An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.
Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.
A sulfotransferase that catalyzes the sulfation of a phenol in the presence of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate as sulfate donor to yield an aryl sulfate and adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate. A number of aromatic compounds can act as acceptors; however, organic hydroxylamines are not substrates. Sulfate conjugation by this enzyme is a major pathway for the biotransformation of phenolic and catechol drugs as well as neurotransmitters. EC 2.8.2.1.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.1 and EC 1.99.2.2.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria able to anaerobically oxidize and degrade toluene.
Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.2.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein. The enzyme also forms pyruvate from D-tyrosine, L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, L-serine, and D-serine, although at a slower rate. EC 4.1.99.2.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 1.14.18.1.
Excessive lateral nail growth into the nail fold. Because the lateral margin of the nail acts as a foreign body, inflammation and granulation may result. It is caused by improperly fitting shoes and by improper trimming of the nail.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Large aggregates of CELESTIAL STARS; COSMIC DUST; and gas. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A frozen dairy food made from cream or butterfat, milk, sugar, and flavorings. Frozen custard and French-type ice creams also contain eggs.
Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.

The alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 is closely related to aromatic monooxygenases and catalyzes aromatic monohydroxylation of benzene, toluene, and phenol. (1/497)

The genes encoding the six polypeptide components of the alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 (Xamo) have been located on a 4.9-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA previously cloned in cosmid pNY2. Sequencing and analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences indicate that the components of Xamo are homologous to those of the aromatic monooxygenases, toluene 2-, 3-, and 4-monooxygenase and benzene monooxygenase, and that the gene order is identical. The genes and predicted polypeptides are aamA, encoding the 497-residue oxygenase alpha-subunit (XamoA); aamB, encoding the 88-residue oxygenase gamma-subunit (XamoB); aamC, encoding the 122-residue ferredoxin (XamoC); aamD, encoding the 101-residue coupling or effector protein (XamoD); aamE, encoding the 341-residue oxygenase beta-subunit (XamoE); and aamF, encoding the 327-residue reductase (XamoF). A sequence with >60% concurrence with the consensus sequence of sigma54 (RpoN)-dependent promoters was identified upstream of the aamA gene. Detailed comparison of XamoA with the oxygenase alpha-subunits from aromatic monooxygenases, phenol hydroxylases, methane monooxygenase, and the alkene monooxygenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276 showed that, despite the overall similarity to the aromatic monooxygenases, XamoA has some distinctive characteristics of the oxygenases which oxidize aliphatic, and particularly alkene, substrates. On the basis of the similarity between Xamo and the aromatic monooxygenases, Xanthobacter strain Py2 was tested and shown to oxidize benzene, toluene, and phenol, while the alkene monooxygenase-negative mutants NZ1 and NZ2 did not. Benzene was oxidized to phenol, which accumulated transiently before being further oxidized. Toluene was oxidized to a mixture of o-, m-, and p-cresols (39.8, 18, and 41.7%, respectively) and a small amount (0.5%) of benzyl alcohol, none of which were further oxidized. In growth studies Xanthobacter strain Py2 was found to grow on phenol and catechol but not on benzene or toluene; growth on phenol required a functional alkene monooxygenase. However, there is no evidence of genes encoding steps in the metabolism of catechol in the vicinity of the aam gene cluster. This suggests that the inducer specificity of the alkene monooxygenase may have evolved to benefit from the naturally broad substrate specificity of this class of monooxygenase and the ability of the host strain to grow on catechol.  (+info)

Methods for detection of Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus DNA in soil. (2/497)

Two methods, phenol-ether and magnetic capture-hybridization (MCH), were developed and compared with regard to their sensitivities and abilities to extract the DNA of the insect baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) from soil and to produce DNA amplifiable by PCR. Laboratory experiments were performed with 0. 25 g of autoclaved soil inoculated with different viral concentrations to optimize both methods of baculovirus DNA extraction and to determine their sensitivities. Both procedures produced amplifiable DNA; however, the MCH method was 100-fold more sensitive than the phenol-ether procedure. The removal of PCR inhibitors from the soil appeared to be complete when MCH was used as the viral DNA isolation method, because undiluted aliquots of the DNA preparations could be amplified by PCR. The phenol-ether procedure probably did not completely remove PCR inhibitors from the soil, since PCR products were observed only when the AgMNPV DNA preparations were diluted 10- or 100-fold. AgMNPV DNA was detected in field-collected soil samples from 15 to 180 days after virus application when the MCH procedure to isolate DNA was coupled with PCR amplification of the polyhedrin region.  (+info)

Metabolism of [14C]phenol in the isolated perfused mouse liver. (3/497)

A previous report from this laboratory focused on the metabolism of [14C]benzene (BZ) in the isolated, perfused, mouse liver (C. C. Hedli, et al., 1997, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 146, 60-68). Whereas administration of BZ to mice results in bone marrow depression (R. Snyder et al., 1993, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 20, 191-194), administration of phenol (P), the major metabolite of BZ, does not. It was, therefore, of interest to determine whether the metabolic fate of P produced during BZ metabolism differed from that of P metabolized in the absence of BZ. Mouse livers were perfused with a solution of [14C]P in both the orthograde (portal vein to central vein) and retrograde (central vein to portal vein) direction to investigate the metabolic zonation of enzymes involved in P hydroxylation and conjugation. Perfusate samples were collected, separated by HPLC, and tested for radioactivity. Unconjugated metabolites were identified by comparing their retention times with nonradiolabeled standards, which were detected by UV absorption. Conjugated metabolites were identified and collected on the basis of radiochromatogram results, hydrolyzed enzymatically, and identified by co-chromatography with unlabeled BZ metabolites. The objective was to compare and quantify the metabolites formed during the perfusion of P in the orthograde and retrograde directions and to compare the orthograde P-perfusion results with the orthograde BZ results reported previously. Regardless of the direction of P perfusion, the major compounds released from the liver were P. phenylgucuronide, phenylsulfate, hydroquinone (HQ), and HQ glucuronide. A comparison of the results of perfusing P in the orthograde versus the retrograde direction showed that more P was recovered unchanged and more HQ was formed during retrograde perfusion. The results suggest that enzymes involved in P hydroxylation are generally closer to the central vein than those involved in conjugation, and that during retrograde perfusion, P metabolism may be limited by the sub-optimal conditions of perfusion. Comparison of the orthograde perfusion studies of P and BZ revealed that a larger percentage of the radioactivity released from the liver was identified as unconjugated HQ after BZ perfusion than after P perfusion. In addition, the amount of radioactivity covalently bound to liver macromolecules was measured after each perfusion and determined to be proportional to the amount of HQ and HQG detected in the perfusate samples.  (+info)

An outbreak of nonflocculating catabolic populations caused the breakdown of a phenol-digesting activated-sludge process. (4/497)

Activated sludge was fed phenol as the sole carbon source, and the phenol-loading rate was increased stepwise from 0.5 to 1.0 g liter-1 day-1 and then to 1.5 g liter-1 day-1. After the loading rate was increased to 1.5 g liter-1 day-1, nonflocculating bacteria outgrew the sludge, and the activated-sludge process broke down within 1 week. The bacterial population structure of the activated sludge was analyzed by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments. We found that the population diversity decreased as the phenol-loading rate increased and that two populations (designated populations R6 and R10) predominated in the sludge during the last several days before breakdown. The R6 population was present under the low-phenol-loading-rate conditions, while the R10 population was present only after the loading rate was increased to 1.5 g liter-1 day-1. A total of 41 bacterial strains with different repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence PCR patterns were isolated from the activated sludge under different phenol-loading conditions, and the 16S rDNA and gyrB fragments of these strains were PCR amplified and sequenced. Some bacterial isolates could be associated with major TGGE bands by comparing the 16S rDNA sequences. All of the bacterial strains affiliated with the R6 population had almost identical 16S rDNA sequences, while the gyrB phylogenetic analysis divided these strains into two physiologically divergent groups; both of these groups of strains could grow on phenol, while one group (designated the R6F group) flocculated in laboratory media and the other group (the R6T group) did not. A competitive PCR analysis in which specific gyrB sequences were used as the primers showed that a population shift from R6F to R6T occurred following the increase in the phenol-loading rate to 1.5 g liter-1 day-1. The R10 population corresponded to nonflocculating phenol-degrading bacteria. Our results suggest that an outbreak of nonflocculating catabolic populations caused the breakdown of the activated-sludge process. This study also demonstrated the usefulness of gyrB-targeted fine population analyses in microbial ecology.  (+info)

Taxonomic characterization of denitrifying bacteria that degrade aromatic compounds and description of Azoarcus toluvorans sp. nov. and Azoarcus toluclasticus sp. nov. (5/497)

A taxonomic characterization of twenty-one strains capable of degrading aromatic compounds under denitrifying conditions, isolated from ten different geographical locations, was performed on the basis of general morphological and physiological characteristics, cellular fatty acids, DNA base composition, small ribosomal (16S) subunit DNA sequences, whole-cell protein patterns and genomic DNA fragmentation analysis, in addition to DNA similarity estimations using hybridization methods. The collection of strains was subdivided into a number of different groups. A first group, consisting of four strains, could be assigned to the previously described species Azoarcus tolulyticus. A second group (five strains) had DNA which reannealed highly to that of strains of the first group, and it is considered to represent a genomovar of A. tolulyticus. The third and fourth groups, composed of a total of five strains, represent a new species of Azoarcus, Azoarcus toluclasticus (group 3) and a genomovar of this species (group 4), respectively. Finally, the fifth group, with two strains, corresponds to another new species of the genus Azoarcus, Azoarcus toluvorans. In addition to these five groups, the collection includes five individual strains perhaps representing as many different new species. The above classification is partially consistent with the results of approaches other than DNA-DNA hybridization (electrophoretic patterns of whole-cell proteins and of the fragments obtained after digestion of total DNA with infrequently cutting restriction enzymes). On the other hand, no correlation of these groupings was found in terms of the cellular fatty acid composition. It is also unfortunate that no simple sets of easily determinable phenotypic properties could be defined as being characteristic of each of the groups.  (+info)

Heat-induced expression and chemically induced expression of the Escherichia coli stress protein HtpG are affected by the growth environment. (6/497)

Differences in expression of the Escherichia coli stress protein HtpG were found following exposure of exponentially growing cells to heat or chemical shock when cells were grown under different environmental conditions. With an htpG::lacZ reporter system, htpG expression increased in cells grown in a complex medium (Luria-Bertani [LB] broth) following a temperature shock at 45 degrees C. In contrast, no HtpG overexpression was detected in cells grown in a glucose minimal medium, despite a decrease in the growth rate. Similarly, in pyruvate-grown cells there was no heat shock induction of HtpG expression, eliminating the possibility that repression of HtpG in glucose-grown E. coli was due to catabolite repression. When 5 mM phenol was used as a chemical stress agent for cells growing in LB broth, expression of HtpG increased. However, when LB-grown cells were subjected to stress with 10 mM phenol and when both 5 and 10 mM phenol were added to glucose-grown cultures, repression of htpG expression was observed. 2-Chlorophenol stress resulted in overexpression of HtpG when cells were grown in complex medium but repression of HtpG synthesis when cells were grown in glucose. No induction of htpG expression was seen with 2, 4-dichlorophenol in cells grown with either complex medium or glucose. The results suggest that, when a large pool of amino acids and proteins is available, as in complex medium, a much stronger stress response is observed. In contrast, when cells are grown in a simple glucose mineral medium, htpG expression either is unaffected or is even repressed by imposition of a stress condition. The results demonstrate the importance of considering differences in growth environment in order to better understand the nature of the response to an imposed stress condition.  (+info)

