A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.
Specific sites or molecular structures on cell membranes or in cells with which phencyclidine reacts or to which it binds to elicit the specific response of the cell to phencyclidine. Studies have demonstrated the presence of multiple receptor sites for PCP. These are the PCP/sigma site, which binds both PCP and psychotomimetic opiates but not certain antipsychotics, and the PCP site, which selectively binds PCP analogs.
The misuse of phencyclidine with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
An opioid analgesic with actions and uses similar to MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1095)
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
A family of tricyclic hydrocarbons whose members include many of the commonly used tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC).
A class of cell surface receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Sigma receptors were originally considered to be opioid receptors because they bind certain synthetic opioids. However they also interact with a variety of other psychoactive drugs, and their endogenous ligand is not known (although they can react to certain endogenous steroids). Sigma receptors are found in the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems, and in some peripheral tissues.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.
An analgesic with mixed narcotic agonist-antagonist properties.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
Unsaturated azacyclopropane compounds that are three-membered heterocycles of a nitrogen and two carbon atoms.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
Morphine derivatives of the methanobenzazocine family that act as potent analgesics.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A selective and potent serotonin-2 antagonist that is effective in the treatment of a variety of syndromes related to anxiety and depression. The drug also improves the subjective quality of sleep and decreases portal pressure.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)

Effects of stimulants of abuse on extrapyramidal and limbic neuropeptide Y systems. (1/421)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an apparent neuromodulating neuropeptide, has been linked to dopamine systems and dopamine-related psychotic disorders. Because of this association, we determined and compared the effects of psychotomimetic drugs on extrapyramidal and limbic NPY systems. We observed that phencyclidine, methamphetamine (METH), (+)methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cocaine, but not (-)MDMA, similarly reduced the striatal content of NPY-like immunoreactivity from 54% (phencyclidine) to 74% [(+) MDMA] of control. The effects of METH on NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra were characterized in greater detail. We observed that METH decreased NPY levels in specific regions of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate, but had no effect on NPY in the globus pallidus or the substantia nigra. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked these effects of METH, suggesting that NPY levels throughout the nucleus accumbens and the caudate are regulated through D1 pathways. The D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride did not appear to alter the METH effect, but this was difficult to determine because eticlopride decreased NPY levels by itself. A single dose of METH was sufficient to lower NPY levels, in some, but not all, regions examined. The effects on NPY levels after multiple METH administrations were substantially greater and persisted up to 48 h after treatment; this suggests that synthesis of this neuropeptide may be suppressed even after the drug is gone. These findings suggest that NPY systems may contribute to the D1 receptor-mediated effects of the psychostimulants.  (+info)

The neuropsychopharmacology of phencyclidine: from NMDA receptor hypofunction to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. (2/421)

Administration of noncompetitive NMDA/glutamate receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine, to humans induces a broad range of schizophrenic-like symptomatology, findings that have contributed to a hypoglutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia. Moreover, a history of experimental investigations of the effects of these drugs in animals suggests that NMDA receptor antagonists may model some behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia in nonhuman subjects. In this review, the usefulness of PCP administration as a potential animal model of schizophrenia is considered. To support the contention that NMDA receptor antagonist administration represents a viable model of schizophrenia, the behavioral and neurobiological effects of these drugs are discussed, especially with regard to differing profiles following single-dose and long-term exposure. The neurochemical effects of NMDA receptor antagonist administration are argued to support a neurobiological hypothesis of schizophrenia, which includes pathophysiology within several neurotransmitter systems, manifested in behavioral pathology. Future directions for the application of NMDA receptor antagonist models of schizophrenia to preclinical and pathophysiological research are offered.  (+info)

Effects of (+)-HA-966, CGS-19755, phencyclidine, and dizocilpine on repeated acquisition of response chains in pigeons: systemic manipulation of central glycine sites. (3/421)

The effects of i.m. injections of (+)-HA-966, a glycine-site antagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of the glutamate receptor, its enantiomer (-)-HA-966, the competitive glutamate antagonist CGS-19755, the uncompetitive glutamate antagonists phencyclidine and dizocilpine, and the micro opioid agonist morphine were evaluated in a repeated acquisition task in pigeons. All of the drugs produced dose-dependent decreases in rates of responding. The NMDA receptor and channel blockers and (+)-HA-966 appeared to have a greater effect on acquisition than did morphine at doses that did not fully suppress responding. The rate suppression and learning impairment produced by a large dose of (+)-HA-966 (100 mg/kg) were completely prevented by coadministration of the glycine-site agonist D-serine (560 mg/kg) but not by its enantiomer, L-serine (1000 mg/kg). D-Serine, however, produced incomplete antagonism of the effects of dizocilpine and phencyclidine and failed to alter those of CGS-19755. These findings provide evidence that reducing the activity of the NMDA subtype of the glutamate receptor through pharmacological action at any of three sites produces similar decrements in acquisition, and those produced through antagonism of the glycine site are differentially sensitive to the glycine-site agonist D-serine.  (+info)

