An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.
Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.
A sulfotransferase that catalyzes the sulfation of a phenol in the presence of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate as sulfate donor to yield an aryl sulfate and adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate. A number of aromatic compounds can act as acceptors; however, organic hydroxylamines are not substrates. Sulfate conjugation by this enzyme is a major pathway for the biotransformation of phenolic and catechol drugs as well as neurotransmitters. EC
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC and EC
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria able to anaerobically oxidize and degrade toluene.
Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein. The enzyme also forms pyruvate from D-tyrosine, L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, L-serine, and D-serine, although at a slower rate. EC
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC
Excessive lateral nail growth into the nail fold. Because the lateral margin of the nail acts as a foreign body, inflammation and granulation may result. It is caused by improperly fitting shoes and by improper trimming of the nail.

The alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 is closely related to aromatic monooxygenases and catalyzes aromatic monohydroxylation of benzene, toluene, and phenol. (1/497)

The genes encoding the six polypeptide components of the alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 (Xamo) have been located on a 4.9-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA previously cloned in cosmid pNY2. Sequencing and analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences indicate that the components of Xamo are homologous to those of the aromatic monooxygenases, toluene 2-, 3-, and 4-monooxygenase and benzene monooxygenase, and that the gene order is identical. The genes and predicted polypeptides are aamA, encoding the 497-residue oxygenase alpha-subunit (XamoA); aamB, encoding the 88-residue oxygenase gamma-subunit (XamoB); aamC, encoding the 122-residue ferredoxin (XamoC); aamD, encoding the 101-residue coupling or effector protein (XamoD); aamE, encoding the 341-residue oxygenase beta-subunit (XamoE); and aamF, encoding the 327-residue reductase (XamoF). A sequence with >60% concurrence with the consensus sequence of sigma54 (RpoN)-dependent promoters was identified upstream of the aamA gene. Detailed comparison of XamoA with the oxygenase alpha-subunits from aromatic monooxygenases, phenol hydroxylases, methane monooxygenase, and the alkene monooxygenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276 showed that, despite the overall similarity to the aromatic monooxygenases, XamoA has some distinctive characteristics of the oxygenases which oxidize aliphatic, and particularly alkene, substrates. On the basis of the similarity between Xamo and the aromatic monooxygenases, Xanthobacter strain Py2 was tested and shown to oxidize benzene, toluene, and phenol, while the alkene monooxygenase-negative mutants NZ1 and NZ2 did not. Benzene was oxidized to phenol, which accumulated transiently before being further oxidized. Toluene was oxidized to a mixture of o-, m-, and p-cresols (39.8, 18, and 41.7%, respectively) and a small amount (0.5%) of benzyl alcohol, none of which were further oxidized. In growth studies Xanthobacter strain Py2 was found to grow on phenol and catechol but not on benzene or toluene; growth on phenol required a functional alkene monooxygenase. However, there is no evidence of genes encoding steps in the metabolism of catechol in the vicinity of the aam gene cluster. This suggests that the inducer specificity of the alkene monooxygenase may have evolved to benefit from the naturally broad substrate specificity of this class of monooxygenase and the ability of the host strain to grow on catechol.  (+info)

Methods for detection of Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus DNA in soil. (2/497)

Two methods, phenol-ether and magnetic capture-hybridization (MCH), were developed and compared with regard to their sensitivities and abilities to extract the DNA of the insect baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) from soil and to produce DNA amplifiable by PCR. Laboratory experiments were performed with 0. 25 g of autoclaved soil inoculated with different viral concentrations to optimize both methods of baculovirus DNA extraction and to determine their sensitivities. Both procedures produced amplifiable DNA; however, the MCH method was 100-fold more sensitive than the phenol-ether procedure. The removal of PCR inhibitors from the soil appeared to be complete when MCH was used as the viral DNA isolation method, because undiluted aliquots of the DNA preparations could be amplified by PCR. The phenol-ether procedure probably did not completely remove PCR inhibitors from the soil, since PCR products were observed only when the AgMNPV DNA preparations were diluted 10- or 100-fold. AgMNPV DNA was detected in field-collected soil samples from 15 to 180 days after virus application when the MCH procedure to isolate DNA was coupled with PCR amplification of the polyhedrin region.  (+info)

Metabolism of [14C]phenol in the isolated perfused mouse liver. (3/497)

