The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.
Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Procedures concerned with the remedial treatment or prevention of diseases.
Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.
Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.
The business and managerial aspects of pharmacy in its broadest sense.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).
The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
The branch of pharmacology dealing especially with the action of drugs upon various parts of the nervous system.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
Compounds having the cannabinoid structure. They were originally extracted from Cannabis sativa L. The most pharmacologically active constituents are TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL; CANNABINOL; and CANNABIDIOL.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The metabolism of drugs and their mechanisms of action.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
A benzodioxane alpha-adrenergic blocking agent with considerable stimulatory action. It has been used to diagnose PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and as an antihypertensive agent.
The educational process of instructing.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain antimalarial (ANTIMALARIALS) and analgesic (ANALGESICS) indole alkaloids.
Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.
A class of cyclic prostaglandins that contain the 6,9-epoxy bond. Endogenous members of this family are biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H3 receptors were first recognized as inhibitory autoreceptors on histamine-containing nerve terminals and have since been shown to regulate the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
G-protein coupled receptors that are formed through the dimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR with a RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN. Their affinity for ISLET AMYLOID POLYPEPTIDE is dependent upon which of several receptor activity-modifying protein subtypes they are bound to.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
A topical bacteriostat that is available as various salts. It is used in wound dressings and mouth infections and may also have antifungal action, but may cause skin ulceration.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Drug agonism involving selective binding but reduced effect. This can result in some degree of DRUG ANTAGONISM.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for CANNABINOIDS such as those derived from CANNABIS. They also bind a structurally distinct class of endogenous factors referred to as ENDOCANNABINOIDS. The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS and CYTOKINES.
An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cell-surface proteins that bind histamine and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Histamine receptors are widespread in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. Three types have been recognized and designated H1, H2, and H3. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mode of action.
Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
Those individuals engaged in research.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Agents that affect ION PUMPS; ION CHANNELS; ABC TRANSPORTERS; and other MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Cell surface proteins that bind calcitonin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Calcitonin receptors outside the nervous system mediate the role of calcitonin in calcium homeostasis. The role of calcitonin receptors in the brain is not well understood.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. It is a very poisonous plant that contains cardioactive agents.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic agonist with actions like PHENYLEPHRINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor in circulatory failure, asthma, nasal congestion, and glaucoma.
A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Drugs intended for DENTISTRY.
Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.
A very toxic anthracycline-type antineoplastic related to DAUNORUBICIN, obtained from Actinomadura carminata.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.
A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.
An ethylenediamine derivative used as stabilizer for EPOXY RESINS, as ampholyte for ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING and as chelating agent for copper in HEPATOLENTICULAR DEGENERATION.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.
The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Drugs that bind to and activate histamine receptors. Although they have been suggested for a variety of clinical applications histamine agonists have so far been more widely used in research than therapeutically.
Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.
Antibiotic produced by Micromonospora inyoensis. It is closely related to gentamicin C1A, one of the components of the gentamicin complex (GENTAMICINS).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.
Compounds that interact with and stimulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.

The pathologist and toxicologist in pharmaceutical product discovery. (1/926)

Significant change is occurring in the drug discovery paradigm; many companies are utilizing dedicated groups from the toxicology/ pathology disciplines to support early stage activities. The goal is to improve the efficiency of the discovery process for selecting a successful clinical candidate. Toxicity can be predicted by leveraging molecular techniques via rapid high-throughput, low-resource in vitro and in vivo test systems. Several important activities help create a platform to support rapid development of a new molecular entity. The proceedings of this symposium provide excellent examples of these applied concepts in pharmaceutical research and development. Leading biopharmaceutical companies recognize that a competitive advantage can be maintained via rapid characterization of animal models, the cellular identification of therapeutic targets, and improved sensitivity of efficacy assessment. The participation of the molecular pathologist in this quest is evolving rapidly, as evidenced by the growing number of pathologists that interact with drug discovery organizations.  (+info)

PET and drug research and development. (2/926)

The use of PET to examine the behavioral, therapeutic and toxic properties of drugs and substances of abuse is emerging as a powerful new scientific tool. PET provides a new perspective on drug research by virtue of its ability to directly assess both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic events in humans and in animals. These parameters can be assessed directly in the human body both in healthy volunteers and in patients. Moreover, the new generation of high-resolution, small-animal cameras hold the promise of introducing imaging in the early stages of drug development and make it possible to carry out longitudinal studies in animals and to study genetically altered animals. This places PET in a unique position to contribute significantly to the process of drug development through understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying drug action while addressing some very practical questions such as determining effective drug doses for clinical trials for new drugs, determining the duration of drug action and examining potential drug interactions.  (+info)

The pharmacology of gene therapy. (3/926)

The objective for human gene therapy is to express exogenous DNA at a site in vivo for long enough, and at sufficient levels to produce a therapeutic response. The obstacles to this objective are numerous and include the formulation or packaging of the DNA, in vivo delivery, penetration of biological barriers, DNA elimination within the cell and from the tissue compartments of the whole body, control of product expression and overt toxicity. The current challenge is to resolve each of these obstacles to produce a practical and efficient gene therapy. In doing so, it is vital to understand the disposition of DNA vectors in vivo, and to know how conventional medicines may be used to modulate this disposition and to enhance the therapeutic effect of these vectors. Many of the general concepts of human gene therapy have been reviewed extensively in the literature. This review discusses some of the pharmacological aspects of gene delivery and the fate of vectors in vivo, and then highlights how drugs are being used to modulate gene therapy.  (+info)

Is orphan drug status beneficial to tropical disease control? Comparison of the American and future European orphan drug acts. (4/926)

OBJECTIVES To quantify past outcomes of tropical pharmacology research and development (R & D) and to assess past benefits of the American orphan drug act and potential benefits of the future European orphan drug regulation on tropical diseases. METHODS: This paper presents two analyses: a 1983-97 retrospective study of the United States Orphan Drug Act concerning rare diseases and a prospective study of the European Proposal for a Regulation Concerning Orphan Drugs and its possible impact on tropical diseases. RESULTS: Different programmes have in the past tried to stimulate R & D in this area, but results remain limited. Of 1450 new chemical entities marketed between 1972 and 1997, 13 were specifically for tropical diseases and considered as essential drugs. Between 1983 & 1997, the US Orphan Drug Act approved 837 drugs and marketing of 152 new molecular entities (NMEs). Three NMEs have been designated for malaria and human African trypanosomiasis. Seven others, already commonly used in tropical diseases, received either orphan designation or an orphan approval for another indication. Pharmaceutical companies benefit from the US framework only when the US market exclusivity clause was applicable. Future European orphan drug regulation appears to be similar to the US Orphan Drug Act. CONCLUSION The orphan drug programmes relating to rare diseases have met with some success. Considering tropical diseases rare diseases seems inadequate to boost pharmaceutical R & D. However, some provisions of the European text may be relevant to tropical diseases, admitting the need for a more specific rule for evaluations of this kind of drug and recognizing the existence of 'diseases of exception'.  (+info)

A comparison of the direct and reporter antigen popliteal lymph node assay for the detection of immunomodulation by low molecular weight compounds. (5/926)