Clozapine, but not haloperidol, prevents the functional hyperactivity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in rat cortical neurons induced by subchronic administration of phencyclidine. (4/421)

Repeated exposure of rats to the psychotomimetic drug phencyclidine (PCP) markedly increased the response of prefrontal cortical neurons to the glutamate agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) relative to agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid. Moreover, acute challenge by PCP produced a significantly reduced block of NMDA-induced current. In addition, the subchronic administration of PCP reduced significantly the paired-pulse facilitation, accompanied by a significant increase of excitatory postsynaptic current variance. These results suggest that repeated exposure to PCP increased evoked release of excitatory amino acids. The enhanced release of excitatory amino acids evoked by NMDA could explain, at least partly, a hypersensitive response to NMDA and a reduced blockade of the NMDA responses by a PCP challenge in rats exposed repeatedly to PCP. Pretreatment with the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine, but not the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol, attenuates the repeated PCP-induced effect. Our results support the hypothesis that clozapine may facilitate NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission to improve schizophrenic-negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. This novel approach is useful for evaluating the cellular mechanisms of action of atypical antipsychotic drugs.  (+info)

Rat strain differences in the ability to disrupt sensorimotor gating are limited to the dopaminergic system, specific to prepulse inhibition, and unrelated to changes in startle amplitude or nucleus accumbens dopamine receptor sensitivity. (5/421)

Previous studies indicate that a variety of pharmacological agents interfere with the prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (PPI) response including phencyclidine (PCP), 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), amphetamine, and apomorphine. Strain differences have been observed in the ability of apomorphine to disrupt PPI, although the degree to which these strain differences occur after administration of nondopaminergic drugs or the degree to which differences can be observed in other models of dopamine (DA) receptor activation has not been elucidated. The present study tested the effects of apomorphine, amphetamine, 8-OH-DPAT, and PCP on PPI in the Sprague Dawley and Wistar rat strains. Because apomorphine disrupts PPI via activation of DA receptors in the nucleus accumbens, apomorphine-induced hyperlocomotion, also a behavioral model of nucleus accumbens DA receptor activation, was measured in both rat strains. Administration of PCP or 8-OH-DPAT attenuated PPI in both strains, whereas apomorphine and amphetamine only attenuated PPI in Wistar rats. The ability of apomorphine to increase motor activity in the absence of a startle-eliciting stimulus was similar in the two strains, as was apomorphine-induced hyperlocomotion. A time course analysis of the effects of apomorphine on startle response in Sprague Dawley rats found that changes in the magnitude of PPI followed changes in basic startle amplitude. Similarly, no apomorphine-induced attenuation of PPI was observed in Sprague Dawley rats after 6-OHDA-induced DA receptor supersensitivity in the nucleus accumbens. These data suggest a dissociation between the effects of DA receptor agonists in PPI and other behavioral models of DA receptor activation.  (+info)

Effects of sustained phencyclidine exposure on sensorimotor gating of startle in rats. (6/421)

Phencyclidine (PCP), a non-competitive NMDA antagonist with actions at multiple other central nervous system receptors, can cause both acute and lasting psychoses in humans, and has also been used in cross-species models of psychosis. Acute exposure to PCP in rats produces behavioral changes, including a loss of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex, which parallels the loss of PPI observed in schizophrenia patients. Sustained exposure to PCP in rats produces neuropathological changes in several limbic regions and prolonged behavioral abnormalities that may parallel neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia. It is unclear whether sustained PCP exposure will also produce a loss of prepulse inhibition which parallels the decrease observed in schizophrenia patients. In the present study, we examined changes in PPI during and after sustained PCP administration, using 5-day PCP exposure via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps, or 14-day PCP exposure via repeated intraperitoneal injections. In both forms of drug delivery, PPI was disrupted during, but not after, sustained drug exposure. PPI does not appear to be sensitive to neuropathological effects of sustained PCP exposure.  (+info)