A previous report from this laboratory focused on the metabolism of [14C]benzene (BZ) in the isolated, perfused, mouse liver (C. C. Hedli, et al., 1997, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 146, 60-68). Whereas administration of BZ to mice results in bone marrow depression (R. Snyder et al., 1993, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 20, 191-194), administration of phenol (P), the major metabolite of BZ, does not. It was, therefore, of interest to determine whether the metabolic fate of P produced during BZ metabolism differed from that of P metabolized in the absence of BZ. Mouse livers were perfused with a solution of [14C]P in both the orthograde (portal vein to central vein) and retrograde (central vein to portal vein) direction to investigate the metabolic zonation of enzymes involved in P hydroxylation and conjugation. Perfusate samples were collected, separated by HPLC, and tested for radioactivity. Unconjugated metabolites were identified by comparing their retention times with nonradiolabeled standards, which were detected by UV absorption. Conjugated metabolites were identified and collected on the basis of radiochromatogram results, hydrolyzed enzymatically, and identified by co-chromatography with unlabeled BZ metabolites. The objective was to compare and quantify the metabolites formed during the perfusion of P in the orthograde and retrograde directions and to compare the orthograde P-perfusion results with the orthograde BZ results reported previously. Regardless of the direction of P perfusion, the major compounds released from the liver were P. phenylgucuronide, phenylsulfate, hydroquinone (HQ), and HQ glucuronide. A comparison of the results of perfusing P in the orthograde versus the retrograde direction showed that more P was recovered unchanged and more HQ was formed during retrograde perfusion. The results suggest that enzymes involved in P hydroxylation are generally closer to the central vein than those involved in conjugation, and that during retrograde perfusion, P metabolism may be limited by the sub-optimal conditions of perfusion. Comparison of the orthograde perfusion studies of P and BZ revealed that a larger percentage of the radioactivity released from the liver was identified as unconjugated HQ after BZ perfusion than after P perfusion. In addition, the amount of radioactivity covalently bound to liver macromolecules was measured after each perfusion and determined to be proportional to the amount of HQ and HQG detected in the perfusate samples.  (+info)

An outbreak of nonflocculating catabolic populations caused the breakdown of a phenol-digesting activated-sludge process. (4/497)

Activated sludge was fed phenol as the sole carbon source, and the phenol-loading rate was increased stepwise from 0.5 to 1.0 g liter-1 day-1 and then to 1.5 g liter-1 day-1. After the loading rate was increased to 1.5 g liter-1 day-1, nonflocculating bacteria outgrew the sludge, and the activated-sludge process broke down within 1 week. The bacterial population structure of the activated sludge was analyzed by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments. We found that the population diversity decreased as the phenol-loading rate increased and that two populations (designated populations R6 and R10) predominated in the sludge during the last several days before breakdown. The R6 population was present under the low-phenol-loading-rate conditions, while the R10 population was present only after the loading rate was increased to 1.5 g liter-1 day-1. A total of 41 bacterial strains with different repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence PCR patterns were isolated from the activated sludge under different phenol-loading conditions, and the 16S rDNA and gyrB fragments of these strains were PCR amplified and sequenced. Some bacterial isolates could be associated with major TGGE bands by comparing the 16S rDNA sequences. All of the bacterial strains affiliated with the R6 population had almost identical 16S rDNA sequences, while the gyrB phylogenetic analysis divided these strains into two physiologically divergent groups; both of these groups of strains could grow on phenol, while one group (designated the R6F group) flocculated in laboratory media and the other group (the R6T group) did not. A competitive PCR analysis in which specific gyrB sequences were used as the primers showed that a population shift from R6F to R6T occurred following the increase in the phenol-loading rate to 1.5 g liter-1 day-1. The R10 population corresponded to nonflocculating phenol-degrading bacteria. Our results suggest that an outbreak of nonflocculating catabolic populations caused the breakdown of the activated-sludge process. This study also demonstrated the usefulness of gyrB-targeted fine population analyses in microbial ecology.  (+info)

Taxonomic characterization of denitrifying bacteria that degrade aromatic compounds and description of Azoarcus toluvorans sp. nov. and Azoarcus toluclasticus sp. nov. (5/497)

A taxonomic characterization of twenty-one strains capable of degrading aromatic compounds under denitrifying conditions, isolated from ten different geographical locations, was performed on the basis of general morphological and physiological characteristics, cellular fatty acids, DNA base composition, small ribosomal (16S) subunit DNA sequences, whole-cell protein patterns and genomic DNA fragmentation analysis, in addition to DNA similarity estimations using hybridization methods. The collection of strains was subdivided into a number of different groups. A first group, consisting of four strains, could be assigned to the previously described species Azoarcus tolulyticus. A second group (five strains) had DNA which reannealed highly to that of strains of the first group, and it is considered to represent a genomovar of A. tolulyticus. The third and fourth groups, composed of a total of five strains, represent a new species of Azoarcus, Azoarcus toluclasticus (group 3) and a genomovar of this species (group 4), respectively. Finally, the fifth group, with two strains, corresponds to another new species of the genus Azoarcus, Azoarcus toluvorans. In addition to these five groups, the collection includes five individual strains perhaps representing as many different new species. The above classification is partially consistent with the results of approaches other than DNA-DNA hybridization (electrophoretic patterns of whole-cell proteins and of the fragments obtained after digestion of total DNA with infrequently cutting restriction enzymes). On the other hand, no correlation of these groupings was found in terms of the cellular fatty acid composition. It is also unfortunate that no simple sets of easily determinable phenotypic properties could be defined as being characteristic of each of the groups.  (+info)

Heat-induced expression and chemically induced expression of the Escherichia coli stress protein HtpG are affected by the growth environment. (6/497)

