Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.
Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
The part of a limb or tail following amputation that is proximal to the amputated section.
The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.
Electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
X-ray image-detecting devices that make a focused image of body structures lying in a predetermined plane from which more complex images are computed.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Use of a device (film badge) for measuring exposure of individuals to radiation. It is usually made of metal, plastic, or paper and loaded with one or more pieces of x-ray film.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.
Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.
A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.
Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.
Loss of a limb or other bodily appendage by accidental injury.
Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
A type of MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING that uses only one nuclear spin excitation per image and therefore can obtain images in a fraction of a second rather than the minutes required in traditional MRI techniques. It is used in a variety of medical and scientific applications.
Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Radiographic examination of the breast.
Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.
Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.
Use of optic and geometric techniques to enhance radiographic image quality and interpretation. It includes use of microfocal X-ray tubes and intensifying fluoroscopic screens.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.

Referenceless interleaved echo-planar imaging. (1/3327)

Interleaved echo-planar imaging (EPI) is an ultrafast imaging technique important for applications that require high time resolution or short total acquisition times. Unfortunately, EPI is prone to significant ghosting artifacts, resulting primarily from system time delays that cause data matrix misregistration. In this work, it is shown mathematically and experimentally that system time delays are orientation dependent, resulting from anisotropic physical gradient delays. This analysis characterizes the behavior of time delays in oblique coordinates, and a new ghosting artifact caused by anisotropic delays is described. "Compensation blips" are proposed for time delay correction. These blips are shown to remove the effects of anisotropic gradient delays, eliminating the need for repeated reference scans and postprocessing corrections. Examples of phantom and in vivo images are shown.  (+info)

The effect of the antiscatter grid on full-field digital mammography phantom images. (2/3327)

Computer Analysis of Mammography Phantom Images (CAMPI) is a method for making quantitative measurements of image quality. This article reports on a recent application of this method to a prototype full-field digital mammography (FFDM) machine. Images of a modified ACR phantom were acquired on the General Electric Diagnostic Molybdenum Rhodium (GE-DMR) FFDM machine at a number of x-ray techniques, both with and without the scatter reduction grid. The techniques were chosen so that one had sets of grid and non-grid images with matched doses (200 mrads) and matched gray-scale values (1500). A third set was acquired at constant 26 kVp and varying mAs for both grid conditions. Analyses of the images yielded signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast and noise corresponding to each target object, and a non-uniformity measure. The results showed that under conditions of equal gray-scale value the grid images were markedly superior, albeit at higher doses than the non-grid images. Under constant dose conditions, the non-grid images were slightly superior in SNR (7%) but markedly less uniform (60%). Overall, the grid images had substantially greater contrast and superior image uniformity. These conclusions applied to the whole kVp range studied for the Mo-Mo target filter combination and 4 cm of breast equivalent material of average composition. These results suggest that use of the non-grid technique in digital mammography with the GE-DMR-FFDM unit, is presently not warranted. With improved uniformity correction procedure, this conclusion would change and one should be able to realize a 14% reduction in patient dose at the same SNR by using a non-grid technique.  (+info)

Computed radiography dual energy subtraction: performance evaluation when detecting low-contrast lung nodules in an anthropomorphic phantom. (3/3327)

A dedicated chest computed radiography (CR) system has an option of energy subtraction (ES) acquisition. Two imaging plates, rather than one, are separated by a copper filter to give a high-energy and low-energy image. This study compares the diagnostic accuracy of conventional computed radiography to that of ES obtained with two radiographic techniques. One soft tissue only image was obtained at the conventional CR technique (s = 254) and the second was obtained at twice the radiation exposure (s = 131) to reduce noise. An anthropomorphic phantom with superimposed low-contrast lung nodules was imaged 53 times for each radiographic technique. Fifteen images had no nodules; 38 images had a total of 90 nodules placed on the phantom. Three chest radiologists read the three sets of images in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study. Significant differences in Az were only found between (1) the higher exposure energy subtracted images and the conventional dose energy subtracted images (P = .095, 90% confidence), and (2) the conventional CR and the energy subtracted image obtained at the same technique (P = .024, 98% confidence). As a result of this study, energy subtracted images cannot be substituted for conventional CR images when detecting low-contrast nodules, even when twice the exposure is used to obtain them.  (+info)

Filter-based coded-excitation system for high-speed ultrasonic imaging. (4/3327)

We have recently presented a new algorithm for high-speed parallel processing of ultrasound pulse-echo data for real-time three-dimensional (3-D) imaging. The approach utilizes a discretized linear model of the echo data received from the region of interest (ROI) using a conventional beam former. The transmitter array elements are fed with binary codes designed to produce distinct impulse responses from different directions in ROI. Image reconstruction in ROI is achieved with a regularized pseudoinverse operator derived from the linear receive signal model. The reconstruction operator can be implemented using a transversal filter bank with every filter in the bank designed to extract echoes from a specific direction in the ROI. The number of filters in the bank determines the number of image lines acquired simultaneously. In this paper, we present images of a cyst phantom reconstructed based on our formulation. A number of issues of practical significance in image reconstruction are addressed. Specifically, an augmented model is introduced to account for imperfect blocking of echoes from outside the ROI. We have also introduced a column-weighting algorithm for minimizing the number of filter coefficients. In addition, a detailed illustration of a full image reconstruction using subimage acquisition and compounding is given. Experimental results have shown that the new approach is valid for phased-array pulse-echo imaging of speckle-generating phantoms typically used in characterizing medical imaging systems. Such coded-excitation-based image reconstruction from speckle-generating phantoms, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported previously.  (+info)

Caval contribution to flow in the branch pulmonary arteries of Fontan patients with a novel application of magnetic resonance presaturation pulse. (5/3327)

BACKGROUND: A complete understanding of fluid mechanics in Fontan physiology includes knowledge of the caval contributions to right (RPA) and left (LPA) pulmonary arterial blood flow, total systemic venous return, and relative blood flow to each lung. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten Fontan patients underwent cine MRI. Three cine scans of the pulmonary arteries were performed: (1) no presaturation pulse, (2) a presaturation pulse labeling inferior vena cava (IVC) blood (signal void), and (3) a presaturation pulse labeling superior vena cava (SVC) blood. The relative signal decrease is proportional to the amount of blood originating from the labeled vena cava. This method was validated in a phantom. Whereas 60+/-6% of SVC blood flowed into the RPA, 67+/-12% of IVC blood flowed toward the LPA. Of the blood in the LPA and RPA, 48+/-14% and 31+/-17%, respectively, came from the IVC. IVC blood contributed 40+/-16% to total systemic venous return. The distributions of blood to each lung were nearly equal (RPA/LPA blood=0.94+/-11). CONCLUSIONS: In Fontan patients with total cavopulmonary connection, SVC blood is directed toward the RPA and IVC blood is directed toward the LPA. Although the right lung volume is larger than the left, an equal amount of blood flow went to both lungs. LPA blood is composed of equal amounts of IVC and SVC blood because IVC contribution to total systemic venous return is smaller than that of the SVC. This technique and these findings can help to evaluate design changes of the systemic venous pathway to improve Fontan hemodynamics.  (+info)

Frequency encoding for simultaneous display of multimodality images. (6/3327)

An original method for simultaneous display of functional and anatomic images, based on frequency encoding (FE), merges color PET with T1-weighted MR brain images, and grayscale PET with multispectral color MR images. A comparison with two other methods reported in the literature for image fusion (averaging and intensity modulation techniques) was performed. METHODS: For FE, the Fourier transform of the merged image was obtained summing the low frequencies of the PET image and the high frequencies of the MR image. For image averaging, the merged image was obtained as a weighted average of the intensities of the two images to be merged. For intensity modulation, the red, green and blue components of the color image were multiplied on a pixel-by-pixel basis by the grayscale image. A comparison of the performances of the three techniques was made by three independent observers assessing the conspicuity of specific MRI and PET information in the merged images. For evaluation purposes, images from seven patients and a computer-simulated MRI/PET phantom were used. Data were compared with a chi-square test applied to ranks. RESULTS: For the depiction of MRI and PET information when merging color PET and T1-weighted MR images, FE was rated superior to intensity modulation and averaging techniques in a significant number of comparisons. For merging grayscale PET with multispectral color MR images, FE and intensity modulation were rated superior to image averaging in terms of both MRI and PET information. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that improved simultaneous evaluation of MRI and PET information can be achieved with a method based on FE.  (+info)

Automatic three-dimensional multimodality registration using radionuclide transmission CT attenuation maps: a phantom study. (7/3327)

Coregistration of images from a single subject, acquired by different modalities, is important in clinical diagnosis, surgery and therapy planning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, using a physical torso phantom, a novel, fully automated method for three-dimensional image registration of CT and SPECT, using radionuclide transmission (RNT) attenuation maps. METHODS: We obtained CT scans and SPECT scans paired with RNT maps of an anthropomorphic cardiac phantom. RNT attenuation maps were acquired using an uncollimated 99mTc-filled flood source. RNT and SPECT scans were acquired in the same spatial orientation (usual clinical practice in nonuniform attenuation correction). In addition, CT attenuation maps (CTMAPs) for 99mTc SPECT were generated from CT by linear energy scaling. RNT maps were registered to CT and CTMAPs by iterative simplex minimization of count difference and uniformity index (sum of RNT map intensity variances corresponding to each intensity level in the CT volume). In each iteration, three shifts and three angles were adjusted. To register SPECT to CT, we applied the RNT transformation parameters to SPECT. RESULTS: RNT maps could be registered to CT and CTMAP images using both criteria. The average three-dimensional distance between landmark and automated registration was 2.5 +/- 1.2 mm for count difference and 3.3 +/- 1.3 mm for uniformity index. The three-dimensional reproducibility errors were 1.2 +/- 0.7 mm for count difference, 2.1 +/- 0.5 mm for uniformity index and 2.3 +/- 1.0 mm for manual marker registration. The minimization of uniformity index was robust when up to 50% CT or RNT slices were missing and was not affected significantly (<2 mm) by realistic variation in CT values (+/- 12 Hounsfield units). CONCLUSION: In addition to typical use in nonuniform attenuation correction, RNT maps can be used for fully automated three-dimensional registration of SPECT to CT. Such registration is not affected by features and quality of SPECT images and avoids difficulties associated with fiducial markers. Our method can be applied to SPECT-CT registration of various organs, such as brain, heart, lungs, breasts and abdomen, including oncological scans.  (+info)

Assessment of regional and global left ventricular function by reinjection T1-201 and rest Tc-99m sestamibi ECG-gated SPECT: comparison with three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. (8/3327)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test the ability of reinjection thallium-201 and rest technetium-99m sestamibi ECG (electrocardiographic)-gated SPECT (i.e., reinjection-g-SPECT [single-photon emission computed tomography] and MIBI-g-SPECT) to determine regional and global functional parameters. BACKGROUND: The ECG-gated perfusion SPECT was reported to provide accurate left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using an automated algorithm. We hypothesized that other various functional data may be obtained using reinjection-g-SPECT and MIBI-g-SPECT. METHODS: Reinjection-g-SPECT, MIBI-g-SPECT, and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3DMRI) were conducted in 20 patients with coronary artery disease. Regional wall motion (RWM) and wall thickening (RWT) were analyzed using semiquantitative visual scoring by each g-SPECT and 3DMRI. The left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes (EDV, ESV) and LVEF estimated by reinjection- and MIBI-g-SPECT were compared with the results of 3DMRI. RESULTS: A high degree of agreement in RWM and RWT assessment was observed between each g-SPECT and 3DMRI (kappa >.70, p < .001). The LVEF values by reinjection- and MIBI-g-SPECT correlated and agreed well with those by 3DMRI (reinjection: r = .92, SEE = 5.9%, SD of differences = 5.7%; sestamibi: r = .94, SEE = 4.4%, SD of differences = 5.1%). The same also pertained to EDV (reinjection: r = .85, SEE = 18.7 ml, SD of differences = 18.4 ml; sestamibi: r = .92, SEE = 13.1 ml, SD of differences = 13.0 ml) and ESV (reinjection: r = .94, SEE = 10.3 ml, SD of differences = 10.3 ml; sestamibi: r = .97, SEE = 6.7 ml [p < .05 vs. reinjection by F test], SD of differences = 6.6 ml [p < .05 vs. reinjection by F test]). CONCLUSIONS: Reinjection- and MIBI-g-SPECT provide clinically satisfactory various functional data. These functional data in combination with the perfusion information will improve diagnostic and prognostic accuracy without an increase in cost or the radiation dose to the patients.  (+info)