Excitatory actions of NMDA receptor antagonists in rat entorhinal cortex and cultured entorhinal cortical neurons. (7/421)

We have characterized excitatory effects of non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801, PCP, and ketamine in the rat entorhinal cortex and in cultured primary entorhinal cortical neurons using expression of immediate early gene c-fos as an indicator. NMDA receptor antagonists produced a strong and dose-dependent increase in c-fos mRNA and protein expression confined to neurons in the layer III of the caudal entorhinal cortex. Induction of c-fos mRNA is delayed and it is inhibited by antipsychotic drugs. Cultured entorhinal neurons are killed by high doses of MK-801 and PCP but c-fos expression is not induced in these neurons indicating that this in vitro model does not fully replicate the in vivo effects of PCP-like drugs in the entorhinal cortex. Excitatory effects of the NMDA receptor antagonists may be connected with the psychotropic side effects of these drugs and might become a useful model system to investigate neurobiology of psychosis.  (+info)

Characterization of interaction of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid 8-(diethylamino)octyl ester with Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor. (8/421)

The widely used calcium channel antagonist 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid 8-(diethylamino)octyl ester (TMB-8) has been identified as a noncompetitive antagonist (NCA) and open-channel blocker of both muscle- and neuronal-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). To further examine the interaction of TMB-8 with the AChR, the compound was tested as a competitor for the binding of two NCAs of the Torpedo californica AChR, phencyclidine and 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine, for which the binding to the AChR has been pharmacologically well characterized and a channel binding loci has been established. TMB-8 fully inhibited specific photoincorporation of 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine into the resting AChR channel (IC50 = 3.1 microM) and inhibited high-affinity [3H]phencyclidine binding to the desensitized AChR (IC50 = 2.4 microM). We conclude that TMB-8 is a potent NCA of the nicotinic AChR, interacting with the resting, open-channel, and desensitized channel conformations. TMB-8 was next tested as an inhibitor of the structurally homologous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)3 receptor (5-HT3R). Using 5-HT3R containing Sf21 cell membranes, TMB-8 completely inhibited specific binding of the radiolabeled 5-HT3R antagonist [3H]GR65630 (Ki = 2.5 microM). Furthermore, TMB-8 antagonized 5-HT-evoked currents of both mouse and human 5-HT3Rs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and additional analysis was consistent with a competitive antagonistic mechanism of action. These results, taken together, indicate that TMB-8 antagonizes the function of the AChR and 5-HT3R by different mechanisms. Given the sequence similarity and emerging evidence of structural homology in the channels of these two receptors, these results underscore the existence of subtle yet important structural differences in each channel.  (+info)

Phencyclidine abuse is the use of the drug in excessive or compulsive quantities, without a valid prescription, or for non-medical reasons. This type of abuse can lead to addiction, long-term cognitive impairment, and other negative consequences.

Signs of phencyclidine abuse may include:

* Increased desire to use the drug despite negative consequences
* Difficulty cutting down or controlling use
* Continued use despite physical or mental health problems
* Spending excessive time using or obtaining the drug
* Neglect of responsibilities and activities due to use
* Increased risk-taking behavior
* Delusions, hallucinations, or a loss of touch with reality

If you suspect that someone you know is abusing phencyclidine, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible. A medical professional can assess the individual's symptoms and determine the appropriate course of treatment.

Treatment for phencyclidine abuse may include:

* Cognitive-behavioral therapy to address negative thought patterns and behaviors
* Medication to manage withdrawal symptoms or co-occurring disorders
* Support groups to provide a safe and supportive environment for individuals struggling with addiction.

It is important to note that phencyclidine abuse can have serious consequences, including long-term cognitive impairment, memory loss, and an increased risk of psychotic episodes. If you or someone you know is struggling with phencyclidine abuse, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible. With the right treatment and support, individuals can overcome addiction and achieve a healthier, happier life.

Substance-induced psychoses can be caused by a variety of drugs, including:

* Alcohol
* Benzodiazepines (such as diazepam)
* Cannabis
* Hallucinogens (such as LSD or psilocybin)
* Inhalants (such as solvents or aerosols)
* Opioids (such as heroin or prescription painkillers)
* Stimulants (such as cocaine or amphetamines)

Substance-induced psychoses can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as brain injury or infection.