Differences in expression of the Escherichia coli stress protein HtpG were found following exposure of exponentially growing cells to heat or chemical shock when cells were grown under different environmental conditions. With an htpG::lacZ reporter system, htpG expression increased in cells grown in a complex medium (Luria-Bertani [LB] broth) following a temperature shock at 45 degrees C. In contrast, no HtpG overexpression was detected in cells grown in a glucose minimal medium, despite a decrease in the growth rate. Similarly, in pyruvate-grown cells there was no heat shock induction of HtpG expression, eliminating the possibility that repression of HtpG in glucose-grown E. coli was due to catabolite repression. When 5 mM phenol was used as a chemical stress agent for cells growing in LB broth, expression of HtpG increased. However, when LB-grown cells were subjected to stress with 10 mM phenol and when both 5 and 10 mM phenol were added to glucose-grown cultures, repression of htpG expression was observed. 2-Chlorophenol stress resulted in overexpression of HtpG when cells were grown in complex medium but repression of HtpG synthesis when cells were grown in glucose. No induction of htpG expression was seen with 2, 4-dichlorophenol in cells grown with either complex medium or glucose. The results suggest that, when a large pool of amino acids and proteins is available, as in complex medium, a much stronger stress response is observed. In contrast, when cells are grown in a simple glucose mineral medium, htpG expression either is unaffected or is even repressed by imposition of a stress condition. The results demonstrate the importance of considering differences in growth environment in order to better understand the nature of the response to an imposed stress condition.  (+info)

Novel effector control through modulation of a preexisting binding site of the aromatic-responsive sigma(54)-dependent regulator DmpR. (7/497)

The Pseudomonas derived sigma(54)-dependent DmpR activator regulates transcription of the (methyl)phenol catabolic dmp-operon. DmpR is constitutively expressed, but its transcriptional promoting activity is positively controlled in direct response to the presence of multiple aromatic effectors. Previous work has led to a model in which effector binding by the amino-terminal region of the protein relieves repression of an intrinsic ATPase activity essential for its transcriptional promoting property. Here, we address whether the observed differences in the potencies of the multiple effectors (i) reside at the level of different aromatic binding sites, or (ii) are mediated through differential binding affinities; furthermore, we address whether binding of distinct aromatic effectors has different functional consequences for DmpR activity. These questions were addressed by comparing wild type and an effector specificity mutant of DmpR with respect to effector binding characteristics and the ability of aromatics to elicit ATPase activity and transcription. The results demonstrate that six test aromatics all share a common binding site on DmpR and that binding affinities determine the concentration at which DmpR responds to the presence of the effector, but not the magnitude of the responses. Interestingly, this analysis reveals that the novel abilities of the effector specificity mutant are not primarily due to acquisition of new binding abilities, but rather, they reside in being able to productively couple ATPase activity to transcriptional activation. The mechanistic implications of these findings in terms of aromatic control of DmpR activity are discussed.  (+info)

Amount and fate of egg protein escaping assimilation in the small intestine of humans. (8/497)

Studies attempting to evaluate protein assimilation in humans have hitherto relied on either ileostomy subjects or intubation techniques. The availability of stable isotope-labeled protein allowed us to determine the amount and fate of dietary protein escaping digestion and absorption in the small intestine of healthy volunteers using noninvasive tracer techniques. Ten healthy volunteers were studied once after ingestion of a cooked test meal, consisting of 25 g of (13)C-, (15)N-, and (2)H-labeled egg protein, and once after ingestion of the same but raw meal. Amounts of 5.73% and 35.10% (P < 0.005) of cooked and raw test meal, respectively, escaped digestion and absorption in the small intestine. A significantly higher percentage of the malabsorbed raw egg protein was recovered in urine as fermentation metabolites. These results 1) confirm that substantial amounts of even easily digestible proteins may escape assimilation in healthy volunteers and 2) further support the hypothesis that the metabolic fate of protein in the colon is affected by the amount of protein made available.  (+info)


* Trim the nails straight across and avoid cutting them too short
* Avoid wearing tight shoes that pressure the toes
* Keep the feet clean and dry


* Soak the foot in warm water to reduce swelling
* Use a topical antibiotic ointment or cream to treat any infection
* Trim the nail edge to relieve pressure on the skin
* Wear proper fitting shoes to avoid further irritation


* Infection of the bone or nerve
* Cellulitis (inflammation of the skin and underlying tissue)
* Abscess formation

Note: This is a general overview of ingrown toenails. It is important to consult a medical professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