Results showed a good agreement between experimental measurements (with TLD and MOSFET) and MC data for both homogeneous and anthropomorphic breast phantoms. Larger discrepancies are found when comparing the GafChromic™ dose values to the MC results due to the inherent less precise nature of the for …
CIRS ATOM phantoms are a full line of anthropomorphic, cross sectional dosimetry phantoms designed to investigate organ dose, whole body effective dose as well as verification of delivery of therapeutic radiation doses.. ATOM is the only line of dosimetry phantoms to range in sizes from newborn to adult. Six models are available: newborn, 1-year, 5-year and 10-year old pediatric phantoms as well as adult male and female phantoms.. Each phantom is sectional in design with traditional 25 mm thick sections. The sectional surfaces are extremely flat and smooth and do not require any special coatings or treatment. This results in minimal interfaces between the slabs when viewed in a scout or projection X-ray. The ATOM line also differs from other dosimetry phantoms by providing optimized TLD locations specific to 21 inner organs.. Tissue-equivalent epoxy resins are used in all aspects of the phantom. CIRS technology offers superior tissue simulation Dosimetry Verification Phantoms by covering a wider ...
We describe herein a novel life-size phantom model of the intracranial cavity and its validation. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) domains including ventricular, cysternal, and subarachnoid spaces were derived via magnetic resonance imaging. Brain mechanical properties and cranio-spinal compliance were set based on published data. Both bulk and pulsatile physiologic CSF flow were modeled. Model validation was carried out by comparisons of flow and pressure measurements in the phantom with published in vivo data of healthy subjects. Physiologic intracranial pressure with 10 mmHg mean and 0.4 mmHg peak pulse amplitude was recorded in the ventricles. Peak CSF flow rates of 0.2 and 2 ml/s were measured in the cerebral aqueduct and subarachnoid space, respectively. The phantom constitutes a first-of-its-kind approach to modeling physiologic intracranial dynamics in vitro. Herein, we describe the phantom design and manufacturing, definition and implementation of its operating parameters, as well as the ...
IMRT Homogeneous Phantom - Complete QA from CT imaging to dose verification. CIRS is the leading manufacturer of medical imaging phantoms and simulators for radiation therapy QA, dosimetry, diagnostic imaging QA as well as training and demonstration phantom
This Spotlight describes the use of optical phantoms as validation tools for probe-based imaging and spectroscopy platforms. Composition of optical phantoms, including scattering and absorbing agents, is discussed in the context of their specific application. Next, requirements for designing optical phantoms for validation of small endoscopic instrumentation is presented including a discussion on the diffuse and sub-diffuse scattering regimes and how this relates to common types of epithelial tissue. This Spotlight concludes with a tutorial section for constructing solid phantoms to simulate thin epithelial tissue structure and liquid phantoms to extract tissue optical properties using probe-based reflectance spectroscopy techniques. For these applications, solid phantoms are made using poly(dimethylsiloxane) and liquid phantoms are made using deionized water as the substrate material. The scope of the chapter is limited to optical phantom design and application and is not intended to describe ...
This Spotlight describes the use of optical phantoms as validation tools for probe-based imaging and spectroscopy platforms. Composition of optical phantoms, including scattering and absorbing agents, is discussed in the context of their specific application. Next, requirements for designing optical phantoms for validation of small endoscopic instrumentation is presented including a discussion on the diffuse and sub-diffuse scattering regimes and how this relates to common types of epithelial tissue. This Spotlight concludes with a tutorial section for constructing solid phantoms to simulate thin epithelial tissue structure and liquid phantoms to extract tissue optical properties using probe-based reflectance spectroscopy techniques. For these applications, solid phantoms are made using poly(dimethylsiloxane) and liquid phantoms are made using deionized water as the substrate material. The scope of the chapter is limited to optical phantom design and application and is not intended to describe ...
Regulation of intracranial pressure (ICP) is vital to proper brain function. Pathologic conditions such as traumatic brain injury and hydrocephalus can cause lethal changes in ICP through an imbalance of fluid passage into and out of the craniospinal space. The relationship between craniospinal volume and pressure determines to a large extent whether such imbalance can be compensated or if it will lead to neuronal damage. Phantom models are predisposed for the evaluation of medical procedures and devices that alter volume in the spinal or cranial space. However, current phantoms have substantial limitations in the reproduction of craniospinal pressure-volume relationships, which need to be overcome prior to their deployment outside the basic research setting. We present herein a novel feedback controlled phantom for the reproduction of any physiologic or pathologic pressure-volume relation. We compare its performance to those of existing passive methods, showing that it follows reference curves ...
MRI Distortion Phantom Model: Model 604 Condition: New The Model 604 is a large field MRI distortion phantom designed for the assessment of MRI distortion caused mainly by the non-linearity of magnetic gradients. It can also help quantify MRI image distortion due to chemical shifts and susceptibility owing to density differences common in diagnostic and RT treatment planning.
Purpose: Epidemiological study of second cancer risk for cancer survivors often requires the dose to normal tissues located outside the anatomy covered by radiological imaging, which is usually limited to tumor and organs at risk. We have investigated the feasibility of using whole body computational human phantoms for estimating out-of-field organ doses for patients treated by Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). Methods: Identical 7-field IMRT prostate plans were performed using X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC), a radiotherapy-specific Monte Carlo transport code, on the computed tomography (CT) images of the torso of an adult male patient (175 cm height, 66 kg weight) and an adult male hybrid computational phantom with the equivalent body size. Dose to the liver, right lung, and left lung were calculated and compared. Results: Considerable differences are seen between the doses calculated by XVMC for the patient CT and the hybrid phantom. One major contributing factor is the treatment ...
© 2018 Multi-center MRI studies can enhance power, generalizability, and discovery for clinical neuroimaging research in brain disorders. Here, we sought to establish the utility of a clustering algorithm as an alternative to more traditional intra-class correlation coefficient approaches in a longitudinal multi-center human phantom study. We completed annual reliability scans on travelling human phantoms. Acquisitions across sites were harmonized prospectively. Twenty-seven MRI sessions were available across four participants, scanned on five scanners, across three years. For each scan, three metrics were extracted: cortical thickness (CT), white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), and resting state functional connectivity (FC). For each metric, hierarchical clustering (Wards method) was performed. The cluster solutions were compared to participant and scanner using the adjusted Rand index (ARI). For all metrics, data clustered by participant rather than by scanner (ARI | 0.8 comparing clusters to
In a computer tomography system, a flexible calibration phantom is utilized simultaneously with analysis of a patient to ensure accuracy of imagry and to facilitate interpretation of tomographs created. The flexible calibration phantom is preferably placed directly upon a patient between a radiation source and a radiation detector. It includes two solid and flexible samples of reference materials, each having a substantially uniform density, and a solid and flexible encasement surrounding the samples of reference material. The encasement has a substantially uniform density different than that of each of the samples of reference material, and the combination provides suitable reference points for proper analysis of tomographs obtained.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Size effect on dose output in phantoms of x-ray tubes in medical x-ray imaging. AU - Zheng, Xiaoming. AU - Nardi, Laura. AU - Murray, Mark. N1 - Includes bibliographical references.. PY - 2017/11/27. Y1 - 2017/11/27. N2 - The purpose of this work was to study how patient size affects the exponent of the power law relating dose to x-ray tube potential in clinical x-ray imaging using phantoms. Computed tomography (CT) dose phantoms of 16 cm and 32 cm in diameter were used to model children and adults respectively. A Fujifilm digital radiographic imaging system and a GE Discovery HD 750 CT scanner were employed to image both phantoms. For the Fujifilm radiographic imaging system, doses were measured at various locations of entrance, centre, exit as well as side locations of the phantoms using a PTW DIADOS diagnostic dosimeter. Standard procedure was employed for CT dose measurements for the GE CT scanner. X-ray exposures were varied by employing various tube voltages kVp and tube ...
RSDs Heart/Thorax Phantom is ideal for evaluation of detectability, extent, and severity of myocardial infarcts in patients. This phantom also provides valid assessment of mammoscintigraphy techniques.
All Blue Phantom models are made using our patented SimulexUS tissue. SimulexUS is specifically designed to match the acoustic properties of human tissue. This means that you can use virtually any ultrasound system with a Blue Phantom model and have a realistic ultrasound image.
NAVIGATING AN INTERVENTIONAL DEVICE - The present invention relates to navigating an interventional device. In particular, the invention relates to a system for navigating an interventional device within a tubular structure of an object, a method for navigating an interventional device within a tubular structure of an object as well as a computer program element and a computer-readable medium. In order to provide enhanced information to the user in an easily comprehensible manner while keeping the X-ray dose to a minimum, a system and a method for navigating an interventional device within a tubular structure of an object are provided, wherein the method comprised the following steps: a) Acquiring 2D X-ray fluoroscopy image data in one projection geometry of a region of interest of the tubular structure; b) detecting the interventional device in the 2D X-ray image; c) determining the 2D position of the interventional device in the 2D X-ray image; d) registering the at least one 2D X-ray image ...
The following evening, despite the Phantoms warnings, a defiant Carlotta appears as Marguerite. At first, the performance goes well, but soon the Phantoms curse takes its effect, backstage, causing the great crystal chandelier to fall down onto the audience. Christine runs to her dressing room and is entranced by a mysterious voice through a secret door behind the mirror, descending, in a dream-like sequence, semi-conscious on horseback by a winding staircase into the lower depths of the Opera. She is then taken by gondola over a subterranean lake by the masked Phantom into his lair. The Phantom introduces himself as Erik and declares his love; Christine faints, so Erik carries her to a suite fabricated for her comfort. The next day, when she awakens, she finds a note from Erik telling her that she is free to come and go as she pleases, but that she must never look behind his mask. In the next room, the Phantom is playing his composition, Don Juan Triumphant. Christines curiosity gets the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Target localization accuracy in a respiratory phantom using BrainLab ExacTrac and 4DCT imaging. AU - Matney, Jason E.. AU - Parker, Brent C.. AU - Neck, Daniel W.. AU - Henkelmann, Greg. AU - Rosen, Isaac I.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - This study evaluated the accuracy of measuring the motion of an internal target using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scanning and the BrainLAB ExacTrac X-ray imaging system. Displacements of a metal coil implanted in a commercial respiratory phantom were measured in each system and compared to the known motion. A commercial respiratory motion phantom containing a metal coil as a surrogate target was used. Phantom longitudinal motions were sinusoidal with a 4.0 second period and amplitudes ranging from 5-25 mm. We acquired 4DCT and ExacTrac images of the coil at specified respiratory phases and recorded the coordinates of the coil ends. Coil displacement relative to the 0% phase (full-inhale) position were computed for the ExacTrac and ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of strategies to reduce radiation dose in perfusion ct imaging using a reproducible biologic phantom. AU - Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan C.. AU - Thompson, Scott M.. AU - Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy. AU - Knudsen, Bruce E.. AU - Woodrum, David A.. AU - Callstrom, Matthew R.. AU - McCollough, Cynthia H.. PY - 2013/6/1. Y1 - 2013/6/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to evaluate radiation dose reduction strategies in perfusion CT by using a biologic phantom. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A formalin-preserved porcine liver was submerged in a 32-cm-wide acrylic phantom filled with water. The portal vein was connected to a continuous flow pump. The phantom was scanned with a perfusion CT protocol using 80 kVp and 400 mAs, every 1 second, for 50 seconds. This was repeated using 100 and 20 mAs. It was also repeated again using 400 mAs to assess reproducibility. A sparser scan frequency was simulated retrospectively. Blood flow was determined for each dataset using the maximum slope ...
SEA WATER PHANTOM 500. The new PHANTOM 500, with its 15 m in length, represents SEA WATERs new flagship and a new landmark for our shipyard in terms of design and technology. The most recent addition to our range and now SEA WATERs leading RIB, the PHANTOM 500 can be supplied in an open configuration, with an enormous sun-pad and an array of spacious lockers for use as a day cruiser, tender or chase boat or with a spacious bow cabin and a custom maxi T-Top for comfortable cruising. The PHANTOM 500 can house either twin inboard diesel engines with sterndrives or other propulsion drives or triple and even quadruple outboard engines and together with one of the new Joystick piloting packages, available both with inboard or outboard engine configurations and/or a bow thruster, manoeuvrability and ease-of-use become unmatched.. Deck layout has once again been designed according to our SEA WATER philosophy: a simple and functional layout, where everything is in the right place and where beauty means ...
Disclosed herein is a spine phantom for calibrating a dual energy x-ray attenuation measurement device for measuring vertebral bone density. Simplified construction of the phantom is made possible by equating the density variations in the three dimensionally complex and inhomogeneous spine as a set of easily machined flat surfaces of different thicknesses. In particular, the spine phantom includes a vertebra-simulating body having a base surface perpendicular to the x-ray beam of the measurement device and defining an intervertebral section, a composite bone section and cortical wall sections. These sections each extend to planes of different heights from the base surface, so as to simulate cartilage, cortical and tabecular bone, and cortical bone wall regions of a human spine, respectively. The spine phantom of the present invention can include multiple vertebra-simulating bodies simulating a range of vertebra types and densities. Moreover, the vertebra-simulating bodies may be embedded in an acrylic
The Anthropomorphic Torso Phantom is used for the evaluation of non-uniform attenuation and scatter compensation methods. The phantom consists of a large, body-shaped cylinder with lung, liver and spine inserts. The phantom simulates the anatomical structures of radioactivity distributions for the upper torso of average to large male/female patients. Lung inserts can be filled with Styrofoam® beads and water to simulate lung tissue density ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estimation of Phantom Arm Mechanics About Four Degrees of Freedom After Targeted Muscle Reinnervation. AU - Sartori, Massimo. AU - Van De Riet, Justin. AU - Farina, Dario. PY - 2019/1/28. Y1 - 2019/1/28. N2 - The intuitive control of bionic arms requires estimation of amputees phantom arm movements from residual muscle bio-electric signals. The functional use of myoelectric arms relies on the ability of controlling large sets of degrees of freedom (,3 DOFs) spanning elbow, forearm, and wrist joints. This would assure optimal hand orientation in any environment. As part of this paper we recorded high-density electromyograms with ,190 electrodes from the residual stump of a trans-humeral amputee who underwent targeted muscle reinnervation. We employed clustering to determine eight spatially separated sub-sets of channels sampling electromyograms associated to the actuation of four phantom arm DOFs. We created a large-scale musculoskeletal model of the phantom arm encompassing 33 ...
A couple of the more popular posts in recent months here on Photography Bay deal with reports and concerns about DJI Phantom users and their experience with flyaways. By flyaway, we are talking about when the user loses control of the DJI Phantom quadcopter and it is most often lost or heavily damaged as it heads off into an unanticipated direction.. Obviously, flyaways are a concern for DJI Phantom users, and to read the comment threads below Photography Bays articles or in our forum threads, you would think we have reached an epidemic status. The actual numbers of flyaways are unknown; however, I would speculate that we are still dealing with a small percentage of users. There are many users who have been using the product for years without a single flyaway.. That said, when a flyaway occurs, it is a significant loss to most users when you consider the cost of the equipment often exceeds $1000 for the DJI Phantom and the oft-equipped GoPro camera. And then, of course, there is the danger to ...
A couple of the more popular posts in recent months here on Photography Bay deal with reports and concerns about DJI Phantom users and their experience with flyaways. By flyaway, we are talking about when the user loses control of the DJI Phantom quadcopter and it is most often lost or heavily damaged as it heads off into an unanticipated direction.. Obviously, flyaways are a concern for DJI Phantom users, and to read the comment threads below Photography Bays articles or in our forum threads, you would think we have reached an epidemic status. The actual numbers of flyaways are unknown; however, I would speculate that we are still dealing with a small percentage of users. There are many users who have been using the product for years without a single flyaway.. That said, when a flyaway occurs, it is a significant loss to most users when you consider the cost of the equipment often exceeds $1000 for the DJI Phantom and the oft-equipped GoPro camera. And then, of course, there is the danger to ...
2018 IEEE. A simulation study was conducted to estimate the scatter fraction (SF) and to determine the most suitable line source radial offset displacement required to measure the SF for the total body long axial field-of-view (LAFOV) PET scanner by simulating different cylindrical and anthropomorphic digital phantoms. Simulations are conducted using a scanner model together with scatter phantoms adapted from the NEMA NU-2 2007 scatter phantom design, modified to suit the dimensions of the respective scanners, with line sources of various activities placed at a 45 mm radial offset. SF estimates obtained using the NEMA protocol are compared to values obtained with uniformly filled water phantom of the same length. A whole-body study is conducted using a set of 12 anthropomorphic phantoms with different BMIs, with different organs and anatomical structures filled with realistic concentrations of 18F-FDG. The SF obtained at 45 mm radial offset using 1 kBq/ml with the 200 cm (LAFOV scanner) and 70 ...
