itself can grow up to 50 meters and can live for 500 years in their natural habitat. Olive oil is obtained by extracting old olives to extract oil out.. Virgin olive oil is a vegetable oil with unsaturated oil content is very high, especially oleik acids and polyphenols. Since ancient times oilve oil is already known by the nickname "liquid gold" which is useful as an external medicine, to address and overcome a variety of disorders of the skin and hair. Extra virgin olive oil can also be consumed because it has a lot of the content of vitamins and minerals that are good for health.. ...
1. Ce este Rhodiola Rosea? 2. Rhodiola Rosea - planta care prefera frigul 3. Cum actioneaza Rhodiola Rosea cand suntem obositi 4. Beneficiile plantei Rhodiola Rosea 5. Cum actioneaza Rhodiola Rosea impotriva Stresului? 6. Cum ajuta Rhodiola Rosea Memoria? 7. Cum Reduce Problemele cardiace Rhodiola Rosea? 8. Rhodiola Rosea ajuta in lupta contra Cancerului? 9. […]. Ce este Rhodiola Rosea, Cum actioneaza Rhodiola Rosea, Cum ajuta Rhodiola Rosea Memoria, educe Problemele cardiace Rhodiola Rosea. ...
Three native Turkish medicinal and aromatic plants (Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis) were investigated to analyze their antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity. Their total antioxidant activity was determined by using a β-carotene bleaching assay and their antimicrobial activity was determined by utilizing an agar disc diffusion assay. Methanol extracts of the three species analyzed showed high antioxidant activity and among them Artemisia absinthum possessed the highest quantity (71.78%). The total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) was shown to be between 6.57 µgGAE/mg dry weight basis (Saponaria officinalis) and 8.86 µgGAE/mg dry weight basis (Artemisia absinthum). There was a positive correlation (R = 0.819) between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity measured in the plant samples. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of the species showed antibacterial activities against a number of
Exported from MasterCook * SALAD OF GOAT CHEESE FRITTERS WITH Recipe By : Serving Size : 4 Preparation Time :0:00 Categories : Amount Measure Ingredient -- Preparation Method -------- ------------ -------------------------------- 4 sm Round zucchini 4 Baby artichokes 4 lg Cherry tomatoes 4 Zucchini flowers For the tomato coulis: 1/2 c Extra virgin olive oil 2 tb White onion 1 t Garlic cloves 1 c Vine-ripened tomatoes Salt to taste Pepper to taste 1 tb Sherry vinegar For the fritters: 1 Log farm fresh goat cheese (8 ounces) 4 tb Mascarpone cheese 1 tb Italian parsley 1 tb Chives Salt to taste White pepper to taste 1 c Panko bread crumbs For the salad: 4 c Mesclun greens 1 tb Sherry vinegar 1 tb Extra virgin olive oil Salt to taste Pepper to taste Preparation of the vegetables: Blanch zucchini and artichoke. Remove middle and stuff with appropriate filling. Peel and hollow tomato and fill zucchini flower. Steam zucchini flower 30 seconds. Chill and reserve. Preparation of the fillings: Zucchini: ...
Antioxidant capacities of 56 selected Chinese medicinal plants were evaluated using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, and their total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The strong correlation between TEAC value and FRAP value suggested that the antioxidants in these plants possess free radical scavenging activity and oxidant reducing power, and the high positive correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content implied that phenolic compounds are a major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these plants. The results showed that Dioscorea bulbifera, Eriobotrya japonica, Tussilago farfara and Ephedra sinica could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants.
The bark of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl. was extracted with methanol and sequentially partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and deionized water. The antioxidant activities of the four extracts were evaluated using the DPPH• and ABTS+• methods. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Butylated hydroxytoluene was used as a positive control in the radical-scavenging activity tests. All the bark extracts showed significant radical-scavenging activity. In the ABTS+• assay, n-butanol extracts exhibited the strongest radical-scavenging activity, followed by ethyl acetate, water, and n-hexane extracts. The greatest total phenolic content was 428.54 mg GAE per gram of dry extract and was detected in the n-butanol extract, followed by the ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts. The antioxidant activities correlate with the amount of phenolics present in these extracts. The ...
Edible macro-fungi are widely consumed as food sources for their flavors and culinary features. In order to explore the potential of macro-fungi as a natural resource of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant properties and polysaccharide contents of 49 edible macro-fungi from China were evaluated systematically. A positive correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content indicated that phenolic compounds could be main contributors of antioxidant capacities of these macro-fungi. Furthermore, many bioactive compounds such as gallic, homogentisic, protocatechuic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were identified and quantified. The macro-fungi species Thelephora ganbajun Zang, Boletus edulis Bull., Volvariella volvacea Sing, Boletus regius Krombh, and Suillus bovinus Kuntze displayed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents, indicating their potential as important dietary sources of natural antioxidants ...

