A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A major cytochrome P-450 enzyme which is inducible by PHENOBARBITAL in both the LIVER and SMALL INTESTINE. It is active in the metabolism of compounds like pentoxyresorufin, TESTOSTERONE, and ANDROSTENEDIONE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP2B1 gene, also mediates the activation of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE and IFOSFAMIDE to MUTAGENS.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Aminopyrine N-Demethylase is an enzyme, specifically a cytochrome P450 isoform, involved in the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics, responsible for catalyzing the N-demethylation reaction.
A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
A metabolite of primidone.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A barbiturate that is metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL. It has been used for similar purposes, especially in EPILEPSY, but there is no evidence mephobarbital offers any advantage over PHENOBARBITAL.
Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.
A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.
A sympathomimetic agent with properties similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It is used in the treatment of obesity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1222)
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
An allylic compound that acts as a suicide inactivator of CYTOCHROME P450 by covalently binding to its heme moiety or surrounding protein.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).
A catatoxic steroid and microsomal enzyme inducer having significant effects on the induction of cytochrome P450. It has also demonstrated the potential for protective capability against acetaminophen-induced liver damage.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
A barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.
An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)
A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.
Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of N-methyl groups to carbonyl groups, typically found in xenobiotic metabolism, involving the removal of methyl groups from various substrates using molecular oxygen.
A muscarinic antagonist used to treat drug-induced parkinsonism and to relieve pain from muscle spasm.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
An insecticide synergist, especially for pyrethroids and ROTENONE.
A peroxisome proliferator that is used experimentally to promote liver tumors. It has been used as an antihyperlipoproteinemic agent.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
Inborn errors of bilirubin metabolism resulting in excessive amounts of bilirubin in the circulating blood, either because of increased bilirubin production or because of delayed clearance of bilirubin from the blood.
A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC 2.3.1.37.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
A barbiturate that is used as a sedative. Secobarbital is reported to have no anti-anxiety activity.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.
A fibric acid derivative used in the treatment of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III and severe HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p986)
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.
A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
Enlargement of the liver.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.

The direct spectrophotometric observation of benzo(a)pyrene phenol formation by liver microsomes. (1/1573)

Optical spectral repetitive scan analysis during the oxidative metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by liver microsomal suspensions reveals the time-dependent formation of an intermediate(s) of which the visible spectra resemble those of several benzo(a)pyrene phenols. Liver microsomes from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats showed a greater rate of formation of the phenols than did microsomes from control animals; the rate of formation catalyzed by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats was intermediate. When 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was used as a standard for comparison of activity, the rates of formation of phenols were compared when measured by fluorometric, spectrophotometric, or high-pressure liquid chromatographic analytical techniques. An epoxide hydrase inhibitor, 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide, enhanced phenol formation regardless of the source of liver microsomes, and 7,8-benzoflavone inhibited control and 3-methylcholanthrene-induced microsomal metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, 7,8-Benzoflavone did not effect benzo(a)pyrene metabolism by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats. The effect of inhibitors on the spectrophotometric assay correlates well with the results obtained from benzo(a)pyrene metabolite analysis using high-pressure liquid chromatography.  (+info)

In vivo modulation of alternative pathways of P-450-catalyzed cyclophosphamide metabolism: impact on pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity. (2/1573)

The widely used anticancer prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA) is activated in liver by a 4-hydroxylation reaction primarily catalyzed by cytochrome P-4502B and P-4502C enzymes. An alternative metabolic pathway involves CPA N-dechloroethylation to yield chloroacetaldehyde (CA), a P-4503A-catalyzed deactivation/neurotoxication reaction. The in vivo modulation of these alternative, competing pathways of P-450 metabolism was investigated in pharmacokinetic studies carried out in the rat model. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) for 4-OH-CPA and CA were increased by 3- to 4-fold, and apparent plasma half-lives of both metabolites were correspondingly shortened in rats pretreated with phenobarbital (PB), an inducer of P-4502B and P-4503A enzymes. However, PB had no net impact on the extent of drug activation or its partitioning between these alternative metabolic pathways, as judged from AUC values (area-under-the-plasma concentration x time curve) for 4-OH-CPA and CA. The P-4503A inhibitor troleandomycin (TAO) decreased plasma Cmax and AUC of CA (80-85% decrease) without changing the Cmax or AUC of 4-OH-CPA in uninduced rats. In PB-induced rats, TAO decreased AUCCA by 73%, whereas it increased AUC4-OH-CPA by 93%. TAO thus selectively suppresses CPA N-dechloroethylation, thereby increasing the availability of drug for P-450 activation via 4-hydroxylation. By contrast, dexamethasone, a P-4503A inducer and antiemetic widely used in patients with cancer, stimulated large, undesirable increases in the Cmax and AUC of CA (8- and 4-fold, respectively) while reducing the AUC of the 4-hydroxylation pathway by approximately 60%. Tumor excision/in vitro colony formation and tumor growth delay assays using an in vivo 9L gliosarcoma solid tumor model revealed that TAO suppression of CPA N-dechloroethylation could be achieved without compromising the antitumor effect of CPA. The combination of PB with TAO did not, however, enhance the antitumor activity of CPA, despite the approximately 2-fold increase in AUC4-OH-CPA, suggesting that other PB-inducible activities, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase, may counter this increase through enhanced deactivation of the 4-hydroxy metabolite. Together, these studies demonstrate that the P-4503A inhibitor TAO can be used to effectively modulate CPA metabolism and pharmacokinetics in vivo in a manner that decreases the formation of toxic metabolites that do not contribute to antitumor activity.  (+info)

The repressed nuclear receptor CAR responds to phenobarbital in activating the human CYP2B6 gene. (3/1573)

The endogenous CYP2B6 gene becomes phenobarbital (PB) inducible in androstenol-treated HepG2 cells either transiently or stably transfected with a nuclear receptor CAR expression vector. The PB induction mediated by CAR is regulated by a conserved 51-base pair element called PB-responsive enhancer module (PBREM) that has now been located between -1733 and -1683 bp in the gene's 5'-flanking region. An in vitro translated CAR acting as a retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimer binds directly to the two nuclear receptor sites NR1 and NR2 within PBREM. In a stably transfected HepG2 cell line, both PBREM and NR1 are activated by PB and PB-type compounds such as chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorpromazine. In addition to PBREM, CAR also transactivates the steroid/rifampicin-response element of the human CYP3A4 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, activation of the repressed nuclear receptor CAR appears to be a versatile mediator that regulates PB induction of the CYP2B and other genes.  (+info)

Properties of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase and its relationship to microsomal mixed-function oxidation in the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania). (4/1573)

1. Activity of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase was measured in the midgut and other tissues of the last larval instar of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Cramer, formerly Prodenia eridania Cramer). 2. Optimum conditions for measuring the activity were established with respect to all variables involved and considerable differences from those reported for mammalian enzyme preparations were found. 3. Maximum activity (20 nmol/h per mg of protein) occurs 18-24 h after the fifth moult and thereafter decreases to trace amounts as the larvae age and approach pupation. 4. Synthetase activity was rapidly induced by oral administration (in the diet) of pentamethylbenzene, phenobarbital, diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine-3, 5-dicarboxylate, and 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide. 5. Puromycin inhibited the induction of synthetase by pentamethylbenzene. 6. Induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase correlated well with the induction of microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro-N-methylaniline, except for phenobarbital, which induced the microsomal oxidase relatively more than the synthetase.  (+info)

7-ethoxycoumarin deethylation activity in perfused isolated rat brain. (5/1573)

7-ethoxycoumarin (7-EC) deethylation activity was measured in the perfused rat brain in situ. Infusion of 7-EC into a brain through an internal carotid artery resulted in the formation of 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HC) and its conjugates in the effluent perfusate collected from the superior vena cava. The rate of formation of products was 200 nmol/h/g when 130 microM 7-EC was infused. This value was much higher (more than 100 times) than that determined from the brain microsomal activity ( approximately 1 nmol/h/g), indicating that the activity determined with microsomes was an underestimate. This value was comparable to the activity in the perfused liver (30-50%), suggesting that drug metabolizing enzymes can play important roles within the brain. Pretreatment of rats with P-450 inducers such as phenobarbital and beta-naphthoflavone increased the deethylation activity in the perfused brain, as in the perfused liver. We conclude that the perfused brain is suitable for evaluating drug metabolizing activities under physiological conditions.  (+info)

Effect of cryopreservation on cytochrome P-450 enzyme induction in cultured rat hepatocytes. (6/1573)

In the present study, we evaluated the inducibility of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A by beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital, dexamethasone, and clofibric acid, respectively, in primary hepatocyte cultures prepared from both fresh and cryopreserved rat hepatocytes. Rat hepatocytes were successfully thawed and cultured after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen for up to 1 month. Percentage of total recovery, viable cell recovery, and final viability of the cells were 68%, 72%, and 85%, respectively. Regardless of whether they were cryopreserved or not, cultured hepatocytes exhibited near-normal morphology. Treatment of cryopreserved hepatocytes with beta-naphthoflavone caused an 8-fold increase in 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (CYP1A1/2) activity, with an EC50 of 1.5 microM; treatment with phenobarbital caused a 26-fold increase in 7-pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (CYP2B1/2) activity, with an EC50 of 10 microM; treatment with dexamethasone caused a 10-fold increase in testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase (CYP3A1/2) activity, with an EC50 of 1.3 microM, whereas treatment with clofibric acid caused a 3-fold increase in lauric acid 12-hydroxylase (CYP4A1-3) activity, with an EC50 of 170 microM. The induction of CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A enzymes by these inducers was confirmed by Western immunoblotting. The patterns of P-450 induction in cryopreserved rat hepatocytes, in terms of concentration response, reproducibility, magnitude, and specificity of response, were similar to those observed in freshly isolated hepatocytes. Additionally, the magnitude and specificity of induction was similar to that observed in vivo in rats. In conclusion, under the conditions examined, cryopreserved rat hepatocytes appear to be a suitable in vitro system for evaluating xenobiotics as inducers of P-450 enzymes.  (+info)

Induction of CYP1A2 by phenobarbital in the livers of aryl hydrocarbon-responsive and -nonresponsive mice. (7/1573)

The effects of phenobarbital treatment on the expression of the cytochrome P-450 (CYP or P-450) enzyme CYP1A2 in the livers of mice of various strains were examined. Phenobarbital induced the expression of CYP1A2 at the levels of mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity (methoxyresorufin O-demethylation and metabolic activation of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) in both aryl hydrocarbon-responsive [C57BL/6NCrj (C57BL/6), C3H/HeJSlc] and -nonresponsive (DBA/2NCrj, AKR/JSea, NZB/NSlc) mouse strains. The induction of CYP2B10, which is known as a phenobarbital-inducible P-450 in mice, was prominent in the livers of all five strains examined, whereas clear inductive effects on the P-450 CYP2B9 were not observed in female C57BL/6 and female DBA/2NCrj mice. These results indicate that CYP1A2 is a member of the family of phenobarbital-inducible genes in mice and suggest that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent induction pathway is not involved in the induction of CYP1A2. This concept is in accordance with those proposed by other laboratories recently using the AhR knockout mice. The following are new observations of this report. The magnitude of the increases in the CYP1A2 mRNA, protein, and enzyme activities were comparable among these three levels (ranging from 1.4- to 3. 1-fold), suggesting that the induction of CYP1A2 by phenobarbital is mainly determined at a pretranslational level. Cyclobarbital, pentobarbital, and secobarbital also induced CYP1A2 mRNA in primary culture hepatocytes from C57BL/6 mice. Barbital, in contrast, did not show any clear inductive effect on CYP1A2 mRNA.  (+info)

Developmental aspects of glutathione S-transferase B (ligandin) in rat liver. (8/1573)

The postnatal development in male Sprague-Dawley rats of hepatic glutathione S-transferase B (ligandin) in relation to the other glutathione S-transferases is described. The concentration of glutathione S-transferase B in 1-day-old male rats is about one-fifth of that in adult animals. The enzyme reaches adult concentrations 4-5 weeks later. When assessed by substrate specificity or immunologically, the proportion of transferase B relative to the other glutathione S-transferases is high during the first week after birth. At this age, 67.5% of the transferase activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene is immunoprecipitable by anti-(transferase B), compared with about 50% in adults and older pups. Between the second and the fifth postnatal week, the fraction of transferase B increases in parallel fashion with the other transferases in hepatic cytosol. Neither L-thyroxine nor cortisol induce a precocious increase in glutathione S-transferase activity. Phenobarbital did induce transferase activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene in both pups and adults. The extent of induction by phenobarbital was a function of basal activity during development such that the percentage stimulation remained constant from 5 days postnatally to adulthood.  (+info)

Phenobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for the treatment of seizures and convulsions. It works by suppressing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. In addition to its anticonvulsant properties, phenobarbital also has sedative and hypnotic effects, which can be useful for treating anxiety, insomnia, and agitation.