We seek to characterize the sampling conditions for iterative image reconstruction exploiting gradient-magnitude sparsity. We seek the number of views necessary for accurate image reconstruction by constrained, total variation (TV) minimization, which is the optimization problem suggested in the compressive sensing (CS) community for this type of sparsity. The preliminary finding here, based on simulations using images of realistic sparsity levels, is that necessary sampling can go as low as N/4 views for an NxN pixel array. This work sets the stage for fixed-exposure studies where the number of projections is balanced against the X-ray intensity per projection ...
Objective(s): Considering the fact that the standardized uptake value (SUV) of a normal lung tissue is expressed as x±SD, x+3×SD could be considered as the threshold value to outline the internal tumor volume (ITV) of a lung neoplasm. Methods: Three hollow models were filled with 55.0 kBq/mL fluorine18- fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) to represent tumors. The models were fixed to a barrel filled with 5.9 kBq/mL 18F-FDG to characterize normal lung tissues as a phantom. The PET/CT images of the phantom were acquired at rest. Then, the barrel was moved periodically to simulate breathing while acquiring PET/CT data. Volume recovery coefficient (VRC) was applied to evaluate the accuracy of ITVs. For statistical analysis, paired t-test and analysis of variance were applied. Results: The VRCs ranged from 0.74 to 0.98 and significantly varied among gross tumor volumes for delineating ITV (P|0.01). In two-dimensional PET scans, the motion distance did not affect VRC (P|0.05), whereas VRC decreased with increasing
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effects of attenuation correction and reconstruction techniques on the detection of hypoperfused lesions in brain SPECT imaging. METHODS: A software phantom was constructed using the data available on the BrainWeb database by assigning activity values to grey and white matter. The true attenuation map was generated by assigning attenuation coefficients to six different tissue classes to create a non-uniform attenuation map. The uniform attenuation map was calculated using an attenuation coefficient of 0.15 cm. Hypoperfused lesions of varying intensities and sizes were added. The phantom was then projected as typical SPECT projection data, taking into account attenuation and collimator blurring with the addition of Poisson noise. The projection data were reconstructed using four different methods: filtered back-projection in combination with Changs first-order attenuation correction using the uniform or the true attenuation map and maximum likelihood iterative ...
Purpose: 4D CT is routinely performed during radiation therapy treatment planning of thoracic and abdominal cancers. Compared with the cine mode, the helical mode is advantageous in temporal resolution. However, a low pitch (∼0.1) for 4D CT imaging is often required instead of the standard pitch (∼1) for static imaging, since standard image reconstruction based on analytic method requires the low-pitch scanning in order to satisfy the data sufficient condition when reconstructing each temporal frame individually. In comparison, the flexible iterative method enables the reconstruction of all temporal frames simultaneously, so that the image similarity among frames can be utilized to possibly perform high-pitch and sparse-view helical 4D CT imaging. The purpose of this work is to investigate such an exciting possibility for faster imaging with lower dose. Methods: A key for highpitch and sparse-view helical 4D CT imaging is the simultaneous reconstruction of all temporal frames using the prior ...
In this work, the resistive dipole antenna is designed for sensing the effective dielectric constants of the skull defect as part of the healing stages for craniosynostosis. The performance of the fabricated resistive dipole antenna is analyzed by comparing to the conventional dipole antenna in terms of both frequency and time domain. The measurement result is shown that the amplitude of the reflected pulse is increased as the thickness of the powder is increased.. ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Efforts to establish MRA as clinically practical are hampered by lack of realistic beating heart flow phantom. We propose to develop an enhanced Coronary Artery Disease (eCAD) phantom for use by MR researchers, developers and medical equipment manufacturers, eCAD combines advanced features from previously introduced technology with innovative design, materials and processing to create a controlled environment which reproduces clinical conditions. This will be accomplished by: 1) developing functional cardiac structures based on clinical data, 2) combining structures with advanced materials, processing and modular infrastructure to reproduce cardiac functionality, 3) verifying eCAD is anatomically accurate with proper flow patterns and motion under pulsatile flow conditions and 4) demonstrating prototype reproducibility, stability and commercial potential during extended evaluations in academic and industrial environments. Design optimization and manufacturing ...
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the accuracy of bone mineral density (BMD) quantification using dual-layer spectral detector CT (SDCT) at various scan protocols. METHODS: Two validated anthropomorphic phantoms containing inserts of 50-200 mg/cm(3) calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) were scanned using a 64-slice SDCT scanner at various acquisition protocols (120 and 140 kVp, and ... read more 50, 100 and 200 mAs). Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in each insert and mean attenuation profiles at monochromatic energy levels (90-200 keV) were constructed. These profiles were fitted to attenuation profiles of pure HA and water to calculate HA concentrations. For comparison, one phantom was scanned using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). RESULTS: At both 120 and 140 kVp, excellent correlations (R = 0.97, P , 0.001) were found between true and measured HA concentrations. Mean error for all measurements at 120 kVp was -5.6 ± 5.7 mg/cm(3) (-3.6 ± 3.2%) and at 140 kVp -2.4 ± 3.7 mg/cm(3) (-0.8 ± 2.8%). ...
True Real-Time Cardiac MRI with Radial K-Space Sampling in Free Breathing without ECG-synchronization-Improved Image Quality with Iterative Image Reconstruction, SSC02-07, 12026589, Ralf Bauer,
SPEAG has released a novel generic forearm phantom. The SHO-GFPC-V1 phantom was jointly developed with CTIA. It was extensively tested in a round-robin. It can be used for the evaluation of wrist-worn transmitters. The same phantom is also available for specific absorption rate (SAR) testing.
Abstract--To test the feasibility of using 1.1MHz focused ultrasound to increase the diffusion of drug through neurological tissue, tissue mimicking agar phantoms and a water soluble dye mimicking drug were exposed to 1.1MHz ultrasonic sound fields for 1 to 4 minutes in duration. Histology was then performed on the phantoms to assess the effect of ultrasound on the perfusion of drug. Mathematical analysis was used to quantify the extent of perfusion of dye and parametrically fit the experimental data to the theoretical diffusion equation. Results show a substantial increase in drug perfusion and not diffusion like behavior for the sonicated phantoms.
On October 6, Panavision Alga France organized its traditional open house in Aubervilliers (93), where they asked Binocle to establish an innovative 3D workshop. With a theme of shooting high-speed stereoscopic footage using the Vision Research Phantom Flex camera, it was a very successful operation.. Installed in one of the studios of Panavision Alga France, located in the outskirts of Paris, the Binocle team spent the open house day engaged in demonstrations of high-speed stereoscopic shooting. Panavision Alga made available two Phantom Flex cameras in order to assess the viability and performance for this type of usage. Both cameras were equipped with optical Master premium Zeiss 25 mm and were mounted on a Binocle Brigger III stereoscopic rig. The resulting two video streams were managed by Binocles visualization software Disparity Tagger, and were fed to two 46 inch TV screens. An Astro 3D tilt complemented everything.. Vision Researchs in-house software for Phantom on the PC was then ...
We are an official distributor of Data Spectrum Phantoms. Data Spectrum is the worlds leading supplier of high-quality SPECT phantoms and offers a wide range of inserts for the effective evaluation of multiple performance characteristics of any ECT camera. Whether it is a SPECT or positron system, Data Spectrum phantoms and related accessories provide medical imaging investigators with the ability to test imaging equipment and validate that the medical imaging is done correctly and accurately. With a wide range of uses, these products can assist with:. ...
Gamma-Ray Interactions with Matter 29 a much lower fraction of incident gamma radiation than does a similar thickness of aluminum or steel. The attenuation coefficient in Equation is called the linear attenuation coefficient. Figure shows the linear attenuation of solid sodium iodide, a common material used in gamma-ray Size: KB.
Building upon the original Phantom fanless PSU, Phantom 500 uses hybrid fan technology that allows PC users to balance high-power performance with quiet computing. The 500 Watt power supply operates completely silently and fanlessly until its internal temperature reaches a pre-determined user-selected value. At that point, the fan turns on to maintain adequate cooling for higher loads. Users are able to select the temperature at which the fan turns on to fit individual computing needs. Phantom 500 is also equipped with specially designed internal heatsinks and a chassis heatsink for maximum heat dissipation ...
Ive been using my BG4.1 with batteries as an unbalanced mic (XLR to 1/4 mono cable). I have a new mixer that accepts XLR balanced mics and also has 48 volt phantom supply. How do I use this mic in this configuration: (1) Do I remove the internal battery to utilize the phantom supply? (2) If I dont use the phantom supply and continue to use battery instead, does the mic still produce a balanced signal? (3) Ive seen mic cables advertised that are 2 conductor but have XLR on both ends - how do these carry balanced signals (I thought you needed 3 conductors). How do I identify proper cables?|br/| |br/| Thanks.
Summon Phantom Satchel (8 slot, giant, wt 0.1, wr 0%), WAR/CLR/PAL/SHD/BRD, ALL but IKS, Phantom Plate Helm (AC 10, wt 7.5), Phantom Breastplate (AC 17, wt 12.5), Phantom Plate Vambraces (AC 8, wt 8.1), 2 Phantom Plate Bracers (AC 7, wt 5.0), Phantom Plate Gauntlets (AC 9, wt 6.2), Phantom Plate Greaves (AC 10, wt 9.4), Phantom Plate Boots (AC 8, wt 8.1) ...
Veröffentlichung: 13.10.2017. Stil: Melodicrock, Hardrock. Label: Frontiers Records. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Pfivemusic. PHANTOM 5, die eigentlich unter dem Namen SUPREMACY gegründet wurden, änderten ihren Bandnamen in PHANTOM 5 bevor sie ihr Debutalbum veröffentlichten. Mit ihrem selbstbetiteltem Debut ernteten sie Lob von Fans und der Fachpresse und nun veröffentlicht die Band um den Mastermind Michale Voss ihr zweites Album „Play To Win. PHANTOM 5 die sich neben Michael Voss noch aus Sänger Claus Lessmann, Gitarrist Robert Boebel und Schlagzeuger Axel Kruse zusammensetzt, versuchen nun mit ihrem 11 Songs umfassenden Albums „Play To Win das Debut zu übertreffen. Mal sehen ob ihnen das gelungen ist.. Schon beim ersten Song „The Change In You bemerkt man das man sich am Mikro keinen besseren hätte wählen können als Claus Lessmann. Toller rockiger Song der den Reigen von 11 neuen Stücken beginnt. Der Hardrocker „Crossfire klingt am Anfang sehr düster, aber das ...
The Fairline Phantom 40 is a very popular flybridge cruiser, held in high regard by boat owners and the industry alike. This boat combines the practicality required for serious, long-distance cruising with the spaciousness and comfort to accommodate four people with an exclusive blend of privacy and sociability. The Phantom 40 is a boat that should feature on the wish list of anyone looking for a second-hand family-friendly flybridge cruiser.. Who and what is the boat designed for ...
In order to extract quantitative parameters from PET images, several physical effects such as photon attenuation, scatter, and partial volume must be taken into account. The main objectives of this work were the evaluation of photon attenuation in small animals and the implementation of two attenuation correction methods based on X-rays CT and segmentation of emission images. The accuracy of the first method with respect to the beam hardening effect was investigated by using Monte Carlo simulations. Mouse- and rat-sized phantoms were acquired in order to evaluate attenuation correction in terms of counts increment and recovery of uniform activity concentration. Both methods were applied to mice and rat images acquired with several radiotracers such as|svg style=vertical-align:-0.0pt;width:21.1625px; id=M1 height=15.8375 version=1.1 viewBox=0 0 21.1625 15.8375 width=21.1625 xmlns:xlink=http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink xmlns=http://www.w3.org/2000/svg||g transform=matrix(.012,-0,0,-.012,.062
Introduction In clinical practice AP pelvis standard protocols are suitable for average size patients. However, as the average body size has increased over the past decades, radiographers have had to improve their practice in order to ensure that adequate image quality with minimal radiation dose to the patient is achieved. Gonad shielding has been found to be an effective way to reduce the radiation dose to the ovaries. However, the effect of increased body size, or fat thickness, in combination with gonad shielding is unclear. The goal of the study was to investigate the impact of gonad shielding in a phantom of adult female stature with increasing fat thicknesses on SNR (as a measure for image quality) and dose for AP pelvis examination. Methods An adult Alderson female pelvis phantom was imaged with a variety of fat thickness categories as a representation of increasing BMI. 72 images were acquired using both AEC and manual exposure with and without gonad shielding. The radiation dose to the ...
Compressive Sensing (CS) theory has great potential for reconstructing Computed Tomography (CT) images from sparse-views projection data and Total Variation- (TV-) based CT reconstruction method is very popular. However, it does not directly incorporate prior images into the reconstruction. To improve the quality of reconstructed images, this paper proposed an improved TV minimization method using prior images and Split-Bregman method in CT reconstruction, which uses prior images to obtain valuable previous information and promote the subsequent imaging process. The images obtained asynchronously were registered via Locally Linear Embedding (LLE). To validate the method, two studies were performed. Numerical simulation using an abdomen phantom has been used to demonstrate that the proposed method enables accurate reconstruction of image objects under sparse projection data. A real dataset was used to further validate the method.
TY - JOUR. T1 - 3D-printed breast phantom for multi-purpose and multi-modality imaging. AU - He, Yaoyao. AU - Liu, Yulin. AU - Dyer, Brandon A.. AU - Boone, John M. AU - Liu, Shanshan. AU - Chen, Tiao. AU - Zheng, Fenglian. AU - Zhu, Ye. AU - Sun, Yong. AU - Rong, Yi. AU - Qiu, Jianfeng. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Background: Breast imaging technology plays an important role in breast cancer planning and treatment. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has become a trending issue in phantom constructions for medical applications, with its advantages of being customizable and cost-efficient. However, there is no current practice in the field of multi-purpose breast phantom for quality control (QC) in multi-modalities imaging. The purpose of this study was to fabricate a multi-purpose breast phantom with tissue-equivalent materials via a 3D printing technique for QC in multi-modalities imaging. Methods: We used polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based materials and a 3D printing ...
Supernumerary phantom limb is a condition where the affected individual believes and receives sensory information from limbs of the body that do not actually exist, and never have existed, in contradistinction to phantom limbs, which appear after an individual has had a limb removed from the body and still receives input from it. An fMRI study of a subject with a supernumerary phantom left arm was done by Khateb et al. at the Laboratory of Experimental Neuropsychology at the University of Geneva. When the subject was told to touch her right cheek with the phantom limb, there was increased activity in the motor cortex of her brain in the area roughly corresponding to the left arm. When she announced that she had touched the phantom limb to her cheek, activity was monitored in the area of the somatosensory cortex that corresponded to the right cheek. At times during the experiment, the subject was asked to move the phantom limb to a location that was obstructed or otherwise unfeasible. In these ...
The 1943 adaptation of the Phantom of the Opera is ok and thats unfortunately the best I can say for the movie, I really enjoyed the cast they were campy and fun, the movie used comedy in a way that it didnt ruin the dark romantic atmosphere of the movie, Claude Rains did a fantastic job at playing the Phantom and the sets were all extremely memorable, the film was even filmed in Technicolour but even with all this going for it something was missing and that was the the monster movie I was promised, this is not a monster movie and Im not even sure if I could class it as a horror, the Phantom of the Opera is more of a romantic drama with a dark coat of paint, even twilight has a vampires and werewolves but would you cast that a horror? At least Twilight had monsters which is something I cant say about this so why on earth was it included in a classic monster collection? To most its the Phantom of the Opera but to me its more like the Phantom of the Mediocre.. The Bluray for Phantom of the ...
Traditional image reconstruction methods in rapid dynamic diffuse optical tomography employ l(2)-norm-based regularization, which is known to remove the high-frequency components in the reconstructed images and make them appear smooth. The contrast recovery in these type of methods is typically dependent on the iterative nature of method employed, where the nonlinear iterative technique is known to perform better in comparison to linear techniques (noniterative) with a caveat that nonlinear techniques are computationally complex. Assuming that there is a linear dependency of solution between successive frames resulted in a linear inverse problem. This new framework with the combination of l(1)-norm based regularization can provide better robustness to noise and provide better contrast recovery compared to conventional l(2)-based techniques. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed l(1)-based technique is computationally efficient compared to its counterpart (l(2)-based one). The proposed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validation of practical diffusion approximation for virtual near infrared spectroscopy using a digital head phantom. AU - Oki, Yosuke. AU - Kawaguchi, Hiroshi. AU - Okada, Eiji. PY - 2009/3/1. Y1 - 2009/3/1. N2 - Light propagation in the digital head phantom for virtual near infrared spectroscopy and imaging is calculated by diffusion theory. In theory, diffusion approximation is not valid in a low-scattering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer around the brain. The optical path length and spatial sensitivity profile predicted by the finite element method based upon the diffusion theory are compared with those predicted by the Monte Carlo method to validate a practical implementation of diffusion approximation to light propagation in an adult head. The transport scattering coefficient of the CSF layer is varied from 0.01 to 1.0 mm-1 to evaluate the influence of that layer on the error caused by diffusion approximation. The error is practically ignored and the geometry of the brain ...