The direct popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) is a predictive test used to detect the immune-stimulating potential of pharmaceuticals and other low molecular weight compounds (LMWCs) with known autoimmunogenic or sensitizing properties. Two limitations in the PLNA are the existence of false negatives and the inability of the assay to provide mechanistic information. Recently the direct PLNA was modified by incorporating reporter antigens (RA), either TNP-Ficoll or TNP-OVA. In the RA-PLNA, immune stimulation is detected by measuring IgM or IgG TNP-specific antibody-forming cells (AFC) using an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay. The RA-PLNA, when using potent, known autoimmunogenic compounds, may provide greater sensitivity compared to the direct PLNA and might distinguish LMWCs that have intrinsic adjuvant activity from those that create neo-antigens, using TNP-OVA and TNP-Ficoll, respectively. The purpose of this study was to rigorously compare the two assays. Our first objective was to investigate the interlaboratory reproducibility of the RA-PLNA using four autoimmunogenic LMWC models, plus one negative control LMWC. Subsequently, we tested seven LMWCs with known sensitizing properties and compared the results from the direct and modified assay. The test group included LMWCs thought to be mechanistically distinct and similar to compounds typically encountered in preclinical safety assessment. All control and treatment AFC plaques were collected (76 total), pooled, coded to conceal their source, and counted. The interlaboratory reproducibility of the RA-PLNA was demonstrated with the model autoimmunogenic compounds HgCl2, diphenylhydantoin, D-penicillamine, and the negative control compound phenobarbital, by detecting TNP-specific IgM and polyclonal IgG production to both reporter antigens. Additionally, the sensitizing effects of streptozotocin were identified using an IgG2a ELISPOT with both TNP-OVA and TNP-Ficoll. With the extended test group, the sensitizing effects of aniline, a false negative LMWC in the direct PLNA, was not detected in this study when using the direct PLNA. However, there was an increase of IgG1 AFCs using TNP-OVA, when compared to control (508 +/- 113 vs. 12 +/- 4 respectively). Glafenine, diclofenac, and ibuprofen, all associated with drug-induced anaphylaxis in humans, produced significant increases in IgG1 production to TNP-OVA. Of these three LMWCs, only diclofenac, which has been documented to induce neo-antigen formation, was detected with TNP-Ficoll. Hydralazine immunomodulation could be detected only with the direct PLNA although significant increases in IgM were identified with the co-injection of either reporter antigen. Isoniazid and methyldopa consistently produced negative responses in both assays. In summary, this study has demonstrated acceptable interlaboratory reproducibility of the RA-PLNA, using model autoimmunogenic LMWCs. Additionally, it demonstrated that an advantage of the RA-PLNA was that it identified all anaphylactic-associated LMWCs tested, detected the false negative compound aniline, and revealed what is thought to be the mechanism(s) associated with diclofenac-induced immunostimulation.  (+info)

Effects of drugs on glucose measurements with handheld glucose meters and a portable glucose analyzer. (6/926)

Thirty drugs used primarily in critical care and hospital settings were tested in vitro to observe interference on glucose measurements with 6 hand-held glucose meters and a portable glucose analyzer. Paired differences of glucose measurements between drug-spiked samples and unspiked control samples were calculated to determine bias. A criterion of +/- 6 mg/dL was used as the cutoff for interference. Ascorbic acid interfered with the measurements on all glucose devices evaluated. Acetaminophen, dopamine, and mannitol interfered with glucose measurements on some devices. Dose-response relationships help assessment of drug interference in clinical use. High dosages of these drugs may be given to critically ill patients or self-administered by patients without medical supervision. Package inserts for the glucose devices may not provide adequate warning information. Hence, we recommend that clinicians choose glucose devices carefully and interpret results cautiously when glucose measurements are performed during or after drug interventions.  (+info)

International union of pharmacology. XXII. Nomenclature for chemokine receptors. (7/926)

Chemokine receptors comprise a large family of seven transmembrane domain G protein-coupled receptors differentially expressed in diverse cell types. Biological activities have been most clearly defined in leukocytes, where chemokines coordinate development, differentiation, anatomic distribution, trafficking, and effector functions and thereby regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Pharmacological analysis of chemokine receptors is at an early stage of development. Disease indications have been established in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and in Plasmodium vivax malaria, due to exploitation of CCR5 and Duffy, respectively, by the pathogen for cell entry. Additional indications are emerging among inflammatory and immunologically mediated diseases, but selection of targets in this area still remains somewhat speculative. Small molecule antagonists with nanomolar affinity have been reported for 7 of the 18 known chemokine receptors but have not yet been studied in clinical trials. Virally encoded chemokine receptors, as well as chemokine agonists and antagonists, and chemokine scavengers have been identified in medically important poxviruses and herpesviruses, again underscoring the importance of the chemokine system in microbial pathogenesis and possibly identifying specific strategies for modulating chemokine action therapeutically. The purpose of this review is to update current concepts of the biology and pharmacology of the chemokine system, to summarize key information about each chemokine receptor, and to describe a widely accepted receptor nomenclature system, ratified by the International Union of Pharmacology, that is facilitating clear communication in this area.  (+info)

Mechanisms mediating substance P-induced contraction in the rat iris in vitro. (8/926)

PURPOSE: To determine some of the mechanisms by which substance P (SP) induces contraction in the isolated rat iris. METHODS: Rings of rat iris were mounted in a 5-ml organ chamber containing Krebs solution at 37 degrees C under basal tension of 75 mg, and isometric tension was recorded. RESULTS: Substance P produced graded contraction in the rat iris, being approximately 40-fold more potent than carbachol. Peptidase inhibitors (captopril, phosphoramidon, thiorphan) did not affect the SP response. The SP contraction was dependent on external Ca2+ by a mechanism resistant to both nifedipine and omega-conotoxin GVIA. Atropine and tetrodotoxin significantly shifted the SP response to the right (three- and fivefold, respectively). Neither phorbol nor genistein altered the SP-induced contraction, whereas staurosporine caused a weak inhibition. Indomethacin, pyrilamine, guanethidine, 8-37 calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) fragment, and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester had no effect on SP response. All the natural tachykinin agonists caused concentration-dependent contraction in rat iris with similar maximal responses. The NK3 selective agonist senktide caused graded contraction, being approximately 150-fold more active than the NK2 selective agonist [beta-ala] NKA. The NK1 selective agonist SP methyl ester induced a small contraction. The NK3 and NK2 antagonists SR 142801 and SR 48968 shifted the SP response to the right. Schilds plots gave pA2 (negative logarithm of the molar concentration of antagonist causing a twofold rightward displacement of the concentration response curves) values of 9.37 and 7.97 and slopes of 0.70 and 1.02, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Substance P produces a potent contraction in the isolated rat iris that seems to depend on the neural release of acetylcholine by tetrodotoxin-sensitive mechanisms. Its response relies largely on external Ca2+, through mechanisms independent of activation of L- or N-type Ca2+ channels, and is probably mediated via activation of NK3 and NK2 receptors.  (+info)