Symptoms of substance-induced psychosis can vary depending on the drug or substance used, but may include:

* Hallucinations (hearing, seeing, or feeling things that are not there)
* Delusions (false beliefs that are not based in reality)
* Disorganized thinking and speech
* Disorganized or catatonic behavior
* Changes in mood, such as depression or anxiety

Substance-induced psychosis can be diagnosed by a mental health professional, based on a combination of the following:

* A thorough medical history and physical examination
* Laboratory tests to rule out other causes of the symptoms
* A mental status examination to assess cognitive function and thought content
* Imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans) to rule out other causes of the symptoms

Treatment for substance-induced psychosis typically involves stopping the use of the drugs or substances that are causing the symptoms. In some cases, medications such as antipsychotics or antidepressants may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. Behavioral therapy and support groups can also be helpful in addressing the underlying issues that led to the development of the psychosis.

Preventing substance-induced psychosis is often challenging, as it can be difficult to predict which individuals are at risk of developing psychotic symptoms. However, some strategies for prevention include:

* Avoiding the use of drugs or substances that have been linked to psychosis
* Seeking professional help if symptoms of psychosis develop
* Getting support from friends and family
* Participating in therapy and support groups to address underlying issues

It is important to note that substance-induced psychosis can be a serious condition, and seeking medical attention as soon as possible is essential. With appropriate treatment, many individuals are able to recover from the symptoms of psychosis and go on to lead fulfilling lives.

The term "schizophrenia" was first used by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1908 to describe the splitting of mental functions, which he believed was a key feature of the disorder. The word is derived from the Greek words "schizein," meaning "to split," and "phrenos," meaning "mind."

There are several subtypes of schizophrenia, including:

1. Paranoid Schizophrenia: Characterized by delusions of persecution and suspicion, and a tendency to be hostile and defensive.
2. Hallucinatory Schizophrenia: Characterized by hearing voices or seeing things that are not there.
3. Disorganized Schizophrenia: Characterized by disorganized thinking and behavior, and a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
4. Catatonic Schizophrenia: Characterized by immobility, mutism, and other unusual movements or postures.
5. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia: Characterized by a combination of symptoms from the above subtypes.

The exact cause of schizophrenia is still not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. It is important to note that schizophrenia is not caused by poor parenting or a person's upbringing.

There are several risk factors for developing schizophrenia, including:

1. Genetics: A person with a family history of schizophrenia is more likely to develop the disorder.
2. Brain chemistry: Imbalances in neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin have been linked to schizophrenia.
3. Prenatal factors: Factors such as maternal malnutrition or exposure to certain viruses during pregnancy may increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring.
4. Childhood trauma: Traumatic events during childhood, such as abuse or neglect, have been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia.
5. Substance use: Substance use has been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, particularly cannabis and other psychotic substances.

There is no cure for schizophrenia, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment options include:

1. Medications: Antipsychotic medications are the primary treatment for schizophrenia. They can help reduce positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions, and negative symptoms such as a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
2. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of talk therapy can help individuals with schizophrenia manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
3. Social support: Support from family, friends, and support groups can be an important part of the treatment plan for individuals with schizophrenia.
4. Self-care: Engaging in activities that bring pleasure and fulfillment, such as hobbies or exercise, can help individuals with schizophrenia improve their overall well-being.

It is important to note that schizophrenia is a complex condition, and treatment should be tailored to the individual's specific needs and circumstances. With appropriate treatment and support, many people with schizophrenia are able to lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.