OBJECTIVE: Cranial sutures and fontanelles can be reliably demonstrated using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound with rendering. Our objective was to assess the repeatability and validity of fontanelle surface area measurement on rendered 3D images. METHODS: This was an in-vitro phantom validation study. Four holes, representing fontanelles, were cut on a flat vinyl tile. The phantom was scanned in a test-tank by two sonographers, at four different depths and using two different 3D sweep directions. The surface areas were measured on scan images and also directly from the phantom for comparison. Coefficients of variation (CVs), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots were used for repeatability analysis. Validity was expressed as the percentage difference of the measured area from the true surface area. RESULTS: Validity of measurement was satisfactory with a mean percentage difference of - 5.9% (median = - 3.5%). The 95% limits of agreement were - 23.9 to 12.1%, suggesting that
We describe a phantom which enables EEG and near-infrared optical tomography to be performed simultaneously over the same volume. The phantom provides a surface electrical contact impedance comparable to that of the human scalp, whilst also possessing an optical scattering coefficient and electrical conductivity equivalent to that of brain tissue. The construction of the phantom is described, as is the resulting simultaneous EEG and near infrared optical tomography experiment, which, to our knowledge, is the first performed on a scale comparable to that of the infant human brain. This imaging experiment successfully shows the suitability of this phantom construction for the assessment of simultaneous EEG and near infrared optical tomography systems.. ©2010 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
The Phantom of the Opera by Gaston Leroux. A disfigured man, known as the Phantom who loves to strike fear in the minds of the Paris Opera House staff, comes to a young singer, Christine Daae, and tutors her voice. He falls in love with Christine and wants her for his own, but she only has eyes for Raoul Viscount de Chagny. The Phantom, feeling betrayed, kidnaps Christine and brings her to his lair where he plans to make her his eternal bride ...
A method for simulating an anthropomorphic phantom and radioisotope distribution using a Monte Carlo based code is presented. A voxel-based simulation of a Jaszczak phantom was performed and the results compared to both a previously validated geometric-based simulation and experimental data. The method was then extended to create a voxel-based simulation of an anthropomorphic phantom which was validated using an equivalent data set. Good agreement is observed between the voxel-based and geometric-based Jaszczak phantom simulations, but it is noted that for complete agreement, it is crucial that the source distribution is fully aligned to the phantom geometry. With regards to the anthropomorphic phantom simulation, an excellent agreement is observed, which suggests that the activity distribution has been accurately aligned with the phantom. The method proposed can be extended to any arbitrary geometry, with the condition that the activity distribution has been accurately aligned to the phantom geometry.
Early in production, the radar was upgraded to the Westinghouse AN/APQ-72, an AN/APG-50 with a larger radar antenna, necessitating the bulbous nose, and the canopy was reworked to improve visibility and make the rear cockpit less claustrophobic.[21] During its career the Phantom underwent many changes in the form of numerous variants developed. The USAF received Phantoms as the result of Defense Secretary Robert McNamaras push to create a unified fighter for all branches of the military. After an F-4B won the Operation Highspeed fly-off against the Convair F-106 Delta Dart, the USAF borrowed two Naval F-4Bs, temporarily designating them F-110A Spectre in January 1962, and developed requirements for their own version. Unlike the navys focus on interception, the USAF emphasized a fighter-bomber role. With McNamaras unification of designations on 18 September 1962, the Phantom became the F-4 with the naval version designated F-4B and USAF F-4C. The first Air Force Phantom flew on 27 May ...
Comparison of metal artifact in digital tomosynthesis and computed tomography for evaluation of phantoms. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Image quality in digital chest PA and pelvis AP was assessed using two different methods; one based on observations of images of an anthropomorphic phantom, one based on computer modelling using an anthropomorphic voxel phantom. The tube voltage was varied within a broad range (50-150 kV), including those values typically used with screen-film radiography. The tube charge was altered so that approximately the same effective dose was achieved in the modelled patient (anthropomorphic phantom). Two x-ray units were employed using a digital image detector (computed radiography, CR, system) with standard tube filtration and anti-scatter device. Clinical image quality was assessed by a group of radiologists using a visual grading analysis (VGA) technique based on the revised CEC image criteria. Physical image quality was derived from the computer model in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, SNR for fixed effective dose in the voxel phantom. The computer model uses Monte Carlo simulations of the ...
Background: Periodic quality control (QC) procedures are important in order to guarantee the image quality of radiological equipment and are also conducted using phantoms simulating human body. Objective: To perform (QC) measurements in intraoral imaging devices, a new and simple phantom was manufactured. Besides, to simplify QC procedures, computerized LabView-based software has been devised, enabling determination of image quantitative parameters in real time or during post processing.Material and Methods: In this experimental study, the novel developed phantom consists of a Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) circular insert. It is able to perform a complete QC image program of X-ray intraoral equipment and also causes the evaluation of image uniformity, high and low contrast spatial resolution, image linearity and artefacts, with only two exposures. Results: Three raters analyzed the images using the LabView dedicated software and determined the quantitative and qualitative parameters in an innovative
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women. T2 - An experimental approach. AU - Dong, Shang Lung. AU - Chu, Tieh Chi. AU - Lin, Yung Chien. AU - Lan, Gong Yau. AU - Yeh, Yu Hsiu. AU - Chen, Sharon. AU - Chuang, Keh Shih. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using ...
Purpose: 123I-labelled radioligands are commonly used for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the dopaminergic system to study the dopamine transporter binding. The aim of this work was to compare the quantitative capabilities of two different SPECT systems through Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Methods: The SimSET MC code was employed to generate simulated projections of a numerical phantom for two gamma cameras equipped with a parallel and a fan-beam collimator, respectively. A fully 3D iterative reconstruction algorithm was used to compensate for attenuation, the spatially variant point spread function (PSF) and scatter. A post-reconstruction partial volume effect (PVE) compensation was also developed. Results: For both systems, the correction for all degradations and PVE compensation resulted in recovery factors of the theoretical specific uptake ratio (SUR) close to 100%. For a SUR value of 4, the recovered SUR for the parallel imaging system was 33% for a ...
Chapter V- The Test. There was a slight pause in the beating of whatever organ was lodged in his ribcage at the surprise his companion was giving him. He uncharacteristically fumbled over the latches in gross desire.. The ability to rival Danny Phantom? It was if the gods had granted asylum on his very soul.. Well, if he actually had one.. Clockwork raised an amused eyebrow as he flipped the case top eagerly and stared.. What the fuck is that? Phantom pointed at a small, round jewel and found it utterly unimpressive.. His companion stare did not waver. My way of trusting you in your test.. Seriously, did Clockwork have to put such an insignificant trinket in such a threatening looking case?. Phantom picked it up for closer inspection. It was the size of a marble. You know-shit!. The marble began to go from indifferent to lightning hot in two seconds and he wouldve thrown it had it not developed an adhesive to his palm. It stuck like glue to his skin as he waved his arm in pain.. Get ...
Central nervous system changes in cortical regions are often considered to be the main underlying mechanism of phantom limb pain1,2. Phantom limb pain has been connected to changes in many regions of the brain, including the anterior cingulate cortex, brainstem, thalamus and, most importantly, the primary somatosensory cortex and the primary motor cortex2,11,15. Often these cortical changes are associated with cortical reorganization in the brain15. The cortical reorganization may be a result of axonal sprouting11. Axonal sprouting is thought to be caused by increased excitability, which is a result of increased presence of excitatory neurotransmitter2,11. Increased excitability in various cortical regions can lead to the experience of phantom limb pain11. It has also been suggested that inhibitory fibers are lost due to amputation and this loss may cause cortical reorganization in areas where c-fibers usually have an inhibitory effect11. Cortical reorganization is often observed in areas that ...
A case of supernumerary phantom limb is described after a haematoma within the right basal ganglia. The phantom, which persisted for many months, occurred in the context of severe left hemiplegia, sensory loss, hemianopia, and neglect. The subjective reality of this third arm caused the patient considerable distress, which was not ameliorated by his attempts to rationalise its existence. Although deeply confused by the phantom, the patient was otherwise fully oriented, with a high verbal IQ, and normal cognition. Two distinct formal interpretations of the phenomenon are discussed.. ...
Blue Phantom lumbar puncture and lumbar epidural ultra-durable replacement tissue. For use with Blue Phantom spinal epidural and lumbar puncture training models.
Phantom Limb Label music on CD, MP3 and Vinyl available at Juno Records. Listen to Phantom Limb now using our online music player. Phantom Limb
Comparison of the Breast Dose based on the Existence of the Bismuth Breast Protection Shield for Automatic Exposure Control and Manual Exposure Control with the Coronary Artery CT Angiography - coronary artery CT angiography;bismuth breast shield;MEC;AEC;breast dose;
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Dynamic phantom with two stage-driven absorbers for mimicking hemoglobin changes in superficial and deep tissues. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Abstract: Current computed tomography (CT) scanners, including micro-CT scanners, utilize a point x-ray source. As we target higher and higher spatial resolutions, the reduced x-ray focal spot size limits the temporal and contrast resolutions achievable. To overcome this limitation, in this paper we propose to use a line-shaped x-ray source so that many more photons can be generated, given a data acquisition interval. In reference to the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) algorithm for image reconstruction from projection data generated by an x-ray point source, here we develop a generalized SART algorithm for image reconstruction from projection data generated by an x-ray line source. Our numerical simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of our novel line-source-based x-ray CT approach and the proposed generalized SART algorithm.
We aimed at reviewing design and realisation of perfusion/flow phantoms for validating quantitative perfusion imaging (PI) applications to encourage best practices. A systematic search was performed on the Scopus database for
0021] In the manufacture of shield 10, such foam layer 14 is provided as having a first surface, referenced in phantom at 16 in FIG. 1, and a second surface, 18, which together define a thickness dimension, referenced at T1, therebetween. As sized to form the shield 10, layer 14 further has interior portion, which is the area bounded in phantom at 20, surrounded by a perimeter portion, referenced at 22. With layer 14 being so provided, interior portion of 20 thereof may be hot-pressed against or by a heated tool, or otherwise compression molded or thermoformed, through the thickness dimension T1 to form a top wall portion, 30, of shield 10 having a compressed thickness referenced at T2. With the perimeter portion 22 of layer 14 remaining uncompressed, the thickness dimension T1 thereof thus extends downwardly from the top wall portion 30 to form a side wall portion, 32, of shield 10 which together with top wall portion 30 defines the compartment 14 as having a depth referenced at d. As shown, ...
An AlN film as an underlayer is epitaxially grown on a substrate having a dislocation density of 1011/cm2 or below and a crystallinity of 90 seconds or below in full width at half maximum (FWHM) of an X-ray rocking curve at (002) reflection. Then, on the AlN film an n-GaN film is epitaxially grown as a conductive layer having a dislocation density of 1010/cm2 or below and a crystallinity of 150 seconds or below in full width at half maximum (FWHM) of an X-ray rocking curve at (002) reflection, to fabricate a semiconductor element.
To overcome the limitations of the classical volume scoring method for quantifying coronary calcifications, including accuracy, variability between examinations, and dependency on plaque density and acquisition parameters, a mesh-based volume measurement method has been developed. It was evaluated and compared with the classical volume scoring method for accuracy, i.e., the normalized volume (measured volume/ground-truthed volume), and for variability between examinations (standard deviation of accuracy). A cardiac computed-tomography (CT) phantom containing various cylindrical calcifications was scanned using different tube voltages and reconstruction kernels, at various positions and orientations on the CT table and using different slice thicknesses. Mean accuracy for all plaques was significantly higher (p , 0.0001) for the proposed method (1.220 +/- 0.507) than for the classical volume score (1.896 +/- 1.095). In contrast to the classical volume score, plaque density (p = 0.84), ...
Abstract: : Purpose:To evaluate the test-retest reproducibility of ATL HDI-5000 CDI measurements of volumetric blood flowas compared to an in-vitro phantom flow model. Methods:A phantom flow model was constructed using agarose gel to mimic fatty soft tissue. 1.57mm and 2.36mm lumens were created in the gel. A UHDC flow system pumped blood mimicking fluid through each tube at three different rates. The ATL HDI-5000 measured the velocity and volumetric flow in the phantom model using cineloops (a cineloop is a rapidly acquired sequence of CDI images). A newly developed software package from ATL calculated both volumetric flow and velocity from the cineloops. Measurements were performed with the probe in four different positions: 1) 45° angle, parallel to the flow, 2) 45° angle, offset to the flow, 3) 75° angle, parallel to the flow, and 4) 75° angle, offset to the flow. The coefficient of variance was then calculated for each of the probe positions. Results:The average coefficients of ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Hemorrhages detection in atherosclerotic plaques using ultrasound and photoacoustic, phantom study. AU - Gouteux, L.K.L.. AU - Arabul, M.Ü.. AU - Rutten, M.C.M.. AU - Van De Vosse, F.N.. AU - Lopata, R.G.P.. PY - 2017/10/31. Y1 - 2017/10/31. N2 - Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid artery is one of the main causes of stroke and stroke-induced death. Currently, to prevent this risk, endarterectomy is performed based on the stenosis grade assessed with Duplex ultrasound (US). However, plaque composition, e.g. presence of lipids and hemorrhages, is a more important factor of rupture risk than stenosis. The optical absorption of hemorrhages (composed of coagulated, deoxygenated blood) is different from that of oxygenated blood and allows their distinction using different wavelengths. In this study, photoacoustic (PA) imaging is used to detect intraplaque hemorrhages using contrast in optical absorption in combination with the resolution of US.. AB - Rupture of an ...
A few additional notes concerning adverse effects of eddy currents. . . .. Multiple eddy currents with different time constants always coexist. The most rapid eddy currents (with time constants on the order of a few hundred micro(μ)-seconds) are present in the RF coil and shield. These are responsible for the Nyquist N/2 artifact described above. Intermediate term eddy currents (on the order 1-100 milliseconds) typically originate in the walls of the cryostat or outer radiation shields and produce shading artifacts on fast (turbo) spin echo or gradient echo images. Eddy currents with long time constants (hundreds of milliseconds) often derive from the inner cryogen shields and produce frequency drifts in the main field. This may be manifest on images as insufficient fat or water suppression.. Eddy currents are particularly problematic in localized spectroscopy, where they cause broadened resonances and distorted line shapes, especially in short TE experiments. At times they may completely ...
Nondestructive, three-dimensional (3-D) element-concentration mapping was performed and high spatial resolution and quantitative applicability were demonstrated. X-ray computed tomography using synchrotron radiation developed at SPring-8 (SP-μCT) enabled us to acquire high-resolution tomographic images with X-ray energies just above and below the absorption edge of an element. Concentration of the element could be calculated from the difference of these images with a correction using standard material. A 3-D Cs concentration map of a partially molten granite was obtained by this technique and compared with a 2-D element map produced by an electron-probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA), with respect to spatial and compositional resolution. A spatial resolution of about 20 μm was achieved by SP-μCT. The compositional resolution of ±2.5 wt% was achieved using the following two calibration processes of linear attenuation coefficients (LAC): (1) calibration based on the empirical relationship between ...
The Phantom® v611 is the unique follow up to our v12.1 camera. With an improved body style, a lighter weight, and additional on-camera controls, i
Acquired data in tomographic imaging systems are subject to physical or detector based image degrading effects. These effects need to be considered and modeled in order to optimize resolution recovery. However, accurate modeling of the physics of data and acquisition processes still lead to an ill-posed reconstruction problem, because real data is incomplete and noisy. Real images are always a compromise between resolution and noise; therefore, noise processes also need to be fully considered for optimum bias variance trade off. Image degrading effects and noise are generally modeled in the reconstruction methods, while, statistical iterative methods can better model these effects, with noise processes, as compared to the analytical methods. Regularization is used to condition the problem and explicit regularization methods are considered better to model various noise processes with an extended control over the reconstructed image quality. Emission physics through object distribution properties ...
An apparatus, system and method are disclosed for eliminating phantom power wastage utilizing a power tap. An insulation casing creates a receiving space for a printed circuit board which mounts male blades, female receptacles, phantom power indication and a mechanical electrical switching capability is disclosed. The conductive male blades and female receptacles create a cross pattern for a two pronged power tap that allows miniaturization of the power tap so as to allow full access to adjacent electrical outlets. Switching states include normally open which permits zero power flow and normally closed which permits power indication and allows power to flow from conductive male blades to conductive female receiving receptacles.