Phenobarbital is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and elixirs, and it is typically taken orally. The medication works by binding to specific receptors in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which help to regulate nerve impulses in the brain. By increasing the activity of GABA, phenobarbital can help to reduce excessive neural activity and prevent seizures.

While phenobarbital is an effective medication for treating seizures and other conditions, it can also be habit-forming and carries a risk of dependence and addiction. Long-term use of the medication can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses may be needed to achieve the same effects. Abruptly stopping the medication can also lead to withdrawal symptoms, such as anxiety, restlessness, and seizures.

Like all medications, phenobarbital can have side effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, and impaired coordination. It can also interact with other medications, such as certain antidepressants and sedatives, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting phenobarbital.

In summary, phenobarbital is a barbiturate medication used primarily for the treatment of seizures and convulsions. It works by binding to GABA receptors in the brain and increasing their activity, which helps to reduce excessive neural activity and prevent seizures. While phenobarbital can be effective, it carries a risk of dependence and addiction and can have side effects and drug interactions.

Primidone is an anticonvulsant medication primarily used in the treatment of seizure disorders. It is a barbiturate derivative that has sedative and muscle relaxant properties. Primidone is metabolized in the body into two other anticonvulsants, phenobarbital and phenylethylmalonamide (PEMA). Together, these active metabolites help to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures.

Primidone is used primarily for generalized tonic-clonic seizures and complex partial seizures. It may also be considered for use in absence seizures, although other medications are typically preferred for this type of seizure. The medication works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which helps to prevent or reduce the occurrence of seizures.

Like all anticonvulsant medications, primidone carries a risk of side effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, and unsteady gait. It may also cause rash, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite in some individuals. In rare cases, primidone can cause more serious side effects such as blood disorders, liver damage, or suicidal thoughts.

It is important for patients taking primidone to be closely monitored by their healthcare provider to ensure that the medication is working effectively and to monitor for any potential side effects. Dosages of primidone may need to be adjusted over time based on the patient's response to treatment and any adverse reactions that occur.

Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant drug, primarily used in the treatment of seizures and prevention of seizure recurrence. It works by reducing the spread of seizure activity in the brain and stabilizing the electrical activity of neurons. Phenytoin is also known to have anti-arrhythmic properties and is occasionally used in the management of certain cardiac arrhythmias.

The drug is available in various forms, including immediate-release tablets, extended-release capsules, and a liquid formulation. Common side effects of phenytoin include dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and unsteady gait. Regular monitoring of blood levels is necessary to ensure that the drug remains within the therapeutic range, as both low and high levels can lead to adverse effects.

It's important to note that phenytoin has several potential drug-drug interactions, particularly with other anticonvulsant medications, certain antibiotics, and oral contraceptives. Therefore, it is crucial to inform healthcare providers about all the medications being taken to minimize the risk of interactions and optimize treatment outcomes.

Anticonvulsants are a class of drugs used primarily to treat seizure disorders, also known as epilepsy. These medications work by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. In addition to their use in treating epilepsy, anticonvulsants are sometimes also prescribed for other conditions, such as neuropathic pain, bipolar disorder, and migraine headaches.

Anticonvulsants can work in different ways to reduce seizure activity. Some medications, such as phenytoin and carbamazepine, work by blocking sodium channels in the brain, which helps to stabilize nerve cell membranes and prevent excessive electrical activity. Other medications, such as valproic acid and gabapentin, increase the levels of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which has a calming effect on nerve cells and helps to reduce seizure activity.

While anticonvulsants are generally effective at reducing seizure frequency and severity, they can also have side effects, such as dizziness, drowsiness, and gastrointestinal symptoms. In some cases, these side effects may be managed by adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication. It is important for individuals taking anticonvulsants to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their response to the medication and make any necessary adjustments.

The Cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzyme system is a group of enzymes found primarily in the liver, but also in other organs such as the intestines, lungs, and skin. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism and biotransformation of various substances, including drugs, environmental toxins, and endogenous compounds like hormones and fatty acids.

The name "Cytochrome P-450" refers to the unique property of these enzymes to bind to carbon monoxide (CO) and form a complex that absorbs light at a wavelength of 450 nm, which can be detected spectrophotometrically.

The CYP450 enzyme system is involved in Phase I metabolism of xenobiotics, where it catalyzes oxidation reactions such as hydroxylation, dealkylation, and epoxidation. These reactions introduce functional groups into the substrate molecule, which can then undergo further modifications by other enzymes during Phase II metabolism.

There are several families and subfamilies of CYP450 enzymes, each with distinct substrate specificities and functions. Some of the most important CYP450 enzymes include:

1. CYP3A4: This is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the human liver and is involved in the metabolism of approximately 50% of all drugs. It also metabolizes various endogenous compounds like steroids, bile acids, and vitamin D.
2. CYP2D6: This enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of many psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, and beta-blockers. It also metabolizes some endogenous compounds like dopamine and serotonin.
3. CYP2C9: This enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of warfarin, phenytoin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. CYP2C19: This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors, antidepressants, and clopidogrel.
5. CYP2E1: This enzyme metabolizes various xenobiotics like alcohol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride, as well as some endogenous compounds like fatty acids and prostaglandins.

Genetic polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes can significantly affect drug metabolism and response, leading to interindividual variability in drug efficacy and toxicity. Understanding the role of CYP450 enzymes in drug metabolism is crucial for optimizing pharmacotherapy and minimizing adverse effects.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B1 is a specific isoform of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system, which is involved in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics in the liver. This particular isoenzyme is primarily found in rats and is responsible for the metabolism of a variety of substrates, including certain drugs, steroids, and environmental toxins.

The cytochrome P-450 system is a group of enzymes located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells, particularly in the liver. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of various substances, including drugs, hormones, and toxins. They work by catalyzing oxidation-reduction reactions that convert lipophilic compounds into more hydrophilic ones, which can then be excreted from the body.

CYP2B1 is one of many isoforms of cytochrome P-450, and it has a preference for certain types of substrates. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methadone, as well as steroids like progesterone and environmental toxins like pentachlorophenol.

It's important to note that while CYP2B1 is an essential enzyme in rats, its human counterpart, CYP2B6, plays a similar role in drug metabolism in humans. Understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes can help in predicting drug interactions, designing new drugs, and tailoring therapies to individual patients based on their genetic makeup.

Barbiturates are a class of drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, which means they slow down the activity of the brain and nerves. They were commonly used in the past to treat conditions such as anxiety, insomnia, and seizures, but their use has declined due to the risk of addiction, abuse, and serious side effects. Barbiturates can also be used for surgical anesthesia and as a treatment for barbiturate or pentobarbital overdose.

Barbiturates work by enhancing the activity of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in sedation, hypnosis, and anticonvulsant effects. However, at higher doses, barbiturates can cause respiratory depression, coma, and even death.

Some examples of barbiturates include pentobarbital, phenobarbital, secobarbital, and amobarbital. These drugs are usually available in the form of tablets, capsules, or injectable solutions. It is important to note that barbiturates should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as they carry a high risk of dependence and abuse.

Enzyme induction is a process by which the activity or expression of an enzyme is increased in response to some stimulus, such as a drug, hormone, or other environmental factor. This can occur through several mechanisms, including increasing the transcription of the enzyme's gene, stabilizing the mRNA that encodes the enzyme, or increasing the translation of the mRNA into protein.

In some cases, enzyme induction can be a beneficial process, such as when it helps the body to metabolize and clear drugs more quickly. However, in other cases, enzyme induction can have negative consequences, such as when it leads to the increased metabolism of important endogenous compounds or the activation of harmful procarcinogens.

Enzyme induction is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology, as it can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs and other xenobiotics. It is also relevant to the study of drug interactions, as the induction of one enzyme by a drug can lead to altered metabolism and effects of another drug that is metabolized by the same enzyme.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Methylcholanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is used in research to induce skin tumors in mice. It is a potent carcinogen and mutagen, and exposure to it can increase the risk of cancer in humans. It is not typically found in medical treatments or therapies.

Microsomes, liver refers to a subcellular fraction of liver cells (hepatocytes) that are obtained during tissue homogenization and subsequent centrifugation. These microsomal fractions are rich in membranous structures known as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), particularly the rough ER. They are involved in various important cellular processes, most notably the metabolism of xenobiotics (foreign substances) including drugs, toxins, and carcinogens.

The liver microsomes contain a variety of enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, that are crucial for phase I drug metabolism. These enzymes help in the oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis of xenobiotics, making them more water-soluble and facilitating their excretion from the body. Additionally, liver microsomes also host other enzymes involved in phase II conjugation reactions, where the metabolites from phase I are further modified by adding polar molecules like glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetyl groups.

In summary, liver microsomes are a subcellular fraction of liver cells that play a significant role in the metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics, contributing to the overall protection and maintenance of cellular homeostasis within the body.

Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is a potent chemical carcinogen that belongs to the class of nitrosamines. It is known to induce tumors in various organs, including the liver, kidney, and lungs, in different animal species. Diethylnitrosamine requires metabolic activation by enzymes such as cytochrome P450 to exert its carcinogenic effects.

Diethylnitrosamine is not typically used for medical purposes but may be employed in laboratory research to study the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis and cancer development. It is essential to handle this compound with care, following appropriate safety protocols, due to its potential hazards.

Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant medication that is primarily used to treat seizure disorders (epilepsy) and neuropathic pain. It works by decreasing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which helps to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures. Carbamazepine may also be used off-label for other conditions such as bipolar disorder and trigeminal neuralgia.

The medication is available in various forms, including tablets, extended-release tablets, chewable tablets, and suspension. It is usually taken two to four times a day with food to reduce stomach upset. Common side effects of carbamazepine include dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and unsteady gait.

It is important to note that carbamazepine can interact with other medications, including some antidepressants, antipsychotics, and birth control pills, so it is essential to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting carbamazepine. Additionally, carbamazepine levels in the blood may need to be monitored regularly to ensure that the medication is working effectively and not causing toxicity.

Ethosuximide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called anticonvulsants or anti-seizure medications. It is primarily used to treat absence seizures, also known as petit mal seizures, which are a type of seizure characterized by brief, sudden lapses in consciousness.

Ethosuximide works by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. It does this by inhibiting the formation of sodium channels in the brain, which helps to stabilize the electrical impulses and reduce the likelihood of seizure activity.

Like all medications, ethosuximide can have side effects, including stomach upset, dizziness, headache, and sleepiness. It is important for patients to follow their doctor's instructions carefully when taking this medication and to report any bothersome or persistent side effects promptly. Ethosuximide may also interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting ethosuximide therapy.

Experimental liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the liver that are intentionally created or manipulated in a laboratory setting for the purpose of studying their development, progression, and potential treatment options. These experimental models can be established using various methods such as chemical induction, genetic modification, or transplantation of cancerous cells or tissues. The goal of this research is to advance our understanding of liver cancer biology and develop novel therapies for liver neoplasms in humans. It's important to note that these experiments are conducted under strict ethical guidelines and regulations to minimize harm and ensure the humane treatment of animals involved in such studies.

Aminopyrine N-demethylase is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. It is primarily found in the liver and is responsible for catalyzing the N-demethylation of aminopyrine, a compound with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

The enzyme works by transferring a methyl group from the aminopyrine molecule to a cofactor called NADPH, resulting in the formation of formaldehyde and dimethylaniline as products. This reaction is an important step in the biotransformation of many drugs and other foreign substances, allowing them to be more easily excreted from the body.