Novel effector control through modulation of a preexisting binding site of the aromatic-responsive sigma(54)-dependent regulator DmpR. (7/497)

The Pseudomonas derived sigma(54)-dependent DmpR activator regulates transcription of the (methyl)phenol catabolic dmp-operon. DmpR is constitutively expressed, but its transcriptional promoting activity is positively controlled in direct response to the presence of multiple aromatic effectors. Previous work has led to a model in which effector binding by the amino-terminal region of the protein relieves repression of an intrinsic ATPase activity essential for its transcriptional promoting property. Here, we address whether the observed differences in the potencies of the multiple effectors (i) reside at the level of different aromatic binding sites, or (ii) are mediated through differential binding affinities; furthermore, we address whether binding of distinct aromatic effectors has different functional consequences for DmpR activity. These questions were addressed by comparing wild type and an effector specificity mutant of DmpR with respect to effector binding characteristics and the ability of aromatics to elicit ATPase activity and transcription. The results demonstrate that six test aromatics all share a common binding site on DmpR and that binding affinities determine the concentration at which DmpR responds to the presence of the effector, but not the magnitude of the responses. Interestingly, this analysis reveals that the novel abilities of the effector specificity mutant are not primarily due to acquisition of new binding abilities, but rather, they reside in being able to productively couple ATPase activity to transcriptional activation. The mechanistic implications of these findings in terms of aromatic control of DmpR activity are discussed.  (+info)

Amount and fate of egg protein escaping assimilation in the small intestine of humans. (8/497)

Studies attempting to evaluate protein assimilation in humans have hitherto relied on either ileostomy subjects or intubation techniques. The availability of stable isotope-labeled protein allowed us to determine the amount and fate of dietary protein escaping digestion and absorption in the small intestine of healthy volunteers using noninvasive tracer techniques. Ten healthy volunteers were studied once after ingestion of a cooked test meal, consisting of 25 g of (13)C-, (15)N-, and (2)H-labeled egg protein, and once after ingestion of the same but raw meal. Amounts of 5.73% and 35.10% (P < 0.005) of cooked and raw test meal, respectively, escaped digestion and absorption in the small intestine. A significantly higher percentage of the malabsorbed raw egg protein was recovered in urine as fermentation metabolites. These results 1) confirm that substantial amounts of even easily digestible proteins may escape assimilation in healthy volunteers and 2) further support the hypothesis that the metabolic fate of protein in the colon is affected by the amount of protein made available.  (+info)