Bea Harper Phantom of the Opera (1943) Cast: Claude Rains, Susanna Foster, Nelson Eddy and Edgar Barrier Director: Arthur Lubin Universal Studios has its fair share of heavy-hitters in terms of horror icons- Dracula, the Wolf Man, Gill Man, the Mummy and Frankensteins Creature, that often they tend to overshadow the Phantom. By the 40s […]
Erik, the man with a hideous skull-like face who lives in furtive seclusion beneath a Paris opera house, is in love with a beautiful singer. He masks his deformity and commits various murders in order to attain his ends, but nevertheless fails to get the girl. His story is told in Gaston Lerouxs 1911 novel The Phantom Of The Opera, which was filmed in 1925 with Lon Chaney Senior in the leading role. Since then it has become a standard part of the cinemas horror repertoire, with remakes appearing in 1943 starring Claude Rains and in 1962 with Herbert Lom. A later version entitled Phantom Of The Paradise (1974) had William Finley in an updated story with a rock-music setting directed by Brian DePalma with an award-winning soundtrack by Paul Williams. There was also a made-for-television movie in 1983 starring Maximillian Schell, and another notable performance came from Robert Englund in a 1986 version which played-up the horror elements of the story. Since then Lerouxs hoary old tale has been ...
Syria & The Phantom Dispatches From The Edge Conn Hallinan June 26, 2012 What was that Turkish F-4 Phantom II up to when the Syrians shot it down? Ankara said the plane strayed into Syrian airspace, but quickly left and was over international waters when it was attacked, a simple case of carelessness on the…
Syria & The Phantom Dispatches From The Edge Conn Hallinan June 26, 2012 What was that Turkish F-4 Phantom II up to when the Syrians shot it down? Ankara said the plane strayed into Syrian airspace, but quickly left and was over international waters when it was attacked, a simple case of carelessness on the…
Phantom arms, legs, fingers and toes: seemingly the stuff of horror movies. Yet for nearly 70 percent of the 4 million amputees in the United States, vivid sensations in missing body parts-such as pressure, tingling, warmth, cold, and pain that can be both constant and excruciating-are all too real. Phantom limbs have puzzled scientists for…
Experience the Power of Dry with New Prescription Treatment® Brand Phantom pressurized insecticide.. Control general pest in commercial accounts easier and faster than ever. When it comes to controlling pests in commercial accounts, new Phantom® pressurized insecticide delivers:. ...
The Phantom Of The Opera Also see Alternate Cover Editions for this ISBN ACE ACE First published in French as a serial in The Phantom of the Opera is a riveting story that revolves around the young Swedish Christine
General Objective of the Project. The goal of the project is to study the different combinations of Left Ventricular (LV) function and myocardial perfusion abnormalities using nuclear medicine procedures and a dynamic cardiac phantom. The general objective is to optimize of diagnostic value for the early detection of mild coronary artery disease in the framework of improving the public and private health services.. Specific Scientific and Technological Objectives of the Project. (a) Construction of a specific dynamic cardiac phantom (not available in the market in the desired form),. (b) Use the phantom to experimentally simulate CAD (myocardial perfusion defects) and different stages of Left ventricular dysfunction,. (c) Image acquisition and processing of phantom simulated cardiac normal and abnormal conditions,. (d) Development of a specific software package for the storage, handling and analysis of the diagnostic evaluation of the acquired images (not available in the market in the desired ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Image-based point spread function implementation in a fully 3D OSEM reconstruction algorithm for PET. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Background: Invasive coronary angiography has inherent limitations for displaying complex vascular anatomy to its two dimensional projection nature. Despite these limitations, it remains the gold standard for comparisons with new coronary imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of stenosis assessment by CT and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) compared to known dimensions of a custom-designed coronary phantom with cardiac motion simulation.. Methods: Nineteen coronary vessel phantoms were used consisting of acrylic tubes with precisely drilled and measured dimensions. Each phantom had three stenoses of mild (25%), moderate (50%), and severe (75%) grade and of 4 different shapes: circular concentric, circular eccentric, non-circular regular, non-circular irregular, totaling 57 stenoses. The reference sites varied between 1.5 and 4 mm. Phantom imaging was performed at rest and with simulated cardiac motion at a heart rate ...
PURPOSE: Motion-compensated temporal processing can have a major impact on improving the image quality in gated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this work, we investigate the effect of different optical flow estimation methods for motion-compensated temporal processing in gated SPECT. In particular, we explore whether better motion estimation can substantially improve reconstructed image quality, and how the estimated motion would compare to the ideal case of known motion in terms of reconstruction. METHODS: We consider the following three methods for obtaining the image motion in 4D reconstruction: (1) the Horn-Schunck optical flow equation (OFE) method, (2) a recently developed periodic OFE method, and (3) known cardiac motion derived from the NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom. The periodic OFE method is used to exploit the inherent periodic nature in cardiac gated images. In this method, the optical flow in a sequence is modeled by a Fourier harmonic
... or as phantoms in imaging technique development. Play media The term ex vivo means that the samples to be tested have been ... "Imaging White Matter in Human Brainstem". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 7: 400. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00400. PMC 3721683. ...
A projector or image projector is an optical device that projects an image (or moving images) onto a surface, commonly a ... S. Alexander Locke's Lantern in Mind (1929) skullsinthestars (17 April 2014). "Physics demonstrations: The Phantom Lightbulb". ... Multi-image productions are also known as multi-image slide presentations, slide shows and diaporamas and are a specific form ... The magic lantern is best known for the projection of still images, but was capable of projecting moving images from mechanical ...
Patterson, Trish (June 2-4, 2000). "Healing Our Image of God". The Phantom Tollbooth. Retrieved June 29, 2010. "Matthew ...
Dunlap, David W. (October 20, 2008). "Phantom Freedom Tower Visible to All". New York Times. Retrieved October 21, 2008. "Image ...
"I Am Setsuna - Characters/Actors Images". Retrieved August 23, 2016. "Arknights: Operator Phantom Announcement". "Fit Boxing 2( ...
"The LEGO Batman Movie official images". Brickset. Retrieved 2016-11-13. "30522 Batman in the Phantom Zone revealed". Brickset. ... "Images for ninety 2017 sets added to LEGO.com". Brickset. Retrieved 2016-11-30. " ... "The LEGO Ninjago Movie set images". Brickset. Retrieved 2017-06-16. "New LEGO NINJAGO Movie promotional material". Brickset. ... "The LEGO NINJAGO Movie Wave 2 Official Images!". Brickset. Retrieved 2017-09-21. "Interview with Christopher Stamp, NINJAGO ...
Schultz, G; Melzack, R (1991). "The Charles Bonnet syndrome: 'phantom visual images'". Perception. 20 (6): 809-25. doi:10.1068/ ... Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of Charles Bonnet Syndrome patients display a relationship between visual ... The syndrome is discussed in Vilayanur S. Ramachandran's book Phantoms in the Brain. Ramachandran suggests that James Thurber, ... V.S. Ramachandran; Sandra Blakeslee (1988). Phantoms in the Brain. HarperCollins. pp. 85-7. "Movie Review: Jawan of Vellimala ...
Longo, Matthew (June 2020). "Body Image: Neural Basis of 'Negative' Phantom Limbs". Current Biology. 30 (11): 2191-2195. ... Abasiophilia Armless Attraction to disability Body dysmorphic disorder Body image Body modification Disability pretenders ... infrequently studied condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body, characterized ...
Images of Woman in Literature, 1990; The Skeleton in the Wardrobe: the Phantasies of C.S.Lewis, 1991; Edith Wharton and the ... George MacDonald and the Phantom Woman, 2000; Lewis Carroll: Nonsense Against Sorrow, 2000; English for Maturity (1961) is a ... Images of Woman in Literature (1989) What Is It to Be Human?: New Perspectives in Philosophy (1990) A Little Athens (1990) ... poems A Study of George MacDonald and the Image of Women (2000) Lewis Carroll: Nonsense Against Sorrow Holbrook, David. Flesh ...
Her first film for Selznick, Upstairs and Down (1919), proved successful and established her image as a "baby vamp". She ... ISBN 978-0-8223-2323-5. Ogden, Tom (2009). Haunted Theaters Playhouse Phantoms, Opera House Horrors, and Backstage Banshees. ... ISBN 978-0-275-98259-1. Mizejewski, Linda (1999). Ziegfeld Girl Image and Icon in Culture and Cinema. Duke University Press. ... ISBN 1-55002-348-9. Golden, Eve (2001). Golden Images 41 Essays on Silent Film Stars. McFarland & Company Incorporated Pub. ...
"Imaging of tissue-equivalent phantoms using the UCL multi-channel time-resolved instrument". Biomedical Optics (1999), Paper ... She developed an optical imaging technique that used dynamic contrast to image the anatomy of small animals. She licensed this ... She set up the Laboratory for Functional Optical Imaging and developed new techniques for in vivo optical imaging. ... She has developed tools for high speed imaging of the activity in the whole brain. Hillman pioneered Swept, Confocally-Aligned ...
Eidolon, spirit-image of a living or dead person; a shade or phantom look-alike of the human form. Empusa, beautiful demonesses ...
On the seats, two mannequins will be strapped and used as radiation imaging phantoms. Prior to April 2017,[clarification needed ... The crew compartment of the uncrewed Artemis 1 Orion spacecraft will include two female mannequin imaging phantoms which will ... One phantom will be shielded with the AstroRad vest and the other will be left unprotected. The phantoms provide the ... EQUULEUS, designed by Japan's JAXA and the University of Tokyo, will image Earth's plasmasphere to study the radiation ...
"Fleeting Phantoms: 'The Projected Image' at SFMOMA," Artweek, March 28, 1991, p. 20-1. Hagen, Charles. "Turning the Lens Inward ... performance and more than 300 images-one-third depicting a naked woman exploring her body through looking at book images and at ... Framing Memories I Never Had (1998) interwove images of catastrophe (e.g., the Holocaust) and poetic intimacy in a cinema-like ... Liberty (leading the people) (2003) re-presents an altered image of male youth in Gaza fleeing tear gas, which is reflected ( ...
He also executed the plans of several public buildings and created some images for the mosaic of the Church of the Sacred Heart ... Phantom of Glory - 1938 (after a poem by Alphonse de Lamartine ). He was appointed professor at the National School of Fine ... "Acte de naissance sur archivesenligne.paris.fr (acte 6 image 2)". with marginal mention of marriage and death ADAM, L., Curé de ...
... allegedly DC rejected the image as being disrespectful to the character. John Constantine, Doctor Occult, and Phantom Stranger ...
Ramachandran, V. S. (1998). "Consciousness and body image: Lessons from phantom limbs, Capgras syndrome and pain asymbolia". ... Ramachandran portrayed this case in his book Phantoms in the Brain and gave a talk about it at TED 2007. Since the patient was ... In the end, it is revealed that the world is filled by phantom body doubles.[citation needed] A central character in Richard ... Ramachandran, V.S.; Blakeslee S. (1998). Phantoms in the Brain. Great Britain: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-1-85702-895-9. "VS ...
It has found use in analyzing human response to contrast-detail phantoms. SSIM has also been used on the gradient of images, ... IS&T-SPIE Electronic Imaging, Human Vision and Electronic Imaging XX. Human Vision and Electronic Imaging XX. 9394: 939406. ... "Structural similarity index family for image quality assessment in radiological images". Journal of Medical Imaging. 4 (3): ... Image Restoration: Image restoration focuses on solving the problem y = h ∗ x + n {\displaystyle y=h*x+n} where y {\ ...
The original album cover features an image of fictional comic book superhero The Phantom. In December 2009, the album was re- ...
She was a Phantom of delight. When first she gleam'd upon my sight; A lovely Apparition, sent. To be a moment's ornament:. Her ... A dancing shape, an image gay,. To haunt, to startle, and waylay. ... CLXXIV: She was a Phantom of Delight, first stanza (1804)[5]. "A moment's ornament"[e] represents the way Wharton describes ... A Moment's Ornament appears in the first stanza of William Wordsworth's (1770-1850) poem, "She was a Phantom of Delight" (1804 ...
Resulting tomographic image from a plastic skull phantom. Projected X-rays are clearly visible on this slice taken with a CT- ... That is, we wish to find the image μ. (. x. ,. y. ). {\displaystyle \mu (x,y)}. . The simplest and easiest way to visualise the ... "Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging". Slaney.org. Retrieved 7 September 2018.. *Insight ToolKit; open source ... In theory, the inverse Radon transformation would yield the original image. The projection-slice theorem tells us that if we ...
These images of the West earned him immediate recognition as a master of a very American art form. After that he illustrated ... He is often recalled as the original illustrator of the first edition of The Phantom of the Opera. Castaigne also created more ... As an illustrator, he captured images of the first modern olympics; he drew pictures of the 1896 Olympic Games for Scribner's ...
... phantom, ghost") is a spirit-image of a living or dead person; a shade or phantom look-alike of the human form. The concept of ... In The Mill on the Floss, (1860) by George Eliot, eidolon is used to describe Mr Tulliver's prejudicial image of his antagonist ... In ancient Greek literature, an eidolon (plural: eidola or eidolons; Greek εἴδωλον: "image, idol, double, apparition, ...
"Event Report: Paul Williams and Phantom of the Paradise at Museum of the Moving Image". Dread Central. Info at imdb.com "Music ... In the 1970s she appeared as an extra in the Roger Corman film Big Bad Mama, as a dancer in Brian De Palma's Phantom of the ...
"Auditory feedback during frameless image-guided surgery in a phantom model and initial clinical experience". J Neurosurg. 110 ( ... In 1976, philosopher of technology, Don Ihde, wrote, "Just as science seems to produce an infinite set of visual images for ... Banf, Michael; Blanz, Volker (2013). "Sonification of images for the visually impaired using a multi-level approach". ... Volume and value of the Dow Jones Industrial Average Image sonification for the visually impaired CURAT Sonification Game based ...
Phantom Limbs: On Musical Bodies, Fordham University Press, 2015. All Ears: The Aesthetics of Espionage, Fordham University ... The Supermarket of the Visible: Toward a General Economy of Images, Fordham University Press, 2019. Theodor W. Adorno, Sur ...
However, this loss is visible as image noise rather than grain. APS- and 35 mm-sized digital image sensors, both CMOS and CCD ... Showed (but did not specify) a speed of 12500 as the next full step greater than 6400.) "Boosting Sensitivity". Phantom/Ametek ... "Kodak Image Sensors - ISO Measurement" (PDF). Rochester, NY, USA: Eastman Kodak. "Exchangeable image file format for digital ... Two ratios are used, the 40:1 ("excellent image quality") and the 10:1 ("acceptable image quality") ratio. These ratios have ...
Image Comics announced a new Shadowhawk ongoing series following the events of Image United. The series featured Paul Johnstone ... The second was "The Phantom Gorillas from Dimension-Z!" The Silver Age ShadowHawk also appeared with the Silver Age Knight ... His official Image Comics debut was in the second issue of Rob Liefeld's Youngblood series. Originally, the name ShadowHawk was ... Brigade The Pact Image United Trencher (comics) ShadowHawk info at internationalhero.co.uk Kirkman, Robert (Nov 16, 2009). " ...
The Phantom Stranger takes Raven to Stonehenge, the portal between Earth and the realm of Trigon. Being told by a "higher power ... In the "Titans Tomorrow" storyline, Dark Raven, a future image of Raven, is a member of the Titans Tomorrow. She is referred to ... Raven makes her New 52 debut in the first issue of the Phantom Stranger. There she is shown as a girl in a black and white ... Trigon thought he only needed to liberate her and not control her to make Raven have her own image. Apparently impressed, ...
She conducted post-doctoral training at the University of California, Irvine specializing in dynamic imaging of thick tissues. ... Tanner's dissertation was titled "Cat"-ology: spectrally resolved neurophotonics in the mammalian brain and phantom studies. ... Tanner, Kandice (2006). "Cat"-ology: spectrally resolved neurophotonics in the mammalian brain and phantom studies (Thesis). ... Tanner's expertise includes multimodal imaging platforms, 3D cell culture, biophysics, mechanobiology, and breast cancer. Her ...
Small animal imagingEdit. PET technology for small animal imaging: A miniature PE tomograph has been constructed that is small ... The overall performance of PET systems can be evaluated by quality control tools such as the Jaszczak phantom.[73] ... PET imaging is best performed using a dedicated PET scanner. It is also possible to acquire PET images using a conventional ... Musculo-skeletal imagingEdit. Musculoskeletal imaging: PET has been shown to be a feasible technique for studying skeletal ...
"USPTO Patent Full-Text and Image Database. Alexandria, Virginia: United States Patent and Trademark Office. July 10, 1990. ... 1985) Phantom in Combat. *(1986) The Leading Edge. *(1987) Classics: U.S. Aircraft of World War II[9] ...
Like Dobermans, phantom poodles have either a black or brown main coat with a tan (usually apricot or red) lighter colourings ... Drawings by German artist Albrecht Dürer established the popular image of the breed in the 15th and 16th centuries. Further ... Phantom poodles have the colouring of a Doberman Pinscher, with a lighter colour appearing on their "eyebrows", muzzle and ... phantom, and brindle. The AKC recognizes Poodles in either solid-coloured and multi-colored coats, however only solid-colored ...
... such as the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II) that were prevalent in the 1960s. Boyd inspired the Lightweight Fighter program ( ... thereby generate confusion and disorder among our adversaries-since our adversaries will be unable to generate mental images or ...
... is the subject of German photographer Andreas Gursky's 2007 image, Kamiokande.[22] The detector was a topic in ... Phantom energy. *Dark radiation. *Dark photon. *Cosmological constant problem. *Strong CP problem ...
This aircraft is the first USAF F-4 Phantom II, McDonnell F-4C-15-MC Phantom serial 63-7407. Shown about 1990 just before its ... Images of Aviation. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-73858-077-5. . Retrieved 28 August 2015.. (link is to Amazon ...
comments on phantom kangaroos and other things. '"Mind", "Matter" and Monism' comments on coincidence. 'The Open Universe' ... Pages to import images to Wikidata. *All articles with unsourced statements. *Articles with unsourced statements from August ...
"Phantom of the Movies' Videoscope. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.. ... Similarly, Norton projects an image of a holy man, speaking down sanctimoniously to the servile masses while running corrupt ... saturated images have a redolent sensuality; you feel as if you could reach out and touch the prison walls".[6] The Hollywood ... could be used to instantly convey images of a prison.[36] ...
"Image: 717673666108_0_BG.jpg". newyorkknightsrugby.com. Archived from the original on October 7, 2015. Retrieved September 28, ... Lehigh Valley Phantoms. NWHL. Metropolitan Riveters. Connecticut Whale. Lacrosse. MLL. New York Lizards. NLL. New York Riptide ... "Image: 364353666108_0_BG.jpg". newyorkknightsrugby.com. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved September 28, ... "Image: 051205APhoto01.jpg". ussoccerfoundation.org. Archived from the original on September 29, 2015. Retrieved September 28, ...