"Phenol". Sigma-Aldrich Co., Phenol. Retrieved on 2022-02-15. "Phenol". Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations ( ... Phenol spray, usually at 1.4% phenol as an active ingredient, is used medically to treat sore throat. It is the active ... Aqueous solutions of phenol are weakly acidic and turn blue litmus slightly to red. Phenol is neutralized by sodium hydroxide ... Look up phenol in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikiquote has quotations related to Phenol. Wikisource has the text of the ...
... is a former Haitian international football player. He is best known for scoring a hat-trick in the 1957 CCCF ... in French) "Charles, Phenol". Soccer DB. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2013. "This Week ...
... may refer to: SULT1A1, a human gene encoding a sulfotransferase SULT1A2, a human gene encoding a ...
... s can be synthesized through an acid-catalyzed condensation of phenols and an alcohol. Phenols include phenol ... Due to the increased hydrophobicity of phenol ethers compared to traditional phenols, phenol ethers are often present in the ... Phenol ethers follow the same nomenclature of regular ethers; ethers have the structure R-O-R', but phenol ethers require that ... In chemistry, a phenol ether (or aromatic ether) is an organic compound derived from phenol (C6H5OH), where the hydroxyl (-OH) ...
... is a comprehensive database on natural phenols and polyphenols including food composition, food processing, and ... PMID 20428313 Phenol-Explorer v t e (Articles with topics of unclear notability from May 2018, All articles with topics of ... "Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods", Database, 2010: bap024, doi:10.1093/ ... Natural phenols, Food databases, Biological databases, All stub articles, Biological database stubs). ...
Chloroform and phenol are miscible, unlike phenol and water. The density of chloroform is 1.47 g/cm3, higher than that of water ... Phenol is often used in combination with chloroform. The purpose of adding chloroform along with phenol is to ensure a clear ... Mixing chloroform and phenol creates a denser solution than phenol alone, and therefore the separation of the organic from the ... Phenol extraction is a processing technology used to prepare phenols as raw materials, compounds, or additives for industrial ...
Guardex Solution 2 - Phenol Red Material Safety Data Sheet Effect of Bromine on Phenol Red in pH Tests Video of phenol red ... Phenol red (also known as phenolsulfonphthalein or PSP) is a pH indicator frequently used in cell biology laboratories. Phenol ... Phenol red solution is administered intravenously; the urine produced is collected. By measuring the amount of phenol red ... many types of tissue culture media are also available without phenol red. Phenol red is a weak estrogen mimic, and in cell ...
To calculate phenol coefficient, the concentration of phenol at which the compound kills the test organism in 10 minutes, but ... The Phenol coefficient, is now largely of historical interest, although the principles upon which it is based are still used. ... It is a measure of the bactericidal activity of a chemical compound in relation to phenol. When listed numerically, the figure ... The Chick-Martin test was then widely used until replaced by more suitable tests not reliant on phenol and reflecting the ...
... may refer to: UGT1A3, a human gene UGT1A4, a human gene UGT1A5, a human gene UGT1A6, a human ...
... is a stain used in clinical microbiology and histology to identify tuberculosis mycobacteria. There are ... Smears are prepared just like that for ZN staining Stain with Auramine-Phenol for 20 mins Rinse with water Decolourise in acid ... two types of auramine phenol stains, 1 and 2 to stain mycobacterium species and cryptosporidium respectively. Both are ...
The enzyme tyrosine phenol-lyase (EC catalyzes the chemical reaction L-tyrosine + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-tyrosine phenol-lyase (deaminating; pyruvate-forming). Other names in common use ... Kumagai H, Yamada H, Matsui H, Ohkishi H, Ogata K (1970). "Tyrosine phenol lyase. II. Cofactor requirements". J. Biol. Chem. ... Kumagai H, Yamada H, Matsui H, Ohkishi H, Ogata K (1970). "Tyrosine phenol lyase. I. Purification, crystallization, and ...
Polychloro phenoxy phenols (polychlorinated phenoxy phenols, PCPPs) are a group of organic polyhalogenated compounds. Among ... doi:10.1016/0045-6535(90)90067-4. v t e (Chloroarenes, Incineration, Phenols, Ethers, All stub articles, Organohalide stubs). ...
... is a compound used as a disinfectant. It is the sodium salt of 2-phenylphenol. As a food additive, it ... Phenols, Organic sodium salts, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ...
... s have been implicated in assisting with colony spreading. PSMα 1-4 have been shown to help S. aureus ... Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are a family of small proteins, that carry out a variety of functions, including acting as ... doi:10.1111/1574-6976.12057 Li S, Huang H, Rao X, Chen W, Wang Z, Hu X. Phenol-soluble modulins: novel virulence-associated ... PSMs were first discovered in S. epidermidis by Seymour Klebanoff and via hot-phenol extraction and were described as a pro- ...
Because the phenol:chloroform mixture is immiscible with water, the centrifuge will cause two distinct phases to form: an upper ... Phenol-chloroform extraction is a liquid-liquid extraction technique in molecular biology used to separate nucleic acids from ... This difference in density is why phenol, which only has a slightly higher density than water, must be mixed with chloroform to ... The aqueous phase rises to the top because it is less dense than the organic phase containing the phenol:chloroform. ...