Biological treatment of hypersaline wastewaters such as fermentation brine from table olive processing (FTOP), was carried out using four sequential biological reactors (SBRs). These wastewaters were characterized by conductivities higher than 90 mS·cm-1 together with COD and total phenols concentration values of more than 15 g·L-1 and 1000 mg·L-1, respectively. In order to increase the organic removal efficiency and to reduce the hydraulic retention time (HRT), extra nutrients were added and pre-treatment by adsorption was performed. Results showed that the COD/N/P relationship, in the FTOP, of 250/5/1 was appropriate for the biological process reaching COD removal efficiencies of around 80%. The FTOP adsorption pre-treatment with powder activated carbon for the reduction of phenols concentration to 400 mg·L-1 led to a HRT reduction from 40 to 15 days, maintaining the COD and total phenols removal percentages around 78% and 97%, respectively. On the other hand, γ-Proteobacteria was the ...
The influence of pH and inoculum size on phenol utilization by bacterial isolates from oil refinery effluent was investigated. The substrate used for the assessment was phenol, which formed a model substrate for the experiment. Phenol was progressively degraded at pH range of 6.3 to 8.0. Maximum phenol degradation by Bacillus sp. RBD1 and Corynebacterium sp. RBD2 was obtained at pH value of 7.1. Conversely, utilization of phenol at pH 5.5 was significantly high for both organisms. Phenol was degraded at every cell density (inoculum size) tested with the two organisms but phenol degradation rate increased with increasing inoculum size. Cultures of Bacillus sp. RBD1 and Corynebacterium sp.RBD2 with the lowest cell densities exhibited highest specific rate of utilization of phenol. The results obtained indicated lower phenol utilization rate per colony forming unit at higher cell density. It was also found that pH 6.3 to 8.0 was found to be optimal for phenol degradation by the test organisms ...
Haemorol Oily Phenol Injection is used for ingrown toe and fingernails and other conditions. Haemorol Oily Phenol Injection contains the following active ingredients: Phenol.
Several activated carbons (ACs) were used as metal-free catalysts for degradation of a toxic organiccompound, phenol, in the presence of different oxidants, H2O2, peroxydisulfate (PS) and peroxymonosulfate (PMS). It was found that ACs were effective in heterogeneous activation of PMS toproduce sulfate radicals for degradation of phenol, much better than H2O2 and PS. Particle size of AC significantly influenced AC activity, and powder AC was much more effective than granular AC. The complete phenol removal could be achieved in 15 min on powder activated carbon (PAC) under the conditions of [phenol] = 25 mg L-1, [PAC] = 0.2 g L-1, [PMS] = 6.5 mmol L-1, and T = 25 degrees Celcius. It was also found that phenol degradation was significantly influenced by PMS loading, catalyst loading, phenol concentration and temperature. Surface activation of PMS and phenol adsorption played important roles in phenol degradation. Surface coverage by intermediate adsorption and structural change induced deactivation ...
Wastewaters from various types of industries contain different types of phenols. Phenolic compounds are toxic substances and some are known or suspected carcinogens. Therefore it is important to remove phenol and phenolic compounds from contaminated industrial and aqueous streams before discharged into any water bodies. It is well known that adsorption is an efficient method for removal of various pollutants from wastewater. Several adsorbents have been used for treatment of wastewater and removal of phenolic compounds. In the present study, efforts have been made for removal of phenol from aqueous solution using zeolite as an adsorbent. The adsorbent potential was tested on batch synthetic solutions containing 1-5 (mg/L) phenol concentration at room temperature. The influence of solution pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial phenol concentration on the removal efficiency of phenol from water was investigated. A 94 % phenol removal efficiency was obtained for an adsorption time of 4 hr at ...
Viognier fruit-processing methods (whole-cluster press, destemming, crush with or without skin contact, contact time and temperature) impact phenol extraction from this relatively high-phenol grape. Modification of the phenol concentration may be achieved through oxygen management, including limiting pre-fermentation sulfur dioxide (which will enhance phenol polymerization and precipitations) and by cold settling and/or pre- or post-fermentation fining. The lower the nephelometer turbidity units level of the juice pre-fermentation, the lower the soluble tannin load in the juice. As such, juice clarity can be an important stylistic tool. Protein-fining agents generally remove higher molecular weight tannins. However, the difference in the phenol concentration before and after fining is not often large. This suggests that the sensory impact may be due, in part, to changes in the colloidal complexes, not simply a change in phenol concentration. This may explain why different wines react differently ...
The activity of transparent and highly porous nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes for phenol degradation by heterogeneous photocatalysis was investigated. Electrochemical characterization, performed for electrodes with areas = 1.0 cm(2), revealed that the capacitance values increased under irradiation. Electrodes with areas = 9.0 cm(2) were used for remediation of 10 mL of an aqueous solution containing 50 mg L-1 of phenol. irradiated by a solar simulator, removal of 48% of total organic carbon was achieved after 3 h. The efficiency was significantly enhanced for electrochemically assisted photocatalysis; the average mineralization was 78% after 3 h and was almost complete after 6 h for a TiO2 electrode externally connected to a Pt counter-electrode and biased at +0.7 or +1.1 V with a potentiostat, or by a series connection to a solar cell. Phenol degradation exhibited pseudo-first-order kinetics, and application of the bias potential increased the rate constant from 0.21 to 0.47 h(-1). Applying a ...
The potential of rice husk and rice husk ash for phenol adsorption from aqueous solution was studied. Batch kinetics and isotherm studies were carried out under varying experimental conditions of contact time, phenol concentration, adsorbent dose and pH. Adsorption equilibrium of rice husk and rice husk ash was reached within 6 hours for phenolic concentration 150-500 ?g/L and 3 hours for phenol concentration 500-1300 ?g/L, respectively. Kinetics of adsorption obeyed a first-order rate equation. The adsorption of phenol increases with increasing the solution pH value. The suitability of the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models of the equilibrium data was investigated for each phenol-sorbent system. The results showed that the equilibrium data for all the phenol-sorbent systems fitted the Freundlich model best within the concentration range studied. A comparative study showed that rice husk ash is very effective than rice husk for phenol removal. The studies showed that the rice husk ash can be used
Granulicoccus phenolivorans is a Gram-positive and phenol-degrading bacterium from the genus of Granulicoccus which has been isolated from phenolic wastewater in Singapore. Parte, A.C. Granulicoccus. www.bacterio.net. Granulicoccus phenolivorans Taxon Passport - StrainInfo. www.straininfo.net. Granulicoccus phenolivorans. www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M. Nomenclature Abstract for Granulicoccus phenolivorans Maszenan et al. 2007. The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.10753. Details: DSM-17626. www.dsmz.de. Maszenan, A. M.; Jiang, H. L.; Tay, J.-H.; Schumann, P.; Kroppenstedt, R. M.; Tay, S. T.-L. (1 April 2007). Granulicoccus phenolivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-positive, phenol-degrading coccus isolated from phenol-degrading aerobic granules. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 57 (4): 730-737. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.64671-0. PMID 17392196 ...
Phenol is one of toxic pollutants in many kinds of hypersaline industrial effluents which should be treated properly before discharged into water bodies. In this work, a halophilic strain which could utilize phenol as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated. Based on 16S rRNA results, it was identified as a member of Citrobacter. The phenol biodegradation ability and cell growth of the strain was evaluated with the variation of initial phenol concentration and salinity. The effect of temperature and pH on phenol removal was also investigated. The results showed that the strain was capable of withstanding high phenol (up to 1,100 mg L−1) environment with varying salinity conditions (0-10% of NaCl). The optimal initial phenol concentration was 400 mg L−1, with which the average removal rates of phenol peaked at 10.8 mg L−1 h−1. The higher initial concentration of phenol could inhibit the microbial metabolism. The optimal temperature, pH and salinity were 35 °C, 6.0, and 0%, ...
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Phenols and its derivatives are environmental pollutant commonly found in many industrial effluents. It is toxic in nature and causes various health hazards. However, they are poorly removed in conventional biological processes due to their toxicity. Immobilization of microbial cells has received increasing interest in the field of waste treatment and creates opportunities in a wide range of sectors including environmental pollution control. Live cells of phenol-degrading yeast, Candida tropicalis RETL-Cr1, were immobilized on coconut husk and loofah by adsorption. The immobolized particle was packed into biofilter column which used for continuous treatment of a phenol with initial phenol concentration of 3mM. Both loofah and coconut husk have similar phenol biodegradation rate of 0.0188 gL-1h -1 within 15 hours to achieve a phenol removal efficiency of 100 %. However loofah have lower biomass concentration of 4.22 gL-1 compared to biomass concentration on coconut husk, 4.39 gL-1 . Coconut husk ...
Summary Applied routinely to 1081 recently isolated cultures, the phenol-induced slide-agglutination test (standard procedure) with flagellar antiserum correctly identified 98-9% of Vibrio cholerae strains of O type-I and NAG serotypes; 10% of cultures were unstable in phenol-saline. The incidence of instability and other types of defect was higher (7-3%) in older stock cultures. The majority of such strains were successfully tested by one of the three modified procedures. No cross-reactions were observed in 47 cultures of other species including the halophilic vibrios. Only one out of the 1205 cultures of V. cholerae tested by all procedures reacted negatively; this strain was found to lack functional flagella. These results establish the significance of flagellar specificity as a classificatory determinant in V. cholerae, and the fidelity and utility of the phenol test in routine bacteriology.
To correct this post, I meant a 23 month old child. Thanks, Tracy ,scholzfam5 at mindspring.com, wrote in message news:8cg497$8dh$1 at slb7.atl.mindspring.net... , Hello Group, , I was wondering if anyone had any information of the effects or concerns (if , any) of giving botox and Phenol injections to a 23 year old child with , Hypogammaglobulinemia for the treatment of his spasticity due to his , Cerebral Palsy. , , Sincerely, , Tracy , , , ...
In this investigation, single and hybrid immobilization techniques for whole cells of Pseudomonas sp. SA01 were employed to enhance phenol degradation rate. The single immobilization was achieved using alginate (2-4%) and pectin (3-5%) together with the combined immobilization systems which consisted of alginate-chitosan-alginate (ACA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-alginate capsules. The freely suspended cellsof Pseudomonas sp. SA01 was able to degrade phenol in concentrations up to 1000 mg/L 84 h. The complete degradation of the same concentration of phenol by cells entrapped in alginate (3%), in hybrid immobilization system alginate-chitosan-alginate (ACA), and in PVA-alginate encapsulated cells were achieved as low as 30 h. However, the cells immobilized in pectin (5 %) could degrade the same concentration of phenol at 35 and 40 h respectively. The cell loading capacity is increased in PVA-alginate hybrid capsules owing to the reduction of cell leakage from the beads, resulted in higher activity ...
Early buyers will receive 10% customization on reports.. This growth is driven by rising demand from Asia-Pacific region due to highly industrialized countries, such as China. Phenol derivatives are preferred for the production of polycarbonates, epoxy resins, bakelite, and nylon.. Bisphenol -A: The most-widely used derivative of phenol derivatives. Bisphenol-A is a phenol derivative commonly used for producing polycarbonates and epoxy resins. The bisphenol-A is the most-widely used derivative of phenol. Polycarbonate finds application in food and drink packaging such as water & baby bottles, compact discs, impact-resistant safety equipment, and medical devices. Further, epoxy resins used to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes. BPA is also be found in certain thermal paper products, including cash register and ATM receipts.. Asia-Pacific: The largest market for phenol derivatives. The Asia-Pacific region is the largest market in the global phenol ...
The adsorption of phenol on flat and stepped Pt and Rh surfaces and the dissociation of hydrogen from the hydroxyl group of phenol on Pt(111) and Rh(111) were studied by density functional calculations. On both Pt(111) and Rh(111), phenol adsorbs with the aromatic ring parallel to the surface and the hydroxyl group tilted away from the surface. Furthermore, adsorption on stepped surfaces was concluded to be unfavourable compared to the (111) surfaces due to the repulsion of the hydroxyl group from the step edges. Transition state calculations revealed that the reaction barriers, associated with the dissociation of phenol into phenoxy, are almost identical on Pt and Rh. Furthermore, the oxygen in the dissociated phenol is strongly attracted by Rh(111), while it is repelled by Pt(111).
Introduction. 1. Give an account of the properties and uses of phenol. (1) Phenol is acidic and its conjugate base, phenoxide ion is stabilized by resonance. However, phenol is not acidic enough to liberate CO2 from phenol because an aqueous solution of carbon dioxide is a stronger acid than phenol. An aqueous solution of phenol has a pH value of 9. This means phenol reacts with NaOH but not NaHCO3. Phenol dissolves in NaOH(aq) to form sodium phenoxide, an ionic salt. (2) Phenol is corrosive and is a useful antiseptic. (3) Phenol is a colorless solid of low melting point. Its pink appearance is due to the presence of impurities. (4) When attached to a benzene ring, a hydroxyl group does not show the properties of an alcohol. The delocalization of electrons into the ring makes the -OH group inert towards replacement. On the other hand, the -OH group activates the ring toward electrophilic substitution at the ortho- and para-positions. Therefore, phenol reacts with (a) NO2+, (b) CH3+, (c) CH3CO+, ...