"The 7th Is Made Up of Phantoms". *"A Short Drink from a Certain Fountain" ... "Mirror Image". *"The Monsters Are Due on Maple Street". *"A World of Difference" ...
The mobile web refers to browser-based World Wide Web services accessed from handheld mobile devices, such as smartphones or feature phones, through a mobile or other wireless network. Traditionally, the World Wide Web has been accessed via fixed-line services on laptops and desktop computers. However, the web is now more accessible by portable and wireless devices. Early 2010 ITU (International Telecommunication Union) report said that with current growth rates, web access by people on the go - via laptops and smart mobile devices - is likely to exceed web access from desktop computers within the next five years.[1] In January 2014, mobile internet use exceeded desktop use in the United States.[2] The shift to mobile Web access has accelerated since 2007 with the rise of larger multitouch smartphones, and since 2010 with the rise of multitouch tablet computers. Both platforms provide better Internet access, screens, and mobile browsers, or application-based user Web experiences than previous ...
Shulman, Robert G. (2013). "Neuroscience: A Multidisciplinary, Multilevel Field". Brain Imaging: What it Can (and Cannot) Tell ... Ramachandran, V. S. (1998). Phantoms in the Brain. New York, HarperCollins. ISBN 0-688-15247-3 (Paperback) ... Brain imaging also enables objective, biological insights into mental illness, which can lead to faster diagnosis, more ... Neuroimaging includes the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure and function of the ...
Image ComicsEdit. *Phantom Force #2 (1994). Marvel ComicsEdit. *Captain America: What Price Glory #1-4 (2003) ...
Full image and description: "Search". German Federal Archives. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 6 ... "Phantom Wittgenstein". Focus.. *^ For examples, see Cornish, Kimberley (1999). The Jew of Linz. Arrow.. *. Blum, Michael; ... See the full image at the Bundesarchiv Archived 28 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 27 September 2015. The ... The idea of a God in the sense of the Bible, the image of God as the creator of the world, hardly ever engaged Wittgenstein's ...
Yousry I, Dieterich M, Naidich TP, Schmid UD, Yousry TA (March 2002). "Superior oblique myokymia: magnetic resonance imaging ... magnetic resonance imaging experiments have shown that neurovascular compression at the root exit zone of the trochlear nerve ...
Images of Bohemian Grove, ca. 1906-1909, The Bancroft Library.. *"Old Bohemia, New Bohemia" (compares Bohemian Grove and ... He was heavily armed and wearing a skull mask and outfit with "Phantom Patriot" written across the chest.[27] No Bohemian Club ... Ogden, Dunbar H.; Douglas McDermott; Robert Károly Sarlós (1990). Theatre West: Image and Impact. Rodopi. p. 36. ISBN 90-5183- ... Masked man enters, attacks Bohemian Grove:'Phantom' expected armed resistance, by Peter Fimrite, San Francisco Chronicle, ...
Marvel Mystery Comics and even Blonde Phantom Comics. ... Everett in a 1940s Timely Comics promotional image. Born. ...
... intended to produce modern warplanes to replace South Korea's aging F-4D/E Phantom II and F-5E/F Tiger II aircraft, was first ... "South Korea unveils first images of KF-X design with European missiles". DefenseNews. Retrieved 27 March 2020 ...
After "Phantom Engineer", Dylan and the band left the stage. Booing and clapping are in the background. When Peter Yarrow ... He was not expecting that audience's reaction and he was concerned about Bob's image since they were part of the same family of ... "Phantom Engineer", an early version of "It Takes a Lot to Laugh, It Takes a Train to Cry".[9] Dylan was said to have " ...
Genevieve Sparling (writer) & Terrence O'Hara (director) (May 17, 2007). "Phantom". Smallville. Season 6. Episode 22. The WB.. ... Pages using deprecated image syntax. *Articles using Infobox character with multiple unlabeled fields ... Steven S. DeKnight (writer & director) (January 18, 2007). "Phantom". Smallville. Season 6. Episode 112. The WB.. ... Todd Slavkin, Darren Swimmer (writers) & James Marshall (director) (May 17, 2007). "Phantom". Smallville. Season 6. Episode 22 ...
Images[edit]. Is it possible to get a higher-resolution image of the Ilya Repin painting (Ivan the Terrible killing his son)? ... The Phantom Menace"))SpecialAdviser (talk) 09:06, 7 November 2012 (UTC). Пусть перевод будет популярным, но мы как носители ... Also i do suggest remove the image of painting named "Tsar Ivan IV mourns Anastasia Romanovna. 1875 painting by Grigory ... See Maureen Perrie's book _The Image of Ivan the Terrible in Folklore_, pp. 62-3; Cherniavsky, "Ivan the Terrible as ...
One particularly famous claimed incidence of ITC occurred when the image of EVP enthusiast Friedrich Jürgenson (whose funeral ...
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize internal structures of the body ... MRI makes use of the property of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to image nuclei of atoms inside the body. This method is ...
Curiously, this phantom vanished the very day Baldrick left home. In one cunning plan Baldrick tried to chop his mother's head ... declaring that they all took up smoking to collect cigarette cards bearing his image and that his grandmother smoked herself to ...
... the poet once again rejects the three images: "Vanish, ye phantoms, from my idle spright, / Into the clouds, and never more ... The images pass the narrator three times, which causes him to compare them to images on a spinning urn (line 7). In line 10, ... The two lovers, whose image the unknown artist has created through his craftsmanship, appear to the poet as a couple who cannot ... The image of the bursting of Joy's grape (line 28) gives the poem a theme of sexuality. According to critics, the bursting of ...
Screen-capture image of KPRC's building facade and STL tower, appearing as fictional station 'KVIK' from the opening sequence ... Snopes.com article about a KLEE-TV phantom broadcast. *BIAfn's Media Web Database -- Information on KPRC-TV ... The film and video archives of KPRC have been partially digitized by the Texas Archive of the Moving Image and approximately ... During this time, national voiceover announcer Charlie Van Dyke served as the station's image announcer, with KPRC-TV ...
Main article: Myocardial perfusion imaging. Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a form of functional cardiac imaging, used ... The overall performance of SPECT systems can be performed by quality control tools such as the Jaszczak phantom.[15] ... tumor imaging, infection (leukocyte) imaging, thyroid imaging or bone scintigraphy. ... SPECT imaging is performed by using a gamma camera to acquire multiple 2-D images (also called projections), from multiple ...
He also flew the Douglas DC-3, Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star, North American F-86 Sabre, McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, ... Armstrong guarded the use of his name, image, and famous quote. When it was launched in 1981, MTV wanted to use his quote in ... Cooper and Conrad practiced a "phantom rendezvous", carrying out the maneuver without a target.[67] ... there are only five images of Armstrong partly shown or reflected. The mission was planned to the minute, with the majority of ...
Family Stratiomyidae at EOL Images. Flowers visited by adults.. *Pest Information Wiki ... Chaoboridae (phantom midges). *Culicidae (mosquitoes). Chironomoidea. *Thaumaleidae (solitary midges). *Simuliidae (black flies ...
Imaging phantom, or simply phantom, is a specially designed object that is scanned or imaged in the field of medical imaging to ... and other imaging methods or modalities. A phantom used to evaluate an imaging device should respond in a similar manner to how ... Shepp-Logan Phantom Computational human phantom Phantom structure Jaszczak phantom https://www.spect.com/ Iturralde, Mario P. ( ... Phantoms were originally employed for use in 2D x-ray based imaging techniques such as radiography or fluoroscopy, though more ...
... gives possibility to obtain qualitatively very good images, most quantitative results obtained by means of MRI ...
Not Available ALPHATECH proposes to design, develop, and demonstrate an integrated Surface Ship Surveillance System (S4) that will a) track and classify maritime targets using reports from a constellation of space based radars, and b) detect patterns of target behavior that deviate from derived models of normalcy. ALPHATECH will model the space-based radar based on the DARPA/Joint Service Discoverer II initiative, a low earth orbit satellite constellation that uses Moving Target Indicator (MTI) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). We will demonstrate our S4 concept using internally developed scenarios running on an ALPHATECH simulation. Scenarios will be developed to demonstrate the performance and capabilities of the S4 concept in the stressing, dense littoral environment critical to developing complete Situation Awareness. ALPHATECHs experience in tracking, information fusion, and product development maximizes the expected benefit to the Navy, while minimizing the overall program risk. We are ...
In particular, systems and method are provided for a phantom including a pattern plate having a plurality of passages and a ... A phantom for a nuclear imaging system is provided. ... 1. A phantom for a nuclear imaging system, the phantom ... Microscopy imaging phantoms. US20110293074 *. 27 May 2011. 1 Dec 2011. Coolens Catherine. Dynamic flow imaging phantom and ... Due to the deficiencies in current nuclear imaging phantom designs, it would be desirable to have a nuclear imaging phantom ...
1.1 Optical phantoms in probe-based systems 1.1.1 High-resolution microendoscopy 1.1.2 Hyperspectral imaging 1.1.3 Diffuse ... Optical Phantoms: Diffuse and Sub-diffuse Imaging and Spectroscopy Validation Author(s): Gage J. Greening; Haley M. James; ... 3 Fabrication of Phantoms for Optical Probe Design 3.1 Solid phantoms as tools for simulating epithelial structure 3.1.1 ... This Spotlight describes the use of optical phantoms as validation tools for probe-based imaging and spectroscopy platforms. ...
Ticket offers for Phantom of the Opera are available now. ... Phantom of the Opera tells the haunting tale of the tragic love ... Comedy Store 3 minutes walk from The Phantom Of The Opera. Biting observations and caustic wit from TV and radio regular Jo ... Comedy Store 3 minutes walk from The Phantom Of The Opera. Biting observations and caustic wit from TV and radio regular Jo ... Criterion Theatre 3 minutes walk from The Phantom Of The Opera. Mischief Theatre, creators of The Play That Goes Wrong - winner ...
Homethe digestPhantom images stored in flexible network throughout brain. Phantom images stored in flexible network throughout ... The neuroscientists discovered that when images were shown to the eye opposite the lesion (output of the left eye goes to the ... The patients with stroke damage to the prefrontal cortex had, as suspected, problems when images were presented to the eye on ... and showed each patient a series of pictures to test his or her ability to remember images for a brief time, so-called visual ...
Wallpaper and background photos of Knuckles Phantom for fans of Alvin and the Chipmunks images. 11219373 ... Kinda like Danny Phantom but you get the point. ... upload image Alvin and the Chipmunks images Knuckles Phantom ... Knuckles Phantom. Kinda like Danny Phantom but you get the point. Wallpaper and background images in the Alvin and the ... Kinda like Danny Phantom but you get the point (Source: Knuckles Phantom - Alvin and the...) ...
An image gallery of the 1932 Rolls-Royce Phantom II Continental. ... Photographs of the 1932 Rolls-Royce Phantom II Continental. ... 1932 Rolls-Royce Phantom II Continental Image Gallery. ×. 1932 Rolls-Royce Phantom II Continental. ...
... and rising demand for accurate calibration techniques for effective diagnostic imaging procedures are the key factors expected ... The global medical imaging phantoms market size was valued at USD 141.1 million in 2019 and is anticipated to register a CAGR ... Medical Imaging Phantoms Market Size, Industry Report, 2027 Medical Imaging Phantoms Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis ... Gold Standard Phantoms; Pure Imaging Phantoms; Modus Medical Devices Inc.; True Phantom Solutions; Computerized Imaging ...
Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain Gameplay And Performance Review - Snakes Triumphant Return. ...
DJI Phantom 2 Price Slashed - TODAY ONLY. by Hugh Brownstone. April 7, 2015. Leave a Comment ... DJIs Happy Valentines Day Gift: Chance to Win a Phantom 2 Vision+. by Hugh Brownstone. February 18, 2015. Leave a Comment ... "I Want That One:" DJI Phantom 2 Vision+ Earns PC Mag Editors Choice. by Hugh Brownstone. January 14, 2015. 6 Comments ... Amazon really is offering a fantastic deal on the DJI Phantom 2 Quadcopter with 3-Axis Zenmuse H3-3D Gimbal for GoPro at $683 ...
Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging on large phantoms: Depth studies Anuradha Godavarty, Eva M. Sevick-Muraca, Chaoyang Zhang ... A. Godavarty, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, C. Zhang, and M. J. Eppstein, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging on large phantoms: ...
An F-4 Phantom of the Hellenic Air Force Photographic Print by Stocktrek Images. Find art you love and shop high-quality art ...
Volume estimation of tonsil phantoms using an oral camera with 3D imaging Anshuman J. Das, Tulio A. Valdez, Jose Arbouin Vargas ... Image Anal. 16(5), 1063-1072 (2012). [Crossref] [PubMed] S. R. Shott, "Sleep cine magnetic resonance imaging-A dynamic ... Biomimetic 3D-printed neurovascular phantoms for near-infrared fluorescence imaging Yi Liu, Pejhman Ghassemi, Andrew Depkon, ... b) Respective image after thresholding and segmention. The corresponding phase image (c) and reconstruced 3D map (d). ...
Photoacoustic imaging of blood perfusion in tissue and phantoms Author(s): Magdalena C. Pilatou; Roy G. M. Kolkman; Erwin ... We will also report measurements on tissue phantoms: e.g. a vessel delta from the epigastric artery branching of a Wistar rat, ... The measurements have been carried out on phantoms containing vessels at several depths. Signal processing was enhanced by ...
The Eldar Phantom Titan - Coming soon... image - Ultimate Apocalypse Mod (DOW SS) for Dawn of War. *HOME ... Today i can announce you the soon availability of the second Model of this Titan Collection: THE PHANTOM TITAN!. Eventhough i ...
This paper presents a phantom study to asses the feasibility of the medical image registration algorithms in the operating room ... Medical image registration, image-guided devices and interventions, multimodal imaging, computer aided surgery ... Retrospective Study on Phantom for the Application of Medical Image Registration in the Operating Room Scenario Bogdan M. Maris ... This paper presents a phantom study to asses the feasibility of the medical image registration algorithms in the operating room ...
... ... Blood vessel and lesion composition phantoms and ex vivo coronary arteries were imaged with 16-section CT. Wall areas of ... Results: Mean blood vessel wall areas measured with CT and US in phantoms were 9.2 mm(2) +/- 1.8 (standard deviation) and 10.4 ... Sensitivity and specificity for lipid detection were determined in lesion composition phantoms. CT numbers of blood vessel wall ...
PVA-C is material widely used in medical imaging phantoms because of its mechanical similarities to soft tissues. The phantom ... We believe the phantom images could allow for the validation and further aid in the development of novel medical image ... and magnetic resonance imaging. Multiple sets of multimodal data were acquired from this phantom. The methods for building the ... The phantom contained deep sulci, a complete insular region, and an anatomically accurate left ventricle. It was found to ...
Coronary calcium scoring with partial volume correction in anthropomorphic thorax phantom and screening chest CT images Final ... Data: Coronary calcium scoring with partial volume correction in anthropomorphic thorax phantom and screening chest CT images. ... Coronary calcium scoring with partial volume correction in anthropomorphic thorax phantom and screening chest CT images. Sprem ... The first phantom was scanned five times with and without extension rings. The second phantom was scanned three times without ...
To compare the detection of microcalcifications on mammograms of an anthropomorphic breast phantom acquired by a direct digital ... Image Quality of Digital Direct Flat-Panel Mammography Versus an Indirect Small-Field CCD Technique Using a High-Contrast ... Stereotactic spot images taken by 1024 matrix CCD technique are diagnostically equivalent to direct digital flat-panel ... Four radiologists rated the monitor-displayed images independently of each other in random order. Results. The rate of correct ...
We then scanned the phantoms in dual-energy mode using matching image-quality reference settings. The effective CT dose index ... Dual-energy compared to single-energy CT in pediatric imaging: a phantom study for DECT clinical guidance. ... Dual-energy CT is dose-neutral in imaging the head and abdomen in children. It is not dose-neutral in chest imaging of very ... and 5-year-old child-based age-equivalent phantoms, ranging 11-20%. Quantitative analysis of image quality showed no ...
Global medical imaging phantoms market was valued at US$ 131.2 Mn in 2017 and is projected to expand at a CAGR of 3.6% from ... Global Medical Imaging Phantoms Market to Reach US$ 180.0 Mn by 2026; Rise in Adoption of Advanced Imaging Methods to Drive ... The nuclear imaging phantoms and CT phantoms segments are projected to expand at a rapid pace during the forecast period ... Ltd., Pure Imaging Phantoms, Dielectric Corporation, Modus Medical Devices Inc., Carville Limited, Computerized Imaging ...
The phantom calibration body (12) includes a homogeneous aque ... A phantom calibration body (12) for calibrating diffusion MRI ... such as diffusion imaging or diffusion tensor imaging methods. In diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), each image voxel (i.e., ... Phantom for diffusion MRI imaging Abstract. A phantom calibration body (12) for calibrating diffusion MRI device (16) that ... c. Diffusion-Weighted Image As used herein, the term "diffusion-weighted image" refers to any diffusion MRI image in which the ...
In the second case, computed variables of interest (e.g. brain volume or voxel values from segmented gray matter images) were ... In the second case, computed variables of interest (e.g. brain volume or voxel values from segmented gray matter images) were ... We draw upon thousands of MRI scans captured via the COllaborative Imaging and Neuroinformatics Suite (COINS). We then ... We draw upon thousands of MRI scans captured via the COllaborative Imaging and Neuroinformatics Suite (COINS). We then ...
Phantoms Tissue-simulación para la evaluación de las posibles aplicaciones de imágenes de fluorescencia en el infrarrojo ... Phantoms Tissue-simulación para la evaluación de las posibles aplicaciones de imágenes de fluorescencia en el infrarrojo ... Protocol for Assessing the Performance of New Ultrasound Probes Based on CMUT Technology in Application to Brain Imaging… ...
To effectively evaluate an ultrasound systems imaging capabilities, a phantom is essential. There are several tests that need ... How to Use a Phantom - Verify Image Quality. by jrickner on 12.1.2016 ... In summary, image quality is a difficult problem to define and troubleshoot. By using these tests periodically we are able to ... By scanning a phantom using known targets, the accuracy of caliper measurements can be determined. Because vertical distance ...
The ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging studies were performed using DVT-mimicking phantoms and phantoms with embedded acute ... Journal of Electronic Imaging. Journal of Medical Imaging. Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS. Journal of ... Combined ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging to detect and stage deep vein thrombosis: phantom and ex vivo studies. ... "Combined ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging to detect and stage deep vein thrombosis: phantom and ex vivo studies," Journal ...
... training models and phantoms for ultrasound and radiology from Japan since 1895. ... Examination of myocardial density through SPECT imaging. *Verification of myocardial imaging with use of various RI solution ... Can reproduce image variations of the heart by injecting RI solutions in the liver, kidney and lungs ... PET/SPECT Thorax Phantom is an optimal tool for study in nuclear medicine ...