Go to PROTECT Team Members Publish on Phenol, Paraben Relation to Hormonal Changes in Pregnant Women.Go to PROTECT Team Members Publish on Phenol, Paraben Relation to Hormonal Changes in Pregnant Women.

PROTECT Team Members Publish on Phenol, Paraben Relation to Hormonal Changes in Pregnant Women. By Elle Russell , Published: ... Phenols and parabens are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Evidence from animal studies and limited human data suggest ... Researchers twice measured phenol/paraben biomarkers of 106 child-bearing participants during their pregnancies. Exposures to ... Title: Phenols and parabens in relation to reproductive and thyroid hormones in pregnant women ...
more infohttp://www.northeastern.edu/protect/protect-team-members-publish-on-phenol-paraben-relation-to-hormonal-changes-in-pregnant-women/

Quantitative relation of urinary phenol levels to breathzone benzene concentrations: a factory survey. | Occupational &...Quantitative relation of urinary phenol levels to breathzone benzene concentrations: a factory survey. | Occupational &...

The urinary phenol concentrations corresponding to 10 ppm benzene were 47.5 mg/l (as observed), 57.9 mg/g creatinine, or 46.6 ... Both phenol in urine and benzene in activated carbon were analysed with FID gas chromatographs. The urinary concentrations of ... Quantitative relation of urinary phenol levels to breathzone benzene concentrations: a factory survey. ... Quantitative relation of urinary phenol levels to breathzone benzene concentrations: a factory survey. ...
more infohttp://oem.bmj.com/content/43/10/692

Human phenol sulfotransferases hP-PST and hM-PST activate propane 2-nitronate to a genotoxicant : Carcinogenesis - oiHuman phenol sulfotransferases hP-PST and hM-PST activate propane 2-nitronate to a genotoxicant : Carcinogenesis - oi

... the phenol-sulfating and the monoamine-sulfating phenol sulfotransferases (hP-PST and hM-PST) and the human hydroxysteroid ... The results show that the human phenol sulfotransferases P-PST and M-PST are capable of metabolically activating P2N (P-PST ,, ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/carcin/21.2.295

Biological treatment performance of hypersaline wastewaters with high phenols concentration from table olive packaging industry...Biological treatment performance of hypersaline wastewaters with high phenols concentration from table olive packaging industry...

Biological treatment performance of hypersaline wastewaters with high phenols concentration from table olive packaging industry ... Biological treatment performance of hypersaline wastewaters with high phenols concentration from table olive packaging industry ... Biological treatment performance of hypersaline wastewaters with high phenols concentration from table olive packaging industry ... cm-1 together with COD and total phenols concentration values of more than 15 g·L-1 and 1000 mg·L-1, respectively. In order to ...
more infohttps://riunet.upv.es/handle/10251/80317

Naturally occurring phenols - WikipediaNaturally occurring phenols - Wikipedia

Natural sources of phenols on www.britannica.com. Databases[edit]. *Phenol-Explorer (phenol-explorer.eu), a database dedicated ... Phenol extraction[edit]. Phenol extraction is a processing technology used to prepare phenols as raw materials, compounds or ... For the molecule alone, see Phenol.. In biochemistry, naturally occurring phenols refers to phenol functional group that is ... Unfiltered olive oil has the higher levels of phenols, or polar phenols that form a complex phenol-protein complex. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_phenol

PhenolsPhenols

https://www.bafu.admin.ch/content/bafu/en/home/topics/chemicals/glossary-of-pollutants/phenols.html Footer. Federal Office for ...
more infohttps://www.bafu.admin.ch/bafu/en/home/topics/chemicals/glossary-of-pollutants/phenols.html

Phenol - WiktionaryPhenol - Wiktionary

Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Phenol&oldid=46487425" ...
more infohttps://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Phenol