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The effect of phenol on the growth rate and respiration was studied with the yeast Candida mycoderma cultivated in the pH-static conditions with continuous recording of the principal kinetic parameters of the population. The kinetics of growth inhibition with phenol was studied. Adaptation of the culture in terms of the growth rate and the rate of oxygen uptake was detected within 10--15 hours of cultivation. A new strain of C. mycoderma Phen. R. isolated using the technique of autoselection upon continuous cultivation for a long period of time, at a phenol concentration of 1.5 g/l in the growth medium, had an elevated growth rate (2.2 times higher) in these conditions as compared with the parent culture and required less oxygen. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of phenols onto 1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium-smectites. AU - Okada, Tomohiko. AU - Ogawa, Makoto. PY - 2002/8/5. Y1 - 2002/8/5. N2 - Adsorption of phenols (phenol and 2-naphthol) onto the 1,1′dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium (methylviologen:MV2+)-smectite intercalation compounds, which were synthesized by ion exchange reactions, led to the change in the color and the basal spacing. The color change was ascribed to the formation of charge-transfer complex of MV2+ and phenols. The increase in the basal spacing by the reaction with phenols indicates a change in the interlayer microstructure.. AB - Adsorption of phenols (phenol and 2-naphthol) onto the 1,1′dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium (methylviologen:MV2+)-smectite intercalation compounds, which were synthesized by ion exchange reactions, led to the change in the color and the basal spacing. The color change was ascribed to the formation of charge-transfer complex of MV2+ and phenols. The increase in the basal ...
In this work, Fe/TiO2 nanostructured catalyst was prepared using sol-gel method developed by Yoldas and tested in degradation of phenol in water under UV radiation. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by XRF, XRD, specific surface area and porosimetry, and SEM methods. The porosimetry revealed the mesopore structure of the catalyst. Results of SEM confirmed the nano dispersion of iron oxides on titania support. Effects of Fe load of the catalyst, dosage of the catalyst, pH, H2O2 amount, and time were investigated. Results of phenol photodegradation over Fe/TiO2 showed that the reaction followed an apparent first order kinetics at low phenol concentration and the apparent rate constant was 0.0017 min-1. Also, there was an optimum for Fe load of the catalyst.
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The trial is designed to investigate the sensitivity of C-Tb using various sizes of cut-off of induration in a double blind randomised, split-body study comparing 0.1 µg/0.1 mL C-Tb with the reference agent 2 T.U. Tuberculin PPD RT23 SSI. (Each volunteer receives the C-Tb agent in one arm and 2 T.U. Tuberculin PPD RT 23 SSI in the other arm). Two groups of adult patients recently diagnosed with active TB will be investigated; patients in the main group will NOT have a co-infection with HIV and patients in the second group will have a co-infection with HIV.. The C-Tb and 2 TU Tuberculin PPD RT 23 SSI agents are given concomitantly to each volunteer in the RIGHT AND LEFT forearms according to a double blind randomisation scheme.. The primary objectives are to assess the sensitivity of the C-Tb test as a function of the cut-off value (i.e., the smallest size of induration measured in mm resulting in a positive outcome of the C-Tb test) when the test is administered intradermally by the Mantoux ...
The trial is designed to investigate the sensitivity of C-Tb using various sizes of cut-off of induration in a double blind randomised, split-body study comparing 0.1 µg/0.1 mL C-Tb with the reference agent 2 T.U. Tuberculin PPD RT23 SSI. (Each volunteer receives the C-Tb agent in one arm and 2 T.U. Tuberculin PPD RT 23 SSI in the other arm). Two groups of adult patients recently diagnosed with active TB will be investigated; patients in the main group will NOT have a co-infection with HIV and patients in the second group will have a co-infection with HIV.. The C-Tb and 2 TU Tuberculin PPD RT 23 SSI agents are given concomitantly to each volunteer in the RIGHT AND LEFT forearms according to a double blind randomisation scheme.. The primary objectives are to assess the sensitivity of the C-Tb test as a function of the cut-off value (i.e., the smallest size of induration measured in mm resulting in a positive outcome of the C-Tb test) when the test is administered intradermally by the Mantoux ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Simultaneous removal of phenol, Cu and Cd from water with corn cob silica-alginate beads. AU - Shim, Jaehong. AU - Lim, Jeong Muk. AU - Shea, Patrick J.. AU - Oh, Byung Taek. PY - 2014/5/15. Y1 - 2014/5/15. N2 - Phenol and heavy metals in petroleum waste are environmental and human health concerns, but physicochemical removal is often cost-prohibitive and can produce toxic secondary products and treatment residues. An environmentally benign alternative combines corn cob silica with alginate and immobilized bacteria into beads for treating contaminated water. The concentration of phenol was decreased ,92% by Pseudomonas putida YNS1 on aliginate-silica beads (2%, w/v) after equilibrating for 96. h with water containing 214. mg phenol/L. GC-MS analysis indicated formation of benzoquinone and other polar products. Beads containing corn cob silica decreased Cu concentrations by 84-88% and Cd by 83-87% within 24 h. In a mixture of 114. mg phenol, 43. mg Cu and 51. mg Cd/L, phenol ...
Phenol is an aromatic organic compound which occurs as white crystalline powder or a colourless liquid, having the chemical formula, C6H6O. Also known as carbolic acid, benzenol or monohydroxybenzene, phenol is mildly acidic in nature. It has stronger hydrogen bond and higher solubility in water than alcohols.. Being inexpensive, phenol has diverse applications in numerous industries. Traditionally, it was used as an antiseptic and in carbolic soaps. Nowadays, it is used in the manufacture of packaging, coatings and adhesives, automotive, agrochemicals, paints, textiles, food, construction, pharmaceuticals, etc. About two-thirds of the production of phenol is consumed in conversion to precursors for other chemicals, plastics and other materials. The derivatives of phenol are also used in the production of certain cosmetics like hair dyes, sunscreens, skin lightening creams, etc. According to a new report by Expert Market Research, the global phenol market reached a volume of 11.4 Million Tons in ...
Phenol is an aromatic organic compound which occurs as white crystalline powder or a colourless liquid, having the chemical formula, C6H6O. Also known as carbolic acid, benzenol or monohydroxybenzene, phenol is mildly acidic in nature. It has stronger hydrogen bond and higher solubility in water than alcohols.. Being inexpensive, phenol has diverse applications in numerous industries. Traditionally, it was used as an antiseptic and in carbolic soaps. Nowadays, it is used in the manufacture of packaging, coatings and adhesives, automotive, agrochemicals, paints, textiles, food, construction, pharmaceuticals, etc. About two-thirds of the production of phenol is consumed in conversion to precursors for other chemicals, plastics and other materials. The derivatives of phenol are also used in the production of certain cosmetics like hair dyes, sunscreens, skin lightening creams, etc. According to a new report by Expert Market Research, the global phenol market reached a volume of 11.4 Million Tons in ...
* found in: Phenol:Chloroform(pH6.7/8.0), Phenol:Chloroform 5:1 (pH4.5), Phenol S/P Buffer-Saturtd, Phenol:Chloroform Low pH, Phenol, Crystalline, Phenol..
We went in to be weighed and talk to the doc. She took us down to another room and the anesthesiologist was in there and was not expecting us. But we were there, we took off Tys socks and shoes and showed her where there was some concerns on his toes and the anesthesiologist told him he was going to wear a mask and Ty cried, got the mask, and I was right there the whole time ( so was Grays and D too!) Ty was quickly out and we left. He had his shots and we went back to get him ...
C. A. Herter, A. J. Wakeman; THE ACTION OF HEPATIC, RENAL AND OTHER CELLS ON PHENOL AND INDOL, UNDER NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS . J Exp Med 1 May 1899; 4 (3-4): 307-326. doi: https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.4.3-4.307. Download citation file:. ...
This report contains a preliminary process design for a direct route to phenol from benzene based on the 2009 patent issued to the Council of Scientific Research in New Delhi. This patent describes a significantly improved method to produce phenol using a vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst. The process evades over-oxidized byproducts and yield loss. The resulting design produces the desired 500 million pounds per year of phenol by combining the ideas presented in the patent and adjustments made by the design group. The optimal process presented utilizes two parallel series of three reactors each to produce the phenol. Through a combination of azeotropic distillation and flash vaporization, it is possible to achieve greater than 99 percent pure phenol as a product while recycling all components not consumed. The plant requires a capital investment of 85.7 million USD with an internal rate of return of 4.98 percent and return on investment of 1.48 percent. It is suggested that the research and development
This study investigated the catabolic potential of a eukaryotic alga to degrade one of the most common organic pollutants, phenol. The alga, Ochromonas danica (993/28), was selected for study after screening for its heterotrophic capabilities. The catabolic versatility of the alga was elucidated by incubating with a variety of phenolic compounds. The alga removed phenol, all the cresol isomers and 3,4-xylenol from its incubation media, with phenol being removed more rapidly than any of its methylated homologues. Consequently, the alga was found to have a greater specificity for phenol than for o- or p-cresols. This study shows that O. danica could catabolize phenol and its methylated homologues.. ...
Phenol-chloroform extraction Phenol-chloroform extraction is a liquid-liquid extraction technique in biochemistry and molecular biology for purifying DNA
Notes on Phenol Safety Procedure: Keep Phenol under hood at all times. Use FULL protective gear to avoid touching or breathing the phenol. Wash all dishes that have touched phenol thoroughly and pour waste water in a labeled waste container. Clean up ANY and ALL phenol that spills thoroughly. Throw away all solid waste that has touched phenol in a labeled solid waste container. Notes on Films: These films did not form as well as hoped. 2 of the solutions (the 0.214g Phenol and the 0.0214g phenol) dissolved but then began to form many bubbles in them. The films therefore look somewhat white with bubbles. The 2.15g phenol solution had a lot of trouble dissolving, furthermore the phenol was a little brown almost immediately on being added to the solution. An extra 5 mL was added to this solution to aid dissolution. Calculations: There are 6.86508E21 OH groups n 0.5g PVOH (from previous days calculations) * 2 = 1.373E22 OH groups in 1g PVOH We want films in which 10%, 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01% of PVOH OH ...
IMARCs new TMMR Phenol Market - Industry Trends, Prices, Manufacturing Process, Applications, Raw Materials, Manufacturers, Regional Breakup, Mass Balance provides a technical, analytical and statistical insight into the phenol market. The market analysis includes volume trends, value trends, price trends, key players, market breakup by region, market breakup by end-use industries, key success factors, key risk factors, feedstock market trends, import trends, export trends, etc.. Apart from the market analysis, the report also provides an exhaustive technical insight on phenol. This includes chemical information, manufacturing process, chemical reactions involved, raw material requirements, mass balance, conversion rate of feedstocks, etc. The study, which is based both on desk research and multiple waves of qualitative primary research, is a must-read for entrepreneurs, investors, researchers, consultants, business strategists, and all those who are planning to foray into the phenol industry ...
Phenol is an important commodity chemical, and is a starting material for the production of numerous industrial chemicals and polymers, including bisphenol A and phenolic resins, and others. At present, the production of phenol entirely depends on the chemical synthesis from benzene, and its annual production exceeds 8 million tons worldwide. Microbial production of phenol seems to be a non-viable process considering the high toxicity of phenol to the cell. Researchers at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) have reported the successful development of an engineered Escherichia coli strain which can produce phenol from glucose. E. coli… Login to continue. ...
Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria. A biosensor can be created by placing a reporter gene under control of an inducible promoter. The reporter gene produces a signal when a cognate transcriptional activator senses the inducing chemical. Creation of bacterial biosensors is currently restricted by limited knowledge of the genetic systems of bacteria that catabolize xenobiotics. By using mutagenic PCR to change the chemical specificity of the Pseudomonas species CF600 DmpR protein, the potential for engineering novel biosensors for detection of phenols has been demonstrated. DmpR, a well-characterized transcriptional activator of the P. CF600s dmp operon mediates growth on simple phenols. Transcription from Po, the promoter heading the dmp operon, is activated when the sensor domain of DmpR interacts with phenol and mono-substituted phenols. By altering the sensor domain of the DmpR, a group of DmpR derivatives that activate transcription of a Po-lacZ fusion in response to eight of the EPAs
The Ortho Phenyl Phenol (OPP) Market research report presents an all-inclusive study of the global Ortho Phenyl Phenol (OPP) market. The report includes all the major trends and technologies performing a major role in the Ortho Phenyl Phenol (OPP) market development during forecast period. The key players in the market are Lanxess, Dow, SANKO, Shandong Xingang Chemical, Jinan Yudong Technology. An attractiveness study has been presented for each geographic area in the report to provide a comprehensive analysis of the overall competitive scenario of the Ortho Phenyl Phenol (OPP) market globally.. Apply here for the SAMPLE copy of the report @: www.reportsbuzz.com/request-for-sample.html?repid=53820. Furthermore, the report comprises an outline of the diverse tactics used by the key players in the market. It also details the competitive scenario of the Ortho Phenyl Phenol (OPP) market, placing all the key players as per their geographic presence and previous major developments. SWOT analysis is ...