  • Phantoms were originally employed for use in 2D x-ray based imaging techniques such as radiography or fluoroscopy, though more recently phantoms with desired imaging characteristics have been developed for 3D techniques such as SPECT, MRI, CT, Ultrasound, PET, and other imaging methods or modalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the case of ultrasonography, a phantom with similar rheological and ultrasound scattering properties to real tissue would be essential, but x-ray absorbing properties would not be needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on device type, the X-ray/fluoroscopy phantoms segment dominated the market in terms of revenue, as these are the most widely used imaging systems, followed by ultrasound phantoms. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • O ne of the most common and most difficult issues you may encounter while working on ultrasound systems is poor image quality. (conquestimaging.com)
  • To effectively evaluate an ultrasound system's imaging capabilities, a phantom is essential. (conquestimaging.com)
  • Because vertical distance measurements are based on the timing of the ultrasound image, vertical distance errors are less likely to occur than horizontal measurements. (conquestimaging.com)
  • This can result in misdiagnosis of the ultrasound image. (conquestimaging.com)
  • Defining these structures are vital in the evaluation of ultrasound images. (conquestimaging.com)
  • The ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging studies were performed using DVT-mimicking phantoms and phantoms with embedded acute and chronic thrombi obtained from an animal model of DVT. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The location and structure of the clots were visualized using ultrasound imaging, while the composition, and therefore age, of thrombi were related to the magnitude and spatiotemporal characteristics of the photoacoustic signal. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Overall, the results of our study suggest that combined ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of thrombi may be capable of simultaneous detection and staging of DVT. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Andrei B. Karpiouk , Salavat R. Aglyamov, Srivalleesha Mallidi , Jignesh Shah , William G. Scott, Jonathan M. Rubin, Stanislav Y. Emelianov , "Combined ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging to detect and stage deep vein thrombosis: phantom and ex vivo studies," Journal of Biomedical Optics 13(5), 054061 (1 September 2008). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Yang Z, Liu Z, Jiang S, Zeng J, Hu Y, Zhang G. Verification of needle guidance accuracy in pelvic phantom using registered ultrasound and MRI images for intracavitary/interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy. (termedia.pl)
  • Due to excellent qualities of non-invasiveness, real-time application, affordability, and convenience, ultrasound (US) is the preferred modality to provide intraoperative images. (termedia.pl)
  • Poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel phantoms for use in ultrasound and MR imaging. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel, PVA-C, is presented as a tissue-mimicking material, suitable for application in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and ultrasound imaging. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Methods: The phantoms, which contained a range of stenosis values (0, 30, 50, 70 and 85%), were designed for use with ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, X ray computed tomography and X-ray digital subtraction angiography. (tcd.ie)
  • Photoacoustic (PA) imaging-a technique combining the ability of optical imaging to probe functional properties of the tissue and deep structural imaging ability of ultrasound-has gained significant popularity in the past two decades for its utility in several biomedical applications. (mdpi.com)
  • Constructing ultrasound statistical parametric images by using a sliding window is a widely adopted strategy for characterizing tissues. (nature.com)
  • Entropy enables using a small window for implementing ultrasound parametric imaging. (nature.com)
  • Ultrasound backscattering and its relationship with the properties of scatterers in biological tissues is a widely pursued and critical topic in fundamental imaging research. (nature.com)
  • Such modalities include positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), optical imaging (OI, bioluminescence and fluorescence), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound (US), and computed tomography (CT) [1] , [2] . (plos.org)
  • These phantoms are expected to contribute in reducing the need for animal testing and allow researchers to get hands experience with tools that will promote and accelerate testing in focused ultrasound thermal protocols. (city.ac.uk)
  • The functionality of all three composite phantoms was assessed with focused ultrasound sonications applied by a 1 MHz single element transducer while temperature was monitored with 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. (city.ac.uk)
  • Phantoms developed using 3D technology represent realistic images of tissues and organs produced by various imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). (grandviewresearch.com)
  • To evaluate the diagnostic performance of 16-section multidetector computed tomography (CT) for assessment of plaques in phantoms and ex vivo coronary arteries, with intravascular ultrasonography (US) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) as reference standards. (nih.gov)
  • Quantification of hepatic steatosis with dual-energy computed tomography: comparison with tissue reference standards and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in the ob/ob mouse. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Incorporated (CIRS) began with a defined mission to improve upon existing tissue simulation methodology and provide quantitative reference standards for Computed Tomography. (medicalproductguide.com)
  • Phantom tissue equivalent properties were determined using computed tomography (CT) attenuation [Hounsfield unit (HU)] and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxation times. (elsevier.com)
  • Computed tomography (CT) dose phantoms of 16 cm and 32 cm in diameter were used to model children and adults respectively. (edu.au)
  • Three dimensional models of bone parts (skull, femur, rib) were reconstructed in Standard Tessellation Language (STL) format by segmenting bony tissue of interest from adult human computed tomography (CT) images. (city.ac.uk)
  • The global medical imaging phantoms market size was valued at USD 141.1 million in 2019 and is anticipated to register a CAGR of 5.2% over the forecast period. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • According to the report, the global medical imaging phantoms market was valued at US$ 131.2 Mn in 2017 and is projected to expand at a CAGR of 3.6% from 2018 to 2026. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • North America and Asia Pacific are expected to dominate the global medical imaging phantoms market in the next few years. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The report offers detailed segmentation of the global medical imaging phantoms market. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • In terms of revenue, North America dominated the global medical imaging phantoms market in 2017. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • However, North America is expected to account for a significant share of the global medical imaging phantoms market in terms of revenue owing to the increased usage of highly priced advanced 3D printed phantoms in the region. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The global medical imaging phantoms market is dominated by a large number of private players. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The report also provides profiles of leading players operating in the global medical imaging phantoms market. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • To compare the detection of microcalcifications on mammograms of an anthropomorphic breast phantom acquired by a direct digital flat-panel detector mammography system (FPM) versus a stereotactic breast biopsy system utilizing CCD (charge-coupled device) technology with either a 1024 or 512 acquisition matrix (1024 CCD and 512 CCD). (hindawi.com)
  • We scanned the head, chest and abdomen regions of pediatric-size anthropomorphic phantoms with contrast inserts, using our optimized single-energy clinical imaging protocols on a Siemens Flash® CT scanner. (springer.com)
  • This phantom is a life-size, full body anthropomorphic phantom with a state-of-the-art synthetic skeleton, lungs, liver, mediastinum and kidneys embedded in KYOTOKAGAKU original soft tissue substitute. (kyotokagaku.com)
  • Advanced anthropomorphic phantoms with realistic three-dimensional (3D) tissue distribution and anatomical features offer a flexible and simple way to investigate different aspects of 2D and 3D X-ray imaging: to perform accurate dosimetry, to calculate the properties of the simulated projection images and to investigate the effect of acquisition parameters on computer-extracted texture features. (eutempe-rx.org)
  • In such a case, the radiography phantom would not necessarily need to have similar textures and mechanical properties since these are not relevant in x-ray imaging modalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fiducial targets, incorporated into the phantoms to allow for registration of images among modalities, were chosen to minimize geometric distortions. (tcd.ie)
  • Quantitative assessments of the grade of stenosis revealed significant discrepancies between modalities, with each underestimating the stenosis severity for the higher-stenosed phantoms (70% and 85%) by up to 14%, with the greatest discrepancy attributable to DSA. (tcd.ie)
  • However, there is no current practice in the field of multi-purpose breast phantom for quality control (QC) in multi-modalities imaging. (elsevier.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to fabricate a multi-purpose breast phantom with tissue-equivalent materials via a 3D printing technique for QC in multi-modalities imaging. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, the phantom was used to assess the sensitivity of lesion detection, depth resolution, and detectability thresholds with different imaging modalities. (elsevier.com)
  • A variety of imaging modalities have been developed that provide functional and anatomical information of diseases in living small animals and patients. (plos.org)
  • Our study demonstrates the feasibility of molecular imaging of living subjects using OI modalities in conjunction with a wide diversity of radioactive probes. (plos.org)
  • Increase in usage of novel advanced diagnostic tests such as PET and SPECT and rise in prevalence of various chronic diseases are anticipated to drive the nuclear imaging phantoms segment during the forecast period. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The statistical nature of SPECT imaging, due to Poisson noise effect, results in degradation of image quality, especially in case of lesions of small signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio (small size, reduced activity). (elsevier.com)
  • In this paper, the performance of a platelet de-noising method applied, by means of a pre- processing step, on myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging is evaluated. (elsevier.com)
  • In conclusion, platelet de-noising prior to reconstruction has the potential to provide an efficient means of improving image quality in myocardial perfusion SPECT phantom. (elsevier.com)
  • While OI generally detects low energy light (visible or near-infrared light) emitted from bioluminescence or fluorescence probes, radioactive molecular probes are traditionally imaged with PET, SPECT or gamma (γ) cameras that detect high energy γ rays [1] . (plos.org)
  • This provides the experiment how the high integrated IR in the liver effects the SPECT image of the cardiac muscle. (medicalexpo.com)
  • EEGs provide millisecond measurements of brain activity, though they do not pinpoint active areas as precisely as other techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). (kurzweilai.net)
  • In this paper we propose a web-based approach for quick visualization of big data from brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using a combination of an automated image capture and processing system, nonlinear embedding, and interactive data visualization tools. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aim of this work is to build a phantom suitable to characterize the behavior of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a clinical scanner. (theiet.org)
  • PURPOSE: Several image-based retrospective sorting methods of 4D magnetic resonance imaging (4D MRI) have been proposed for respiratory motion reconstruction in external beam radiotherapy. (edu.au)
  • NIST engineer Katy Keenan holds a new phantom that will help standardize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast. (nist.gov)
  • A method for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a first volume and a second volume spaced apart from the first volume is provided. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The main requirements for these phantoms are to be geometrically accurate, compatible with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to be composed of materials that approximate the acoustic and thermal properties of the replicated tissues. (city.ac.uk)
  • abstract = "Background: Breast imaging technology plays an important role in breast cancer planning and treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • Improved medical imaging using medical phantoms, reduced exposure to radiation and increase in efficiency of medical devices, and rise in adoption of advanced imaging methods are anticipated to propel the global market from 2018 to 2026. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Methods of using the phantom calibration body (12) to calibrate diffusion MRI device (16) are also disclosed. (patents.com)
  • The existing clinical imaging methods are capable of visualizing a thrombus but cannot determine the age of the blood clot. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • This study presents a proactive comparison of three published image-based sorting methods, to define a groundwork for benchmarking in 4D MRI. (edu.au)
  • METHODS: Three published 4D MRI methods were selected for image retrospective sorting: body area, mutual information, and navigator slice. (edu.au)
  • The three image-based methods were compared against a conventional retrospective sorting method based on an external surrogate. (edu.au)
  • CONCLUSIONS: A comparison between three different image-based retrospective sorting methods for 4D MRI is proposed, providing guidelines for benchmark definition in MRI-guided radiotherapy. (edu.au)
  • Methods An adult Alderson female pelvis phantom was imaged with a variety of fat thickness categories as a representation of increasing BMI. (salford.ac.uk)
  • Methods: We used polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based materials and a 3D printing technique to construct a breast phantom. (elsevier.com)
  • The Reference Image Database to Evaluate Therapy Response (RIDER) is a targeted data collection used to generate an initial consensus on how to harmonize data collection and analysis for quantitative imaging methods applied to measure the response to drug or radiation therapy. (cancerimagingarchive.net)
  • The long term goal is to provide a resource to permit harmonized methods for data collection and analysis across different commercial imaging platforms to support multi-site clinical trials, using imaging as a biomarker for therapy response. (cancerimagingarchive.net)
  • Blood vessel and lesion composition phantoms and ex vivo coronary arteries were imaged with 16-section CT. (nih.gov)
  • Wall areas of phantoms and ex vivo coronary arteries were measured with multidetector CT and intravascular US. (nih.gov)
  • Two phantoms containing artificial coronary artery calcifications and 293 subject chest CT scans were used. (rug.nl)
  • They were obtained in cooperation with SNM as a resource for increased quantitative understanding of machine acquisition, analytic reproducibility and image processing. (cancerimagingarchive.net)
  • A phantom used to evaluate an imaging device should respond in a similar manner to how human tissues and organs would act in that specific imaging modality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purpose: A range of anatomically-realistic multi-modality renal artery phantoms consisting of vessels with varying degrees of stenosis was developed and evaluated using four imaging techniques currently used to detect renal artery stenosis (RAS). (tcd.ie)
  • The spatial resolution required to visualize vascular geometry and the velocity detection performance required to adequately characterize blood flow in patients suffering from RAS is currently ill-defined, with the result that no one imaging modality has emerged as a gold standard technique for screening for this disease. (tcd.ie)
  • Results: High quality distortion-free images of the phantoms with good contrast between vessel lumen, fiducial markers and background tissue to visualize all stenoses were obtained with each modality. (tcd.ie)
  • Such multi-modality phantoms may prove useful in evaluating current and emerging US, MRI, CT and DSA technology. (tcd.ie)
  • Hemispherical tumor detection was similar regardless of the imaging modality used. (elsevier.com)
  • A comprehensive overview of all types of phantoms used in medical imaging, therapy, nuclear medicine and health physics is provided in this title. (springer.com)
  • The RIDER Phantom PET-CT collection c onsists of repeat measurement PET/CT phantom scan collections carried out under the aegis of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) to discern the uniformity of clinical imaging instrumentation at various sites. (cancerimagingarchive.net)
  • Product Description This is the cardiac muscle phantom for PECT in Nuclear Medicine. (medicalexpo.com)
  • Development of a vessel-mimicking material for use in anatomically realistic Doppler flow phantoms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Conclusions: The design and construction of a range of anatomically-realistic renal artery phantoms containing varying degrees of stenosis is described. (tcd.ie)
  • Quantitative analysis of image quality showed no statistically significant difference in image quality between the single-energy and dual-energy scans. (springer.com)
  • Images obtained using the main four diagnostic techniques used to detect RAS were free from artifacts and exhibited adequate contrast to allow for quantitative measurements of the degree of stenosis in each phantom. (tcd.ie)
  • Various MRE techniques have been developed, involving the combination of interdependent processes (mechanical vibration generation, motion-sensitized MR sequences, image processing algorithms) all of which may impact the qualitative and quantitative outcomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery , 9 (1), 63-74. (elsevier.com)
  • While an image-based analysis of the airway tree can provide precise and valuable airway size information, quantitative and qualitative measurement of AWT in MDCT images involves various sources of error and uncertainty. (ieice.org)
  • Near-infrared multispectral imaging (NIR-MSI) is a potentially effective technique for quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaque. (abe-journal.org)
  • Microvascular flow phantoms were built to aid the development of a hemodynamic simulation model for treating hepatocelluar carcinoma. (umn.edu)