Aminopyrine N-demethylase is classified as a cytochrome P450 enzyme, which is a group of heme-containing proteins that are involved in oxidative metabolism. The activity of this enzyme can be influenced by various factors, including genetic polymorphisms, age, sex, and exposure to certain drugs or chemicals.

In addition to its role in drug metabolism, aminopyrine N-demethylase has also been used as a marker of liver function and as a tool for studying the regulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes.

Beta-Naphthoflavone is a type of compound known as an aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist. It is often used in research to study the effects of AHR activation on various biological processes, including the regulation of gene expression and the development of certain diseases such as cancer.

In the medical field, beta-Naphthoflavone may be used in experimental settings to investigate its potential as a therapeutic agent or as a tool for understanding the mechanisms underlying AHR-mediated diseases. However, it is not currently approved for use as a medication in humans.

A seizure is an uncontrolled, abnormal firing of neurons (brain cells) that can cause various symptoms such as convulsions, loss of consciousness, altered awareness, or changes in behavior. Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors including epilepsy, brain injury, infection, toxic substances, or genetic disorders. They can also occur without any identifiable cause, known as idiopathic seizures. Seizures are a medical emergency and require immediate attention.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Phenylethylmalonamide" doesn't seem to have a specific medical definition as it is not a recognized medication, chemical compound, or diagnostic term in common medical use. It's possible that you may have made a typo or there's some other error in the term. If you have more context or information, I'd be happy to help further!

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Mephobarbital is not typically referred to as a "medical definition" in and of itself, but it is a medication that falls under the category of barbiturates. Medically, Mephobarbital is classified as a long-acting barbiturate hypnotic agent, which means it is used primarily for its sedative and sleep-inducing effects.

Mephobarbital works by depressing the central nervous system (CNS), slowing down brain activity and producing a calming effect. It has historically been used to treat anxiety, seizure disorders, and insomnia, although its use has declined significantly in recent years due to the development of safer and more effective alternatives.

Like all barbiturates, Mephobarbital carries a risk of physical dependence, tolerance, and addiction with long-term use, and it can be dangerous when taken in large doses or combined with other CNS depressants such as alcohol. As a result, its medical use is typically reserved for very specific indications and closely monitored by healthcare professionals.

Benzoflavones are a type of chemical compound that consist of a benzene ring (a basic unit of organic chemistry made up of six carbon atoms arranged in a flat, hexagonal shape) fused to a flavone structure. Flavones are a type of flavonoid, which is a class of plant pigments widely present in fruits and vegetables. Benzoflavones have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects and safety profile in humans.

Chlordane is a man-made chlorinated hydrocarbon compound that was widely used as a pesticide, particularly for termite control, from the 1940s until it was banned in the United States in 1988 due to its toxicity and persistence in the environment. It is a colorless or light brown liquid with a mild, aromatic odor.

Chlordane is an extremely toxic compound to insects and has been shown to have negative effects on human health as well. Exposure to chlordane can cause a range of adverse health effects, including neurological damage, liver toxicity, and an increased risk of cancer. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Chlordane is highly persistent in the environment and can accumulate in the food chain, posing a particular risk to wildlife and humans who consume contaminated food or water. It can also volatilize from soil and water into the air, where it can be transported long distances and contribute to air pollution. As a result, chlordane continues to pose a significant environmental and health hazard, even though its use has been banned for several decades.

Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylases (AHH) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of various aromatic and heterocyclic compounds, including potentially harmful substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. These enzymes are primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells, particularly in the liver, but can also be found in other tissues.

The AHH enzymes catalyze the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the aromatic ring structure of these compounds, which is the first step in their biotransformation and eventual elimination from the body. This process can sometimes lead to the formation of metabolites that are more reactive and potentially toxic than the original compound. Therefore, the overall impact of AHH enzymes on human health is complex and depends on various factors, including the specific compounds being metabolized and individual genetic differences in enzyme activity.

Steroid hydroxylases are enzymes that catalyze the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to a steroid molecule. These enzymes are located in the endoplasmic reticulum and play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of various steroid hormones, such as cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones. The hydroxylation reaction catalyzed by these enzymes increases the polarity and solubility of steroids, allowing them to be further metabolized and excreted from the body.

The most well-known steroid hydroxylases are part of the cytochrome P450 family, specifically CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, and CYP21A2. Each enzyme has a specific function in steroid biosynthesis, such as converting cholesterol to pregnenolone (CYP11A1), hydroxylating the 11-beta position of steroids (CYP11B1 and CYP11B2), or performing multiple hydroxylation reactions in the synthesis of sex hormones (CYP17A1, CYP19A1, and CYP21A2).

Defects in these enzymes can lead to various genetic disorders, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which is characterized by impaired steroid hormone biosynthesis.

Cocarcinogenesis is a term used in the field of oncology to describe a process where exposure to certain chemicals or physical agents enhances the tumor-forming ability of a cancer-causing agent (carcinogen). A cocarcinogen does not have the ability to initiate cancer on its own, but it can promote the development and progression of cancer when combined with a carcinogen.

In other words, a cocarcinogen is a substance or factor that acts synergistically with a known carcinogen to increase the likelihood or speed up the development of cancer. This process can occur through various mechanisms, such as suppressing the immune system, promoting inflammation, increasing cell proliferation, or inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of cocarcinogens include tobacco smoke, alcohol, certain viruses, and radiation. These agents can interact with carcinogens to increase the risk of cancer in individuals who are exposed to them. It is important to note that while cocarcinogens themselves may not directly cause cancer, they can significantly contribute to its development and progression when combined with other harmful substances or factors.

Benzphetamine is a sympathomimetic amine, which is a type of drug that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system. It is a central nervous system stimulant and an appetite suppressant. Benzphetamine is used as a short-term supplement to diet and exercise in the treatment of obesity.

The medical definition of benzphetamine is:

A CNS stimulant and anorectic, structurally related to amphetamines, but pharmacologically related to the phenylethylamines. It has a longer duration of action than other amphetamines because it is absorbed more slowly and is excreted more slowly. Benzphetamine is used as an appetite suppressant in the treatment of obesity.

It's important to note that benzphetamine, like other weight-loss medications, should be used in conjunction with a reduced-calorie diet and exercise. It also has a risk for abuse and dependence, so it is usually prescribed for short-term use only.

Valproic acid is a medication that is primarily used as an anticonvulsant, which means it is used to treat seizure disorders. It works by increasing the amount of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, a neurotransmitter that helps to reduce abnormal electrical activity in the brain. In addition to its use as an anticonvulsant, valproic acid may also be used to treat migraines and bipolar disorder. It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions, and is usually taken by mouth. As with any medication, valproic acid can have side effects, and it is important for patients to be aware of these and to discuss them with their healthcare provider.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Mixed Function Oxygenases (MFOs) are a type of enzyme that catalyze the addition of one atom each from molecular oxygen (O2) to a substrate, while reducing the other oxygen atom to water. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous compounds, including drugs, carcinogens, and environmental pollutants.

MFOs are primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells and consist of two subunits: a flavoprotein component that contains FAD or FMN as a cofactor, and an iron-containing heme protein. The most well-known example of MFO is cytochrome P450, which is involved in the oxidation of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds such as steroids, fatty acids, and vitamins.

MFOs can catalyze a variety of reactions, including hydroxylation, epoxidation, dealkylation, and deamination, among others. These reactions often lead to the activation or detoxification of xenobiotics, making MFOs an important component of the body's defense system against foreign substances. However, in some cases, these reactions can also produce reactive intermediates that may cause toxicity or contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer.

Allylisopropylacetamide is not a term that has a widely accepted or established medical definition. It is a chemical compound with the formula (CH₂CHCH₂)N(C=O)CH(CH₃)₂, and it may have various chemical or industrial uses, but it is not a term that is commonly used in medical contexts.

If you have any specific questions about this compound or its potential uses or effects, I would recommend consulting with a relevant expert, such as a chemist or toxicologist, who can provide more detailed and accurate information based on their expertise and knowledge of the subject.

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. These seizures are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which can result in a wide range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, and altered sensations or behaviors. Epilepsy can have many different causes, including genetic factors, brain injury, infection, or stroke. In some cases, the cause may be unknown.

There are many different types of seizures that can occur in people with epilepsy, and the specific type of seizure will depend on the location and extent of the abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Some people may experience only one type of seizure, while others may have several different types. Seizures can vary in frequency, from a few per year to dozens or even hundreds per day.

Epilepsy is typically diagnosed based on the patient's history of recurrent seizures and the results of an electroencephalogram (EEG), which measures the electrical activity in the brain. Imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans may also be used to help identify any structural abnormalities in the brain that may be contributing to the seizures.

While there is no cure for epilepsy, it can often be effectively managed with medication. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the area of the brain responsible for the seizures. With proper treatment and management, many people with epilepsy are able to lead normal, productive lives.

Hypnotics and sedatives are classes of medications that have depressant effects on the central nervous system, leading to sedation (calming or inducing sleep), reduction in anxiety, and in some cases, decreased awareness or memory. These agents work by affecting the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in the brain, which results in inhibitory effects on neuronal activity.

Hypnotics are primarily used for the treatment of insomnia and other sleep disorders, while sedatives are often prescribed to manage anxiety or to produce a calming effect before medical procedures. Some medications can function as both hypnotics and sedatives, depending on the dosage and specific formulation. Common examples of these medications include benzodiazepines (such as diazepam and lorazepam), non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (such as zolpidem and eszopiclone), barbiturates, and certain antihistamines.

It is essential to use these medications under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have potential side effects, such as drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, and impaired coordination. Additionally, long-term use or high doses may lead to tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

Aroclors are a series of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures that were manufactured by the Monsanto Company. They were widely used as cooling and insulating fluids in electrical equipment, such as transformers and capacitors, due to their non-flammability, chemical stability, and electrical insulating properties.

The term "Aroclor" is followed by a four-digit number that indicates the specific mixture and its average degree of chlorination. For example, Aroclor 1242 contains approximately 42% chlorine by weight, while Aroclor 1260 contains approximately 60% chlorine by weight.

Because of their persistence in the environment and potential toxicity to humans and wildlife, the production and use of PCBs, including Aroclors, were banned in the United States in 1979 under the Toxic Substances Control Act. However, due to their widespread historical use, PCBs continue to be a significant environmental pollutant and can still be found in many older electrical equipment, building materials, and soil and water samples.

Pregnenolone carbonitrile is not a recognized or established medical term or substance. It's possible that there may be some confusion with the term "pregnenolone," which is a steroid hormone produced in the body. Pregnenolone is a precursor to other steroid hormones, including progesterone, cortisol, and the sex hormones (estrogens, androgens).

Carbonitrile is an organic functional group consisting of a cyano group (-CN) attached to a carbon atom. It's not typically associated with pregnenolone or any other steroid hormones in medical or scientific contexts.

Therefore, I cannot provide a medical definition for 'Pregnenolone Carbonitrile,' as it is not a recognized term in the field of medicine or biology.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Hexobarbital is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs called barbiturates. It is primarily used as a short-acting sedative and hypnotic agent, which means it can help induce sleep and reduce anxiety. Hexobarbital works by depressing the central nervous system, slowing down brain activity and causing relaxation and drowsiness.

It's important to note that hexobarbital is not commonly used in modern medical practice due to the availability of safer and more effective alternatives. Additionally, barbiturates like hexobarbital have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and their use is associated with several risks, including respiratory depression, overdose, and death, particularly when taken in combination with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol or opioids.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

2-Acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) is a chemical compound that has been used in research to study the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. It is an aromatic amine and a derivative of fluorene, with the chemical formula C14H11NO.

2-AAF is not naturally occurring and is synthesized in the laboratory. It has been found to be carcinogenic in animal studies, causing tumors in various organs including the liver, lung, and bladder. The compound is metabolically activated in the body to form reactive intermediates that can bind to DNA and other cellular components, leading to mutations and cancer.