for those of you in a diploma or ad school, do they have a pharmacology course? would you find it helpful? if you do have one, how is it structured?
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The expression of cloned ARs in cells that lack endogenous ARs should simplify the analysis of receptor-response coupling and the pharmacological properties of a particular α1-AR subtype. If quantitative agonist-antagonist pharmacology can be achieved in single cells harboring recombinant receptors, then this provides a well-defined baseline to identify functional receptors in cells isolated from native tissue or to identify the functional consequences of receptor mutations.. A system involving expression in cells that lack many of the signaling factors of native cells might be expected to show deviant properties. However, this study showed that reasonable quantitative pharmacology could be achieved. Moreover, some novel findings could be explained in terms of the properties of the nonequilibrium nature of the functional response and may shed light on previously unresolved issues in native tissue pharmacology.. The [Ca2+]i signal in response to Phe consisted of two functionally distinct phases: ...
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The statistical practice of equating is needed when scores on different versions of the same standardized test are to be compared. This thesis constitutes four contributions to the observed-score equating framework kernel equating.. Paper I introduces the open source R package kequate which enables the equating of observed scores using the kernel method of test equating in all common equating designs. The package is designed for ease of use and integrates well with other packages. The equating methods non-equivalent groups with covariates and item response theory observed-score kernel equating are currently not available in any other software package.. In paper II an alternative bandwidth selection method for the kernel method of test equating is proposed. The new method is designed for usage with non-smooth data such as when using the observed data directly, without pre-smoothing. In previously used bandwidth selection methods, the variability from the bandwidth selection was disregarded when ...
I defend a three-fold form of pluralism about chance, involving a tripartite distinction between propensities, probabilities, and frequencies. The argument has a negative and a positive part. Negatively, I argue against the identity thesis that informs current propensity theories, which already suggests the need for a tripartite distinction. Positively, I argue that that a tripartite distinction is implicit in much statistical practice. Finally, I apply a well-known framework in the modelling literature in order to characterize these three separate concepts functionally in terms of their roles in modelling practice.. ...
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Information about Northeastern State University pharmacology classes. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
Nursing pharmacology: an integrated approach to drug therapy and nursing practic , Nursing pharmacology: an integrated approach to drug therapy and nursing practic , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان
Featured Pharmacology News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Pharmacology From The tribunedigital-chicagotribune (Page 3 of 5)
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Pharmacology is the science of medicines and other drug. This course will teach you how drugs work in the body, and how they are used to treat disease.
Pharmacology is the science of medicines and other drug. This course will teach you how drugs work in the body, and how they are used to treat disease.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacology of a new neuroplegic compound N,N-di(piperidino-methyl)-3,3-diindolyl-methane.. AU - Pórszász, J.. AU - Gibiszer-Pórszász, K.. AU - Földeák, S.. AU - Matkovics, B.. PY - 1966/12/1. Y1 - 1966/12/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0014003204&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0014003204&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 5950958. AN - SCOPUS:0014003204. VL - 29. SP - 299. EP - 317. JO - Physiology International. JF - Physiology International. SN - 2498-602X. IS - 3. ER - ...
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Pharmacology - SANDBOX is part of the portal platform of the MEFANET educational network, gathering contributions which do not meet all required criteria for e-publishing at the MEFANET network central gate
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Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following: Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes
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The one that scares me the most is probably LSD, though any substance that fucks with your mind and makes you not yourself is fucking sketchy, and I dont...
Pharmacological Reports publishes articles concerning all aspects of pharmacology, dealing with the action of drugs at a cellular and molecular level...
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Abstract. In 2011, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), in collaboration with leaders from the pharmaceutical industry and the academic community, published a white paper describing the emerging discipline of Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP), and recommended the establishment of NIH-supported interdisciplinary research and training programs for QSP. QSP is still in its infancy, but has tremendous potential to change the way we approach biomedical research. QSP is really the integration of two disciplines that have been increasingly useful in biomedical research; Systems Biology and Quantitative Pharmacology. Systems Biology is the field of biomedical research that seeks to understand the relationships between genes and biologically active molecules to develop qualitative models of these systems; and Quantitative Pharmacology is the field of biomedical research that seeks to use computer aided modeling and simulation to increase our understanding of the pharmacokinetics (PK) and ...
Our journals promote pharmacology in all its forms by disseminating the latest high quality research in our peer reviewed scientific journals.
Your Pharmacology degree is an excellent foundation for a wide range of careers. If you are keen to start work immediately rather than continue with education, then look at our section on jobs and training for pharmacology graduates. If you wish to train further as a pharmacologist, you may decide to study for a postgraduate degree. Or you may decide to take a different career path and work as a science graduate in policy, communications or research funding. Whatever path you choose, your pharmacology background will equip you with many transferable skills and there is a diverse range of career options waiting for you.
The total score will be reported to your institution as a percentage. Your institution will assign the final letter grade that you earned for the course. Class Times: This course is a web course and will use a distance learning format. The course will be taught via the Web-enhanced format utilizing the assigned websites, core PowerPoint presentation, word documents, textbook reading assignments and other self-directed learning activities. Suggested Texts 15th or 16th Edition Drug Information Handbook for Advanced Practice Nursing. Lexi-Comp, Inc. (Online or Smart Phone versions acceptable) Note about above text: This handbook provides a monograph on many of medications covered in this course. I recommend using it to practice looking about common medication information. Also you may utilize this resource on the quiz. Harvey (2015). Lippincotts Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology, 6th edition, Lippincott W&W Reading assignments made from the Pharmacology textbook are intended to supplement student ...
Given that clinical education has long been part of Pharmas marketing strategy, this seems disgraceful. And most of the doctors I know and respect refuse to see reps altogether. It is hopelessly optimistic to think that can an industry person can teach clinical pharmacology without bias in favour of his own companys products. The BPS has many members who teach pharmacology. Can they really cope so badly that we need to have industry to educate clinicians? Its fine, and sometimes desirable, for academics and industry to work together on drug development. But only as long as the industry partner has no say in how, or whether, the results are published. Without that proviso we can expect more corruption of the sort thats been seen at the University of Sheffield (3). This is very sad, because I have great reason to like the drug industry. Ive benefitted from several of their products myself. But the industry is in trouble. Many of its products provide only marginal benefits. Furthermore, some ...
Given that clinical education has long been part of Pharmas marketing strategy, this seems disgraceful. And most of the doctors I know and respect refuse to see reps altogether. It is hopelessly optimistic to think that can an industry person can teach clinical pharmacology without bias in favour of his own companys products. The BPS has many members who teach pharmacology. Can they really cope so badly that we need to have industry to educate clinicians? Its fine, and sometimes desirable, for academics and industry to work together on drug development. But only as long as the industry partner has no say in how, or whether, the results are published. Without that proviso we can expect more corruption of the sort thats been seen at the University of Sheffield (3). This is very sad, because I have great reason to like the drug industry. Ive benefitted from several of their products myself. But the industry is in trouble. Many of its products provide only marginal benefits. Furthermore, some ...