  • Increasing disease burden of lifestyle-associated disorders such as cardiac failure, chronic kidney disease, And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and rising demand for accurate calibration techniques for effective diagnostic imaging procedures are the key factors expected to drive the market growth. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Increasing number of diagnostic imaging facilities and growing need for in-house calibration techniques are the factors driving the demand for innovative imaging phantoms. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in 2015, 6,598 outpatient imaging diagnostic centers were present in U.S. Moreover, development of technologically advanced medical imaging phantoms to enhance the accuracy of these medical devices is expected to drive the market growth over the forecast period. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Increasing demand for quick and efficient diagnostic imaging procedures is eventually expected to boost the demand for advanced phantoms. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • X-rays are not only cost-effective diagnostic measures, but also have a wide array of applications in medical imaging. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • From a clinical standpoint, this area is the best location to obtain diagnostic images. (conquestimaging.com)
  • AliMed is an American manufacturing company and supplier of high quality products - everything from pre-formed orthoses, alarms for fall management, cushions, diagnostic imaging and operating room accessories, orthopedic rehabilitation equipment, ergonomic workplace solutions and emergency preparedness. (medicalproductguide.com)
  • For the Fujifilm radiographic imaging system, doses were measured at various locations of entrance, centre, exit as well as side locations of the phantoms using a PTW DIADOS diagnostic dosimeter. (edu.au)
  • Furthermore, increasing number of clinical trials by universities and institutes for improving the accuracy of phantoms for various disorders such as solid tumors is expected to positively affect the market growth. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Clinical calcium scoring resulted in overestimation of calcium volume for medium and high density calcifications in the first phantom, and overestimation of calcium volume for high density and underestimation for low density calcifications in the second phantom. (rug.nl)
  • Compared with clinical calcium scoring, proposed quantification provides a better estimate of the true calcium volume in phantoms and better agreement in calcium scores between different subject scan reconstructions. (rug.nl)
  • When evaluating dual-energy CT technology for implementation into a routine clinical pediatric imaging practice, the radiation dose implications must be considered, and when comparing relative CT dose performance, image quality must also be evaluated. (springer.com)
  • With a better understanding of the dose consequences of converting single-energy protocols to dual-energy protocols we can begin to implement clinical dual-energy CT and utilize its unique capabilities in pediatric imaging. (springer.com)
  • Prior to testing on clinical subjects the fully automated instrument and the reconstruction software are evaluated with tissue-equivalent phantoms. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • A cardiac phantom, containing two different size cold lesions, was utilized to evaluate the platelet de-noising method performance and compare it with the performance of the Butterworth filtering method, applied on raw data in pre-processing fashion, as well as on reconstructed data, representing the clinical routine. (elsevier.com)
  • Clinical CT images can't be used to measure micro vessel dimensions, while micro-CT requires more acquisitions to reconstruct larger vessels. (umn.edu)
  • Overlapping phantom images acquired from clinical CT and micro-CT are used to verify the image registration fidelity. (umn.edu)
  • Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has gained significant popularity for imaging functional and molecular information in both preclinical and clinical settings [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • It provides a new molecular imaging strategy and will likely have significant impact on both small animal and clinical imaging. (plos.org)
  • The purpose of this work was to study how patient size affects the exponent of the power law relating dose to x-ray tube potential in clinical x-ray imaging using phantoms. (edu.au)
  • These equations provide better estimates in guiding selection of optimal scan parameters in clinical x-ray imaging. (edu.au)
  • A practical challenge to be solved: what can be the role of virtual (phantom based) clinical trials with new technology? (eutempe-rx.org)
  • Fluoroscopy phantoms are the most widely used since fluoroscopy systems are gaining popularity as they offer high-quality images. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Dominant market share of the X-ray/fluoroscopy phantoms segment is due to high usage of X-ray equipment in large as well as small health care facilities. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • In addition, preclinical studies conducted to examine the efficiency of 3D developed medical imaging phantoms and multimodal imaging phantoms is expected to drive the demand for innovative phantoms in the coming years. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • We will also report measurements on tissue phantoms: e.g. a vessel delta from the epigastric artery branching of a Wistar rat, filled with an artificial blood-resembling absorber. (spie.org)
  • We have created vessel phantoms that consist of several tiers of bifurcating polymer tubes in reducing diameters, down to 25 μm. (umn.edu)
  • This book concludes with a tutorial section for constructing solid phantoms to simulate thin epithelial tissue structure and liquid phantoms to extract tissue optical properties using probe-based reflectance spectroscopy techniques. (spie.org)
  • Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (childrensmercy.org)
  • By current sensing, voltage generating circuitry and digital processing algorithms implemented in FPGA, the digital phantom can simulate different impedances of tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Today, CIRS is recognized as a leader in the manufacturer of tissue equivalent phantoms and simulators for medical imaging, radiation therapy and procedural training. (medicalproductguide.com)
  • To meet the growing demand, several market players are increasingly focusing on the development advanced and realistic phantoms. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • These materials can be used to 3D print realistic phantoms that mimic x-ray properties of various biological tissues. (envisiontec.com)
  • For instance, phantoms made for 2D radiography may hold various quantities of x-ray contrast agents with similar x-ray absorbing properties to normal tissue to tune the contrast of the imaging device or modulate the patients exposure to radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, we evaluated image quality using visual assessment and contrast-to-noise ratio. (springer.com)
  • Signal alterations, artifacts and image distortion induced by a superparamagnetic contrast medium. (lu.se)
  • In a phantom study using a 0.3 tesla MR system the signal alterations, artifacts and image distortion induced by a bowel contrast medium containing superparamagnetic magnetite particles were evaluated. (lu.se)
  • Radeon Image Sharpening combines contrast-adaptive sharpening with GPU upscaling to deliver crisp and detailed visuals with virtually no performance impact. (newegg.com)
  • The high dynamic range shows significant detail, especially in high-contrast environments, while the low noise is particularly beneficial when analyzing the dark regions of an image. (dpreview.com)
  • The neuroscientists discovered that when images were shown to the eye opposite the lesion (output of the left eye goes to the right hemisphere, and vice versa), the damaged prefrontal cortex did not respond, but the intact prefrontal cortex on the same side as the image responded within 300 to 600 milliseconds. (kurzweilai.net)
  • The patients with stroke damage to the prefrontal cortex had, as suspected, problems when images were presented to the eye on the side opposite the lesion. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Sensitivity and specificity for lipid detection were determined in lesion composition phantoms. (nih.gov)
  • Sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 92%, respectively, for identification of lipid-rich lesions were observed in lesion composition phantoms. (nih.gov)
  • The results from the tissue-mimicking phantom in scattering media indicate that angles between 30-75° could be used for imaging lesions at various depths (12 mm-28 mm) where lower LED illumination angles (closer to being parallel to the imaging plane) are preferable for deep tissue imaging and superficial lesion imaging is possible with higher LED illumination angles (closer to being perpendicular to the imaging plane). (mdpi.com)
  • Due to the large beam divergence of LEDs compared to traditional laser beams, it is imperative to quantify the angular dependence of LED-based illumination and optimize its performance for imaging superficial or deep-seated lesions. (mdpi.com)
  • The phantom incorporates structures imaged in the female breast such as microcalcifications, fiber lesions, and tumors with different sizes. (elsevier.com)
  • The Phantom Laboratory has produced dependable, high-precision phantoms and innovative custom solutions for the medical imaging and radiation therapy fields since 1989, when we purchased the radiological phantom business of Alderson Research Laboratories. (medicalproductguide.com)
  • Working with several renowned physicists, including David Goodenough, Ph.D. and Charles W. Coffey II, Ph.D., we have introduced several patented designs and continue to work on new products and product refinements to keep pace with new and evolving medical imaging and radiation therapy technologies. (medicalproductguide.com)
  • This work was supported, in part, by the Department of Radiology, Stanford University (to Z.C.), a China Scholarship Council fellowship (to H.L.), the National Cancer Institute (NCI) In Vivo Cellular Molecular Imaging Center (ICMIC) grant P50 CA114747 (to S.S.G.), and R01 CA119053 (to Z.C.). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. (plos.org)
  • The nuclear imaging phantoms segment is expected to grow at the fastest rate from 2020 to 2027 owing to the development of detailed anatomical phantoms for its effective use in biomedical and bioengineering research. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • To stage DVT (i.e., to determine the age of the thrombus, and therefore, to differentiate acute from chronic DVT), we explored photoacoustic imaging, a technique capable of noninvasive measurements of the optical absorption in tissue. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • In vivo optical images can be obtained for several radioactive probes including 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ([ 18 F]FDG), Na 18 F, Na 131 I, 90 YCl 3 and a 90 Y labeled peptide that specifically target tumors. (plos.org)
  • Thus we examined a variety of radionuclides with different types of emission properties (β + , β − or γ) using a commercially available OI instrument for in vitro and in vivo optical imaging. (plos.org)
  • The measurements have been carried out on phantoms containing vessels at several depths. (spie.org)
  • Bleeding in the brain can be readily discovered by ultrasonic diagnosis or by other imaging techniques. (google.com)
  • Throughout the duration of the project three ultrasonic composite phantoms (head, femur bone-muscle and breast-rib) were developed. (city.ac.uk)
  • Following several years of development the construction of a multichannel time-resolved imaging device for medical optical tomography has been completed. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Light from a single-mode fiber is relayed obliquely onto the tissue with a gradient index lens-based distal optics assembly and the resulting diffuse reflectance profile is imaged and collected with a 30,000 element, 0.72 mm clear aperture fiber bundle. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Phantoms, Imaging" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • Navigation is the combination of tracking and imaging technology to provide an intraoperative visualization of surgical instruments relative to the target region and surrounding anatomy structures [ 9 ], and to guide the surgical instruments to specified locations by intraoperative images. (termedia.pl)
  • Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Next, requirements for designing optical phantoms for validation of small endoscopic instrumentation is presented including a discussion on the diffuse and sub-diffuse scattering regimes and how this relates to common types of epithelial tissue. (spie.org)
  • The results presented here bridge the subfields of imaging by visualizing radioactive probes with OI. (plos.org)
  • The 32-channel system was employed to generate maps of the internal scattering and the absorption properties at 14 different transverse planes across the phantom. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • A custom-built modular 3-D printed hinge system and tissue-mimicking phantoms with various absorption and scattering properties were used in this study to quantify the angular dependence of LED-based illumination. (mdpi.com)
  • These phantoms can help in exploring the potential for early detection capabilities of imaging systems. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • It is an inexpensive imaging technique due to the low costs of detection devices. (plos.org)
  • Externally calibrated parallel imaging for 3D multispectral imaging near metallic implants using broadband ultrashort echo time imaging. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Consequently, lipid-enhanced multispectral images of the phantoms were created. (abe-journal.org)
  • By scanning a phantom using known targets, the accuracy of caliper measurements can be determined. (conquestimaging.com)
  • Images are reconstructed from time-resolved measurements by use of a scheme that employs a finite-element diffusion-based forward model and an iterative reconstruction solver. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Simulations and measurements of phantoms were executed to acquire backscattered radiofrequency (RF) signals, which were processed to explore the feasibility of small-window entropy imaging in detecting scatterer properties. (nature.com)
  • To validate the ability of entropy imaging in tissue characterization, measurements of benign and malignant breast tumors were conducted ( n = 63) to compare performances of conventional statistical parametric (based on Nakagami distribution) and entropy imaging by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. (nature.com)
  • The total accuracy is 100 and 82-96 % for phantom measurements and simulated data, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • The classic McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II is widely regarded as one of the most successful fighter designs of all time and saw considerable combat service in the Vietnam War. (militaryfactory.com)
  • Optical imaging (OI) techniques such as bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging have been widely used to track diseases in a non-invasive manner within living subjects. (plos.org)
  • Importance and impact of the training module: Simple mathematical phantoms comprise combination of simple geometrical primitives and as such they are widely used in simulations particularly for dosimetry and optimization of acquisition geometry. (eutempe-rx.org)
  • This paper presents a phantom study to asses the feasibility of the medical image registration algorithms in the operating room (OR) scenario. (actapress.com)
  • By using these tests periodically we are able to evaluate degradation of image quality over time as well as test the quality during a service call. (conquestimaging.com)
  • This is particularly true for the neuroimaging community, where researchers commonly rely on the visual inspection of individual images as their primary means of quality control (QC). (frontiersin.org)
  • The v2640 features very high dynamic range (64 dB) and the lowest noise floor of any Phantom camera (7.2 e-)-making it an excellent tool for researchers, scientists and engineers who need to capture clean, high-resolution images at ultra-high speeds. (dpreview.com)
  • The 4-Mpx design significantly increases the information contained in an image allowing researchers to better understand and quantify the phenomena they are observing. (dpreview.com)
  • Purdue University researchers have devised a way to use 3-D printers to ensure that medical imaging techniques offer the best performance. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Composition of optical phantoms, including scattering and absorbing agents, is discussed in the context of their specific application. (spie.org)
  • Low spatial resolution is a substantial drawback of using statistical parameters, including the Nakagami parameter, to image tissues. (nature.com)
  • The present invention relates to a phantom having optical characteristics, in particular light-scattering characteristics, that are similar to those of living tissues. (google.com)
  • In designing this new, cutting-edge sensor, we focused on capturing the best image in addition to meeting the speed and sensitivity requirements of the market. (dpreview.com)
  • The image quality is improved by the employment of an approximate correction method that uses scaling factors derived from the ratios of finite-element forward simulations in two and three spatial dimensions. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • A human cranium phantom and numerical simulations of SDH are used. (nih.gov)
  • The eerie reality of phantoms is often reinforced by sensations that mimic feelings in the limb before amputation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The scope of the book is limited to optical phantom design and application and is not intended to describe the physics, instrumentation, or mathematical or computational modeling of the various techniques mentioned in detail. (spie.org)
  • The scope of the chapter is limited to optical phantom design and application and is not intended to describe the physics, instrumentation, or mathematical or computational modeling of the various techniques mentioned in detail. (spie.org)
  • To evaluate performance of these techniques, we used a swine phantom with small airways to have three different sizes of wall thickness. (ieice.org)
  • Numerous studies have demonstrated that molecular imaging techniques play a central role in the era of personalized medicine. (plos.org)
  • We hypothesized that radionuclide radiation in the low energy window of light (1.2-3.1 eV, 400-1000 nm) could be imaged using OI techniques and be especially valuable for molecular OI. (plos.org)
  • 6. The spine phantom of claim 5 , further comprising a sheet layer affixed to the block, the sheet layer attenuating x-rays differently than the block, the sheet layer and block together having x-ray attenuation characteristics simulating human soft tissue. (google.com)
  • A. Godavarty, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, C. Zhang, and M. J. Eppstein, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging on large phantoms: Depth studies," in Frontiers in Optics , OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper WE3. (osapublishing.org)
  • Imaging phantom, or simply phantom, is a specially designed object that is scanned or imaged in the field of medical imaging to evaluate, analyze, and tune the performance of various imaging devices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. (childrensmercy.org)
  • The area under the ROC for using small-window entropy imaging to classify tumors was 0.89, which was higher than 0.79 obtained using statistical parametric imaging. (nature.com)
  • The Ce6-SCs localize within tumors via enhanced permeability and retention and are detectable by magnetic resonance (MR) and optical imaging. (nature.com)
  • The Phantom Menace at 15 was originally published as a postscript to my Q&A column - I'm reprinting it here as its own beast because it got a pretty good reaction and there's no reason to bury it in the back pages. (galactichunter.com)
  • Hasbro expanded upon The Phantom Menace Celebration scene finale where we witness little Ani in full Padawan garb. (galactichunter.com)
  • Results: The 3D-printed breast phantom had an average background value of 36.2 HU, which is close to that of glandular breast tissue (40 HU). (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: We developed a multi-purpose breast phantom using a 3D printing technique and determined its value for multi-modal breast imaging studies. (elsevier.com)
  • The thermal conductivity of the brain phantom was estimated to be 0.52 ± 0.06 W/mº-C and 0.57 ± 0.10 W/mº-C for the muscle/breast phantom. (city.ac.uk)