Scholia has a profile for phencyclidine (Q407324). Wikimedia Commons has media related to Phencyclidine. Erowid.org - PCP ... Drugs and Human Performance Fact Sheets on Phencyclidine Phencyclidine and Ketamine: A View From the Street-1981 article on the ... Phencyclidine is used for its ability to induce a dissociative state. Behavioral effects can vary by dosage. Low doses produce ... Phencyclidine enters the ion channel and binds, reversibly and non-competitively, inside the channel pore to block the entry of ...
This box: view edit Except where noted otherwise, data relate to Standard temperature and pressure. Reliability of data general note. ^a ^b ^c ^d ^e ^f ^g ^h CID 6468 from PubChem (PubChem ID (CID) not in Wikidata, Chemical data pages, Chemical data pages cleanup ...
Phencyclidine (PCP or angel dust) is available as a street drug. Dextromethorphan-based cough syrups (often labeled DXM) are ... 1959) reported that patients under anaesthesia due to either ketamine or phencyclidine were prone to purposeless movements and ... Despite some dissociatives, such as phencyclidine (PCP) possessing stimulating properties, most dissociatives seem to have a ... "Phencyclidine". Nature. 285 (5764): 355-6. Bibcode:1980Natur.285..355S. doi:10.1038/285355a0. PMID 7189825. Giannini, AJ; ...
Phencyclidine • PD-128,907 • PD-168,077 • PF-219,061 • Piribedil • Pramipexole • Propylnorapomorphine • Pukateine • Quinagolide ... Phencyclidine • Pipradrol Pyrrolidines: Diphenylprolinol • Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) • Naphyrone • Prolintane • ...
"; "woola"); heroin ("moon rock"); and phencyclidine ("clicker"; "p-funk"; "spacebase"). Crack smoking ("hitting the pipe"; " ...
Itzhak Y, Kalir A, Sarne Y (1981). "On the opioid nature of phencyclidine and its 3-hydroxy derivative". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 73 ... Johnson N, Itzhak Y, Pasternak GW (1984). "Interaction of two phencyclidine opiate-like derivatives with 3H-opioid binding ... 3-Hydroxyphencyclidine (3-HO-PCP) is a dissociative of the arylcyclohexylamine class related to phencyclidine (PCP) that has ... Holsztynska EJ, Domino EF (1986). "Quantitation of phencyclidine, its metabolites, and derivatives by gas chromatography with ...
Giannini AJ, Loiselle RH, Giannini MC, Price WA (1985). "Phencyclidine and the dissociatives". Psychiatric Medicine. 3 (3): 197 ... Unlike the other well-known dissociatives phencyclidine (PCP) and dextromethorphan (DXM), ketamine is very short-acting. It ...
An analog of phencyclidine". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 21 (1): 125-32. PMID 8095205. Cho AK, Hiramatsu M, Schmitz DA, ... is a psychoactive drug and research chemical of the arylcyclohexylamine chemical class related to phencyclidine (PCP) and ...
Binding to the phencyclidine and sigma 1 receptors". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 41 (4): 468-77. doi:10.1021/jm970059p. ... Phencyclidine (PCP) is believed to be the first arylcyclohexylamine with recognized anesthetic properties, but several ... Hajikhani R, Ahmadi A, Naderi N, Yaghoobi K, Shirazizand Z, Rezaee NM, Niknafs BN (2012). "Effect of phencyclidine derivatives ... Itzhak Y, Kalir A, Weissman BA, Cohen S (May 1981). "New analgesic drugs derived from phencyclidine". Journal of Medicinal ...
Although their primary mechanisms of action are as NMDA receptor antagonists, ketamine and phencyclidine are also SNDRIs and ... Wallach J, Brandt SD (2018). "Phencyclidine-Based New Psychoactive Substances". Handb Exp Pharmacol. Handbook of Experimental ... weak SNDRI action likely contributes to effects and abuse potential Phencyclidine (Sernyl) - discontinued anesthetic and ...
Nicholson KL, Hayes BA, Balster RL (September 1999). "Evaluation of the reinforcing properties and phencyclidine-like ... Price, William A.; Giannini, Matthew C.; Giannini, A. James (1984). "Antidotal Strategies in Phencyclidine Intoxication". The ... Common Dissociative Drugs Include: PCP (Phencyclidine). 117 (4): 46-7. PMC 1518731. PMID 18730832. American Psychiatric ... phencyclidine (PCP), dextromethorphan (DXM), and nitrous oxide. However, dissociation is also remarkably administered by ...
Wallach J, Brandt SD (2018). "Phencyclidine-Based New Psychoactive Substances". Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 252: 261 ...
Ogunbadeniyi AM, Adejare A (2002). "Syntheses of fluorinated phencyclidine analogs". Journal of Fluorine Chemistry. 114: 39-42 ... "Structure-activity relationship studies of phencyclidine derivatives in rats". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental ...