PHARMACOLOGISTS study the effects of drugs and other chemical agents of therapeutic value on biological systems. Pharmacologists conduct clinical research trials for new drugs. They study the effects of a medicine over a period of time. Pharmacologists work closely with other scientists and health professionals to ensure that new products are as safe and effective as possible. Pharmacologists may also evaluate new drugs for pharmaceutical companies. They may develop new or improved drugs and medicines. They work to standardize procedures for the manufacture of drugs and medicinal compounds.. ...
Founded in 1998, Dashiqiao Medicinal Materials Processing Factory is a small organization in the pharmaceutical preparation companies industry located in Dashiqiao, China. It has approximately 10 full-time employees and generates an estimated $496,928 in annual revenue.
Cross Listing: PHARMAC 7596. Description: Capstone project or internship for students in Clinical Pharmacology specialization of the MS Applied Clinical and Preclinical Research Program. Culminating learning activity integrating core and specialization coursework. Capstone project or internship performed at an organization involved with clinical research drug studies with the oversight of a faculty advisor and a site mentor.. Prerequisite(s): Completion of all required didactic clinical pharmacology courses in the Master of Applied Clinical and Preclinical Research program, or permission of program director.. Semester Offered: Offered all semesters. Credits: Graduate 1-12 units. Course Director: Joseph Kitzmiller, PhD & Marjorie Neidecker, PhD. Textbook(s): TBD. ...
Demolish NCLEX(r) Nursing Pharmacology!Pharmacology makes up 15% of the NCLEX(r) test plan. For many nurses medications and pharmacology can be a difficult subject. But not anymore! If you are ready to finally take your NCLEX(r) Pharmacology studies to the next level . . . this is the perfect book for you! With hundreds of pages of the most vital facts about the most tested medications this ebook for nursing students is a must have.Jon Haws RN CCRN from NRSNG.com takes the most commonly tested medications on the NCLEX and in Nursing Pharmacology courses and outlines the MUST know information and nursing considerations so that you can demolish the NCLEX(r) and ace your Pharm course!Over 300+ Pages Jammed PackedThis book essentially takes the guess work out of your studies and allows you to focus your valuable time on learning exactly what you NEED to know. Learn how to ACE the NCLEX(r) . . . Details nursing considerations in flash card format. The most important medications to learn. Obscure ...
This one-day pharmacology course is designed to introduce concepts of how drugs are developed and basic pharmacokinetics. The actions of various classifications of drugs including beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins and anticoagulants will also be explored. The course is intended for nurses at the bedside, educators and advanced practice nurses.
It was reported on 19 July 2006 in Britains Daily Telegraph that the British Pharmacological Society has drawn attention to the widespread poor prescribing practices among doctors.. I was glad to see this, especially following on as it does, the Sunday Telegraphs report Sleaze in the Medical Profession of July 9th 2006. As a steroid victim myself, damaged and made morbidly obese by being inappropriately prescribed HRT (without testing hormone levels first) and by inadequate monitoring and testing thereafter, I feel peculiarly well-placed to make critical comments.. We are not just badly served by our extremely highly paid doctors, we are ill-served by our politicians and by the Department of Health and by the Parliamentary Select Committees and many other individuals and agencies and professional bodies who should be monitoring these matters. - I wrote well over 30 letters to MPs and Select Committees, medics, scientists, media people and others in 2001 about the dire consequences of ...
Olympic gold medallist Tim Foster has teamed up with the British Pharmacological Society to share how to have a healthy body without the use of drugs.
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Figure 1.2 Relationship between the pharmacokinetic, link, and pharmacodynamic models. Figure 1.2 Relationship between the pharmacokinetic, link, and
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Neurokinin-1 expressing neurons (NK-1) are situated in the superficial lamina of the spinal dorsal horn, utilize substance P as a neurotransmitter and are
The Clinical Pharmacology shared resource at the Masonic Cancer Center provides pharmacology services and expertise for funded cancer-related projects of Masonic Cancer Center members. Investigators are encouraged to contact the Clinical Pharmacology shared resource early in the planning stages of the project to assess feasibility and determine study design.
John Sandall on SixFiftys Story: Why Are UK Elections So Hard To Predict? When Theresa May announced plans on April 18th for the UK to hold a general election it was met with much cynicism. However, as self-confessed psephologists (and huge fans of Nate Silvers FiveThirtyEight datablog), we instead were thrilled at the opportunity. SixFifty is a collaboration of data scientists, software engineers, data journalists and political operatives brought together within hours of the snap general election being announced. Our goals: • Understand why forecasting elections in the UK using open data is notoriously difficult, and to see how far good statistical practice and modern machine learning methods can take us. • Make political and demographic data more open and accessible by showcasing and releasing cleaned versions of the datasets were using. • We also hope that by communicating our methodology at a non-technical level we will contribute to improving statistical literacy, especially
This textbook strikes a balance between mathematical foundations and statistical practice. Concepts and methods are presented as clear and relevant through careful explanations and a range of applications involving real data and accessible situations.
The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology is the flagship publication of the American College of Clinical Pharmacology. Published since 1961, the journal has been providing readers with access to original research, special reviews, commentaries, and case reports on all phases of drug development.
Basic and Clinical pharmacology , Basic and Clinical pharmacology , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران
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Schedule of Controlled Drugs. In: Katzung BG, Masters SB, Trevor AJ. Katzung B.G., Masters S.B., Trevor A.J. Eds. Bertram G. Katzung, et al.eds. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 12e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2012. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=388§ionid=45764296. Accessed December 10, 2017 ...
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Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 9,123-135. Grundmann, M., Merten, N., Malfacini, D., Inoue, A., Preis, P., Simon, K., Rüttiger, N., Ziegler, N., Benkel, T., Schmitt, N. K., Ishida, S., Müller, I., Reher, R., Kawakami, K., Inoue, A., Rick, U., Kühl, T., Imhof, D., Aoki, J., König, G. M., Hoffmann, C., Gomeza, J., Wess, J., and Kostenis, E. (2018) ...
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The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. CD300a - CD molecules. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
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Pharmacology[edit]. Premazepam is a pyrrolodiazepine benzodiazepine and acts as a partial agonist at benzodiazepine receptors. ...
1993). "Pharmacology of moclobemide". Clin Neuropharmacol. 16 Suppl 2: S8-18. PMID 8313402.. ... 1992). "Biochemistry and pharmacology of moclobemide, a prototype RIMA". Psychopharmacology. 106 Suppl: S6-14. doi:10.1007/ ... Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 42 (4): 395-404. doi:10.1038/clpt.1987.169. PMID 3665338.. ... "Biochemistry and pharmacology of reversible inhibitors of MAO-A agents: focus on moclobemide". J Psychiatry Neurosci. 18 (5): ...
Pharmacology[edit]. In a process called thrombolysis (the breakdown of a thrombus), fibrinolytic drugs are used. They are given ...
Pharmacology[edit]. Fenoldopam causes arterial/arteriolar vasodilation leading to a decrease in blood pressure by activating ... Nichols AJ, Ruffolo RR, Brooks DP (June 1990). "The pharmacology of fenoldopam". Am. J. Hypertens. 3 (6 Pt 2): 116S-119S. PMID ... Shen, Howard (2008). Illustrated Pharmacology Memory Cards: PharMnemonics. Minireview. p. 9. ISBN 1-59541-101-1. .. ...
Pharmacology[edit]. Yohimbine has high affinity for the α2-adrenergic receptor, moderate affinity for the α1 receptor, 5-HT1A, ... "British Journal of Pharmacology. 112 (1): 323-31. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1994.tb13072.x. PMC 1910288. PMID 8032658.. ... Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 149: 150-90. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.12.004. PMC 4380664. PMID 25550231.. ... 2013). Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (9 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 353. ISBN 978-1118685907. .. ...
Constituents and pharmacology[edit]. The main compounds responsible for the biological activity of skullcap are flavonoids.[9] ...
Pharmacology[edit]. GnRH agonists acts as agonists of the GnRH receptor, the biological target of gonadotropin-releasing ...
Pharmacology[edit]. Mechanism of action[edit]. Isotretinoin's exact mechanism of action is unknown, but several studies have ...
"British Journal of Pharmacology. 157 (7): 1097-110. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00282.x. PMC 2743829. PMID 19508394.. ... "Vitamin C: update on physiology and pharmacology" ... Pharmacology[edit]. See also: Chemistry of ascorbic acid. ...