2-AAF has been used as a tool in research to investigate the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis and the role of metabolic activation in the process. It is not used in medical treatments or therapies.

Antipyrine is a chemical compound that was commonly used as a fever reducer and pain reliever in the past. It is a type of phenylpyrazole antipyretic and analgesic. However, due to its potential for causing liver damage and other side effects, it has largely been replaced by other medications and is not widely used in modern medicine.

The medical definition of Antipyrine refers to this specific chemical compound with the formula C11H13N3O2, and not to any broader category of drugs or substances. It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether, but insoluble in water.

Antipyrine was first synthesized in 1883 and was widely used as a fever reducer and pain reliever until the mid-20th century. However, its use declined due to concerns about its safety profile, including the potential for liver damage, skin reactions, and other side effects.

Today, Antipyrine is still used in some medical applications, such as in the measurement of earwax conductivity as a way to assess hearing function. It may also be used in some topical creams and ointments for pain relief. However, its use as a systemic medication is generally not recommended due to its potential for causing harm.

Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) is not primarily considered a medical treatment, but rather a research compound used in neuroscience and neurology to study seizure activity and chemically induce seizures in animals for experimental purposes. It is classified as a proconvulsant agent. Medically, it has been used in the past as a medication to treat epilepsy, but its use is now largely historical due to the availability of safer and more effective anticonvulsant drugs.

In a medical or scientific context, Pentylenetetrazole can be defined as:

A chemical compound with the formula C6H5N5O2, which is used in research to investigate seizure activity and induce convulsions in animals. It acts as a non-competitive GABAA receptor antagonist and can lower the seizure threshold. Historically, it has been used as a medication to treat epilepsy, but its use for this purpose is now limited due to the development of safer and more effective anticonvulsant drugs.

Hepatocytes are the predominant type of cells in the liver, accounting for about 80% of its cytoplasmic mass. They play a key role in protein synthesis, protein storage, transformation of carbohydrates, synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids, detoxification, modification, and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances, initiation of formation and secretion of bile, and enzyme production. Hepatocytes are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Xenobiotics are substances that are foreign to a living organism and usually originate outside of the body. This term is often used in the context of pharmacology and toxicology to refer to drugs, chemicals, or other agents that are not naturally produced by or expected to be found within the body.

When xenobiotics enter the body, they undergo a series of biotransformation processes, which involve metabolic reactions that convert them into forms that can be more easily excreted from the body. These processes are primarily carried out by enzymes in the liver and other organs.

It's worth noting that some xenobiotics can have beneficial effects on the body when used as medications or therapeutic agents, while others can be harmful or toxic. Therefore, understanding how the body metabolizes and eliminates xenobiotics is important for developing safe and effective drugs, as well as for assessing the potential health risks associated with exposure to environmental chemicals and pollutants.

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) modulators are substances that affect the function of GABA, which is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability and reducing the activity of overactive nerve cells.

GABA modulators can either enhance or decrease the activity of GABA receptors, depending on their specific mechanism of action. These substances can be classified into two main categories:

1. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs): These compounds bind to a site on the GABA receptor that is distinct from the neurotransmitter binding site and enhance the activity of GABA at the receptor, leading to increased inhibitory signaling in the brain. Examples of positive allosteric modulators include benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and certain non-benzodiazepine drugs used for anxiolysis, sedation, and muscle relaxation.
2. Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs): These compounds bind to a site on the GABA receptor that reduces the activity of GABA at the receptor, leading to decreased inhibitory signaling in the brain. Examples of negative allosteric modulators include certain antiepileptic drugs and alcohol, which can reduce the effectiveness of GABA-mediated inhibition and contribute to their proconvulsant effects.

It is important to note that while GABA modulators can have therapeutic benefits in treating various neurological and psychiatric conditions, they can also carry risks for abuse, dependence, and adverse side effects, particularly when used at high doses or over extended periods.

Febrile seizures are a type of seizure that occurs in young children, typically between the ages of 6 months and 5 years, and is often associated with fever. A febrile seizure is defined as a convulsion or seizure that is brought on by a high fever, usually greater than 100.4°F (38°C), but can also occur in response to a rapid rise in body temperature. The seizures can vary in length and may involve shaking of the entire body, jerking of the arms and legs, or just twitching of one part of the body. They can be quite alarming to witness, but they are usually harmless and do not cause any long-term neurological problems.

Febrile seizures are most commonly caused by viral infections, such as a cold or flu, but they can also occur with bacterial infections, such as a urinary tract infection or ear infection. In some cases, the fever and seizure may be the first signs that a child is ill.

While febrile seizures are generally harmless, it is important to seek medical attention if your child has a seizure. This is because a small percentage of children who have febrile seizures may go on to develop epilepsy, a condition characterized by recurrent seizures. Additionally, some serious underlying conditions, such as meningitis or encephalitis, can cause fever and seizures, so it is important to rule out these possibilities with a thorough medical evaluation.

If your child has a febrile seizure, the best course of action is to remain calm and make sure they are in a safe place where they cannot injure themselves. Do not try to restrain them or put anything in their mouth. Instead, gently turn them onto their side to prevent choking and call for medical help. Most febrile seizures last only a few minutes and resolve on their own without any treatment. After the seizure, your child may be sleepy or confused, but they should return to their normal state within a short period of time.

Biotransformation is the metabolic modification of a chemical compound, typically a xenobiotic (a foreign chemical substance found within an living organism), by a biological system. This process often involves enzymatic conversion of the parent compound to one or more metabolites, which may be more or less active, toxic, or mutagenic than the original substance.

In the context of pharmacology and toxicology, biotransformation is an important aspect of drug metabolism and elimination from the body. The liver is the primary site of biotransformation, but other organs such as the kidneys, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract can also play a role.

Biotransformation can occur in two phases: phase I reactions involve functionalization of the parent compound through oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis, while phase II reactions involve conjugation of the metabolite with endogenous molecules such as glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetate to increase its water solubility and facilitate excretion.

Diazepam is a medication from the benzodiazepine class, which typically has calming, sedative, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant properties. Its medical uses include the treatment of anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, end-of-life sedation, seizures, muscle spasms, and as a premedication for medical procedures. Diazepam is available in various forms, such as tablets, oral solution, rectal gel, and injectable solutions. It works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in the modulation of nerve impulses in the brain, producing a sedative effect.

It is important to note that diazepam can be habit-forming and has several potential side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, weakness, and impaired coordination. It should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional and according to the prescribed dosage to minimize the risk of adverse effects and dependence.

Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, where a electron is transferred from one molecule to another. N-Demethylating oxidoreductases are a specific subclass of these enzymes that catalyze the removal of a methyl group (-CH3) from a nitrogen atom (-N) in a molecule, which is typically a xenobiotic compound (a foreign chemical substance found within an living organism). This process often involves the transfer of electrons and the formation of water as a byproduct.

The reaction catalyzed by N-demethylating oxidoreductases can be represented as follows:
R-N-CH3 + O2 + H2O → R-N-H + CH3OH + H2O2

where R represents the rest of the molecule. The removal of the methyl group is often an important step in the metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotic compounds, as it can make them more water soluble and facilitate their excretion from the body.

Orphenadrine is an anticholinergic and skeletal muscle relaxant drug. It is primarily used to treat symptoms associated with muscle pain and stiffness, such as those caused by strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries. Orphenadrine works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays a role in muscle contraction. This helps to reduce muscle spasms and relieve pain. It is available in immediate-release and extended-release forms, and is often prescribed in combination with other medications, such as aspirin or acetaminophen, to provide additional pain relief.

It's important to note that Orphenadrine can have side effects, including dizziness, dry mouth, blurred vision, and constipation. It should be used under the direction of a healthcare professional, and patients should follow their instructions carefully when taking this medication. Additionally, it may interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your doctor about all the medications you are currently taking before starting on Orphenadrine.

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), also known as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, is an enzyme found in many tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, and pancreas. GGT is involved in the metabolism of certain amino acids and plays a role in the detoxification of various substances in the body.

GGT is often measured as a part of a panel of tests used to evaluate liver function. Elevated levels of GGT in the blood may indicate liver disease or injury, bile duct obstruction, or alcohol consumption. However, it's important to note that several other factors can also affect GGT levels, so abnormal results should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and diagnostic tests.

Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO) is not a medication or a therapeutic agent, so it doesn't have a typical "medical definition" as such. However, it is a chemical compound with a specific use in the medical field, particularly in relation to pest control and public health.

Piperonyl Butoxide is an organic compound that is commonly used as a synergist in pesticides. A synergist is a substance that enhances the effectiveness of a primary active ingredient. In the case of PBO, it is often combined with pyrethrin or pyrethroid-based insecticides to increase their potency and duration of action.

PBO works by inhibiting certain enzymes in insects that would otherwise help them metabolize and detoxify the insecticide. This allows the insecticide to remain active for a longer period, thereby increasing its efficacy.

It's important to note that while PBO is used in pest control, it is not directly toxic to humans or other mammals in the concentrations typically used. However, exposure should still be minimized as much as possible due to potential respiratory and skin irritation, and long-term health effects are not fully understood.

Nafenopin is not a medication that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in humans. Therefore, there is no established medical definition or indication for its use in human medicine.

However, Nafenopin is a drug that has been studied in animals as a potential treatment for brain injuries and neurological disorders. It is a type of medication called a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, which means it blocks the effects of opioids (drugs that act on the body's natural pain-relieving system) in the brain.

In animal studies, Nafenopin has been shown to have neuroprotective effects and may help reduce damage to brain cells after an injury or stroke. However, more research is needed to determine its safety and effectiveness in humans before it can be approved for use as a medication.

Pentobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for its sedative and hypnotic effects in the treatment of insomnia, seizure disorders, and occasionally to treat severe agitation or delirium. It works by decreasing the activity of nerves in the brain, which produces a calming effect.

In addition to its medical uses, pentobarbital has been used for non-therapeutic purposes such as euthanasia and capital punishment due to its ability to cause respiratory depression and death when given in high doses. It is important to note that the use of pentobarbital for these purposes is highly regulated and restricted to licensed medical professionals in specific circumstances.

Like all barbiturates, pentobarbital has a high potential for abuse and addiction, and its use should be closely monitored by a healthcare provider. It can also cause serious side effects such as respiratory depression, decreased heart rate, and low blood pressure, especially when used in large doses or combined with other central nervous system depressants.

Hyperbilirubinemia is a condition characterized by an excess of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellowish substance produced by the liver when it breaks down old red blood cells. Normally, bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through the bile ducts and into the digestive system. However, if there is a problem with the liver or the bile ducts, bilirubin can build up in the blood, causing hyperbilirubinemia.

Hereditary hyperbilirubinemia refers to forms of the condition that are caused by genetic mutations. There are several types of hereditary hyperbilirubinemia, including:

1. Dubin-Johnson syndrome: This is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chronic conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and a dark brownish-black pigmentation of the liver. It is caused by mutations in the MRP2 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein that helps to remove bilirubin from the liver cells into the bile ducts.

2. Rotor syndrome: This is another rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chronic conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. It is caused by mutations in the SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3 genes, which provide instructions for making proteins that help to transport bilirubin into the liver cells.

3. Crigler-Najjar syndrome: This is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. It is caused by mutations in the UGT1A1 gene, which provides instructions for making an enzyme that helps to conjugate bilirubin in the liver.

4. Gilbert syndrome: This is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. It is caused by mutations in the UGT1A1 gene, but to a lesser degree than Crigler-Najjar syndrome.

In general, hereditary hyperbilirubinemias are managed with close monitoring of bilirubin levels and may require treatment with phototherapy or exchange transfusion in severe cases. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.

7-Alkoxycoumarin O-Dealkylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction to remove alkoxy groups (O-dealkylation) from xenobiotic compounds, particularly 7-alkoxycoumarins. This enzyme is involved in the metabolism and detoxification of these substances in the body. It is also known as CYP2B6, which is a member of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes.

5-Aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) is an enzyme that catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis, a metabolic pathway that produces heme, a porphyrin ring with an iron atom at its center. Heme is a crucial component of hemoglobin, cytochromes, and other important molecules in the body.