Apart from acid catalysis, the dienone-phenol rearrangement is also possible in presence of base. The dienone-phenol ... The dienone-phenol rearrangement is a reaction in organic chemistry first reported in 1921 by Karl von Auwers and Karl Ziegler ... "Dienone-Phenol Rearrangement of 2-Phenyl-o-quinolacetate". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 71 (5): 1781. May 1, 1949. doi:10.1021/jo01090a603 ... Arnold, Richard T.; Buckley, Jay S.; Dodson, R. M. (1950). "The Dienone-Phenol Rearrangement. III. Rearrangement of 1-Keto-4,4- ...
In enzymology, a phenol 2-monooxygenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction phenol + NADPH + H+ + ... Neujahr HY, Gaal A (1975). "Phenol hydroxylase from yeast. Sulfhydryl groups in phenol hydroxylase from Trichosporon cutaneum ... Other names in common use include phenol hydroxylase, and phenol o-hydroxylase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic ... Neujahr HY, Gaal A (1973). "Phenol hydroxylase from yeast. Purification and properties of the enzyme from Trichosporon cutaneum ...
... are phenol-formaldehyde resins with a formaldehyde to phenol molar ratio of less than one. In place of phenol itself, they are ... Base-catalysed phenol-formaldehyde resins are made with a formaldehyde to phenol ratio of greater than one (usually around 1.5 ... When the molar ratio of formaldehyde:phenol reaches one, in theory every phenol is linked together via methylene bridges, ... are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde. Used as the basis for ...
In enzymology, a phenol O-methyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:phenol O-methyltransferase. This enzyme is also called PMT ... Portal: Biology v t e (EC 2.1.1, Enzymes of unknown structure, O-methylated natural phenols metabolism, All stub articles, EC ... Axelrod J, Daly J (1968). "Phenol-O-methyltransferase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 159 (3): 472-8. doi:10.1016/0005-2744(68)90131- ...
In enzymology, a phenol beta-glucosyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-glucose + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucose:phenol beta-D-glucosyltransferase. Other names in common use include ... a phenol ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP + an aryl beta-D-glucoside Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP- ... glucose and phenol, whereas its two products are UDP and aryl beta-D-glucoside. This enzyme belongs to the family of ...
... of phenol per day. Edison's excess phenol seemed destined for American trinitrophenol production, which would be used to ... The Great Phenol Plot was a clandestine effort by the German Government during the early years of World War I to divert ... This allowed the phenol transfers to continue for a short while longer. By the time the plan was discontinued, it had succeeded ... Much of the phenol would go to the German-owned Chemische Fabrik von Heyden's American subsidiary; Heyden was the supplier of ...
In enzymology, a 3-(hydroxyamino)phenol mutase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-(hydroxyamino)phenol hydroxymutase. Other names in common use include 3- ...
... is an organic compound consisting of a n-nonyl group attached to the 4-position of phenol. The related ...
... , in short PST deficiency, is the lack or the reduced activity of the functional enzyme ... Phenol sulfur transferase, in short PST or SULT1, is a subfamily of the enzyme cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) consisting ... Dooley TP, Obermoeller RD, Leiter EH, Chapman HD, Falany CN, Deng Z, Siciliano MJ (November 1993). "Mapping of the phenol ... Duffel MW, Marshal AD, McPhie P, Sharma V, Jakoby WB (2001). "Enzymatic aspects of the phenol (aryl) sulfotransferases". Drug ...
... undergo esterification. Phenol esters are active esters, being prone to hydrolysis. Phenols are reactive species toward ... Phenolic compounds are classified as simple phenols or polyphenols based on the number of phenol units in the molecule. Phenols ... Phenols are more acidic than typical alcohols. The acidity of the hydroxyl group in phenols is commonly intermediate between ... Many phenols of commercial interest are prepared by elaboration of phenol or cresols. They are typically produced by the ...
... (abbreviated AGPC) is a liquid-liquid extraction technique in ...
Phenols with an electron- withdrawing group in the para position form the latter, while most other phenols give the former (or ... 10) Oxidative phenol coupling has been used for the synthesis of alkaloids related to morphine. For instance, the reaction has ... 12) Exposure of phenols to Fremy's salt or cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate also yields quinones. (13) The organic oxidant 2,3- ... Phenol oxidation with hypervalent iodine reagents leads to the formation of quinone-type products or iodonium ylides, depending ...
... is a phenolic compound produced by the saprophytic orchid Gastrodia elata and by the myco- ... Noda, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yukio; Miyahara, Kazumoto; Fukahori, Saeko (1995). "2,4-Bis(4-hydroxybenzyl) phenol from Gastrodia ...
Unfiltered olive oil has the higher levels of phenols, or polar phenols that form a complex phenol-protein complex. Phenolic ... Natural sources of phenols on Phenol-Explorer (, a database dedicated to phenolics found ... Some phenols are sold as dietary supplements. Phenols have been investigated as drugs. For instance, Crofelemer (USAN trade ... Phenol extraction is a processing technology used to prepare phenols as raw materials, compounds or additives for industrial ...