Wallach J, Brandt SD (2018). "Phencyclidine-Based New Psychoactive Substances". Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 252: 261 ... and a structural isomer of phencyclidine. 3-Methyl-PCP BTCP Deoxymethoxetamine Ephenidine MDPCP Wallach J, De Paoli G, Adejare ...
Hyperforin Phencyclidine Indatraline Dexanabinol Doggrell SA. "Tesofensine - a novel potent weight loss medicine. Evaluation of ...
Phencyclidine (a.k.a. PCP; partial agonist. Psychoactivity mainly due to NMDA antagonism) Quinpirole (Partial agonist of the D2 ...
Phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust) is first synthesized. Vladimir Vernadsky popularises the concept of the biosphere in a book (in ...
NEFA is a moderate affinity NMDA antagonist (IC50 = 0.51 μM). It is a structural analog of phencyclidine. It was first ... "Open channel block and alteration of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor gating by an analog of phencyclidine". Biophysical ...
Drug classes that are involved in SUD include: alcohol; cannabis; phencyclidine and other hallucinogens, such as ...
Stephen H. Langdon begins excavations in Jemdet Nasr, finding proto-cuneiform clay tablets (3100-2900 BCE). Phencyclidine (PCP ...
Phencyclidine's biochemical properties are still mostly unknown; however, its use has been associated with dissociation, ... Another class of hallucinogens, known as dissociatives, includes drugs such as ketamine, phencyclidine (PCP), and Salvia ...
Maddox VH, Godefroi EF, Parcell RF (March 1965). "The synthesis of phencyclidine and other 1-arylcyclohexylamines". Journal of ...
Hayes BA, Balster RL (October 1985). "Anticonvulsant properties of phencyclidine-like drugs in mice". European Journal of ... April 1992). "Analogues of the dioxolanes dexoxadrol and etoxadrol as potential phencyclidine-like agents. Synthesis and ... December 1988). "Synthesis, absolute configuration, and molecular modeling study of etoxadrol, a potent phencyclidine-like ... electrophilic affinity ligand for the phencyclidine-binding site". FEBS Letters. 238 (2): 369-74. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(88) ...
Phencyclidine Derivatives - A new Class of Designer Drugs. Studies on the Metabolism and Toxicological Analysis. Universität ... It is around the same potency as phencyclidine, although slightly less potent than its ethyl homologue eticyclidine, and has ... MADDOX VH, GODEFROI EF, PARCELL RF (March 1965). "The Synthesis of Phencyclidine and Other 1-Arylcyclohexylamines". Journal of ...
Giannini AJ, Bowman RK, Giannini JD (August 1999). "Perception of nonverbal facial cues in chronic phencyclidine abusers". ... These groups reported diminished receptive ability in heroin addicts and phencyclidine abusers, contrasted with increased ...
Tahir, Hassan; Daruwalla, Vistasp (2015). "Phencyclidine Induced Oculogyric Crisis Responding Well to Conventional Treatment". ... phencyclidine ("PCP"), reserpine, and cetirizine, an antihistamine. High-potency neuroleptics are the most common cause. Other ...
Phencyclidine may be a useful anaesthetic because it does not impact the cardiovascular center. This also contrasts ... phencyclidine from many other recreational drugs. Vasomotor center Wehrwein, Erica A.; Joyner, Michael J. (2013-01-01), Buijs, ...
Phencyclidine: a dissociative anesthetic previously used in medicine, but its development was discontinued in the 1960s in ... Rolicyclidine: a less potent analogue of phencyclidine, but seems to be seldom, if ever, abused. Sevoflurane: an inhalational ... Olney JW, Labruyere J, Price MT (June 1989). "Pathological changes induced in cerebrocortical neurons by phencyclidine and ... Eticyclidine: a slightly more potent dissociative anesthetic than phencyclidine but with greater nausea/unpleasant taste, that ...
Lodge, D; Mercier, M S (2015). "Ketamine and phencyclidine: the good, the bad and the unexpected". British Journal of ... ketamine and phencyclidine, selectively blocked NMDA receptors. He related NMDA receptor antagonism to psychotomimetic effects ...
... has been used in the illicit production of phencyclidine and its analogs and as such is often subject to ... "Illicit Synthesis of Phencyclidine (PCP) and Several of Its Analogs". Clinical Toxicology. 9 (4): 553-560. doi:10.3109/ ...
... the agitation that some people developed following phencyclidine-induced anesthesia quickly led to its abandonment for this ... Phencyclidine (PCP) was originally developed as an anesthetic agent and marketed for a time as Sernylan; however, ... encoded search term (Phencyclidine (PCP)-Related Psychiatric Disorders) and Phencyclidine (PCP)-Related Psychiatric Disorders ... Phencyclidine (PCP)-Related Psychiatric Disorders Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Feb 14, 2018 * Author: Jeffrey S Forrest, MD ...