Phenol is moderately soluble in water - about 8 g of phenol will dissolve in 100 g of water. If you try to dissolve more than this, you get two layers of liquid. The top layer is a solution of phenol in water, and the bottom one a solution of water in phenol. Phenol is somewhat soluble in water because of its ability to form hydrogen bonds with the water.. ...
I have done a friedel crafts acylation reaction to 4-chloro phenol using benzoyl chloride. Now my reaction mixture contains o-acylated product and probably unreacted phenol. both of which contain phenolic OH group. Now how can I separate the unreacted phenol from the acylated product. I doubt whether base extraction can do it because both the components phenol and its acylated product have phenolic OH. Is there any other way such that I can remove the unreacted phenol and get the pure acylated product ...
Seair offers latest Amino Phenol import data and directory of Amino Phenol importers, exporters, buyers, suppliers, and manufacturers in India. It compiles its database according to authentic shipment data from Indian customs. We ensure the listing of all the products of Amino Phenol passing the nations boundaries according to international products standards Seair helps in the anticipation of avoidance of custom duties and gains which altogether account for a noteworthy income for the legislature. It also conveys essential import archives allowing the import. It covers Amino Phenol shipments in several ports in India, whose data is accessible with a backlog of around 3 days. The data is easily available online, by email and on MS-Excel. ...
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Business Directory for Phenol Suppliers in Thrissur - Get contact details of Phenol Manufacturers, Wholesale Phenol Exporters, Best Phenol Traders & Distributors Across the Thrissur.
Nov. 23, 1965 Transmiffance Transmit/since H. s. BLANCHARD ETAL 3,219,626 PROCESS FOR OXIDIZING PHENOLS TO POLYPHENYL ETHERS AND DIPHENOQUINONES Filed May 29. 1961 I l I I I I I l I I l I I I I I I 4000 3200 2400 2000 I900 /800 I600 I400 I200 I000 800 600 Wave number (:m) I I I I I I 1 I I I l I I l I I I I 4000 3200 2400 C000 I900 I800 I600 I400 I200 I000 800 500 Wave number (cm Inventors Harry 5. Blanchard rmqn L. Hume/g7 b ,ym/ff United States Patent This invention relates to a method of utilization new compounds as catalysts in the oxidation of phenols. More specifically, this invention relates to the use of a cupric complex having the empirical formula CH=C11 z 2 n where X is selected from the group consisting of chlorine and bromine and n is an integer and is at least 1, as catalysts for the oxidation of phenols, and more particularly to the oxidation of phenols to either phenylene oxide polymers or to diphenoquinones. In an application, Serial No. 212,128, filed July 24, 1962, Hay which ...
Aspirin and azo derivatives have been widely studied and have drawn considerable attention due to diverse biological activities. In this study, a series of 4-[(halophenyl)diazenyl]phenyl aspirinate derivatives were synthesized from the reaction of aspirin with 4-[(halophenyl)diazenyl]phenol via esterification, in the presence of DCC/DMAP in DCM with overall yield of 45-54%. 4-[(Halophenyl)diazenyl]phenol was prepared prior to esterification from coupling reaction of aniline derivatives and phenol in basic solution. All compounds were characterized using elemental analysis, FTIR, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. All compounds were screened for their anticancer activities against nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) HK-1 cell lines and the viability of cultured cells was determined by MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxylmethoxylphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium]-based colorimetric assay. 4-[(E)-(Fluorophenyl)diazenyl]phenol showed the highest anticancer activity against NPC HK-1 cell ...
INEOS Phenol has today announced it is taking the next step to build a world scale Cumene unit in Germany to be completed in 2020. The company has confirmed that it has started a Front End and Engineering study (FEED) with a view to taking a final investment decision by the end of 2018. The world-scale unit will be located within the Chemiepark in Marl, Germany, where it will access existing pipeline connections between INEOS Phenol Acetone production site in Gladbeck, the Evonik Chemiepark in Marl, in addition to the BP refinery and cracker complex in Gelsenkirchen. Its location and connections will allow the plant to be highly efficient, with raw material integration into the refinery and cracker complex, and access to the Marl harbor inland waterway connection. The construction of a new cumene plant will support customer demand, improve the security of raw material supply to the INEOS phenol and acetone plants located in Gladbeck and Antwerp. INEOS Phenol is the world largest producer of ...
Phenols are among the highest-volume chemicals in production [ 3]. International organizations such as Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) [ 1] have documented phenol toxicity and recommend the monitoring of phenol exposure for groups at risk. The toxicity includes CNS depression and other symptoms such as skin burns, nausea, profuse sweating [ 1]. In exposure- and risk- evaluation, the monitoring of phenol by peripheral biomarker has several advantages over technical assessment of exposure. The urine methyl hippuric level is an acceptable peripheral biomarker for phenol exposure [ 1]. It was concluded that the phenol can be used for crude phenol exposure categorizations. Phenol is an important contamination in traffic fume [ 3]. High phenol exposure among the population living in the urban area of big city can be expected. Here, the author studied the urine phenol level among healthy subjects in urban area in Bangkok. We recommend that annual check up and monitoring for ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. Intense Research has been recently published a fresh research report- Global 2-Methoxy-5-nitro Phenol (CAS 636-93-1) Market - By - Manufacturers, States, Type and Application, Forecast to 2021 - By - Manufacturers, States, Type and Application, Forecast to 2021. This added to the companys collection of research reports. This report offers a deep examination of the 2-Methoxy-5-nitro Phenol (CAS 636-93-1) market for the period 2013-2023. As per the report, the 2-Methoxy-5-nitro Phenol (CAS 636-93-1) market is estimated to grow at elevated CAGR recorded in 2017. The towering competitive 2-Methoxy-5-nitro Phenol (CAS 636-93-1) market has been observing huge and whooping investments in development and research from government as well as private firms.. This report divides the market on the basis of regions, manufacturers, application, and type. It also showcases the growing factors, reasons for decline in the market, ...
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Tyman, J.H.P. (1996-08-21). Synthetic and Natural Phenols. p. 7. ISBN 9780080542195. Losch, P; Kolb, J.F.; Astafan, A; Daou, T. ... The Raschig-Hooker process is a chemical process for the production of phenol. The main steps in this process are the ... Due to the two step nature, the Raschig-Hooker process can be used to produce either chlorobenzene or phenol.[citation needed] ... Kropf, H. (1964). "Moderne technische Phenol-Synthesen I". Chemie Ingenieur Technik. 36 (7): 759-768. doi:10.1002/cite. ...
At one time, chlorobenzene was the main precursor for the manufacture of phenol: C6H5Cl + NaOH → C6H5OH + NaCl The reaction ... nov., a novel bioprocessor isolated actinomycete with the ability to degrade chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and phenol as sole ... nov., a novel bioprocessor isolated actinomycete with the ability to degrade chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and phenol as sole ... Weber, Manfred; Weber, Markus; Kleine-Boymann, Michael (2004). "Phenol". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi: ...
"Phenol Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313.CS1 ...
"Phenol Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313. Morton ...
The sodium salt of orthophenyl phenol, sodium orthophenyl phenol, is a preservative, used to treat the surface of citrus fruits ... Orthophenyl phenol is also used as a fungicide in food packaging and may migrate into the contents. It is prepared by ... "Phenol Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313. List of ...
... (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several ... Phenol-Explorer. 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016. "Resveratrol". MedlinePlus, National Library of Medicine, US National Institutes ...
... "phenols" according to the IUPAC official nomenclature rules of chemical compounds. Many such monophenolics are often termed " ... "Phenol Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313. ISBN 978-3527306732. Martin ...
He carried out studies on phenols and discovered a phenol derivative now known as bisphenol A and the accordingly named ... Condensation of phenol with mesityl oxide". Журнал Русского Физико-Химического Общества (J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc.) (in Russian ... It involves the catalysed condensation of a 2:1 mixture of phenol and acetone in the presence of concentrated hydrochloric acid ... Dianin, A. P. (1891). "О продуктах конденсации кетонов с фенолами" [Condensation of ketones with phenols]. Журнал Русского ...
"Epoxy Nonyl Phenol Alert is it in your epoxy?". www.epoxyproducts.com. Retrieved 2021-03-18. "para nonyl phenol" (PDF). ... Nonyl Phenol, is used in many epoxy formulations mainly in North America. Nonylphenol persists in aquatic environments and is ... The nonyl group can be attached to the phenol ring at various locations, usually the 4- and, to lesser extent, the 2-positions ... "No, no, nonyl(phenol)". Healthy Building Network. Retrieved 2021-03-18. Mergel, Maria. "Nonylphenol and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates ...
Typically phenol-containing molecules similar to BPA are known to exert weak estrogenic activities, thus it is also considered ... Fiege H; Voges H-W; Hamamoto T; Umemura S; Iwata T; Miki H; Fujita Y; Buysch H-J; Garbe D; Paulus W (2000). "Phenol Derivatives ... BPA's ability to mimic the effects of natural estrogen derives from the similarity of phenol groups on both BPA and estradiol, ... Ye X, Kuklenyik Z, Needham LL, Calafat AM (February 2006). "Measuring environmental phenols and chlorinated organic chemicals ...
"Phenol Explorer". 2015-06-01. Noratto, G; Porter, W; Byrne, D; Cisneros-Zevallos, L (2009). "Identifying peach and plum ...
"Phenol Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313. ISBN ...
Similar to other phenols, the hydroxyl groups on the aromatic ring of a benzenediol are weakly acidic. Each benzenediol can ... These aromatic compounds are classed as phenols. There are three isomer: 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (the ortho isomer) is commonly ... "Phenol Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313. ISBN ...
"Phenol Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313. DE ...
22a Phenol; 22 Phenol dimer For a list of current workunits, visit the project's website. List of distributed computing ...
Fiege, H.; Voges, H.-M.; Hamamoto, T; Umemura, S.; Iwata, T.; Miki, H.; Fujita, Y.; Buysch, H.-J.; Garbe, D. (2000). "Phenol ...
"Phenol Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313. v t e. ...
Phenol is used as feedstock for the production of downstream products, such as engineering plastics. PTT Phenol Co.ltd is ... Phenol Business Unit; Performance Materials & Chemical Business Unit. GC owns and operates a refinery equipped with ... ". "PTT Phenol". "Performance Materials and Chemicals Business Unit". "Settrade - PTTGC : PTT GLOBAL CHEMICAL PUBLIC COMPANY ...
ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. Only one name is retained, phenol, for C6H5-OH, both as a preferred name and for general nomenclature. ... It is an intermediate in the polychlorination of phenol. 2-Chlorophenol is a colorless liquid, although commercial samples are ... It is one of three isomeric monochloride derivatives of phenol. As from occasional use as a disinfectant, it has few ... "Phenol Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313. ToxFAQs ...
It is very sensitive and can detect down to 0.05 parts per million of phenols. The mechanism is a reaction of the chlorimide ... ISBN 978-1-118-13515-0. Gibbs, H. D. (1 April 1927). "Phenol Tests. III. The Indophenol Test" (PDF). The Journal of Biological ... group (=NCl) with the phenol to produce an indophenol, with two rings joined via an =N- link. Lewis, Robert A. (2016). Hawley's ...
It is synthesized by a modification of the Williamson ether synthesis, here the reaction of phenol and bromobenzene in the ... "Phenol Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313. Cook, A ... diphenyl ether is a significant side product in the high-pressure hydrolysis of chlorobenzene in the production of phenol. ...
PCP can be produced by the chlorination of phenol in the presence of catalyst (anhydrous aluminium or ferric chloride) and a ... The main contaminants include other polychlorinated phenols, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated ... "Phenol Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313. ToxFAQs ...
... is a germicidal and germistatic glycol ether, phenol ether, and aromatic alcohol often used together with ... "Phenol Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313. ... Phenoxyethanol is produced by the hydroxyethylation of phenol (Williamson synthesis), for example, in the presence of alkali- ...
The long-chain alkylphenols are prepared by alkylation of phenol with alkenes: C6H5OH + RR'C=CHR" → RR'CH−CHR"−C6H4OH In this ... Alkylphenols are a family of organic compounds obtained by the alkylation of phenols. The term is usually reserved for ... "Phenol Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313. ISBN ...
... a natural phenol found in plants (e.g. by soil bacteria Bradyrhizobium japonicum). Hydroxyquinol is also a metabolite in some ... "Phenol Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313 ...
As a solution in alcohol and in combination with other phenols, it is used as an antiseptic and preservative. It is a moderate ... "Phenol Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313. ...
Phenol-formaldehyde resins (PF) were the first commercially relevant impregnation resins, made by reacting phenol and ... Phenol can react with formaldehyde at the ortho and para positions, generating mono, di, and trimethylolphenol as the reaction ... "Phenol-formaldehyde resin , chemical compound". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-03-15. Furuno, T.; Imamura, Y.; Kajita ... Distribution of phenol-formaldehyde resin in impregnated southern pine and effects on stabilization. Wood Fiber Sci. 2008, 40, ...