Molecule Gallery - PhenolsMolecule Gallery - Phenols

Phenols. Phenols are organic compounds which contain a hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to a carbon atom in a benzene ring. Their ... Phenol, or hydroxybenzene, is the parent compound of the phenols, consisting of an OH group directly connected to a benzene ... Phenols are named after the parent compound, phenol (hydroxybenzene). When other substituents are present, the carbon bearing ... Phenol is the active ingredient in some treatments for sore throats, and is found in several lozenges and throat sprays. It is ...
more infohttps://www.angelo.edu/faculty/kboudrea/molecule_gallery/06_phenols/00_phenols.htm

Phenol | NIOSH | CDCPhenol | NIOSH | CDC

Exposure to phenol may cause irritation to the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and nervous system. Some symptoms of exposure to ... Phenol (C6H6O or C6H5OH) is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid with a sweet, acrid odor. ... phenol are weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, muscle aches, and pain ... Phenol (C6H6O or C6H5OH) is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid with a sweet, acrid odor. Exposure to phenol may cause ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/phenol/default.html

Phenols - WikipediaPhenols - Wikipedia

Natural sources of phenols on www.britannica.com. DatabasesEdit. *Phenol-Explorer (phenol-explorer.eu), a database dedicated to ... Phenol extractionEdit. Phenol extraction is a processing technology used to prepare phenols as raw materials, compounds or ... Unfiltered olive oil has the higher levels of phenols, or polar phenols that form a complex phenol-protein complex. ... Synthesis of phenolsEdit. Several laboratory methods for the synthesis of phenols:. *by an ester rearrangement in the Fries ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenols

Phenols - Alfa AesarPhenols - Alfa Aesar

Phenols are employed in medicinal products such as ear and nose drops, throat lozenges and mouthwashes. The substituted phenols ... Phenols are also wide-spread in nature. Phenols substituted with bulky groups at ortho- positions, like butylated ... Depending on the number of phenolic units in the molecule, they are classified as simple phenols and polyphenols. Phenols are ... Phenols are employed in the preparation of resins, dyes, explosives, lubricants, and plastics. Phenol and its derivatives are ...
more infohttps://www.alfa.com/en/phenols/

PhenolPhenol

... alcohol; Phenol, molten; Rcra waste number U188; UN 1671; UN 2312; UN 2821; Phenic alcohol; NSC 36808; Campho-Phenique ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C108952&Mask=400

PhenolPhenol

Evans J.C., The vibrational spectra phenol and phenol-OD, Spectrochim. Acta, 1960, 16, 1382-1392. [all data] ... Phenol alcohol; Phenol, molten; Rcra waste number U188; UN 1671; UN 2312; UN 2821; Phenic alcohol; NSC 36808; Campho-Phenique ... Bartmess, J.E.; Scott, J.A.; McIver, R.T., Jr., The gas phase acidity scale from methanol to phenol, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1979, ... Capponi, M.; Gut, I.G.; Hellrung, B.; Persy, G.; Wirz, J., Ketonization equilibria of phenol in aqueous solution, Can. J. Chem. ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?Source=1961GRE2236-2241&Units=CAL&Mask=1A8F

ICSC 0070 -    PHENOLICSC 0070 - PHENOL

The substance and the vapour are corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Corrosive on ingestion. Inhalation of the vapour may cause lung oedema, but only after initial corrosive effects on eyes and/or airways have become manifest. See Notes. The substance may cause effects on the central nervous system, heart and kidneys. This may result in convulsions, coma, cardiac disorders, respiratory failure and collapse. The effects may be delayed. Medical observation is indicated. Exposure could cause death ...
more infohttp://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.display?p_card_id=0070&p_version=2&p_lang=en

ICSC 0070 -    PHENOLICSC 0070 - PHENOL

The substance and the vapour are corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Corrosive on ingestion. Inhalation of the vapour may cause lung oedema, but only after initial corrosive effects on eyes and/or airways have become manifest. See Notes. The substance may cause effects on the central nervous system, heart and kidneys. This may result in convulsions, coma, cardiac disorders, respiratory failure and collapse. The effects may be delayed. Medical observation is indicated. Exposure could cause death ...
more infohttps://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.display?p_card_id=0070&p_version=1&p_lang=en