ALAS exists in two forms: ALAS1 and ALAS2. ALAS1 is expressed in all tissues, while ALAS2 is primarily expressed in erythroid cells (precursors to red blood cells). The reaction catalyzed by ALAS involves the condensation of glycine and succinyl-CoA to form 5-aminolevulinate.

Deficiencies or mutations in the ALAS2 gene can lead to a rare genetic disorder called X-linked sideroblastic anemia, which is characterized by abnormal red blood cell maturation and iron overload in mitochondria.

Amobarbital is a barbiturate drug that is primarily used as a sedative and sleep aid. It works by depressing the central nervous system, which can lead to relaxation, drowsiness, and reduced anxiety. Amobarbital is also sometimes used as an anticonvulsant to help control seizures.

Like other barbiturates, amobarbital has a high potential for abuse and addiction, and it can be dangerous or even fatal when taken in large doses or mixed with alcohol or other drugs. It is typically prescribed only for short-term use due to the risk of tolerance and dependence.

It's important to note that the use of barbiturates like amobarbital has declined in recent years due to the development of safer and more effective alternatives, such as benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine sleep aids.

Secobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for the treatment of short-term insomnia and as a preoperative sedative. It works by depressing the central nervous system, producing a calming effect and helping to induce sleep. Secobarbital has a rapid onset of action and a relatively short duration of effect.

It is available in various forms, including capsules and injectable solutions, and is typically prescribed for use on an as-needed basis rather than as a regular medication. Secobarbital can be habit-forming and carries a risk of dependence and withdrawal, so it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

It's important to note that Secobarbital is not commonly prescribed in modern medical practice due to its high potential for abuse and the availability of safer and more effective sleep aids.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

Proadifen is not typically referred to as a medical term or definition in modern medicine. However, it is an old antihistamine drug that was used in the past for its properties as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). MAOIs were used primarily in the treatment of depression but have largely been replaced by newer classes of drugs due to their potential for serious side effects.

Here is a brief medical definition of Proadifen as an MAOI:

Proadifen (SKF-525A): An older, nonselective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that was used in the past for its antidepressant effects. Its use has been largely discontinued due to the risk of serious adverse reactions, such as hypertensive crises, when combined with certain foods or medications containing tyramine.

Cytoplasmic receptors and nuclear receptors are two types of intracellular receptors that play crucial roles in signal transduction pathways and regulation of gene expression. They are classified based on their location within the cell. Here are the medical definitions for each:

1. Cytoplasmic Receptors: These are a group of intracellular receptors primarily found in the cytoplasm of cells, which bind to specific hormones, growth factors, or other signaling molecules. Upon binding, these receptors undergo conformational changes that allow them to interact with various partners, such as adapter proteins and enzymes, leading to activation of downstream signaling cascades. These pathways ultimately result in modulation of cellular processes like proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Examples of cytoplasmic receptors include receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), serine/threonine kinase receptors, and cytokine receptors.
2. Nuclear Receptors: These are a distinct class of intracellular receptors that reside primarily in the nucleus of cells. They bind to specific ligands, such as steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, vitamin D, retinoic acid, and various other lipophilic molecules. Upon binding, nuclear receptors undergo conformational changes that facilitate their interaction with co-regulatory proteins and the DNA. This interaction results in the modulation of gene transcription, ultimately leading to alterations in protein expression and cellular responses. Examples of nuclear receptors include estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs).

Both cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors are essential components of cellular communication networks, allowing cells to respond appropriately to extracellular signals and maintain homeostasis. Dysregulation of these receptors has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders.

Aniline hydroxylase is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of aromatic compounds, including aniline and other related substances. The enzyme catalyzes the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the aromatic ring of these compounds, which helps to make them more water-soluble and facilitates their excretion from the body.

Aniline hydroxylase is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, lung, and kidney. It is a member of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes, which are known for their role in drug metabolism and other xenobiotic-metabolizing reactions.

It's important to note that exposure to aniline and its derivatives can be harmful and may cause various health effects, including damage to the liver and other organs. Therefore, it is essential to handle these substances with care and follow appropriate safety precautions.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A is a subfamily of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme superfamily, which are primarily involved in drug metabolism in the human body. These enzymes are found predominantly in the liver, but also in other tissues such as the small intestine, kidneys, and brain.

CYP3A enzymes are responsible for metabolizing a wide variety of drugs, including many statins, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, and opioids. They can also metabolize endogenous compounds such as steroids and bile acids. The activity of CYP3A enzymes can be influenced by various factors, including genetic polymorphisms, age, sex, pregnancy, and the presence of other drugs or diseases.

The name "cytochrome P-450" refers to the fact that these enzymes contain a heme group that absorbs light at a wavelength of 450 nanometers when it is complexed with carbon monoxide. The term "CYP3A" denotes the specific subfamily of cytochrome P-450 enzymes that share a high degree of sequence similarity and function.

Clofibrate is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as fibrates. It is primarily used to lower elevated levels of cholesterol and other fats (lipids) in the blood, specifically low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol, and triglycerides, while increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good" cholesterol. Clofibrate works by reducing the production of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in the liver, which in turn lowers triglyceride levels and indirectly reduces LDL cholesterol levels.

Clofibrate is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed for patients with high cholesterol or triglycerides who are at risk of cardiovascular disease, such as those with a history of heart attacks, strokes, or peripheral artery disease. It is important to note that clofibrate should be used in conjunction with lifestyle modifications, including a healthy diet, regular exercise, and smoking cessation.

Like all medications, clofibrate can have side effects, some of which may be serious. Common side effects include stomach upset, diarrhea, gas, and changes in taste. Less commonly, clofibrate can cause more severe side effects such as liver or muscle damage, gallstones, and an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer. Patients taking clofibrate should be monitored regularly by their healthcare provider to ensure that the medication is working effectively and to monitor for any potential side effects.

Benzopyrene hydroxylase is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are a group of environmental pollutants found in cigarette smoke, air pollution, and charred or overcooked foods. Benzopyrene hydroxylase is primarily found in the liver and is responsible for adding a hydroxyl group to benzopyrene, a type of PAH, making it more water-soluble and easier to excrete from the body. This enzyme plays an important role in the body's defense against the harmful effects of PAHs.

Glucaric acid, also known as saccharic acid, is not a medication or a medical treatment. It is an organic compound that occurs naturally in various fruits and vegetables, such as oranges, apples, and corn. Glucaric acid is a type of dicarboxylic acid, which means it contains two carboxyl groups.

In the human body, glucaric acid is produced as a byproduct of glucose metabolism and can be found in small amounts in urine. It is also produced synthetically for industrial uses, such as in the production of cleaning products, textiles, and plastics.

There has been some research on the potential health benefits of glucaric acid, including its role in detoxification and cancer prevention. However, more studies are needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended intake levels or dosages. Therefore, it is not currently considered a medical treatment for any specific condition.

Electroshock, also known as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), is a medical procedure in which electric currents are passed through the brain to treat certain mental health conditions. It is primarily used to treat severe forms of depression that have not responded to other treatments, and it may also be used to treat bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

During an ECT procedure, electrodes are placed on the patient's head, and a carefully controlled electric current is passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a seizure. The patient is under general anesthesia and given muscle relaxants to prevent physical injury from the seizure.

ECT is typically administered in a series of treatments, usually two or three times a week for several weeks. While the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood, ECT is thought to affect brain chemistry and help regulate mood and other symptoms. It is generally considered a safe and effective treatment option for certain mental health conditions when other treatments have failed. However, it can have side effects, including short-term memory loss and confusion, and it may not be appropriate for everyone.

Hepatomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlargement of the liver beyond its normal size. The liver is usually located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen and can be felt during a physical examination. A healthcare provider may detect hepatomegaly by palpating (examining through touch) the abdomen, noticing that the edge of the liver extends past the lower ribcage.

There are several possible causes for hepatomegaly, including:
- Fatty liver disease (both alcoholic and nonalcoholic)
- Hepatitis (viral or autoimmune)
- Liver cirrhosis
- Cancer (such as primary liver cancer, metastatic cancer, or lymphoma)
- Infections (e.g., bacterial, fungal, or parasitic)
- Heart failure and other cardiovascular conditions
- Genetic disorders (e.g., Gaucher's disease, Niemann-Pick disease, or Hunter syndrome)
- Metabolic disorders (e.g., glycogen storage diseases, hemochromatosis, or Wilson's disease)

Diagnosing the underlying cause of hepatomegaly typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies like ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the specific cause identified and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or, in some cases, surgical intervention.

Hydroxylation is a biochemical process that involves the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to a molecule, typically a steroid or xenobiotic compound. This process is primarily catalyzed by enzymes called hydroxylases, which are found in various tissues throughout the body.

In the context of medicine and biochemistry, hydroxylation can have several important functions:

1. Drug metabolism: Hydroxylation is a common way that the liver metabolizes drugs and other xenobiotic compounds. By adding a hydroxyl group to a drug molecule, it becomes more polar and water-soluble, which facilitates its excretion from the body.
2. Steroid hormone biosynthesis: Hydroxylation is an essential step in the biosynthesis of many steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone. These hormones are synthesized from cholesterol through a series of enzymatic reactions that involve hydroxylation at various steps.
3. Vitamin D activation: Hydroxylation is also necessary for the activation of vitamin D in the body. In order to become biologically active, vitamin D must undergo two successive hydroxylations, first in the liver and then in the kidneys.
4. Toxin degradation: Some toxic compounds can be rendered less harmful through hydroxylation. For example, phenol, a toxic compound found in cigarette smoke and some industrial chemicals, can be converted to a less toxic form through hydroxylation by enzymes in the liver.

Overall, hydroxylation is an important biochemical process that plays a critical role in various physiological functions, including drug metabolism, hormone biosynthesis, and toxin degradation.

Dimethylnitrosamine is a chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2NNO. It is a potent carcinogen, and is classified as a Class 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). It is known to cause cancer in various organs, including the liver, kidney, and lungs.

Dimethylnitrosamine is formed when nitrogen oxides react with secondary amines under conditions that are commonly encountered in industrial processes or in certain food preservation methods. It can also be found as a contaminant in some foods and cosmetics.

Exposure to dimethylnitrosamine can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. The toxic effects of this compound are due to its ability to form DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and cancer. It is important to minimize exposure to this compound and to take appropriate safety measures when working with it.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is a synthetic insecticide that was widely used in the mid-20th century to control agricultural pests and vector-borne diseases such as malaria. It belongs to a class of chemicals called organochlorines, which are known for their persistence in the environment and potential for bioaccumulation in the food chain.

DDT was first synthesized in 1874, but its insecticidal properties were not discovered until 1939. Its use as an insecticide became widespread during World War II, when it was used to control typhus and malaria-carrying lice and mosquitoes among troops. After the war, DDT was widely adopted for agricultural and public health purposes.

However, concerns about the environmental and human health effects of DDT led to its ban or severe restriction in many countries starting in the 1970s. The United States banned the use of DDT for most purposes in 1972, and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) prohibited its production and use globally in 2004, except in cases where there is a risk of vector-borne diseases.

DDT has been linked to several health problems, including reproductive effects, developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. It is also highly persistent in the environment, with a half-life of up to 15 years in soil and up to 30 years in water. This means that DDT can accumulate in the food chain, posing risks to wildlife and humans who consume contaminated food or water.

In summary, DDT is a synthetic insecticide that was widely used in the mid-20th century but has been banned or restricted in many countries due to its environmental and health effects. It belongs to a class of chemicals called organochlorines, which are known for their persistence in the environment and potential for bioaccumulation in the food chain. DDT has been linked to several health problems, including reproductive effects, developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, and endocrine disruption.

Glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) is an enzyme belonging to the family of glycosyltransferases. It plays a crucial role in the process of biotransformation and detoxification of various endogenous and exogenous substances, including drugs, hormones, and environmental toxins, in the liver and other organs.

The enzyme functions by transferring a glucuronic acid moiety from a donor molecule, uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA), to an acceptor molecule, which can be a variety of hydrophobic compounds. This reaction results in the formation of a more water-soluble glucuronide conjugate, facilitating the excretion of the substrate through urine or bile.