Pharmacology[edit]. Main article: TNF inhibition. TNF promotes the inflammatory response, which, in turn, causes many of the ...
Sundry researches in pharmacology; missing by a hair's breadth the identification of the benzoyl radical in 1830[edit]. ... 5 Sundry researches in pharmacology; missing by a hair's breadth the identification of the benzoyl radical in 1830 ...
Pharmacology[edit]. Mechanism of action[edit]. Lamotrigine is a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic ... "British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 66 (3): 396-404. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2008.03250.x. PMC 2526242. PMID 18662287.. ... European Journal of Pharmacology. 358 (1): 19-24. doi:10.1016/s0014-2999(98)00580-9. PMID 9809864.. ... Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 42 (5): 535-41. doi:10.1038/clpt.1987.193. PMID 3677542.. ...
Pharmacology[edit]. Pharmacodynamics[edit]. Domperidone is a peripherally selective dopamine D2 and D3 receptor antagonist.[7] ... "British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 66 (2): 283-289. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2008.03207.x. PMC 2492930. PMID 18507654.. ... "British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 73 (3): 411-21. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.04093.x. PMC 3370345. PMID 21883386.. ... Kapoor, A.K.; Raju, S.M. (2013). "7.2 Gastrointestinal Drugs". Illustrated Medical Pharmacology. JP Medical Ltd. p. 677. ISBN ...
"British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 46 (2): 101-110. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.1998.00764.x. ISSN 0306-5251. PMC 1873672. ...
Pharmacology[edit]. Gum arabic slows the rate of absorption of some drugs, including amoxycillin, from the gut.[18] ...
Pharmacology[edit]. Mechanism of action[edit]. The specific mechanisms by which drotrecogin exerts its effect on survival in ...
Pharmacology[edit]. Pharmacodynamics[edit]. Theanine is structurally similar to the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, and ...
International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology.. *Adenosine+Receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Peart JN, Headrick JP (May 2007). "Adenosinergic cardioprotection: multiple receptors, multiple pathways". Pharmacology & ... translating medicinal chemistry and pharmacology into clinical utility". Chemical Reviews. 108 (1): 238-63. doi:10.1021/ ... "International Union of Pharmacology. XXV. Nomenclature and classification of adenosine receptors". Pharmacol. Rev. 53 (4): 527 ...
Pharmacology[edit]. Route of administration[edit]. SNRIs are delivered orally, usually in the form of capsules. The drugs ... The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 318 (2): 657-65. doi:10.1124/jpet.106.103382. PMID 16675639.. ... Stahl SM, Grady MM, Moret C, Briley M (September 2005). "SNRIs: their pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and tolerability in ... The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 318 (2): 657-65. doi:10.1124/jpet.106.103382. PMID 16675639.. ...
Fisher MH, Mrozik H (1992). "The chemistry and pharmacology of avermectins". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 32: ... Pharmacology[edit]. Pharmacodynamics[edit]. Ivermectin and other avermectins (insecticides most frequently used in home-use ant ... Dourmishev AL, Dourmishev LA, Schwartz RA (December 2005). "Ivermectin: pharmacology and application in dermatology". ...
Pharmacology[edit]. Mechanism of action[edit]. Meropenem is bactericidal except against Listeria monocytogenes, where it is ... "Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology. 26 (1): 99-101.. *^ "New molecule knocks out superbugs' immunity to ...
subst:The Pharmacology Barnstar,message ~~~~}}. The Pharmacology Barnstar from Wikipedia:Barnstars 2.0/Awards by WikiProject. ... There are many, many stubby pharmacology articles (listed at Category:Pharmacology stubs) that have the potential to be ... Member userbox: {{User WikiProject Pharmacology}}. *Member top icon (an alternative to the above): {{WikiProject Pharmacology ... See also: Wikipedia:WikiProject Directory/Description/WikiProject Pharmacology. Here is a list of WikiProject Pharmacology ...
Pharmacology[edit]. The vast majority of decongestants act via enhancing norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine ( ...
Pharmacology[edit]. Mifepristone blocks the hormone progesterone,[20][21] causing the lining of the uterus to thin and ...
Pharmacology[edit]. Glycemic index has been thought to effect satiety; however, a study investigating the effect of satiety ...
Pharmacology[edit]. In September 2017 Copanlisib, inhibiting predominantly p110α and p110δ, got FDA approval for the treatment ...
Computational pharmacology[edit]. Computational pharmacology (from a computational biology perspective) is "the study of the ... This development led to the need for computational pharmacology. Scientists and researchers develop computational methods to ...
Pharmacology[edit]. As a triple reuptake inhibitor, naphyrone has been shown in vitro to affect the reuptake of the ...
Pharmacology[edit]. Mechanism of action[edit]. Omeprazole is a selective and irreversible proton pump inhibitor. It suppresses ... "British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 64 (6): 819-823. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02927.x. PMC 2198775. PMID 17635502.. ... An updated review of its pharmacology and therapeutic use in acid-related disorders". Drugs. 42 (1): 138-70. doi:10.2165/ ... 2012). "Systematic review: hypomagnesaemia induced by proton pump inhibition". Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 36 (5): ...
Nutrition, pharmacology, and toxicology[edit]. *Nutritional genomics: A science studying the relationship between human genome ...
Pharmacology can be applied within clinical sciences. Clinical pharmacology is the basic science of pharmacology focusing on ... Systems pharmacology or network pharmacology is the application of systems biology principles in the field of pharmacology.[ ... Implications for Clinical Pharmacology and Systems Pharmacology". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 95: 154-167. doi: ... Experimental pharmacology involves the study of pharmacology through bioassay, to test the efficacy and potency of a drug.[ ...
... this New Edition of PHARMACOLOGY, a popular UK text, describes what drugs do and emphasizes the mechanisms by which they act. ... Pharmacology. H. P. Rang,M. Maureen Dale,J. M. Ritter. Snippet view - 1999. ... Churchill Livingstone, 2001 - Pharmacology - 839 pages. 1 Reviewhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Pharmacology.html?id= ... books.google.com - Adapted for the U.S., this New Edition of PHARMACOLOGY, a popular UK text, describes what drugs do and ...
You could look into the pharmacology - the chemistry of how your drug works in the body - and find something unique there. Then ... The excerpts Im about to give you come from a superb and accessible pharmacology text entitled, "Murder, Magic, and Medicine ... James Rays Sedona sweat lodge stash: lessons in polypharmacy and endocrine pharmacology. ...
subst:The Pharmacology Barnstar,message ~~~~}}. The Pharmacology Barnstar from Wikipedia:Barnstars 2.0/Awards by WikiProject. ... There are many, many stubby pharmacology articles (listed at Category:Pharmacology stubs) that have the potential to be ... Member userbox: {{User WikiProject Pharmacology}}. *Member top icon (an alternative to the above): {{WikiProject Pharmacology ... See also: Wikipedia:WikiProject Directory/Description/WikiProject Pharmacology. Here is a list of WikiProject Pharmacology ...
Topics will include: basic concepts in pharmacology, systems-level pharmacology and emerging therapies. The course will meet 4 ... cardiovascular pharmacology, endocrine and autacoid pharmacology, chemotherapy, and toxicology. Instruction is primarily ... The course aims to provide a solid introduction into modern pharmacology, focusing on more mechanistic aspects of therapeutics ... The course will present a comprehensive survey of the biology, biochemistry, pharmacology, and genetics of cancer. Students ...
Message From The Chair Living in Edmonton Pharmacology Strategic Plan What Is Pharmacology? History of Pharmacology ... Department of Pharmacology. General Office. 7-55 Medical Sciences Building. University of Alberta. Edmonton, Alberta Canada T6G ... PhD (Pharmacology and Toxicology), University of British Columbia, 1983. Post-Doctoral Fellowship, The Milton S. Hershey ...
Lecture by Dr Vivienne Lo on pharmacology in early China, followed by a session on the use of history in the construction of ...
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 258, 588-593.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 255, 1202-1209.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 239, 706-714.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 266, 1563-1572.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Pill: …are traditionally referred to as pills. Prior to the widespread use of the machine-compressed tablet, pills were very popular products that usually were prepared by a pharmacist. To make a pill, powdered drug and excipients were mixed together with water or other liquid and a gumlike binding agent such as…
JNIP interfaces the disciplines of immunology, pharmacology and experimental neuroscience by acting as a ... ... is the peer-reviewed journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology. ... Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology. Editor-in-Chief: Howard Gendelman. ISSN: 1557-1890 (print version). ISSN: 1557-1904 ( ... The aims of the Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology are to promote the dissemination, interest, and exchange of new and ...