A polyphenol antioxidant is a hypothetical type of antioxidant containing a polyphenolic substructure and studied in vitro. Numbering over 4,000 distinct species mostly from plants, polyphenols may have antioxidant activity in vitro, but are unlikely to be antioxidants in vivo. Hypothetically, they may affect cell-to-cell signaling, receptor sensitivity, inflammatory enzyme activity or gene regulation, although high-quality clinical research has not confirmed any of these possible effects in humans as of 2020[update]. The main source of polyphenols is dietary, since they are found in a wide array of phytochemical-bearing foods. For example, honey; most legumes; fruits such as apples, blackberries, blueberries, cantaloupe, pomegranate, cherries, cranberries, grapes, pears, plums, raspberries, aronia berries, and strawberries (berries in general have high polyphenol content) and vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, celery, onion and parsley are rich in polyphenols. Red wine, chocolate, black tea, ...
Urinary phenol concentrations and fecundability and early pregnancy loss Ana K Rosen Vollmar 1 , Clarice R Weinberg 2 , Donna D ... Urinary phenol concentrations and fecundability and early pregnancy loss Ana K Rosen Vollmar et al. Hum Reprod. 2023. . ... Per-cycle odds ratios of conception associated with urinary phenol concentration (µg/g creatinine). The median refers to the ... Odds ratios for early pregnancy loss associated with urinary phenol concentration (µg/g creatinine). The median refers to the ...
Exposure to phenol may cause irritation to the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and nervous system. Some symptoms of exposure to ... Phenol (C6H6O or C6H5OH) is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid with a sweet, acrid odor. ... phenol are weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, muscle aches, and pain ... Phenol (C6H6O or C6H5OH) is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid with a sweet, acrid odor. Exposure to phenol may cause ...
Skin exposure to high levels of phenol has resulted in liver damage, diarrhea, dark urine, and hemolytic anemia. Phenol has ... Phenol is a manufactured substance found in a number of consumer products. ... normal concentration of phenol in the urine may suggest recent exposure to phenol or to substances that are converted to phenol ... Phenol can remain in water for a week or more.. *Larger or repeated releases of phenol can remain in the air, water, and soil ...
PHENOL (UNII: 339NCG44TV) (PHENOL - UNII:339NCG44TV) PHENOL. 1.4 g in 100 mL. ... SORE THROAT- phenol spray. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application. ... SORE THROAT- phenol spray. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance action, they will be ...
Testing Status of Phenol 10076-N. Testing Status of Phenol 10076-N. CASRN: 108-95-2. Formula: C6-H6-O. Synonyms/Common Names. * ...
Phenol is the harmful substance in carbolic acid. ... Aronson JK. Phenols. In: Aronson JK, ed. Meylers Side Effects of Drugs ... For information on products containing camphor alone, see camphor overdose . ... Both camphor and phenol are in Campho-Phenique ... toxin are: Hydrochloric acid Hydrogen cyanide Organic acids Phenol Cresols Benzoquinones Hydroquinones (in some millipedes) ... with chewing or sniffing tobacco include aniline, naphthalene, phenol, pyrene, tar, and 2-naphthylamine. ...
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Phenol : health and safety guide  World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical Safety (‎World Health ... 2,4,6-Tribromophenol and other simple brominated phenols  Howe, Paul D; Dobson, Stuart; Malcolm, H. M; World Health ... Evaluates risks to human health and the environment posed by exposure to phenol, a constituent of coal tar formed during the ... Phenol / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour ...
... [ ... Temporal Trends and Predictors of Phthalate, Phthalate Replacement, and Phenol Biomarkers in the LIFECODES Fetal Growth Study. ... and Phenol Biomarkers in the LIFECODES Fetal Growth Study] Bommarito PA, Stevens DR, Welch BM, Weller D, Meeker JD, Cantonwine ... Abstract Temporal Trends and Predictors of Phthalate, Phthalate Replacement, and Phenol Biomarkers in the LIFECODES Fetal ...
Bacillus thuringiensis A1 improve phenol tolerance and phytoextraction by Acorus calamus L. Fu G, Wang Z, Xie H, Wang L. Fu G, ...
PCBs and Cytosolic Phenol and Steroid Sulfotransferases. Project Leader: Michael W. Duffel. Grant Number: P42ES013661. Funding ... Effective synthesis of sulfate metabolites of chlorinated phenols. Chemosphere 93(9):1965-1971. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere. ... Pentachlorophenol and other chlorinated phenols are substrates for human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase hSULT2A1. Chem Res ... Project Publications: University of Iowa: PCBs and Cytosolic Phenol and Steroid Sulfotransferases. ...
Nine phenols were measured in spot urine samples collected between 22 and 29 gestational weeks. We performed DNA methylation ... Pregnancy exposure to synthetic phenols and placental DNA methylation - An epigenome-wide association study in male infants ... Pregnancy exposure to synthetic phenols and placental DNA methylation - An epigenome-wide association study in male infants ... Title : Pregnancy exposure to synthetic phenols and placental DNA methylation - An epigenome-wide association study in male ...
Phenol. Phenol is inexpensive, easily compounded, and has an immediate onset of action. It is injected, usually in a 5% ... Botulinum toxin and phenol may effectively be used together. [28] For instance, gait problems related to diplegic cerebral ... If phenol and botulinum toxin are used together, all muscle groups can be treated, leading to a more functional outcome. ... Because 5% phenol injections do not cause permanent reduction in spasticity, a focus on obtaining functional improvements after ...