I. Phenol derivatives". Biochemical Pharmacology. 5: 1-19. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(60)90002-2. v t e. ...
2000). "Phenol Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313 ...
"foods in which the polyphenol Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside is found". Phenol-Explorer v 3.6. June 2015. "Flavonoids". Micronutrient ...
Phenol sulfotransferase may refer to: SULT1A1, a human gene encoding a sulfotransferase SULT1A2, a human gene encoding a ...
Phenol ethers can be synthesized through an acid-catalyzed condensation of phenols and an alcohol. Phenols include phenol ... Due to the increased hydrophobicity of phenol ethers compared to traditional phenols, phenol ethers are often present in the ... Phenol ethers follow the same nomenclature of regular ethers; ethers have the structure R-O-R, but phenol ethers require that ... In chemistry, a phenol ether (or aromatic ether) is an organic compound derived from phenol (C6H5OH), where the hydroxyl (-OH) ...
Exposure to phenol may cause irritation to the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and nervous system. Some symptoms of exposure to ... Phenol (C6H6O or C6H5OH) is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid with a sweet, acrid odor. ... phenol are weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, muscle aches, and pain ... Phenol (C6H6O or C6H5OH) is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid with a sweet, acrid odor. Exposure to phenol may cause ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Phenol&oldid=46487425" ...
... has role mouse metabolite (CHEBI:75771) phenol (CHEBI:15882) is a phenols (CHEBI:33853) phenol (CHEBI: ... phenol (CHEBI:15882) has role antiseptic drug (CHEBI:48218) phenol (CHEBI:15882) has role disinfectant (CHEBI:48219) phenol ( ... phenol O-(β-D-glucuronide) (CHEBI:64681) has functional parent phenol (CHEBI:15882). phenoxenium (CHEBI:52245) has functional ... tert-butyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate (CHEBI:142523) is a phenol (CHEBI:15882). piperlactam S (CHEBI:132657) is a phenol ( ...
The substance and the vapour are corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Corrosive on ingestion. Inhalation of the vapour may cause lung oedema, but only after initial corrosive effects on eyes and/or airways have become manifest. See Notes. The substance may cause effects on the central nervous system, heart and kidneys. This may result in convulsions, coma, cardiac disorders, respiratory failure and collapse. The effects may be delayed. Medical observation is indicated. Exposure could cause death ...
Skin exposure to high levels of phenol has resulted in liver damage, diarrhea, dark urine, and hemolytic anemia. Phenol has ... Phenol is a manufactured substance found in a number of consumer products. ... normal concentration of phenol in the urine may suggest recent exposure to phenol or to substances that are converted to phenol ... Phenol can remain in water for a week or more.. *Larger or repeated releases of phenol can remain in the air, water, and soil ...
Toxicological Profile for Phenol. CAS#: 108-95-2. Toxicological Profile Information. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly ... Toxicological profile for Phenol. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
Rouge de phenol, Vert brillant et Rouge de Phénol, Rouge phenol, Phénolsulfonephtaléine (fr) ... Media in category "Phenol red". The following 24 files are in this category, out of 24 total. ... Phenol red, 4,4-(3H-2,1-benzoxathiol-3-ylidene)bisphenol S,S-dioxide, PSP, 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-3H-2,1-benzoxathiole 1,1- ... phenol red (fa); Fenol crveno (sh); феноловый красный (ru); Fenol kırmızısı (tr); Phenolrot (de); vermelho de fenol (pt); ...
... is used in sclerotherapy to treat piles (haemorrhoids). It is injected into the base of the piles, in ... Oily phenol injection. Oily phenol injection is used in sclerotherapy to treat piles (haemorrhoids). It is injected into the ... Oily phenol injection is used in sclerotherapy to treat piles (haemorrhoids). It is injected into the base of the piles, in ...
Phenol is potentially capable of causing both systemic toxicity and direct adverse effects on the skin following dermal ... phenol are capable of causing skin corrosion, whereas diluted solutions (1 to 3% phenol) are irritating to the skin [European ... Phenol is potentially capable of causing both systemic toxicity and direct adverse effects on the skin following dermal ... The following section provides additional detail about the potential health hazards of skin contact with phenol and the ...
Natural sources of phenols on www.britannica.com. Databases[edit]. *Phenol-Explorer (phenol-explorer.eu), a database dedicated ... Phenol extraction[edit]. Phenol extraction is a processing technology used to prepare phenols as raw materials, compounds or ... For the molecule alone, see Phenol.. In biochemistry, naturally occurring phenols refers to phenol functional group that is ... Unfiltered olive oil has the higher levels of phenols, or polar phenols that form a complex phenol-protein complex. ...
... alcohol; Phenol, molten; Rcra waste number U188; UN 1671; UN 2312; UN 2821; Phenic alcohol; NSC 36808; Campho-Phenique ...
Evans J.C., The vibrational spectra phenol and phenol-OD, Spectrochim. Acta, 1960, 16, 1382-1392. [all data] ... Phenol alcohol; Phenol, molten; Rcra waste number U188; UN 1671; UN 2312; UN 2821; Phenic alcohol; NSC 36808; Campho-Phenique ... Bartmess, J.E.; Scott, J.A.; McIver, R.T., Jr., The gas phase acidity scale from methanol to phenol, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1979, ... Capponi, M.; Gut, I.G.; Hellrung, B.; Persy, G.; Wirz, J., Ketonization equilibria of phenol in aqueous solution, Can. J. Chem. ...
Phenol definition, Also called carbolic acid, hydroxybenzene, oxybenzene, phenylic acid. a white, crystalline, water-soluble, ... phenol phe·nol (fēnôl, -nōl). n. *. A caustic, poisonous, white crystalline compound derived from benzene and used in ... Some phenols occur naturally in the essential oils of plants. Phenols are used in industry to make plastics and detergents. ... Word Origin and History for phenol Expand. n. "carbolic acid," 1844, from pheno- + -ol. Discovered in coal tar in 1834; used as ...
About PHENOL: Phenol is an aromatic compound. In the United States, Phenol may be used as an active ingredient in OTC drug ... Synonym(s): BENZENOL; CARBOLIC ACID; HYDROXYBENZENE; LIQUID PHENOL; OXYBENZENE; PHENOL,; PHENYL ALCOHOL; ACIDE CARBOLIQUE ( ... When used as an active drug ingredient, the established name is Phenol.. Function(s): Antimicrobial Agent; Cosmetic Biocide; ...
... the End jgraham at bronze.ucs.indiana.edu Fri Oct 29 07:42:55 EST 1993 *Previous message: Phenol source ... Interesting, we distill enough phenol for over 6 months (eg. 2 L) in an afternoon. A simple electrical heating ring and coiled ...
Also known as phenolic resins, phenol-formaldehyde polymers were the first completely synthetic polymers to be commercialized. ... In 1872 the German chemist Adolf von Baeyer condensed trifunctional phenol and ... applied for a patent on a phenol-formaldehyde thermoset that eventually became known by the trademarked name Bakelite. ... Phenol formaldehyde: Many people date the beginning of the modern plastics industry to 1907, when Leo Hendrik Baekeland, a ...
Phenol Topical rated 5.2/10 in overall patient satisfaction. ... Compare Phenol Topical head-to-head for uses, ratings, cost, ... phenol topical may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. ...
Phenol-soluble modulins.. Otto M1.. Author information. 1. Pathogen Molecular Genetics Section, Laboratory of Human Bacterial ... Biofilm; Cytolysis; Leukotoxin; Neutrophils; Phenol-soluble modulins; Staphylococcus aureus; Staphylococcus epidermidis; Toxins ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Phenol (EHC 161, 1994) Phenol (HSG 88, 1994) PHENOL (JECFA Evaluation) Phenol (PIM 412) ...
I have a brand new bottle of phenol ph 6.7. What do I need to add to ,, make acid phenol/chloroform? Thanks. ,, -Ed ,, ,, ... I suppose it means to melt phenol , (Sigma) and add the same volume of chloroform - you will get acid , phenol/chloroform. The ... Ed Jasenka Pigac wrote: , Phenol is acid as such when melted. If you add either water or , chloroform it will remain acid. ... Acid Phenol/chloroform. Ed Siefker via methods%40net.bio.net (by ebs15242 from creighton.edu). Wed Nov 7 12:05:49 EST 2007 * ...
Principle: Phenol Red Fermentation medium contains peptone, phenol red (a pH indicator) and the carbohydrate to be tested. ... Phenol red is yellow at a pH , 6.8 and red at a pH of > 7.4, therefore if a bacterium ferments a sugar to acid a yellow color ... Phenol Red Fermentation Tubes. Purpose: To determine if a bacterium can ferment a particular carbohydrate and determine the end ... Possible phenol red tube results include: (A) Formation of acid and gas (bubble is indicated by arrow), (B) Formation of acid ...
... today informed its phenol customers that it is declaring force majeure as a result of shortages and delivery delays of its key ... AdvanSix (ASIX) today informed its phenol customers that it is declaring force majeure as a result of shortages and delivery ... The force majeure has been declared only for phenol and will not impact shipments of other products produced at the Companys ... As a result of this force majeure event, phenol production at the Companys Frankford, Pennsylvania facility and caprolactam ...
FDAs Bacteriological Analytical Manual (the BAM) is the agencys preferred laboratory procedures for the detection in food and cosmetic products of pathogens (bacterial, viral, parasitic, plus yeast and mold) and of microbial toxins. The complete BAM is now available online and will be updated as needed.
Phenol-soluble modulins and staphylococcal infection.. Peschel A1, Otto M.. Author information. 1. Cellular and Molecular ... Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) have recently emerged as a novel toxin family defining the virulence potential of highly ... PSMs are secreted by the Pmt (Phenol-soluble modulin transporter) four-component ABC transporter. Presence of the Pmt ...
When pure, phenol has a sweet, tar-like odor that is readily detected at low concentrations (0.05 ppm in air). Phenol is ... phenol is a translucent, colorless, crystalline mass, white powder, or thick, syrupy liquid. The crystals are hygroscopic and ... Phenol is absorbed easily into the body through the skin, lungs, and stomach. The brain is very sensitive to phenol. Phenol can ... Can phenol poisoning be treated? There is no antidote for phenol, but its effects can be treated, and most exposed persons do ...
Whiff of Phenol Spells Trouble. A landmark case in Ohio topples scientific assumptions as wells guaranteed to entrap waste for ... The stench of phenol was overpowering, wafting from mud taken from a layer of rock thousands of feet beneath southern Ohio. ... But the phenol - a deadly chemical used in Aristechs processes that is known to cause internal burns, muscle spasms and organ ... Baker - who is now Ohio EPAs director -- said he now believes the sample detecting phenol was a mistake, and says he no longer ...
... gb-gplus-shareDie Industrie der phenol-aldehyd-harze. ... phenol_aldehyd_harze.html?id=On8mAQAAIAAJ&utm_source= ... 0 ReviewsWrite reviewhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Die_Industrie_der_phenol_aldehyd_harze.html?id=On8mAQAAIAAJ ...
... m-Kresol Masse mehrwertigen Meister Lucius Mengen Metall Mischung m glichst nat rliche Harze Novolake str Petroff Phenol Phenol ... Die Industrie der phenol-aldehyd-harze. Volume 47 of Monographien ber chemisch-technische Fabrikations-methoden. ... gb-gplus-shareDie Industrie der phenol-aldehyd-harze. ... phenol_aldehyd_harze.html?id=On8mAQAAIAAJ&utm_source= ... 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Die_Industrie_der_phenol_aldehyd_harze.html?id=On8mAQAAIAAJ ...
  • phenol , better known as carbolic acid, finds a use as a developer. (dictionary.com)
  • Phenol , also known under an older name of carbolic acid , is a toxic, colorless crystalline solid with a distinctive sweet tarry odor. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Phenol was also the main ingredient of the Carbolic Smoke Ball, a device sold in London designed to protect the user against influenza and other ailments. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Phenol (also called carbolic acid) is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Joseph Lister (1827-1912), an English surgeon at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary, used solutions of phenol dissolved in water, known as carbolic acid , to kill germs in wounds and to sterilize medical equipment, drastically cutting down the number of deaths caused by infections. (angelo.edu)
  • phenol (carbolic acid), molecular model. (pond5.com)
  • Phenol is used primarily in the production of phenolic resins and in the manufacture of nylon and other synthetic fibers. (cdc.gov)
  • Also known as phenolic resins , phenol-formaldehyde polymers were the first completely synthetic polymers to be commercialized. (britannica.com)
  • It is also used in the production of drugs (it is the starting material in the industrial production of aspirin ), weedkiller, and synthetic resins ( Bakelite , one of the first synthetic resins to be manufactured, is a polymer of phenol with formaldehyde ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Phenol is an important commodity chemical, and is a starting material for the production of numerous industrial chemicals and polymers, including bisphenol A and phenolic resins, and others. (innovations-report.com)
  • Thermosetting water-immiscible phenol-formaldehyde resins in which a large proportion of the linkages between the benzene rings are benzyl ether linkages located ortho to the phenolic hydroxyl groups are produced by reaction of at least one mole of formaldehyde with 1 mole of phenol in an aqueous reaction. (google.es)
  • Wettabillty of southern pine veneers was judged by measuring the contact angles made by 36 phenol formaldehyde resins. (usda.gov)
  • Sachin Mathur, DGM, Epoxy Division, Aditya Birla Chemicals (Thailand) Ltd will provide an in depth assessment of epoxy resins markets while Cheng Li Hong, Director, Consulting Department, CPCIA/CPCIF will present her views on Chinese phenol/acetone markets. (prweb.com)
  • Another major factor catalysing its demand is the increasing application of epoxy resins (derived from phenol) in composites and adhesives which are used in the production of wind rotor blades and other structural elements. (prnewswire.com)
  • Currently, phenol is being used as a chemical intermediate in the production of a number of chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA), phenolic resins, caprolactum, alkyl-phenols, aniline and 2,6-xylenol. (prnewswire.com)
  • In 2017, Bisphenol A accounted for majority of the total global phenol consumption followed by phenolic resins, caprolactum and alkyl phenyls. (prnewswire.com)