ATSDR - Chemical Class - Phenols/phenoxy acidsATSDR - Chemical Class - Phenols/phenoxy acids

Phenols/phenoxy acids. Phenols are a group of aromatic chemicals containing one phenyl ring with an attached hydroxyl group. ... Phenols are used to make plastics and as a disinfectant in both household cleaning products and consumer products, such as ...
more infohttps://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxchemicallisting.asp?sysid=40

Oily phenol injectionOily phenol injection

... is used in sclerotherapy to treat piles (haemorrhoids). It is injected into the base of the piles, in ... Oily phenol injection. Oily phenol injection is used in sclerotherapy to treat piles (haemorrhoids). It is injected into the ... Oily phenol injection is used in sclerotherapy to treat piles (haemorrhoids). It is injected into the base of the piles, in ...
more infohttps://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/digestion/a7266/oily-phenol-injection/

ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: PhenolATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Phenol

Skin exposure to high levels of phenol has resulted in liver damage, diarrhea, dark urine, and hemolytic anemia. Phenol has ... Phenol is a manufactured substance found in a number of consumer products. ... normal concentration of phenol in the urine may suggest recent exposure to phenol or to substances that are converted to phenol ... Phenol can remain in water for a week or more.. *Larger or repeated releases of phenol can remain in the air, water, and soil ...
more infohttp://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=147&tid=27

Phenol | SpringerLinkPhenol | SpringerLink

Solano-Burbano GV, et al. Paraplegia posterior to celiac plexus block. About a case. [Spanish]. Revista Mexicana de Anestesiologia 41: 294-296, No. 4, Dec 2018 [Spanish; summarised from a translation] - MexicoGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40278-018-56071-0

Phenol sourcePhenol source

... the End jgraham at bronze.ucs.indiana.edu Fri Oct 29 07:42:55 EST 1993 *Previous message: Phenol source ... Interesting, we distill enough phenol for over 6 months (eg. 2 L) in an afternoon. A simple electrical heating ring and coiled ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1993-October/008571.html

phenol redphenol red

... K N and P J Harris ecoli at cix.compulink.co.uk Sat Aug 8 06:25:29 EST 1998 *Previous message: motile marine ... i.e. the phenol red can be seen as an indicator of the process. Peter Harris, Soil Science department, University of Reading, U ... Phenol Red. Nitrifying bacteria are sensitive to acidity, hence one reason for using an indicator is to make sure that the pH ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/microbio/1998-August/013173.html

Phenols - definition of Phenols by The Free DictionaryPhenols - definition of Phenols by The Free Dictionary

Phenols synonyms, Phenols pronunciation, Phenols translation, English dictionary definition of Phenols. n. 1. A caustic, ... phenol. (redirected from Phenols). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. phe·nol. (fē′nôl′, -nōl′, -nŏl′) ... phenol index).. Delivery of the cfa flow analyzer for determination of free cyanide / general and phenols (phenol index) ... inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferase by phenols and chlorinated phenols.. Characterization of Phenol Degrading Bacteria ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/Phenols

Category:Phenol red - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Phenol red - Wikimedia Commons

Rouge de phenol, Vert brillant et Rouge de Phénol, Rouge phenol, Phénolsulfonephtaléine (fr) ... Media in category "Phenol red". The following 24 files are in this category, out of 24 total. ... Phenol red, 4,4-(3H-2,1-benzoxathiol-3-ylidene)bisphenol S,S-dioxide, PSP, 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-3H-2,1-benzoxathiole 1,1- ... phenol red (fa); Fenol crveno (sh); феноловый красный (ru); Fenol kırmızısı (tr); Phenolrot (de); vermelho de fenol (pt); ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Phenol_red

About phenol | allnursesAbout phenol | allnurses

About phenol - Welcome to my allnursesPage! You can learn all about me here. Together, we can learn, share, and network with ...
more infohttp://allnurses.com/member-48135/