There are multiple isoforms of glucuronosyltransferase, classified into two main families: UGT1 and UGT2. These isoforms exhibit different substrate specificities and tissue distributions, allowing for a wide range of compounds to be metabolized through the glucuronidation pathway.

In summary, Glucuronosyltransferase is an essential enzyme in the detoxification process, facilitating the elimination of various substances from the body by conjugating them with a glucuronic acid moiety.

Chlorpromazine is a type of antipsychotic medication, also known as a phenothiazine. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking. Chlorpromazine is used to treat various mental health conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe behavioral problems in children. It may also be used for the short-term management of severe anxiety or agitation, and to control nausea and vomiting.

Like all medications, chlorpromazine can have side effects, which can include drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. More serious side effects may include neurological symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, or abnormal movements, as well as cardiovascular problems such as low blood pressure or irregular heart rhythms. It is important for patients to be monitored closely by their healthcare provider while taking chlorpromazine, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

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... injections of phenobarbital; overdoses of sedatives, which would often lead to death when the children were exposed to extreme ...
Phenobarbital also results in the adverse effects of Tedral. The most common side effects caused by phenobarbital are dizziness ... When phenobarbital binds to these receptors, the chloride ion gates open and remain open, allowing these ions to enter neuronal ... Phenobarbital prolongs the time that chloride channels are open. Thereby, depressing the central nervous system. This is ... "Phenobarbital: Drug information". UpToDate. Retrieved 2023-04-09. Statler, Alec K.; Maani, Christopher V.; Kohli, Arpan (2023 ...
It is typically treated with anticonvulsants such as phenobarbital or bromide in dogs and phenobarbital in cats. Imepitoin is ... The least expensive anticonvulsant is phenobarbital at around US$5 a year. The World Health Organization gives it a first-line ... The first modern treatment, phenobarbital, was developed in 1912, with phenytoin coming into use in 1938. Social stigma is ... Ilangaratne NB, Mannakkara NN, Bell GS, Sander JW (December 2012). "Phenobarbital: missing in action". Bulletin of the World ...
Carbamazepine was replaced with phenobarbital. All 12 interictal EEGs during the active seizure period, 6 of them during sleep ...
It has similar properties to phenobarbital. 1952 Gemonil was introduced by Abbott Laboratories. 1990 Abbott stopped marketing. ...
Phenobarbital can cause hyperactivity in children. This may follow after a small dose of 20 mg, on condition of no ... The mechanism of action is not known, but it may be started by the anxiolytic action of the phenobarbital. Barbiturates such as ... phenobarbital administered in previous days. Prerequisity for this reaction is a continued sense of tension. ...
Barbiturates including thiopental, phenobarbital, primidone, etc. Systemic treatment with antifungals including fluconazole, ...
They suspected that this was due to phenobarbital therapy, and that the phenobarbital was stimulating peripheral tissue growth ... Both phenobarbital and it are associated with elevated serum levels (both fasting and six hours after methionine loading) of ... Primidone, like phenobarbital and the benzodiazepines, can also cause sedation in the newborn and also withdrawal within the ... Primidone converts to phenobarbital and PEMA; it is still unknown which exact cytochrome P450 enzymes are responsible. The ...
Phenobarbital was identified as the psychotropic substance most frequently used as an adulterant in seized heroin; it was ... Diazepam increases the serum levels of phenobarbital. Nefazodone can cause increased blood levels of benzodiazepines. Cisapride ... Rifampin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital increase the metabolism of diazepam, thus decreasing drug levels and ... as well as anticonvulsants such as phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine. The euphoriant effects of opioids may be ...
Phenobarbital List of fatal dog attacks Causes of seizures Animal euthanasia B.V., Beaver (1980). "Mental lapse aggression ... She was successfully treated with Phenobarbital (2.5 mg/kg by mouth twice a day, bringing her within the therapeutic range at a ... Dodman; Miczek, K. A.; Knowles, K.; Thalhammer, J. G.; Shuster, L. (1992). "Phenobarbital-responsive episodic dyscontrol (rage ... Dodman; Miczek, K. A.; Knowles, K.; Thalhammer, J. G.; Shuster, L. (1992). "Phenobarbital-responsive episodic dyscontrol (rage ...
Hexobarbital Metharbital Phenobarbital Anvisa (2023-03-31). "RDC Nº 784 - Listas de Substâncias Entorpecentes, Psicotrópicas, ... It is the N-methylated analogue of phenobarbital and has similar indications, therapeutic value, and tolerability. 1935 - ...
"Phenobarbital-responsive episodic dyscontrol (rage) in dogs". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 201 (10 ...
Phenobarbital: May decrease fenoprofen t 1⁄2 . Dosage adjustments of fenoprofen may be required if phenobarbital is added or ...
Phenobarbital, one of the principal ingredients in Corvalol, is a DEA Schedule IV substance in the United States. Schedule IV ... Phenobarbital is a barbiturate anticonvulsant used in epilepsy and to induce sedation. Currently there is no evidence to ... Phenobarbital is a central nervous system depressant.[medical citation needed] According to the Farmak product label of ... Taking phenobarbital-containing products, such as Corvalol, while taking other medications may reduce their effectiveness. Some ...
... and with chlorpromazine and phenobarbital as Vegetamin. The recreational drug lean, also known as purple drank among other ...
September 1980). "Influence of phenytoin and phenobarbital on the disposition of a single oral dose of clonazepam". Clinical ... Of anticonvulsant drugs, behavioural disturbances occur most frequently with clonazepam and phenobarbital. Doses higher than ... Combined use of clonazepam with certain antidepressants, anticonvulsants (such as phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine ... Clonazepam increases the levels of primidone and phenobarbital. ...
Barbiturate phenobarbital is an anticonvulsive and sedative drugs. Three active components cooperate to alleviate menopausal ... Phenobarbital provides sedative and anesthetic effects through depressing the central nervous system. 24 Ergotamine constricts ... The effects of the other two components are strengthened by the sedative phenobarbital. Bellergal was widely used during the ... There were shortage reports related to phenobarbital from 18 July 2017 to 1 March 2018, disrupting the flow of the production ...
A further conceptual step that is rarely necessary or appropriate is to give a low dose of phenobarbital: the bilirubin will ... If jaundice is significant phenobarbital may be used, which aids in the conjugation of bilirubin. Gilbert syndrome affects ... If jaundice is significant phenobarbital may be used. Gilbert syndrome was first described by French gastroenterologist ...
It is treatable with Phenobarbital and supportive antiepileptics. Cerebellar hypoplasia is an incomplete development of the ...
Once the child is weaned off the phenobarbital, the monitor is no longer necessary. BFNE was first described in 1964 by Andreas ... Neonatal seizures are often controlled with phenobarbital administration. Recurrent seizures later in life are treated in the ...
Phenobarbital was the main anticonvulsant from 1912 until the development of phenytoin in 1938. Today, phenobarbital is rarely ... There would not be a better drug until phenobarbital in 1912. It is still used as an anticonvulsant for dogs and cats but is no ... Phenobarbital was first used in 1912 for both its sedative and antiepileptic properties. By the 1930s, the development of ... Phenobarbital sodium injection can be used to stop acute convulsions or status epilepticus, but a benzodiazepine such as ...
Examples of barbiturates are phenobarbital, primidone and amobarbital. Antihistamines, also known as H1 antagonists, are a ...
Tetrabamate is a controversial drug that is a combination of febarbamate, difebarbamate, and phenobarbital. It is marketed in ... phenobarbital) (Atrium, G Tril, Sevrium) (anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, muscle tremors, agitation, depression) Although a drug ... aminobutyric acid receptor channels by diazepam and phenobarbital". Annals of Neurology. 25 (3): 213-220. doi:10.1002/ana. ... aminobutyric acid receptor channels by diazepam and phenobarbital". Annals of Neurology. 25 (3): 213-220. doi:10.1002/ANA. ...
Phenobarbital is used in cases of drug withdrawal syndromes. It is used as normal and emergency treatment in some cases of ... Phenobarbital was the first truly effective drug against epilepsy. It was discovered by accident when given to epileptic ... In 2013 the barbiturates phenobarbital and butabarbital are still used as sedatives in certain cases as well as to antagonize ...
Phenobarbital is a cytochrome P450 inducer, and is used to reduce the toxicity of some drugs.[citation needed] Phenobarbital is ... Phenobarbital can also be used to relieve cyclic vomiting syndrome symptoms. Phenobarbital is a commonly used agent in high ... Phenobarbital, like other barbiturates works by increasing the activity of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Phenobarbital ... Phenobarbital is useful for insomnia and anxiety. Phenobarbital properties can effectively reduce tremors and seizures ...
Phenobarbital: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Take phenobarbital exactly as directed.. If you take phenobarbital for a long time, it may not control your symptoms as well as ... Phenobarbital is used to control seizures. Phenobarbital is also used to relieve anxiety. It is also used to prevent withdrawal ... Before taking phenobarbital,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to phenobarbital; other barbiturates such as ...
Phenobarbital is approved for the treatment of epilepsy and seizure disorder.. To obtain reimbursement for affected product ... phenobarbital tablets, 32.4 mg, NDC 0603-5166-32, 1000 count, lot numbers T150G10B, T120J10E, and T023M10A ... Additionally, missing doses of Phenobarbital could result in loss of seizure control," the statement reads. ... Cite this: Hydrocodone Bitartrate/Acetaminophen and Phenobarbital Tablets Recalled - Medscape - Feb 07, 2011. ...
Phenobarbital is 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid. Phenobarbital is a substituted pyrimidine derivative in which the basic ... Each phenobarbital tablet contains 16.2 mg, 32.4 mg, 64.8 mg, or 97.2 mg of phenobarbital. ... Sodium valproate and valproic acid increase the phenobarbital serum levels; therefore, phenobarbital blood levels should be ... PHENOBARBITAL tablet. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application. https ...
Phenobarbital is 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid. Phenobarbital is a substituted pyrimidine derivative in which the basic ... Each phenobarbital tablet contains 15 mg, 30 mg, 60 mg, or 100 mg of phenobarbital. ... Sodium valproate and valproic acid increase the phenobarbital serum levels; therefore, phenobarbital blood levels should be ... PHENOBARBITAL tablet. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application. https ...
Phenobarbital is 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid. Phenobarbital is a substituted pyrimidine derivative in which the basic ... Each phenobarbital tablet contains 16.2 mg, 32.4 mg, 64.8 mg, or 97.2 mg of phenobarbital, USP. ... Sodium valproate and valproic acid increase the phenobarbital serum levels; therefore, phenobarbital blood levels should be ... PHENOBARBITAL tablet. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application. https ...
Testing Status of Phenobarbital 11566-S. Testing Status of Phenobarbital 11566-S. CASRN: 50-06-6. Formula: C12-H12-N2-O3. ...
Phenobarbital is a barbiturate that reduces excitatory synaptic responses by acting on GABAA receptors. It is most commonly ... Phenobarbital is metabolized principally in liver by microsomal enzymes, with up to 25% of the phenobarbital dose eliminated by ... Recent studies on phenobarbital level monitoring have examined the effects of age on phenobarbital clearance. A study by ... The phenobarbital level can be correlated with a patients clinical presentation to ascertain the therapeutic phenobarbital ...
Phenobarbital Phenobarbital is used to control seizures. Phenobarbital is also used to relieve anxiety. It is also used to ... Phenobarbital overdose Phenobarbital is a medicine used to treat epilepsy (seizures), anxiety, and insomnia . It is in a class ... mL (189.85 to 569.55 nmol/L) Phenobarbital: 10 to 30 mcg/mL (43.10 to ... than 500 ng/mL (1898.50 nmol/L) Phenobarbital: ... with this combination.Talk with your health provider.Phenobarbital (Luminal)Phenobarbital is a drug used to treat seizures. ...
Compare Phenobarbital Tablets vs. Zonisamide Capsules with a detailed product breakdown. Visit PetMeds to save on Medications ...
You have to enable JavaScript in your browsers settings in order to use the eReader.. Or try downloading the content offline. DOWNLOAD ...
... and intrapatient variability in excretion of phenobarbital into breastmilk is extensive. Phenobarbital in breastmilk apparently ... Inter- and intrapatient variability in excretion of phenobarbital into breastmilk is extensive. Phenobarbital in breastmilk ... Phenobarbital No authors listed In: Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of ... Phenobarbital in sera of epileptic mothers and their infants. Am J Ther. 1995;2:968-71. - PubMed ...
... Our question this week was:. Dear Dr. Debra, we ... You wrote asking if your cocker spaniel that has a history of seizures, is on the drug Phenobarbital, and is obese can safely ... He has seizures and is on Phenobarbital. We have seen weight gain and are concerned! ...