  • For the molecule alone, see Phenol . (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenolic compounds are classified as simple phenols or polyphenols based on the number of phenol units in the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenols can have two or more hydroxy groups bonded to the aromatic ring(s) in the same molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Addition of O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) to the phenol molecule branches into two competitive 1,4-cycloaddition and ortho ene-type routes, yielding 2,3-dioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octa-5,7-dien-1-ol ( i.e. , 1,4-endoperoxide 1-hydroxy-2,5-cyclohexadiene) and 2-hydroperoxycyclohexa-3,5-dien-1-one, respectively. (rsc.org)
  • This article is about the class of chemicals containing a phenol group. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the group of chemicals containing a phenol group, see Phenols . (wikipedia.org)
  • They can therefore be called simple phenols or monophenols , with only one phenolic group, or di- ( bi- ), tri- and oligophenols , with two, three or several phenolic groups respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simplest phenol, consisting of a benzene ring attached to a hydroxyl group (OH). (dictionary.com)
  • The word phenol is also used to refer to any compound which contains a six-membered aromatic ring, bonded directly to a hydroxyl group (-OH). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • When the hydroxyl group is joined to an aryl ring, a phenol results (shown above). (britannica.com)
  • The hydroxyl group of alcohols and phenols is responsible for an interesting variety of physical and chemical properties. (britannica.com)
  • The polar bonds of the hydroxyl group are responsible for the major reaction characteristics of alcohols and phenols. (britannica.com)
  • Phenols are organic compounds which contain a hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to a carbon atom in a benzene ring. (angelo.edu)
  • Phenols are a class of compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) bonded directly to a benzene ring. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In organic chemistry , phenols , sometimes called phenolics , are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (- O H ) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although similar to alcohols , phenols have unique properties and are not classified as alcohols (since the hydroxyl group is not bonded to a saturated carbon atom). (wikipedia.org)
  • The acidity of the hydroxyl group in phenols is commonly intermediate between that of aliphatic alcohols and carboxylic acids (their pK a is usually between 10 and 12). (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of a hydrogen cation (H + ) from the hydroxyl group of a phenol forms a corresponding negative phenolate ion or phenoxide ion , and the corresponding salts are called phenolates or phenoxides , although the term aryloxides is preferred according to the IUPAC Gold Book . (wikipedia.org)
  • Organic compounds with a hydroxyl group directly attached to an aromatic carbon atom are called phenols. (alfa.com)
  • Phenol, any of a family of organic compounds characterized by a hydroxyl group attached to a carbon atom that is part of an aromatic ring. (americans-world.org)
  • Natural phenols show optical properties characteristic of benzene, e.g. absorption near 270 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenol is obtained from coal-tar, or made synthetically from benzene. (dictionary.com)
  • Phenol can be made from the partial oxidation of benzene or benzoic acid , by the cumene process, or by the Raschig process. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • At present, the production of phenol entirely depends on the chemical synthesis from benzene, and its annual production exceeds 8 million tons worldwide. (innovations-report.com)
  • Phenol , or hydroxybenzene, is the parent compound of the phenols, consisting of an OH group directly connected to a benzene ring. (angelo.edu)
  • Treat phenol with zinc dust, converting it to benzene, which than then be chlorinated by Cl2 in the presence of Fe or FeCl3. (americans-world.org)
  • Most of the phenol used today is produced from benzene, through either hydrolysis of chlorobenzene or oxidation of isopropylbenzene (cumene). (americans-world.org)
  • Among these aromatic substances are indol, phenol , and skatol. (dictionary.com)
  • Phenol is an aromatic compound. (ewg.org)
  • Phenol is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C 6 H 5 OH. (wikipedia.org)
  • One explanation for why phenol is more acidic than aliphatic compounds containing an -OH group is resonance stabilization of the phenoxide anion by the aromatic ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • In aqueous solution in the pH range ca. 8 - 12 it is in equilibrium with the phenolate anion C6H5O− (also called phenoxide): C6H5OH ⇌ C6H5O− + H+ One explanation for why phenol is more acidic than aliphatic compounds containing an -OH group is resonance stabilization of the phenoxide anion by the aromatic ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenol is highly reactive toward electrophilic aromatic substitution as the oxygen atom's pi electrons donate electron density into the ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aromatic compounds such as phenols vastly occur in wastewater, being generated in petroleum refining, petrochemical, plastics, coal conversion industries and steel industries [1]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Phenols are efficient partners in a variety of reactions such as electrophilic aromatic substitutions, Bucherer carbazole synthesis and oxidative de-aromatization to quinones in the Teuber reaction. (alfa.com)
  • If you work in an industry that uses phenol, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheet for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • You may be exposed to phenol if you live near landfills or hazardous waste sites that contain phenol or near facilities manufacturing phenol. (cdc.gov)
  • Is there an alternate source of Vit K for neonates which does not contain phenol? (bio.net)
  • Phenol can have beneficial effects when used medically as an antiseptic or anesthetic. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol was once an important antiseptic and is still used as a preservative in injectables. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol has antiseptic properties and was used by Sir Joseph Lister (1827-1912) in his pioneering technique of antiseptic surgery, though the skin irritation caused by continual exposure to phenol eventually led to the substitution of aseptic (germ-free) techniques in surgery. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Phenol was also the first compound to be used in antiseptic surgery. (angelo.edu)
  • Phenols are named after the parent compound, phenol (hydroxybenzene). (angelo.edu)
  • 7. The tar processing method according to claim 1, wherein the amount of steam added to the tar is 1% to 15% by weight of the phenol tar introduced into the reactor. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 13. The process according to claim 10, wherein the amount of steam added to the tar is 1% to 15% by weight of the phenol tar. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In a specific aspect, the phenol resin composition of the present invention is characterized in that it contains boehmite having an aspect ratio within a range from 1 to 100 and also contains an alumina-based compound as a filler, an amount of the boehmite being from 1 to 150 parts by weight based on 100 parts by weight of the phenol resin. (google.com.au)
  • 5 . A phenol resin composition comprising a phenol resin and acicular or cylindrical boehmite having an average particle diameter (minor diameter) of 100 nm or less, the amount of the boehmite being from 1 to 150 parts based on 100 parts by weight of the phenol resin. (google.com.au)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to phenol. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1872 the German chemist Adolf von Baeyer condensed trifunctional phenol and difunctional formaldehyde, and in subsequent decades Baeyer's student Werner Kleeberg and other chemists investigated the products, but they failed to pursue the reaction because they were unable to crystallize and characterize the amorphous resinous products. (britannica.com)
  • The lignosulfonate comprises about 5 to about 80 percent of the total weight of phenol, formaldehyde and lignosulfonate and the lignosulfonate is mixed with said phenol and formaldehyde before substantial reaction between said phenol and said formaldehyde. (google.com)
  • The activity of semiconductor oxides prepared by the sol-gel methods was investigated under the same conditions for searching of the most effective system in the reaction of the phenol photodegradation. (hindawi.com)
  • the molar ratios of sodium hydroxide to phenol being 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0, the levels of resin solids content in the reaction mixture 37, 40, and 43 percent, and the molar ratios of formaldehyde to phenol 1.6, 1.9, 2.2, and 2.5. (usda.gov)
  • This study provides an experimental and theoretical account of the reaction of singlet oxygen O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) with the biodegradable-resistant species of phenol in an aqueous medium. (rsc.org)
  • The chemists show the reaction works with a broad scope of allylic alcohols and phenols, and even successfully swaps the phenol for cumene hydroperoxide in several examples. (acs.org)
  • Chlorobenzene was first prepared in 1851 by the reaction of phenol Popular Questions of Class 12th chemistry. (americans-world.org)
  • Effectiveness of photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous solution using semiconductor oxides (SO) prepared by a sol-gel method was examined. (hindawi.com)
  • Equal volumes of a phenol:chloroform mixture and the aqueous DNA sample are mixed, forming a biphasic mixture. (bionity.com)
  • Phenol is used as a disinfectant and is found in a number of consumer products. (cdc.gov)
  • The force majeure has been declared only for phenol and will not impact shipments of other products produced at the Company's Frankford facility, including acetone and alpha-methylstyrene due to adequate inventory levels. (yahoo.com)
  • In making this conclusion, we cite the pK a of acetone enol, which is 10.9 (in comparison to phenol with a pK a of 10.0). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In support of the second explanation, the p K a of the enol of acetone in water is 10.9, making it only slightly less acidic than phenol (p K a 10.0). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenol tar is a heavy, viscous byproduct produced in the industrial synthesis of phenol and acetone from cumene. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • INEOS Phenol is the largest producer of Phenol and Acetone in the world. (ineos.com)
  • We produce just under 1.9 million tonnes of Phenol and around 1.2 million tonnes of Acetone annually. (ineos.com)
  • INEOS Phenol's products (Phenol, Acetone, Alphamethylstyrene, Cumene) are all registered with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). (ineos.com)
  • In making this conclusion, one can examine the pK a of the enol of acetone , which is 10.9 in comparison to phenol with a pK a of 10.0. (wikidoc.org)
  • Global experts in phenol and acetone business will gather at CMT's 10th Phenol/Acetone & Derivatives Markets Summit in Bangkok to explore strategic growth options amidst tough business climes. (prweb.com)
  • This summit, positioned as an annual premier buyer-seller meet, will bring together senior executives from the phenol/acetone value chain. (prweb.com)
  • Meanwhile Kiichi Yamamoto, Manager- Phenol/Acetone/BPA, Mitsubishi Corporation will share his views on the future landscape for global phenol/acetone market and Dr. Thevarak Rochanapruk, Vice President and Project Director, PTT Phenol Company Limited will present an in depth analysis of Thailand markets. (prweb.com)
  • AdvanSix ( ASIX ) today informed its phenol customers that it is declaring force majeure as a result of shortages and delivery delays of its key raw material, cumene. (yahoo.com)
  • Both alcohols and phenols are widespread in nature, with alcohols being especially ubiquitous . (britannica.com)
  • A critical review of available data indicates that contact of a significant area of skin with subjectively low concentrations of phenol (5-6%) may be extremely hazardous and life-threatening [ATSDR 2008]. (cdc.gov)
  • Low levels of phenol are found in some foods, including smoked summer sausage, fried chicken, mountain cheese, and some species of fish. (cdc.gov)
  • Low levels of phenol can be present in air and drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • In animals, breathing air with high levels of phenol resulted in irritation of the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • Children exposed to the same levels of phenol vapor as adults may receive larger doses because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and increased minute volumes:weight ratios. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, they may be exposed to higher levels than adults in the same location because of their short stature and the higher levels of phenol vapor found nearer to the ground. (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know whether children would be more sensitive than adults to the effects of phenol. (cdc.gov)
  • All forms of phenol cause irritation, and acute toxic effects of phenol most often occur by skin contact. (cdc.gov)
  • The MSDS does not address the effects of phenol via injection. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • A method of manufacturing a lignosulfonate-phenol-formaldehyde resin includes heating a mixture of phenol, formaldehyde, lignosulfonate and alkali at a temperature of 60 C. to 100 C. and a pH of 8-13. (google.com)
  • heating a mixture of phenol, formaldehyde, lignosulfonate and alkali wherein said lignosulfonate comprises about 5 to about 80 percent of the total weight of phenol, formaldehyde and lignosulfonate.Iadd. (google.com)
  • Phenol 88% alone, or "Baker`s solution" - a mixture of phenol, water, croton oil, and septisol soap may be used. (consultingroom.com)
  • Ingestion of high concentrations of phenol has resulted in internal burns and death. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to high concentrations of phenol in the air for several weeks caused paralysis and severe injury to the heart, liver, kidneys, and lungs, and in some cases, death. (cdc.gov)
  • Some animals that drank water with very high concentrations of phenol suffered muscle tremors and loss of coordination. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol (C 6 H 6 O or C 6 H 5 OH) is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid with a sweet, acrid odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Short-term exposure to phenol in the air can cause respiratory irritation, headaches, and burning eyes. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are using glycerin/phenol spray for relief of sore throat irritation or pain, apply to the affected area as directed by your doctor or the package labeling. (drugs.com)