Phenol - WikipediaPhenol - Wikipedia

PhenolsEdit. Main article: Phenols. The word phenol is also used to refer to any compound that contains a six-membered aromatic ... Phenol is also used as a preservative in some vaccines.[25]. Phenol spray is used medically to help sore throat.[26] It is the ... Phenol is reduced to benzene when it is distilled with zinc dust, or when phenol vapour is passed over granules of zinc at 400 ... "Phenol_msds".. *^ a b c d e NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0493". National Institute for Occupational Safety and ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenoxide
  • Phenols are used to make plastics and as a disinfectant in both household cleaning products and consumer products, such as mouthwashes. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol is used as a disinfectant and is found in a number of consumer products. (cdc.gov)
  • One way to compare disinfectants is to compare how well they do against a known disinfectant and rate them accordingly using the Phenol coefficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disinfectant to be tested is compared with phenol on a standard microbe (usually Salmonella typhi or Staphylococcus aureus). (wikipedia.org)
  • If you work in an industry that uses phenol, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheet for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • A recent in silico comparison of the gas phase acidities of the vinylogues of phenol and cyclohexanol in conformations that allow for or exclude resonance stabilization leads to the inference that about ​ 1 ⁄ 3 of the increased acidity of phenol is attributable to inductive effects, with resonance accounting for the remaining difference. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many people date the beginning of the modern plastics industry to 1907, when Leo Hendrik Baekeland , a Belgian-born American chemist, applied for a patent on a phenol-formaldehyde thermoset that eventually became known by the trademarked name Bakelite . (britannica.com)
  • In support of the second explanation, the p K a of the enol of acetone in water is 10.9, making it only slightly less acidic than phenol (p K a 10.0). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1872 the German chemist Adolf von Baeyer condensed trifunctional phenol and difunctional formaldehyde, and in subsequent decades Baeyer's student Werner Kleeberg and other chemists investigated the products, but they failed to pursue the reaction because they were unable to crystallize and characterize the amorphous resinous products. (britannica.com)
  • Two methods are used to make phenol-formaldehyde polymers. (britannica.com)
  • In one, an excess of formaldehyde is reacted with phenol in the presence of a base catalyst in water solution to yield the resole, which is a low-molecular-weight prepolymer with CH 2 OH groups attached to the phenol rings. (britannica.com)
  • The other method involves reacting formaldehyde with an excess of phenol using an acid catalyst to produce prepolymers called novolacs. (britannica.com)
  • Phenol-formaldehyde polymers make excellent wood adhesives for plywood and particleboard because they form chemical bonds with the phenollike lignin component of wood. (britannica.com)
  • Phenol is the active ingredient in some treatments for sore throats, and is found in several lozenges and throat sprays. (angelo.edu)
  • In the United States, Phenol may be used as an active ingredient in OTC drug products. (ewg.org)
  • When used as an active drug ingredient, the established name is Phenol. (ewg.org)
  • Phenol is an organic compound appreciably soluble in water, with about 84.2 g dissolving in 1000 mL (0.895 M ). Homogeneous mixtures of phenol and water at phenol to water mass ratios of ~2.6 and higher are possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a measure of the bactericidal activity of a chemical compound in relation to phenol. (wikipedia.org)
  • To calculate phenol coefficient, the concentration of phenol at which the compound kills the test organism in 10 minutes, but not in 5 minutes, is divided by the concentration of the test compound that kills the organism under the same conditions (or, probably more common, dividing the dilution factor at which the tested substance shows activity by the dilution factor at which phenol shows comparable activity). (wikipedia.org)
  • You may be exposed to phenol if you undergo "chemical peels" to remove skin lesions with phenol-containing products or are treated for chronic pain or spasticity with injections of phenol. (cdc.gov)
  • Injections of phenol have occasionally been used as a means of rapid execution . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Phenol injections were given to thousands of people in concentration camps, especially at Auschwitz-Birkenau. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Ingestion of concentrated phenol can produce internal burns. (cdc.gov)
  • People who had skin exposure to high amounts of phenol had skin burns, liver damage, dark urine, irregular heart beat, and some died. (cdc.gov)
  • Ingestion of high concentrations of phenol has resulted in internal burns and death. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on phenol - A searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • Some phenols occur naturally in the essential oils of plants. (dictionary.com)
  • Exposure to high concentrations of phenol in the air for several weeks caused paralysis and severe injury to the heart, liver, kidneys, and lungs, and in some cases, death. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol has caused minor birth defects and low birth weight in animals generally at exposure levels that also were toxic to the pregnant mothers. (cdc.gov)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the EPA have determined that phenol is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Biomonitoring of urinary environmental phenols and parabens is used to determine their prevalence in humans and the relevance of human exposure in public health. (cdc.gov)