Phenol. Phenol causes nerve destruction by inducing protein precipitation. It causes a separation of the myelin sheath from the ... The use of higher concentrations of phenol may predispose to a higher incidence of vascular injury. ...
88Publication details: Geneva : World Health Organization, 1994. Description: 32 pISBN: 9241510889Subject(s): Phenols -- ... Phenol : health and safety guide. Contributor(s): World Health Organization , International Programme on Chemical Safety ...
Cytogenetic Study of Phenol in Rodent Sister Chromatid Exchange Test Cytogenetic Study of Phenol in Rodent Sister Chromatid ... Cytogenetic Study of Phenol in Rodent Chromosome Aberrations Test Cytogenetic Study of Phenol in Rodent Chromosome Aberrations ... Phenol (108-95-2). Study Results. Chronic Bioassay Level of Evidence. An overview of chronic evidence from Rats studies. Rats. ... Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Phenol in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. Study 175560 Summary Data. * G06 - ...
Norfenefrine, Norphenylephrine, Norphenephrine, Metacardiol, m-Octopamine, 3-(2-Amino-1-hydroxyethyl)phenol, Norenol, Normetol ...
NIEHS-05 NIEHS Report on the In Vivo Repeat Dose Biological Potency Study of Isopropylated Phenol Phosphate (CASRN 68937-41-7) ... Isopropylated Phenol Phosphate (68937-41-7). Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS). Research Triangle Park, NC (USA): ... Home » Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) » Isopropylated Phenol Phosphate (68937-41-7) ... Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Isopropylated Phenol Phosphate in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. Study G10866 ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Phenol -- therapeutic use ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Phenol -- therapeutic use ... Phenol -- therapeutic use 9. Internal hemorrhoids Author(s): Hoyt, Eugene F., author Publication: New York : Gilbert & Beitler ... Phenol -- therapeutic use. Injections 5. Mr. Listers antiseptic method Author(s): Stimson, Lewis Atterbury, 1844-1917, author ... Phenol -- therapeutic use. Injections 10. Note on the history of carbolic acid and its compounds in surgery prior to 1867 ...
Phenols. In: Aronson JK, ed. Meylers Side Effects of Drugs. 16th ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2016:688-692. ... Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ...
Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers are substances used to clean and remove odors from toilets. Poisoning may occur if someone swallows toilet bowl cleaner or deodorizer.
Phenol. 13. 76.. Ammonium hydroxide. 12. 77.. Asbestos. 12. 78.. Carbon tetrachloride. 12. ...
Illumina suggested standard method; CTAB/phenol/chloroform. Data Source:. Sample Provider or GSCID. ...
Adulteration and misbranding of Phenol Sodique. U. S. v. 3 Dozen Bottles of Phenol Sodique. Default decree of condemnation, ... Phenol Sodique. Defendant Names:. Hance Bros. & White (Inc.). Court Jurisdiction:. Western District of Tennessee. Seizure ...
4-Methyl phenol. 2-Methyl propanol. Methyl pyrazine. Phenol. Propene. 2-Propylene nitrile. Pyridine. Pyrrole. Styrene. ...
  • Phenol is the harmful substance in carbolic acid. (
  • You may be exposed to phenol if you live near landfills or hazardous waste sites that contain phenol or near facilities manufacturing phenol. (
  • Once absorbed, phenol is widely specific biomarkers of exposure to products that contain phenol such as distributed throughout the body and the phenol. (
  • products that contain phenol. (
  • Phenol has a distinct odor that is sickeningly sweet and tarry. (
  • Phenol has a sickeningly sweet and tarry for workers that manufacture phenol. (
  • Photographic chemicals of amino-naphthols and -phenols, their ethers/esters, except those cont. (
  • Despite plausible mechanisms of phenol reproductive toxicity, there are inconsistent results across few epidemiologic studies examining phenol exposure and reproductive function in non-fertility treatment populations. (
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to phenol.The level of harm depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done. (
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to phenol. (
  • Presents a standard to prevent the adverse effects of exposure to phenol over a working lifetime. (
  • Short-term exposure to phenol in the air can cause respiratory irritation, headaches, and burning eyes. (
  • People who had skin exposure to high amounts of phenol had skin burns, liver damage, dark urine, irregular heart beat, and some died. (
  • Exposure to high concentrations of phenol in the air for several weeks caused paralysis and severe injury to the heart, liver, kidneys, and lungs, and in some cases, death. (
  • Phenol has caused minor birth defects and low birth weight in animals generally at exposure levels that also were toxic to the pregnant mothers. (
  • for Exposure may occur by inhalation of low Phenol is wel absorbed by the inhalation, No studies were located regarding levels levels in air or ingestion of low levels in oral, and dermal routes of exposure. (
  • it predominant route of exposure at or near Inhalation phenol can produce internal burns. (
  • Significant exposure route for Phenol is also used as a general can cause cardiac arrhythmias and may workers in contact with phenol vapors or for acute-duration oral exposure disinfectant and antiseptic in various produce tremors and seizures. (
  • Evaluates risks to human health and the environment posed by exposure to phenol, a constituent of coal tar formed during the natural decomposition of organic materials. (
  • In this study, we analyzed the association between pre-pubescent and pubescent biomarkers of exposure to select phenols and phthalates and the timing of menarche within a longitudinal cohort of Chilean girls born in 2002-2003. (