  • Phenol has a distinct odor that is sickeningly sweet and tarry. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol is a flammable, highly corrosive chemical with a sickeningly sweet, acrid odor. (cdc.gov)
  • When pure, phenol has a sweet, tar-like odor that is readily detected at low concentrations (0.05 ppm in air). (cdc.gov)
  • We developed a model system for the biodegradation of phenol-contaminated wastewater by the bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum . (scirp.org)
  • These results have practical application to quantify the degradation of phenol in wastewater treatment. (rsc.org)
  • Speaking on phenol technology and phenolic resin markets will be Eric Wong, Senior Project Manager Chemicals - Technology, KBR and Figo Gao Xiaofei, Deputy General Manager, Shandong Shengquan Chemical Co, Ltd. respectively. (prweb.com)
  • 1 2 Over 3 billion pounds of phenol is produced annually in the United States, making it one of the "high volume" chemicals sold internationally. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Phenols are similar to alcohols but are more soluble in water, and occur as colorless solids or liquids at room temperature. (dictionary.com)
  • In effect, phenols are a class of organic compounds of which the phenol discussed in this article is the simplest member. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The optimal conditions of the photocatalytic degradation of phenol using prepared titanium dioxide sample were defined. (hindawi.com)
  • Dinda and Icli found that ZnO was as reactive as TiO 2 for the photocatalytic degradation of phenol under concentrated sunlight [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Experiments consisting of suspended cultures demonstrated the native ability of this organism to utilize phenol for its metabolic pathways enabling degradation, at levels of nearly 100 ppm within 24 hours. (scirp.org)
  • S. Thomas, S. Sarfaraz, L. C. Mishra and L. Iyengar "Degradation of Phenol and Phenolic Compounds by a Defined Denitrifying Bacterial Culture," World Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2002, pp. 57-63. (scirp.org)
  • University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Data- base, Phenol Family Degradation Pathway Map. (scirp.org)
  • The registration includes all INEOS Phenol sites worldwide to ensure unrestricted trade of our products. (ineos.com)
  • At present, Ineos Phenol represents the world's largest phenol manufacturer. (prnewswire.com)
  • Persons whose clothing or skin is contaminated with liquid phenol can secondarily contaminate personnel by direct contact or through off-gassing vapor. (cdc.gov)
  • A diverse family natural phenols are the flavonoids , which include several thousand compounds, among them the flavonols , flavones , flavan-3ol ( catechins ), flavanones , anthocyanidins , and isoflavonoids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Two natural phenols from two different categories, for instance a flavonoid and a lignan, can combine to form a hybrid class like the flavonolignans . (wikipedia.org)
  • Many natural phenols are chiral . (wikipedia.org)
  • The electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry using standard solutions of potassium ferrocyanide, phosphate/acetate buffers and representative natural phenols in a wide pH range (3.0 to 9.0). (mdpi.com)
  • Among the natural phenols herein investigated, the highest sensitivity was observed for rutin, a powerful antioxidant widespread in functional foods and ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. (mdpi.com)
  • Salicylic acid possesses the characters both of an acid and a phenol . (dictionary.com)
  • The other method involves reacting formaldehyde with an excess of phenol using an acid catalyst to produce prepolymers called novolacs. (britannica.com)
  • Possible phenol red tube results include: (A) Formation of acid and gas (bubble is indicated by arrow), (B) Formation of acid, (C) uninoculated control, (D) alkaline byproducts, and (E) no acid or gas formation. (wmich.edu)
  • Phenol is a weak acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenol is classified as a hard acid which is compatible with the C/E ratio of the ECW model with EA = 2.27 and CA = 1.07. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenol reacts with dilute nitric acid at room temperature to give a mixture of 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol while with concentrated nitric acid, more nitro groups get substituted on the ring to give 2,4,6-trinitrophenol which is known as picric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenol is obtained by fractional distillation of coal tar and by organic synthesis. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol was first extracted from coal tar , but today is produced on a large scale (about 7 billion kg/year) from petroleum . (wikipedia.org)
  • Biodegradation of Phenol and Emulsification Properties of Native Microorganisms from Coal Carbonization Plant. (scirp.org)
  • In its natural form, phenol was initially found in coal tar. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Phenol-soluble modulins. (nih.gov)
  • Phenol-soluble modulins and staphylococcal infection. (nih.gov)
  • Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) have recently emerged as a novel toxin family defining the virulence potential of highly aggressive S. aureus isolates. (nih.gov)
  • The sodium salt of phenol, sodium phenoxide , is far more water-soluble. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorobenzene is fused with NaOH (at 623 K and 320 atm pressure) to produce sodium phenoxide, which gives phenol on acidification. (americans-world.org)
  • Phenol and chloroform are both hazardous and inconvenient materials, and the extraction is laborious, so in recent years many many companies now offer many alternative ways to isolate DNA. (bionity.com)
  • Phenol is hazardous when comes into contact with the skin or eyes or is ingested or inhaled. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of 2,6-dimethoxy-phenol in water. (springer.com)
  • The 'Phenol Market: Global Industry Trends, Share, Size, Growth, Opportunity and Forecast 2018-2023' report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. (prnewswire.com)
  • A recent in silico comparison of the gas phase acidities of the vinylogues of phenol and cyclohexanol in conformations that allow for or exclude resonance stabilization leads to the inference that about ​ 1 ⁄ 3 of the increased acidity of phenol is attributable to inductive effects, with resonance accounting for the remaining difference. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether to purchase isoamyl alcohol separately or mixed in with the phenol and chloroform stocks is largely an individual choice, although it is sensible to coordinate with the rest of the lab so reagents can be shared. (bionity.com)
  • Cyclic voltammetry showed that phenol was oxidized by the diamond electrodes and remained electroactive after multiple cycles. (rti.org)
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on phenol - A searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • Vomiting and lethargy were the most frequent signs of toxicity observed in children who accidentally ingested phenol and were treated at a poison control center. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol is potentially capable of causing both systemic toxicity and direct adverse effects on the skin following dermal exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Microbial production of phenol seems to be a non-viable process considering the high toxicity of phenol to the cell. (innovations-report.com)
  • Furthermore, the team developed a biphasic extractive fermentation process to minimize the toxicity of phenol to E. coli cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Glycerol tributyrate was found to have low toxicity to E. coli and allowed efficient extraction of phenol from the culture broth. (innovations-report.com)
  • particularly if the phenol is mixed with chloroform (a commonly used mixture in molecular biology for DNA purification). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Phenol-chloroform extraction is a liquid-liquid extraction technique in biochemistry and molecular biology for purifying DNA contaminated by histones and other proteins. (bionity.com)
  • Phenol is naturally somewhat water-soluble, and gives a 'fuzzy' interface that is sharpened by the presence of chloroform. (bionity.com)
  • The isoamyl alcohol reduces foam, which is a problem with phenol:chloroform. (bionity.com)
  • Chloroform sometimes also comes as a 96% chloroform, 4% isoamyl alcohol solution that can be mixed with an equal volume of phenol to make 25:24:1. (bionity.com)
  • Phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol will give a sharper interface, and 25:24:1 will show less foam. (bionity.com)
  • For phenol:chloroform mixtures or for chloroform, glass pipettes should be used, or micropipettors exclusively, as the chloroform is usually able to attack plastic pipettes. (bionity.com)
  • Hi all, I followed the standard phenol/chloroform extraction to purify DNA, and found a big chuck of pellet at the bottom of the tube after NaAc and 100% ethanol precipitation. (protocol-online.org)
  • Do anybody know if SDS and EDTA can be removed after phenol/chloroform extraction? (protocol-online.org)
  • DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Research and Markets ( http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/g64sph/phenol_2012 ) has announced the addition of the 'Phenol: 2012 World Market Outlook and Forecast up to 2017' report to their offering. (cnbc.com)
  • 9. The method of claim 8 wherein said lignosulfonate comprises about 50% to about 80% by total weight of lignosulfonate, phenol and formaldehyde in said resin mixture. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to a phenol resin composition comprising a phenol resin and boehmite having an average particle diameter (minor diameter) of 100 nm or less, and a phenol resin composition further comprising a benzooxazine resin in a weight ratio of the phenol resin to the benzooxazine resin. (google.com.au)
  • 1 . A phenol resin composition comprising a phenol resin and acicular or cylindrical boehmite having an average particle diameter (minor diameter) of 100 nm or less. (google.com.au)
  • 2 . A phenol resin composition comprising a phenol resin and acicular or cylindrical boehmite having an average particle diameter (minor diameter) of 100 nm or less, wherein the boehmite has an aspect ratio of 1 to 100. (google.com.au)
  • 3 . A phenol resin composition comprising a phenol resin, acicular or cylindrical boehmite having an average particle diameter (minor diameter) of 100 nm or less and an alumina-based compound as a filler. (google.com.au)
  • 9 . The phenol resin composition according to any one of claims 1 to 8 , which has thermosetting properties. (google.com.au)
  • 10 . The phenol resin composition according to any one of claims 1 to 4 , further comprising a benzooxazine resin in a weight ratio of the phenol resin to the benzooxazine resin within a range from 95/5 to 25/75. (google.com.au)
  • The soy-based resin is considered to be a copolymer of soy and phenol formaldehyde. (usda.gov)
  • To develop a new solvent-impregnated resin (SIR) system for the removal of phenols and thiophenols from water, complex formation by hydrogen bonding of phosphine oxides and phosphates is studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and quantum chemical modeling. (wur.nl)
  • Phenol is an organic compound appreciably soluble in water, with about 84.2 g dissolving in 1000 mL (0.895 M ). Homogeneous mixtures of phenol and water at phenol to water mass ratios of ~2.6 and higher are possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present invention is particularly useful for separating valuable products from phenol tar and/or mixtures of phenol tar with bisphenol-A tar. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Several members of the staphylococcal phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptide family exhibit pronounced capacities to lyse eukaryotic cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and erythrocytes. (mdpi.com)
  • Phenols are used in industry to make plastics and detergents. (dictionary.com)
  • Phenol and its chemical derivatives are essential for production of polycarbonates , epoxies , Bakelite , nylon , detergents , herbicides such as phenoxy herbicides , and numerous pharmaceutical drugs . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 2 Manufactured phenol is used as a chemical intermediate to produce industrial commodities such as plastics (BPA) , nylon 6, synthetic fibers, detergents, herbicides, pharmaceutical drugs and vaccines. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Ingestion of concentrated phenol can produce internal burns. (cdc.gov)
  • People who had skin exposure to high amounts of phenol had skin burns, liver damage, dark urine, irregular heart beat, and some died. (cdc.gov)
  • But the phenol - a deadly chemical used in Aristech's processes that is known to cause internal burns, muscle spasms and organ failure - indicated that something might have gone wrong. (propublica.org)
  • In fact, surgical gloves were first used to protect doctor's hands from phenol burns. (wikidoc.org)
  • In the United States, Phenol may be used as an active ingredient in OTC drug products. (ewg.org)
  • When used as an active drug ingredient, the established name is Phenol. (ewg.org)
  • Phenol is the active ingredient in some treatments for sore throats, and is found in several lozenges and throat sprays. (angelo.edu)
  • Although the EPA adds that no published studies indicate concerning developmental or reproductive effects of manufactured phenol exposures in humans, if ingested, phenol has severe effects on animal health, so it is reasonable to be concerned about its potential adverse effects on human health. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to phenol.The level of harm depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done. (cdc.gov)
  • Presents a standard to prevent the adverse effects of exposure to phenol over a working lifetime. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol has caused minor birth defects and low birth weight in animals generally at exposure levels that also were toxic to the pregnant mothers. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenol is well absorbed by all routes of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • And if exposure to PHENOL inspires something in you to go head first into modular synths, your initial investment can be incorporated into your more ambitious modular systems. (musiciansfriend.com)
  • Phenol-formaldehyde polymers make excellent wood adhesives for plywood and particleboard because they form chemical bonds with the phenollike lignin component of wood. (britannica.com)
  • You may be exposed to phenol if you undergo "chemical peels" to remove skin lesions with phenol-containing products or are treated for chronic pain or spasticity with injections of phenol. (cdc.gov)