Phencyclidine, or PCP, is an illegal street drug. It can cause hallucinations and severe agitation. This article discusses ... Phencyclidine, or PCP, is an illegal street drug. It can cause hallucinations and severe agitation. This article discusses ... Phencyclidine. In: Aronson JK, ed. Meylers Side Effects of Drugs. 16th ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2016:670-672. ...
Phencyclidine (PCP) ELISA is a screening test kit for the detection of drugs and/or their metabolites in forensic matrices and ... Phencyclidine (PCP). 1.7 ng/mL. The term I-50 is used to define the sensitivity of the test. This number is derived from a ... Phencyclidine (PCP) ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is a qualitative one-step kit designed for use as a screening ...
Phencyclidine is an illegal, hallucinogenic drug that was initially used as an anesthetic agent in the 1950s and early 1960s, ... Phencyclidine ingestion: drug abuse and psychosis. Jacob MS, Carlen PL, Marshman JA, Sellers EM. Jacob MS, et al. Int J Addict ... Description of 5 fatal cases of phencyclidine overdose and 11 other deaths in which phencyclidine was contributory, often with ... Phencyclidine-associated acute rhabdomyolysis. Cogen FC, Rigg G, Simmons JL, Domino EF. Cogen FC, et al. Ann Intern Med. 1978 ...
Phencyclidine (PCP) is a dissociative anesthetic that is a commonly used recreational drug. PCP is a crystalline powder that ... Phencyclidine analog use in Sweden--intoxication cases involving 3-MeO-PCP and 4-MeO-PCP from the STRIDA project. Bäckberg M, ... Phencyclidine. [No authors listed] [No authors listed] 2021 Jul 19. Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®) [Internet]. ... Phencyclidine (PCP) is a dissociative anesthetic that is a commonly used recreational drug. PCP is a crystalline powder that ...
Appel JB Discriminative stimulus properties of phencyclidine Neuropharmacology 1979 18(5):459-463 ...
Phencyclidine (aka PCP) is a non prescription hallucinogen. Although initially used as a surgical anesthetic, it has been off ... An individual who is in withdrawal from Phencyclidine (PCP) use will often exhibit memory loss, loss of coordination, loss of ... An individual who is taking Phencyclidine (PCP) will often experience any combination of symptoms such as hallucinations, ...
The test is based on the principle of competitive and restrain immunoassay for determination of drug of abuse Phencyclidine ( ... High Sensitive Phencyclidine (PCP) Drug Abuse test is a simple, direct binding immunoassay for rapid and qualitative detection ... Easy Use Saliva Phencyclidine(PCP) Drug Rapid Test Device , (PCP) Phencyclidine Test Device , Phencyclidine Test Device , PCP ... High Sensitive Phencyclidine (PCP) Drug Abuse test is a simple, direct binding immunoassay for rapid and qualitative detection ...
Carroll, M. E. (1984). Effects of pentobarbital and d-amphetamine on oral phencyclidine self-administration in rhesus monkeys. ... Effects of pentobarbital and d-amphetamine on oral phencyclidine self-administration in rhesus monkeys. / Carroll, Marilyn E. ... Carroll, Marilyn E. / Effects of pentobarbital and d-amphetamine on oral phencyclidine self-administration in rhesus monkeys. ... Carroll, ME 1984, Effects of pentobarbital and d-amphetamine on oral phencyclidine self-administration in rhesus monkeys, ...
Best Quality Phencyclidine (PCP) Drug test Cassete from Drug test manufacturers and Drug test suppliers: (PCP) Phencyclidine ... It is designed for qualitative determination of Phencyclidine in human urine specimens above a cut-off level of 25 ng/ml. This ... Phencyclidine Rapid Test (Cassette) (Min. order:200 Tests) Not for OTC use. ...
Phencyclidine. 9106. METHAMPHETAMINE and Illicit Drugs, Precursors and Adulterants on Wipes by Liquid-Liquid Extraction. ... Phencyclidine. 9109. METHAMPHETAMINE and Illicit Drugs, Precursors and Adulterants on Wipes by Solid-Phase Extraction. ...
Phencyclidine • Sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics, painkillers, other prescription medicines • Dissociative drugs (ketamine ...
Phencyclidine. *Codeine. *Morphine. The test is also used to test for:. *Barbiturates ...
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine; see the image below) is the most widely consumed stimulant drug in the world. It is present in a variety of forms: medications, coffee, tea, soft drinks, and chocolate.
Phencyclidine (PCP): 1 to 8 days. *Propoxyphene: 6 to 48 hours. *Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): up to 6 to 11 weeks with heavy use ...