  • We assessed the influence of 26 phenol and phthalate biomarkers on the timing of menarche in a longitudinal cohort of Chilean girls. (
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the EPA have determined that phenol is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (
  • Phenol (C 6 H 6 O or C 6 H 5 OH) is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid with a sweet, acrid odor. (
  • High concentrations of phenol in the odor. (
  • Phenols are chemicals with endocrine-disrupting potential found in everyday products. (
  • I could make phenol from aspirin, but I'd rather try to use the materials I have before I buy any chemicals. (
  • In animals, breathing air with high levels of phenol resulted in irritation of the lungs. (
  • Ingestion of high concentrations of phenol has resulted in internal burns and death. (
  • Some animals that drank water with very high concentrations of phenol suffered muscle tremors and loss of coordination. (
  • However, camphor and phenol may be found separately in other products. (
  • Camphor and phenol are mild topical (for the skin) pain relievers. (
  • Allantoin, camphor, and phenol topical is a combination medicine used to treat pain, itching, or severe lip dryness caused by chapped lips or cold sores (fever blisters). (
  • Allantoin, camphor, and phenol topical may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (
  • Can I take Allantoin, Camphor, And Phenol (Blistex) if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding? (
  • Use Allantoin, Camphor, And Phenol (Blistex) exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. (
  • Phenol evaporates more slowly than water, and a moderate amount can form a solution with water. (
  • The influences of pH , temperature , and NaCl and phenol concentration on the binding ratio of gallic acid (GA)/epigallocatechin (EGC) to LRPs were evaluated. (
  • Phenol is both a manufactured chemical and a natural substance. (
  • Ingestion of concentrated phenol can produce internal burns. (
  • Ingestion of high amounts of phenol or fibers. (
  • Vomiting and lethargy were the most frequent signs of toxicity observed in children who accidentally ingested phenol and were treated at a poison control center. (
  • Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Phenol in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (
  • Phenol is used as a disinfectant and is found in a number of consumer products. (
  • Sciencemadness Discussion Board » Fundamentals » Organic Chemistry » Phenol from styrene? (
  • Following small, single releases, phenol is rapidly removed from the air (generally, half is removed in less than a day). (
  • You can taste and smell phenol at levels lower than those that are associated with harmful effects. (
  • Phenol generally remains in the soil only about 2 to 5 days. (
  • Larger or repeated releases of phenol can remain in the air, water, and soil for much longer periods of time. (
  • Phenol can have beneficial effects when used medically as an antiseptic or anesthetic. (
  • Hubballi/Mallapuram: A 19-year-old dalit girl from Kerala studying in Al Qamar College of Nursing, Kalaburagi,who was hospitalised after being allegedly ragged by her senior students and forced to drink toilet cleaning solution phenol, is serious. (
  • I'm interested in making vitreous carbon, for which I would need a phenol-formaldehyde resin. (
  • You need to knock off that extra carbon to get phenol. (
  • You may be exposed to phenol if you undergo "chemical peels" to remove skin lesions with phenol-containing products or are treated for chronic pain or spasticity with injections of phenol. (
  • Is there any way to (relatively easily) convert styrene to phenol, or should I just go the aspirin route? (
  • I doubt there's a route from styrene to phenol that doesn't involve a longer and more elusive shopping list than,"acetone, HCl, aspirin. (
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on phenol - A searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (
  • Phenols and phthalates are two classes of EDCs of particular concern due to their use in an extensive array of products, including plastics, building materials, personal care products, insecticides, and herbicides [ 24 ]. (
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about phenol. (
  • How can phenol affect my health? (
  • Low levels of phenol are found in some foods, including smoked summer sausage, fried chicken, mountain cheese, and some species of fish. (
  • Low levels of phenol can be present in air and drinking water. (
  • These levels may be higher for Phenol in air also is wel -absorbed tissues and fluids associated with effects. (
  • These facts suggest that climatic changes may be one of the factors affecting phenol levels in Eugenia uniflora. (
  • For this plant construction project, PTT Phenol relied on the main instrument vendor (MIV) approach to reduce engineering costs. (
  • Smoking or inhaling second hand smoke will expose you to phenol. (
  • PTT Phenol was the first company to produce phenol in southeast Asia , the world's largest market for this chemical. (
  • I got the partial matrixectomy with phenol last Tuesday with a podiatrist, 6 days ago, and this is the first time in the 5 times I've had it done that is taking longer to heal, I do notice redness where the phenol was applied and very sensitive to touch, but I do go to sleep with no problem. (
  • Phenol has been found in at least 595 of the 1,678 National Priority List (NPL) sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (
  • Phenol is used as a raw material in the production of plastic polycarbonate for the auto, computer, and electronics industries, and the company produces approximately 180,000 tons of this chemical each year. (
  • Application of phenol to the skin can water. (