5 reasons to study pharmacology at Bath. From placements to lab facilities, there are lots of reasons to study pharmacology at ... Silver Athena SWAN Award for Department of Pharmacy & Pharmacology. The Department of Pharmacy & Pharmacology is the first ... About the Department of Pharmacy & Pharmacology. Ranked top ten for pharmacy and pharmacology in the Complete University Guide ... Pharmacy and pharmacology outreach activities. We offer a range of activities to local schools, colleges and communities. ...
... Pharmacology is one of the principal disciplines of ... In a joint venture with Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology at UCL, the Department is set to offer an MSc degree in ... The Department of Pharmacology was established in 1926 as the Pharmacological Laboratories of the Pharmaceutical Society of ... In 1946 the Wellcome Trustees endowed a chair of pharmacology at the School and provided funding for the first Wellcome ...
She specialized in Clinical Pharmacology after her bachelors (MBBS). For her, health communication is not just writing ... Caffeine Pharmacology. News-Medical, viewed 29 November 2020, https://www.news-medical.net/health/Caffeine-Pharmacology.aspx. ... Caffeine Pharmacology. News-Medical. 29 November 2020. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Caffeine-Pharmacology.aspx,. ... Caffeine Pharmacology. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Caffeine-Pharmacology.aspx. (accessed November 29, ...
... Alumni, we would love to hear from you! If you are willing to provide us with your current position and ... Chair, Molecular Pharmacology Program, SKI. Director, Center for Experimental Therapeutics. 1984. Alum. (Matriculation date/ ... Clinical Pharmacology Reviewer. Staci Deaton Heise. (2002/Alani). Bristol-Myers Squibb. Associate Director, HQ Medical ... Below is a Pharmacology roster representing alumni who have provided us with their correct position and affiliation information ...
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Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 53) ... Butyrophenone CNS Histamin Hormone Nicotin Phenothiazine Rauwolfia Thioxanthene alkaloids analgesics metabolism pharmacology ...
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... which is what most researchers in the fields of Pharmacology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Physiology and Cancer Research ... The Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics at McGill University maintains several key resources for use by faculty and ... Pharmacology & Therapeutics. McIntyre Medical Building. 3655 Prom. Sir William Osler. Room 1325. Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6. Tel ... The Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics at McGill University maintains several key resources for use by faculty and ...
Gives a broad summary of Guide to Pharmacology activities in the last year. Emphasising… ... The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 1. Introduction The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb) is an open, expert-driven ... IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology Poster presented at the Elixir All-Hands Meeting in Lisbon, June 2019. Gives a broad summary ... A new Pharmacology Search Tool (Fig. 2) allows users to upload lists of protein IDs and find ligands that modulate them, from ...
Pharmacology Graduate Student Recruitment Award. Students with an Honors degree in Pharmacology from the U of A and a GPA of ... The Department of Pharmacology is an integral part of the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry at the University of Alberta. We ... Read a statement on the importance of pharmacology in the post-genomic era, from distinguished alumnus Dr Terry Kenakin. ... 3.7 or higher are eligible to receive a Pharmacology Graduate Student Recruitment Award on entering our graduate program. ...
Special Issues in Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacology. See all recent special issues in one place! All issues are freely ... 100 Years of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Browse a selection of highly influential volumes published in this ... Good Research Practice in Non-Clinical Pharmacology and Biomedicine. Bespalov, A. (et al.) (Eds.) (2020) ...
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Teaching of Pharmacology and Therapeutics at UCC *Apply to study for a PhD or MSc at the Department of Pharmacology & ... Welcome to the Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics. The Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics is located in the ... To provide excellence in undergraduate and postgraduate teaching in Pharmacology, Toxicology, Clinical Pharmacology and ... Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics Cógaseolaíocht agus Teiripic. 2nd Floor, Western Gateway Building, University ...
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Pharmacology. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 Jul 1.. Published in final edited form as: Pharmacology. 2015; 96(1-2): ... Pharmacology. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2019 Aug 22.. Published in final edited form as: Pharmacology. 2018; 102(5-6 ... Pharmacology. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 Jan 30.. Published in final edited form as: Pharmacology. 2014; 93(0): ... Pharmacology. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2018 May 30.. Published in final edited form as: Pharmacology. 2012; 90(5-6 ...
  • The course aims to provide a solid introduction into modern pharmacology, focusing on more mechanistic aspects of therapeutics. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics , 258 , 588-593. (springer.com)
  • Journal Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics , 273 , 637-642. (springer.com)
  • Pharmacology is one of the principal disciplines of pharmacy so the Research Department of Pharmacology contributes significantly to the teaching of the MPharm degree programme, particularly in the Body Systems and Therapeutics modules in years 1,2 and 3. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In a joint venture with Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology at UCL, the Department is set to offer an MSc degree in Experimental Pharmacology and Therapeutics beginning in 2014. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics at McGill University maintains several key resources for use by faculty and students for their research. (mcgill.ca)
  • It is a joint initiative between the British Pharmacological Society (BPS) and the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR), which aims to cover the human targets of licensed drugs and other likely targets of future therapeutics. (slideshare.net)
  • Faculty members in the Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics at KUMC have diverse research interests. (kumc.edu)
  • The topics for study will include: cellular and molecular actions of drugs (thalidomide, Parkinson's disease and addiction), bioinformatics and systems biology applied to pharmacology, sphingosine-1-phosphate signalling, G-protein-coupled receptor activation, signalling and trafficking, diabetes and insulin resistance, marine natural products and gastro-intestinal pharmacology and therapeutics. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • The Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics is located in the Western Gateway Building and in the School of Pharmacy on the main campus. (ucc.ie)
  • To provide excellence in undergraduate and postgraduate teaching in Pharmacology, Toxicology, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. (ucc.ie)
  • Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics publishes new treatment modalities and their impact on ocular tissues and the potential side effects, and newly diagnosed side effects, of any medication or treatment that is already in use in ophthalmic practice. (liebertpub.com)
  • Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics provides insight into research being conducted by both academic and industry labs focused on the biology and therapeutic side of ocular diseases. (liebertpub.com)
  • Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics is the only peer-reviewed journal that combines the fields of ophthalmology and pharmacology to enable optimal treatment and prevention of ocular diseases and disorders. (liebertpub.com)
  • Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Tenth Edition is a fully updated and revised version of th. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Tenth Edition is a fully updated and revised version of the gold-standard reference on the use of drug therapy in all major veterinary species. (wiley-vch.de)
  • The primary goal of our postdoctoral fellowship program is to train the next generation of pediatric clinician-scientists to assume leadership roles in developing innovative, high impact clinical and developmental pharmacology related approaches that will improve proper use of medicines in children and enhance pediatric therapeutics and related health outcomes of neonates, children and adolescents. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • The Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (JOPT) is a peer-reviewed journal published 10 times a year. (liebertpub.com)
  • Your submission to Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (JOPT) provides you with robust tools and support to ensure maximum impact and readership for your work. (liebertpub.com)
  • Submitting your manuscript to Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (JOPT ) delivers a comprehensive benefits program that ensures high-quality review of your research and maximum impact for your work. (liebertpub.com)
  • Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (JOPT) carries a manuscript processing charge* of $75 USD upon submission of each new manuscript. (liebertpub.com)