Phenobarbital has been linked to rare instances of idiosyncratic liver injury that can be severe and even fatal. ... Phenobarbital is a barbiturate that is widely used as a sedative and an antiseizure medication. ... The phenobarbital sensitivity syndrome. Am J Med. 1953;14:600-4. [PubMed: 13040367]. (3 cases of severe phenobarbital reactions ... 1994;18:904-5. [Severe hepatitis caused by phenobarbital] [PubMed: 7875406]. (Patient on phenobarbital for 1 month developed ...
Information about the use of phenobarbital to prevent epileptic seizures. ... The following leaflet for parents and carers is about the use of phenobarbital to prevent epileptic seizures. (Seizures may ...
... phenobarbital (PHB), lamotrigine (LTG), and topiramate (TPM) are some of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). ... Phenytoin (PHT), phenobarbital (PHB), lamotrigine (LTG), and topiramate (TPM) are some of the most widely used antiepileptic ... Phenytoin, PHT, Phenobarbital, PHB, Lamotrigine, LTG, Topiramate, TPM, Reference measurement procedure, RMP, Eletrospray ... Development of a Candidate Reference Measurement Procedure for the Determination of Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, Lamotrigine, and ...
Phenobarbital is a barbiturate that reduces excitatory synaptic responses by acting on GABAA receptors. It is most commonly ... Phenobarbital is metabolized principally in liver by microsomal enzymes, with up to 25% of the phenobarbital dose eliminated by ... Recent studies on phenobarbital level monitoring have examined the effects of age on phenobarbital clearance. A study by ... The phenobarbital level can be correlated with a patients clinical presentation to ascertain the therapeutic phenobarbital ...
Atropine/Hyoscyamine/Phenobarbital/Scopolamine Oral Solution 0.0194 mg/0.1037 mg/16.2 mg/0.0065 mg per 5 mL. For irritable ... Atropine/Hyoscyamine/Phenobarbital/Scopolamine Oral Solution 0.0194 mg/0.1037 mg/16.2 mg/0.0065 mg per 5 mL ...
Clinical Trial: Study to Evaluate Phenobarbital Sodium Injection for the Treatment of Neonatal Seizures Brief Summary: This is ... Therefore, the lower dose of phenobarbital used in this study is considered an "effective" dose for the treatment of neonatal ... This study is designed to show phenobarbital is effective at preventing subsequent seizures by demonstrating greater efficacy ... Clinical Trial: Study to Evaluate Phenobarbital Sodium Injection for the Treatment of Neonatal Seizures ...
Phenobarbital had a direct and transient depressant. effect on systolic function of the myocardium in one third of the cases. ... phenobarbital given as an infusion over 20 - 30 minutes for various. medical indications was eligible to take part in the study ... Effect of Intravenous Phenobarbital on Left Ventricular Myocardial Contractility Determined by Echocardiography in Children ... intravenous (IV) phenobarbital is used routinely in children in the. clinical setting, studies in children are lacking. We ...
The enzyme-membrane relationship in phenobarbital induction of synthesis of drug-metabolizing enzyme system and proliferation ... ENZYME-MEMBRANE RELATIONSHIP IN PHENOBARBITAL INDUCTION OF SYNTHESIS OF DRUG-METABOLIZING ENZYME SYSTEM AND PROLIFERATION OF ...
Phenobarbital. Valproate was found to inhibit the metabolism of phenobarbital. Co-administration of valproate (250 mg BID for ... decrease in plasma clearance of phenobarbital (60 mg single-dose). The fraction of phenobarbital dose excreted unchanged ... For example, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital (or primidone) can double the clearance of valproate. Thus, patients ... 14 days) with phenobarbital to normal subjects (n=6) resulted in a 50% increase in half-life and a 30% ...
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Phenobarbital (INN) or phenobarbitone (BAN) is a long-acting barbiturate and the most widely used anti-seizure medication ...
  • It is no less effective at seizure control than phenytoin, but phenobarbital is not as well tolerated. (wikipedia.org)
  • If these fail, then phenytoin may be used, with phenobarbital being an alternative in the US, but used only third-line in the UK. (wikipedia.org)
  • The retention and molecular-recognition properties of the M-MIP toward CY, phenobarbital (PB), amobarbital (AM) and phenytoin (PT) were evaluated using a mixture of phosphoric acid and/or sodium phosphate buffer and acetonitrile as a mobile phase by LC. (go.jp)
  • Phenobarbital is usually a second- or third-line agent for these indications (after diazepam or phenytoin), as the onset of drug effects are delayed. (medscape.com)
  • The only possible exception to this rule is in the case of drug-induced seizures, particularly with seizures secondary to theophylline ingestion, in which phenobarbital may be administered prior to phenytoin. (medscape.com)
  • Objective: We report a case of sequential interaction of phenytoin (PHT) and phenobarbital (PB) with fluorouracil (5-FU). (elsevierpure.com)
  • Neuropsychological effects in children exposed to anticonvulsant monotherapy during gestation: Phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and phenytoin. (bvsalud.org)
  • Usage during pregnancy of the antiseizure medication (ASM), phenobarbital (PB), carbamazepine (CBZ), and phenytoin (PHT), has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes . (bvsalud.org)
  • Phenobarbital, also known as phenobarbitone or phenobarb, sold under the brand name Luminal among others, is a medication of the barbiturate type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenobarbital belongs to a class of drugs known as barbiturate anticonvulsants/hypnotics. (webmd.com)
  • Phenobarbital, the longest-acting barbiturate, is used for its anticonvulsant and sedative-hypnotic properties in the management of all seizure disorders except absence (petit mal). (pharmacycode.com)
  • In dogs, the prescription barbiturate Phenobarbital is probably the first choice to suppress seizures. (k9healthcare.com)
  • Phenobarbital is a barbiturate drug with anticonvulsant properties that can have mild to severe to potentially lethal side effects in dogs. (k9healthcare.com)
  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, phenobarbital is a barbiturate that can cause serious side effects in some animals. (k9healthcare.com)
  • Phenobarbital is a barbiturate that reduces excitatory synaptic responses by acting on GABA A receptors. (medscape.com)
  • Buy Phenobarbital Online Phenobarbital is a barbiturate drug that is often used to treat seizures, insomnia, and anxiety. (onlineuniversalpills.com)
  • Phenobarbital acts as a barbiturate medication to calm and sedate the brain while reducing neurotransmitter activity. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • Randomized controlled trials using phenobarbital with placebo and non-barbiturate medications have found it to be an extremely effective pharmacokinetic treatment option. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of phenobarbital on preventing ventricular dilation (enlarged spaces in the brain) and long-term brain development. (cochrane.org)
  • The hypnotic effect of phenobarbital is similar to that of other barbiturates. (chemsline.com)
  • Over-sedation is a potential side effect of phenobarbital use, as it causes the medication to prevent excitatory chemicals from being released from GABA receptors in the brain. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • Another potential side effect of phenobarbital use is respiratory depression, wheezing, and other breathing problems. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • Authors' conclusions: The evidence suggests that phenobarbital results in little to no difference in the incidence of IVH (any grade or severe) compared with control (i.e. no intervention or placebo). (lu.se)
  • The evidence suggests that phenobarbital results in little to no difference in death before discharge and all deaths during the study period compared with control. (lu.se)
  • The evidence suggests that phenobarbital has little to no effect in preventing bleeding to the brain. (cochrane.org)
  • citation needed] Phenobarbital is occasionally prescribed in low doses to aid in the conjugation of bilirubin in people with Crigler-Najjar syndrome, type II, or in people with Gilbert's syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In massive doses, phenobarbital is prescribed to terminally ill people to allow them to end their life through physician-assisted suicide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Older adults should receive low doses of belladonna and phenobarbital because higher doses do not function better and can cause serious side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 2. Comparative experiments with phenobarbital and dilantin revealed that tridione is more comparable to phenobarbital in its action but produces less depression in effective doses. (aspetjournals.org)
  • You may build a tolerance to the effects of Phenobarbital over time if you have been taking it for a long time or if you have taken high doses. (medicareadvantage.com)
  • Articles specifying doses of injectable Phenobarbital were included for review. (bmj.com)
  • They described various doses of Phenobarbital used for end-of-life agitation. (bmj.com)
  • Withdrawal is more likely if you have used phenobarbital for a long time or in high doses. (webmd.com)
  • In small doses phenobarbital has a sedative effect and in combination with other drugs (antispasmodics, vasodilators) it is used in neurovegetative disorders. (chemsline.com)
  • Similar to benzodiazepine therapy, doses of phenobarbital act on the central nervous system (CNS), depress the sensory cortex, and decrease motor activity. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • However, IV phenobarbital doses are generally begun at lower amounts, due to the direct bloodstream injection process that is proprietary to intravenous administration. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • Phenobarbital may provide a clinical advantage over carbamazepine for treating partial onset seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbamazepine may provide a clinical advantage over phenobarbital for generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenobarbital was discovered in 1912 and is the oldest still commonly used anti-seizure medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually if a pet is going to experience side effects from phenobarbital it happens in the first few weeks of starting the medication or when the dosage is increased. (k9healthcare.com)
  • Some patients cannot find an effective dose of phenobarbital that is not sedating, and these patients may need a different medication, or simply a reduction of the phenobarbital dose and addition of a second medication. (k9healthcare.com)
  • Additionally, phenobarbital is often the medication of choice for seizures in very young children. (rxlist.com)
  • Phenobarbital is a medication used to control seizures. (onlineuniversalpills.com)
  • Phenobarbital is a prescription medication that can be used to treat seizures. (onlineuniversalpills.com)
  • Phenobarbital is a prescription medication that is used to treat withdrawal seizures, effects of hallucinatory drugs, symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal, and more. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration conditionally approved Fidoquel-CA1 (phenobarbital tablets) for the control of seizures associated with idiopathic epilepsy in dogs. (fda.gov)
  • Unapproved phenobarbital tablets from the human drug marketplace have historically been used in veterinary medicine to help control seizures in dogs. (fda.gov)
  • Fidoquel-CA1 are the only phenobarbital tablets that have received the agency's conditional approval for safety, quality manufacturing and reasonable expectation of effectiveness. (fda.gov)
  • If clinically appropriate, phenobarbital tablets could be considered as an alternative. (hps.com.au)
  • Recently, a number of finished dosage forms containing phenobarbital (tablets "Pyraminal", "Diafein", "Lupaverin", "Theodinal", "Mikroiod with phenobarbital", etc.) have been excluded from the nomenclature of medicines. (chemsline.com)
  • Phenobarbital, like other barbiturates works by increasing the activity of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other barbiturates, phenobarbital can be used recreationally, but this is reported to be relatively infrequent. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, older patients may require a lower dose of phenobarbital to achieve comparable therapeutic effects than younger patients. (medscape.com)
  • Studies have found that the best initial loading dose of phenobarbital, at least for adults, is between 30 and 60 milligrams. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • Sedation and hypnosis are the principal side effects (occasionally, they are also the intended effects) of phenobarbital. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most patients will not show noticeable sedation while on phenobarbital and if they do, there is a good chance the dose is too high. (k9healthcare.com)
  • Symptoms of phenobarbital toxicity include sedation, ataxia, nystagmus, hyperactivity and irritability (in pediatric patients), and confusion and agitation (in elderly populations). (medscape.com)
  • Conclusions and Relevance: Levetiracetam may have superior effectiveness compared with phenobarbital for initial monotherapy of nonsyndromic epilepsy in infants. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • If 100 infants who received phenobarbital were instead treated with levetiracetam, 44 would be free from monotherapy failure instead of 16 by the estimates in this study. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • Objectives: To assess the benefits and harms of the postnatal administration of phenobarbital in preterm infants at risk of developing IVH compared to control (i.e. no intervention or placebo). (lu.se)
  • Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs in which phenobarbital was given within the first 24 hours of life to preterm infants identified as being at risk of IVH because of gestational age below 34 weeks, birth weight below 1500 g or respiratory failure. (lu.se)