5.3 Interference with Urine Screen for Methadone, Opiates and Phencyclidine Phosphate (PCP) 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS 6.1 Clinical ... 5.3 Interference with Urine Screen for Methadone, Opiates and Phencyclidine Phosphate (PCP). There have been reports of false ... Warnings and Precautions, Interference with Urine Screen for Methadone, Opiates and Phencyclidine Phosphate (PCP) (5.3) 06/2018 ...
Dive into the research topics of Effects of single and repeated phencyclidine administration on the expression of metabotropic ... Recent animal studies regarding phencyclidine (PCP), which induces psychotic symptoms in humans, have suggested that group II ... N2 - Recent animal studies regarding phencyclidine (PCP), which induces psychotic symptoms in humans, have suggested that group ... AB - Recent animal studies regarding phencyclidine (PCP), which induces psychotic symptoms in humans, have suggested that group ...
Dive into the research topics of Effects of the serotonin(2A/2C) receptor agonist and antagonist on phencyclidine-induced ... Effects of the serotonin(2A/2C) receptor agonist and antagonist on phencyclidine-induced dopamine release in rat medial ...
Phencyclidine induced anxiety disorder, without use disorde. F16.9. Excludes1: hallucinogen abuse (F16.1-). hallucinogen ...
Phencyclidine overdose Phencyclidine, or PCP , is an illegal street drug. It can cause hallucinations and severe agitation. ...
Phencyclidine (PCP). *Hair drug testing is a two-step process once the specimen is taken from close to the scalp and sent to a ...
Trafficking in phencyclidine, more than 200 grams, less than 400 grams.. 893.135. (1)(e)1.b.. 1st. Trafficking in methaqualone ... Trafficking in phencyclidine, more than 28 grams, less than 200 grams.. 893.135(1)(e)1.. 1st. Trafficking in methaqualone, more ... Trafficking in phencyclidine, more than 400 grams.. 893.135. (1)(e)1.c.. 1st. Trafficking in methaqualone, more than 25 ...
Phencyclidine and Other Hallucinogen Use Disorder: These substances alter perception. Phencyclidine is commonly called "angel ...
ketamine, general anesthetic agent related structurally to the hallucinogen phencyclidine (PCP). Ketamine was first synthesized ...
... phencyclidine (PCP); propoxyphene; and marijuana metabolite (THC).1 ...
Effects of phencyclidine, ketamine and MDMA on complex operant behavio... Pharmacol Biochem Be.... 1987. ...
Categories: Phencyclidine Abuse Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
  • [iii] Illicit drugs such as methamphetamine, phencyclidine (PCP) and cocaine accounted for 24% of these deaths. (cdc.gov)
  • Clozapine ameliorates epigenetic and behavioral abnormalities induced by phencyclidine through activation of dopamine D1 receptor. (medscape.com)
  • Ketamine and Phencyclidine (PCP) Ketamine and phencyclidine are N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and dissociative anesthetics that can cause intoxication, sometimes with confusion or a catatonic state. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. (bvsalud.org)
  • Behavioural effects of neonatal lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex and subchronic pubertal treatment with phencyclidine of adult rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • Correlations between phencyclidine-like activity and N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonism: behavioral evidence. (medscape.com)
  • Olney JW, Labruyere J, Price MT. Pathological changes induced in cerebrocortical neurons by phencyclidine and related drugs. (medscape.com)
  • The test is based on the principle of competitive and restrain immunoassay for determination of drug of abuse Phencyclidine (PCP) and its metabolites presence in urine. (gv-medic.com)
  • It is designed for qualitative determination of Phencyclidine in human urine specimens above a cut-off level of 25 ng/ml. (elisatestkits.com)
  • Positive association of phencyclidine-responsive genes, PDE4A and PLAT, with schizophrenia. (cdc.gov)
  • Phencyclidine abuse mimicking head injury. (medscape.com)
  • Crider R. Phencyclidine: changing abuse patterns. (medscape.com)
  • High Sensitive Phencyclidine (PCP) Drug Abuse test is a simple, direct binding immunoassay for rapid and qualitative detection methods. (gv-medic.com)
  • Bey T, Patel A. Phencyclidine intoxication and adverse effects: a clinical and pharmacological review of an illicit drug. (medscape.com)
  • Phencyclidine: patterns seen in street drug analysis. (medscape.com)
  • Phencyclidine, or PCP , is an illegal street drug. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chlorpromazine vs. meperidine in the treatment of phencyclidine psychosis. (medscape.com)
  • Acute phencyclidine intoxication: clinical patterns, complications, and treatment. (medscape.com)