  • Mission Statement: The mission of the Preclinical Pharmacology Core is to assist investigators in refining and improving the drug-like characteristics of novel small molecule compounds and to provide a resource for evaluating the in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior of novel and existing small molecule therapeutics. (bartleby.com)
  • Pharmacology & Therapeutics presents lucid, critical and authoritative reviews of currently important topics in pharmacology . (elsevier.com)
  • Founded in 1976, Pharmacology & Therapeutics continues. (elsevier.com)
  • Founded in 1976, Pharmacology & Therapeutics continues to be among the top 10 most cited journals in pharmacology. (elsevier.com)
  • For the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics newsletter, see The Pharmacologist . (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical pharmacology or, more precisely, clinical pharmacology and therapeutics is a relatively young specialty concerned with the understanding of drug action in man, and with the practice of rational prescribing. (bmj.com)
  • Our Pharmacology BSc Honours degree focuses on developing your practical and scientific understanding of pharmacology, toxicology and the human body. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • This provides you with a variety of pathways to a various careers such as pharmacology, toxicology or drug research, pharmaceutical, biotechnology and other health industries. (edu.au)
  • The School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences offers you a wonderful opportunity to learn about pharmacy and pharmacology and toxicology in a world class environment. (edu.au)
  • Australia's first Pharmacology and Toxicology degree is a new pathway to a future in some of the world's biggest industries. (edu.au)
  • Pharmacology and Toxicology together form a discipline that examines the interactions of chemical substances with living systems. (kumc.edu)
  • Because the study of chemicals requires an intimate knowledge of the biological systems affected, Pharmacology and Toxicology are by necessity an integrative discipline that studies the effects of chemicals at the molecular, cellular, organ, organismal, and population levels. (kumc.edu)
  • The Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology at West Virginia University offers graduate studies leading tothe degree of Doctor of Philosophy with re. (gradschools.com)
  • The course will present a comprehensive survey of the biology, biochemistry, pharmacology, and genetics of cancer. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The Department's Electron Microscopy Chief Technician offers services performed on the FEMR electron microscope that is specialized in classical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for biological specimens, which is what most researchers in the fields of Pharmacology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Physiology and Cancer Research need. (mcgill.ca)
  • The Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (BMP) department is made up of researchers with expertise in many different fields, making it ideal for interdisciplinary neurobiology research. (umassmed.edu)
  • Applicants require either a medical degree (such as an MBBS) or a 2:1 first degree in pharmacy, pharmacology, biology, biochemistry, chemistry or related subject. (prospects.ac.uk)
  • Retrieved on November 29, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Caffeine-Pharmacology.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • This Department is responsible for the delivery of the graduate program in Pharmacology and Neuroscience and the main instruction about pharmacology in the medical student curriculum. (siumed.edu)
  • Pathophysiology and pharmacology learning activity #2 Preeta Thomas IEPN 122 Centennial College Professor: Paul Corteza Date: 16/02/2017 Pathophysiology of seizures Seizure are uncontrolled or sudden abnormal electrical activity in the brain which causes abnormal motor and sensory activity and where the patient becomes unconsciousness. (bartleby.com)
  • As of 2017, ASPET's Marketing Department will solicit, place, and bill all advertising in Explore Pharmacology . (faseb.org)
  • World Malaria Report 2018, www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2018/en/ 2. (slideshare.net)
  • [10] The first pharmacology department was set up by Rudolf Buchheim in 1847, in recognition of the need to understand how therapeutic drugs and poisons produced their effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • books.google.com - Adapted for the U.S., this New Edition of PHARMACOLOGY, a popular UK text, describes what drugs do and emphasizes the mechanisms by which they act. (google.com)
  • It will focus on pharmacological mechanisms of drugs that effect the nervous system with teaching expertise from Neurology, Psychiatry, Anesthesiology and Pharmacology. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Pharmacology courses study the effects of drugs on the body and learn how to develop effective treatments. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Pharmacology focuses on the properties of drugs, including their sites of action, processing by the human body, and therapeutic uses. (kumc.edu)
  • There are several commonly prescribed medications that can cause hyperkalemia, and understanding the pharmacology of these drugs will enable the practitioner to more accurately predict and monitor this potential adverse effect. (medscape.com)
  • There are also several medications that can be used to treat this disorder, and knowing the pharmacology of these drugs will enable the practitioner to select the appropriate pharmacotherapy regimen for the patient. (medscape.com)
  • Pharmacology is the branch of the biomedical field that deals with the study of mechanism of drug action and drug metabolism and further extends across a wide frontier that includes developing new drugs. (sc.edu)
  • Research in pharmacology at the College of Pharmacy focuses on identifying new pharmacological targets for drugs, including various receptors and ion channels. (sc.edu)
  • The Department of Pharmacology emphasizes training in research methods for examining the mechanism of action of drugs at the systemic, cellular, and subcellular levels. (gradschools.com)
  • CHAPTER 1: Pharmacology is defined as the STUDYING OF DRUGS, THEIR USES, AND THEIR INTERACTIONS IN LIVING TISSUE The physician must have permission from the FDA to dispose of any outdated medications. (bartleby.com)
  • Essay Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology that seeks to understand drugs and how they affect the body. (bartleby.com)
  • Clinical pharmacology was born out of pharmacology - drug action in animals and in in vitro systems and out of the explosion in the number of new drugs which were emerging about 20 years ago. (bmj.com)
  • pharmacology, study of the changes produced in living animals by chemical substances, especially the actions of drugs , substances used to treat disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • pharmacology deals with all aspects of the actions of drugs on living tissues, particularly their effects on man. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pharmacology is the study of drugs and how they affect the human body and other living systems. (port.ac.uk)
  • Pharmacology is a branch of science that deals with the study of drugs and their actions on living systems. (health.gov.au)
  • Pharmacology is dedicated to understanding the action of drugs and how they can prevent or treat diseases. (siumed.edu)
  • [Learn More] Pharmacology is the key basic science subject matter about the actions of drugs that is required for the education of health professionals at all levels, including physicians. (siumed.edu)
  • Pharmacology faculty members have research interests in molecular and cellular neuropharmacology, neurotrauma, and the role of hormones and diet constituents on brain function. (kumc.edu)
  • The MSc by Research in Pharmacology offers a very wide range of topics from calcium signalling to cardiovascular pharmacology and neuropharmacology. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Explain the basic principles of pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. (uky.edu)
  • The BSc course "Nutrition and Pharmacology" starts with the basic principles of pharmacology and pharmacological research, with the purpose of translating this to nutritional science. (wur.nl)
  • Electrophysiology remains one of its strengths to this day but is now complemented by cellular, molecular and genetic approaches to study brain function as well as vascular biology and clinical pharmacology. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • This inspires current trainees and it helps the department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences to recruit outstanding new students to the Pharmacology Graduate Program. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • This course provides (1) a recap and extension of third year material and (2) a more advanced account of selected topics some of which relate to the research interests of the individual academic staff of Biomedical Sciences and others which are topical areas in molecular pharmacology. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Molecular biology now dominates pharmacology so thoroughly that it is difficult to recall that only a generation ago the field was very different. (nih.gov)
  • Information flow in molecular and classical pharmacology. (nih.gov)
  • Graduates of doctoral program find application in science and research in the biomedical field, more specifically in basic experimental, molecular or clinical pharmacology disciplines. (muni.cz)
  • Review Doctorate Degrees in Pharmacology on campus such as Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Sciences, campus based Doctorate in Medicinal Chemistry, Doctorate Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Signal Transduction all on GradSchools.com the leading website for accredited on campus Graduate Programs, College & Universities. (gradschools.com)