  • Since 1993, no randomised studies have been published on phenobarbital for the prevention of IVH in preterm infants, and no trials are ongoing. (lu.se)
  • The effects of postnatal phenobarbital might be assessed in infants with both neonatal seizures and IVH, in both randomised and observational studies. (lu.se)
  • The same feature of phenobarbital is associated with its ability to reduce hyperbilirubinemia, which is the basis of its use for the treatment and prevention of hemolytic disease in infants. (chemsline.com)
  • For the treatment of patients with epilepsy, phenobarbital was first used in 1912 and is still considered one of the most effective antiepileptic drugs. (chemsline.com)
  • According to GoodRx, 100% of Medicare Advantage plans and Medicare Part D plans covered Phenobarbital in 2023. (medicareadvantage.com)
  • Retrieved October 2023, from www.goodrx.com/Phenobarbital/medicare-coverage. (medicareadvantage.com)
  • Objective: To compare the effectiveness of levetiracetam vs phenobarbital for nonsyndromic infantile epilepsy. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • Phenobarbital is one of the most commonly used drugs to treat epilepsy and other seizure disorders in dogs. (k9healthcare.com)
  • Phenobarbital (sometimes abbreviated as Pb or Phb) is one of the medications most commonly used to treat seizures in dogs because of its low cost and effectiveness in 60 to 80% of dogs with Idiopathic Epilepsy . (k9healthcare.com)
  • Phenobarbital is generally effective for control of canine seizures regardless of the underlying cause of the seizure disorder, which means that is can be used for epilepsy , brain tumors, infectious diseases, or toxic poisonings. (k9healthcare.com)
  • Withdrawal of phenobarbital in epilepsy should be gradual, since a sudden withdrawal of the drug may cause the development of seizures and even epileptic status. (chemsline.com)
  • To treat epilepsy phenobarbital is often prescribed in combination with other drugs. (chemsline.com)
  • Six-monthly monitoring should include routine haematology, hepatic enzymes, and albumin, as phenobarbital usage may be associated with hepatotoxicity and blood dyscrasias. (gribblesvets.co.nz)
  • With long-term use, phenobarbital can induce hepatic CYP enzymes-principally CYP2C9. (medscape.com)
  • Phenobarbital is sometimes used for alcohol detoxification and benzodiazepine detoxification for its sedative and anti-convulsant properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenobarbital is used as a sedative and to treat generalized, tonic-clonic, status epilepticus and partial seizures. (medicareadvantage.com)
  • Make sure you know how the sedative side effects of Phenobarbital impact you before driving or doing other activities that require your full attention. (medicareadvantage.com)
  • Sedative-hypnotic withdrawal is treated by substituting drugs that have a long duration of action, either a benzodiazepine or phenobarbital, in a maintenance dose for a few days followed by a gradually decreasing dose over 2-3 weeks. (medscape.com)
  • Phenobarbital, when combined with other sedative medications, has additive effects on both CNS and respiratory depression. (medscape.com)
  • Phenobarbital is a sedative-hypnotic agent. (onlineuniversalpills.com)
  • As a sedative and antispasmodic agent phenobarbital is prescribed in a dose of 0.01-0.03-0.05 g 2-3 times a day. (chemsline.com)
  • Phenobarbital is a drug that has seen increasing use as one of the possible medications used in treating alcohol withdrawal thanks to its powerful sedative anti-seizure effects. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • Phenobarbital is used in the treatment of all types of seizures, except absence seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is recommended to avoid alcohol while taking Phenobarbital. (medicareadvantage.com)
  • 3. Alcohol should not be consumed while taking phenobarbital. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Phenobarbital is also sometimes used to help with the withdrawal symptoms of alcohol addiction. (onlineuniversalpills.com)
  • The treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome using phenobarbital follows a specific set of administration guidelines to ensure the person's health and safety. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • There are many advantages to using phenobarbital in the treatment of alcohol abuse. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • The following are some other benefits of using phenobarbital to treat symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • Clinicians have reported that some people who have been prescribed phenobarbital to treat severe alcohol withdrawal symptoms have experienced nausea and vomiting. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • Because Phenobarbital can induce drug metabolism, we recommend another sample at 3 months, particularly for patients whose history includes severe seizures. (auburn.edu)
  • In 1910, phenobarbital (PHB), which then was used to induce sleep, was found to have antiseizure activity and became the drug of choice for many years. (medscape.com)
  • Giving phenobarbital (a medicine used to control seizures) to babies born too early may have little to no effect in preventing intraventricular haemorrhage (bleeding to the brain) and death. (cochrane.org)
  • Phenobarbital is metabolized principally in liver by microsomal enzymes, with up to 25% of the phenobarbital dose eliminated by pH-dependent renal excretion. (medscape.com)
  • One of the properties of phenobarbital is its ability to cause "induction" of enzymes and increase the activity of monooxygenase enzyme system of the liver, which should be considered when using it simultaneously with other drugs, the effect of which may be weakened (see Benzonal). (chemsline.com)
  • Phenobarbital is a cytochrome P450 inducer, and is used to reduce the toxicity of some drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenobarbital is occasionally used to treat trouble sleeping, anxiety, and drug withdrawal and to help with surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenobarbital is useful for insomnia and anxiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenobarbital should only be used for a short time for anxiety or sleep. (webmd.com)
  • Adverse effects associated with phenobarbital in dogs include restlessness, anxiety, lethargy, depression , increased appetite and increased thirst. (k9healthcare.com)
  • T4 concentrations may be suppressed in dogs on phenobarbital, so interpret low T4 concentrations with caution. (gribblesvets.co.nz)
  • Evaluation of therapeutic phenobarbital concentrations and application of a classification system for seizures in cats: 30 cases (2004-2013). (gribblesvets.co.nz)
  • Information about the use of phenobarbital to prevent epileptic seizures. (kidshealth.org.nz)
  • The following leaflet for parents and carers is about the use of phenobarbital to prevent epileptic seizures. (kidshealth.org.nz)
  • Phenobarbital can also be used to relieve cyclic vomiting syndrome symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenobarbital is used as a secondary agent to treat newborns with neonatal abstinence syndrome, a condition of withdrawal symptoms from exposure to opioid drugs in utero. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you have any of these symptoms, stop taking belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital and call your doctor immediately. (medlineplus.gov)
  • One of the most severe withdrawal symptoms that phenobarbital can treat is delirium tremens (DTs), which is characterized by altered mental states and respiratory depression. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • Safety and effectiveness of a fixed-dose phenobarbital protocol for inpatient benzodiazepine detoxification. (medscape.com)
  • Phenobarbital properties can effectively reduce tremors and seizures associated with abrupt withdrawal from benzodiazepines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenobarbital is the first-line choice for the treatment of neonatal seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cochrane Abstracts , Evidence Central , evidence.unboundmedicine.com/evidence/view/Cochrane/432337/all/Phenobarbital_prior_to_preterm_birth_for_preventing_neonatal_periventricular_haemorrhage. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The benzodiazepines chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and oxazepam (Serax) have largely replaced phenobarbital for detoxification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenobarbital protocol states that it can be combined with benzodiazepines and other medications upon the medical advice of a healthcare professional. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • Withdrawal from phenobarbital can be severe and include seizures and (rarely) death. (webmd.com)
  • The phenobarbital level can be correlated with a patient's clinical presentation to ascertain the therapeutic phenobarbital level. (medscape.com)
  • There is no exact relationship between the concentration of phenobarbital in the plasma and its therapeutic effects, however, plasma levels of 10-35 µg/mL are recommended for seizure management. (medscape.com)
  • A clinical study was conducted to assess the ability of a microdose (100 μg) to predict the human pharmacokinetics (PK) following a therapeutic dose of clarithromycin, sumatriptan, propafenone, paracetamol (acetaminophen) and phenobarbital, both within the study and by reference to the existing literature on these compounds and to explore the source of any nonlinearity if seen. (lincoln.ac.uk)
  • Belladonna alkaloid combinations and phenobarbital come as a regular tablet, a slow-acting tablet, capsule, and liquid to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Belladonna alkaloid combinations and phenobarbital are used to relieve cramping pains in conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and spastic colon. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The onset of effect after intravenous phenobarbital administration is within 5 minutes, and peak effects occur within 30 minutes. (medscape.com)
  • Selective inactivation by chloramphenicol of the major phenobarbital-inducible isozyme of dog liver cytochrome P-450. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a potent and effective mechanism-based inactivator of the major phenobarbital (PB)-inducible isozyme of dog liver cytochrome P-450 (PBD-2) in vitro. (aspetjournals.org)
  • If you experience any kind of adverse event stemming from phenobarbital use, immediately call 911 to seek critical care help from an intensive care unit. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • Phenobarbital was compared to no intervention or placebo. (lu.se)
  • We wanted to find out whether phenobarbital was better than no medicine or a placebo (a 'dummy' treatment that does not contain any medicine but looks or tastes identical to the medicine being tested) to prevent bleeding to the brain. (cochrane.org)
  • When administered orally phenobarbital is completely, but relatively slowly absorbed. (chemsline.com)
  • Paracetamol was given as the labelled microdose orally and iv using a 2-way cross over design, whereas phenobarbital was given only as the microdose orally. (lincoln.ac.uk)
  • Tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take while taking belladonna alkaloid combinations and phenobarbital. (medlineplus.gov)
  • therefore, it is important to closely monitor patients receiving these medications to closely monitor phenobarbital levels. (medscape.com)
  • Like many other medications, phenobarbital has a number of side effects, some of which can be potentially life-threatening. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • Take belladonna alkaloid combinations and phenobarbital exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you become pregnant while taking belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An undesirable feature of phenobarbital is that its use may have pronounced aftereffects: general depression, continued somnolence, nystagmus, ataxia, etc. (chemsline.com)
  • When treating with phenobarbital, especially when taking it for a long time, side effects caused not only by CNS depression, but also by a decrease in BP, allergic reactions (skin rash, etc.), shifts in blood count are possible. (chemsline.com)
  • Drugs known to have decrease phenobarbital in our lab have included chloramphenicol and imidazole antifungals. (auburn.edu)
  • However, based on the available evidence, a clinical guideline will be produced for use of Phenobarbital in intractable agitation at the end of life in our unit: with an IM loading dose of 200 mg followed by a continuous subcutaneous infusion of 800 mg-1600 mg/24 hrs. (bmj.com)
  • Phenobarbital has a long history of use and effectiveness - combined with a low cost and reduced addictive nature, making it a respectable option. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • The phenobarbital level is used to measure the concentration of the drug in a patient's blood. (medscape.com)
  • Unlike lorazepam (Ativan) and diazepam (Valium) - which belong to the benzodiazepine drug class - phenobarbital has less of an addictive nature. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • Use potassium bromide in addition to Phenobarbital. (wikihow.com)
  • Phenobarbital is prescribed for adults and children older than 2 years of age. (onlineuniversalpills.com)
  • As a sleeping pill, phenobarbital is prescribed to adults in a dose of 0.1-0.2 g per dose usually 1/2-1 h before bedtime. (chemsline.com)
  • Common side effects of Phenobarbital include drowsiness, headache and upset stomach. (medicareadvantage.com)
  • But there are side effects of phenobarbital in dogs. (k9healthcare.com)
  • Excessive urination, excessive thirst and excessive hunger are the 3 most common long-term side effects of phenobarbital on dogs. (k9healthcare.com)
  • This, alongside other potential side effects, is a result of the glutamate receptors-which manage a number of central nervous system processes-being sanctioned by phenobarbital. (bedrockrecoverycenter.com)
  • Phenobarbital will shorten the half-life of other drugs, including levetiracetam and zonisamide. (auburn.edu)