  • Congratulations to Pharmacology graduate student Raquel C. Martinez Chacin, who is first author on a paper published in Nature Structural and Molecular Biology Journal! (unc.edu)
  • Our successful program is administered through the Division of Clinical Pharmacology at Cincinnati Children's in close collaboration with participating divisions and is accredited by the American Board of Clinical Pharmacology. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Learn more about the Division of Clinical Pharmacology. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Pharmacology is not synonymous with pharmacy and the two terms are frequently confused. (wikipedia.org)
  • In either field, the primary contrast between the two are their distinctions between direct-patient care, for pharmacy practice, and the science-oriented research field, driven by pharmacology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "pharmacology" is derived from Greek φάρμακον , pharmakon , "drug, poison , spell " and -λογία , -logia "study of", "knowledge of" [2] [3] (cf. the etymology of pharmacy ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Label articles of interest to the project by putting the {{ WikiProject Pharmacology }} template on the talk pages of all articles of interest to pharmacy and pharmacology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Department of Pharmacy & Pharmacology is the first Department at the University to hold a Silver Award for their commitment to gender equality. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Ranked top ten for pharmacy and pharmacology in the Complete University Guide 2021. (bath.ac.uk)
  • In 1946 the Wellcome Trustees endowed a chair of pharmacology at the School and provided funding for the first Wellcome Professor (Professor G. A. H. Buttle) to undertake research in pharmacology and its application to pharmacy. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Griffith bachelor degrees in pharmacy and pharmacology have a strong jobs, industry and community care focus, and our graduates are highly sought after in healthcare environments throughout Australia and overseas. (edu.au)
  • Dr. Lugo would like to extend a special note of thanks to Sara B. Tyburski, RN and Doctor of Pharmacy candidate at University of New England College of Pharmacy, for her role in the development and completion of this pharmacology module. (nursingworld.org)
  • MS in Pharmacology has always been my interest and my previous job in the Seven Hills Hospital as a Pharmacy Auditor / Billing executivehelped me learn a lot. (bartleby.com)
  • Find out about the different career options available if you're undertaking research in Chemistry, Biology or Pharmacy and Pharmacology. (bath.ac.uk)
  • European Journal of Pharmacology , 120 , 25-32. (springer.com)
  • European Journal of Pharmacology , 10, 64-71. (springer.com)
  • Danner, S Lohse, M J Comparative Study Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Netherlands European journal of pharmacology Eur J Pharmacol. (bibsonomy.org)
  • The European Journal of Pharmacology publishes research papers covering all aspects of experimental pharmacology with focus on the mechanism of action of structurally identified compounds affecting biological systems . (elsevier.com)
  • Following British Pharmacological Society (BPS) guidelines, this course is designed to give you a solid foundation in areas of biology that support an understanding of pharmacology. (coventry.ac.uk)
  • The Isoquinoline Alkaloids: Chemistry and Pharmacology presents an overview of the chemistry, biogenesis, spectroscopy, and pharmacology of the isoquinoline alkaloids. (elsevier.com)
  • There are many books and review articles available that describe the chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical applications of bisphosphonates. (aappublications.org)
  • The Department also provides teaching in more specialised options in later years and hosts students undertaking research projects in pharmacology. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The Department of Pharmacology was established in 1926 as the Pharmacological Laboratories of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain under the directorship of Professor J. H. Burn and was situated in the School's previous residence in Bloomsbury Square. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The Department of Pharmacology is one of the top preclinical departments in the country with excellent research and teaching facilities with a large and vibrant community of graduate students. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Subsequently, the first pharmacology department in England was set up in 1905 at University College London. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gives a broad summary of Guide to Pharmacology activities in the last year. (slideshare.net)
  • Introduction The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb) is an open, expert-driven database of pharmacological targets and the substances that act on them [1]. (slideshare.net)
  • Overviews of the key properties, selective ligands and further reading for a wide range of human biological targets, which forms the basis for the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (CGTP) [2]. (slideshare.net)
  • The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology (GtoPdb) has focused hitherto on the pharmacology and immunopharmacology associated with human non-infectious diseases3. (slideshare.net)
  • The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics . (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene therapy pioneer Jude Samulski, PhD, professor of pharmacology at the UNC School of Medicine, is featured in this NPR story about a 30-year research journey from idea to treatment reality for kids with muscular dystrophy. (unc.edu)
  • Biochemical Pharmacology , 39 , 1897-1904. (springer.com)
  • The broad efficacies of new substances in vitro, the enormous biodiversity of the PDE isoenzyme family and the sophisticated biochemical pharmacology enabled Viagra to be the first success story in the field of PDE inhibitor drug development, but probably more success stories will follow. (nih.gov)
  • [7] Early pharmacology focused on herbalism and natural substances, mainly plant extracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • You will develop practical biomedical and research skills, and the most up-to-date laboratory and clinical approaches used in pharmacology. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • These novel behavioural methods are used in combination with pharmacology and/or genetic approaches to manipulate specific neural and neurochemical processes to test specific hypotheses relating to the cause and treatment of different pscyhiatric disorders. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification. (slideshare.net)
  • b) Ligand-to-target identification in classical pharmacology, illustrated by the classification of receptor subtypes for the β-adrenergic receptors. (nih.gov)
  • If you love performing experiments in a lab and want to work in an industry that improves the lives of millions of people, this BSc (Hons) Pharmacology degree is for you. (port.ac.uk)
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Behavioural Pharmacology. (lww.com)
  • Lecture by Dr Vivienne Lo on pharmacology in early China, followed by a session on the use of history in the construction of clinical trials into traditional medicine, with a case study presented by Dr Lo and Penelope Barrett (CCHH) together with Andrew Flower of the University of Southampton. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • From placements to lab facilities, there are lots of reasons to study pharmacology at Bath. (bath.ac.uk)
  • My goal is to study in the field of pharmacology and become a pharmacologist. (bartleby.com)
  • An optional module allows you to study the business side of the pharmacology industry. (port.ac.uk)
  • This course will provide students with an understanding of the scientific foundations of the study of pharmacology. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Hoffmann, C Leitz, M R Oberdorf-Maass, S Lohse, M J Klotz, K-N Comparative Study Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Germany Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. (bibsonomy.org)
  • We had dosage calculations separate from pharmacology and two separate HESI exams. (allnurses.com)
  • We look forward to engaging with all stakeholders in Pharmacology teaching and research to enhance the safety, quality and efficacy of pharmaceutical-based healthcare. (ucc.ie)
  • For the journal, see Pharmacology (journal) . (wikipedia.org)
  • British Journal of Pharmacology , 113 , 1386-1390. (springer.com)
  • The Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology requires one or more authors, referred to as "guarantors," be identified as the persons who take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, from inception to published article, and publish that information. (springer.com)
  • The Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology handles all correspondence between editorial office, authors, and peer-reviewers in a confidential manner. (springer.com)
  • Providing a knowledge base that, for the first time, connects immunology with pharmacology [4]. (slideshare.net)
  • For the book type ("a pharmacology"), see Materia medica . (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] Pharmacology as a scientific discipline did not further advance until the mid-19th century amid the great biomedical resurgence of that period. (wikipedia.org)
  • This booklet provides students with a broad overview of the discipline of pharmacology. (faseb.org)
  • This independent WikiProject coordinates the development of Wikipedia articles and lists relating to the pharmacology and science of medications and other pharmacology-related topics. (wikipedia.org)