Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Amoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Annexin A2: A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.ZymosanCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Lasers, Excimer: Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk: Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Respiratory Burst: A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Pinocytosis: The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Phagocyte Bactericidal Dysfunction: Disorders in which phagocytic cells cannot kill ingested bacteria; characterized by frequent recurring infection with formulation of granulomas.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Receptors, Complement 3b: Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mannose-Binding Lectins: A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Mice, Inbred C57BLLysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Complement C1q: A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Nitroblue Tetrazolium: Colorless to yellow dye that is reducible to blue or black formazan crystals by certain cells; formerly used to distinguish between nonbacterial and bacterial diseases, the latter causing neutrophils to reduce the dye; used to confirm diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Thioglycolates: Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The team stated that these pseudopodia were the organelles of phagocytosis and that they may play a role in disc detachment as ... While disc assembly is mostly genetically controlled, disc shedding and the subsequent RPE phagocytosis appear to be regulated ... Besharse and his team, suggested that the distinction between the processes of disc detachment and phagocytosis was made ... Nguyen-Legros, J., & Hicks, D. (2000). "Renewal of photoreceptor outer segments and their phagocytosis by the retinal pigment ...
... have pseudopodia that allow them to move quickly and phagocytise the nucleus of polynuclear neutrophils by ... Phagocytosis can sometimes continue for more than 20 polynuclear neutrophil nuclei. This activity leaves a denucleated cell, ... into the cytoplasm to reach the nucleus and literally suctions its contents via the negative pressure of the pseudopod. The ...
... may take in food by osmotrophy, absorbing nutrients through their cell membranes; or they may feed by phagocytosis, ... which move by the use of foot-like structures called pseudopodia). Some protozoa are sessile, and do not move at all. ... either by engulfing particles of food with pseudopodia (as amoebae do), or taking in food through a mouth-like aperture called ...
Like all Amoebozoa, they take in food by phagocytosis, encircling food particles with its pseudopodia, then enclosing them ... Like other lobose amoebae, Chaos move by extending pseudopodia. As a new pseudopod is extended, a variable zone of ectoplasm ... The cell does not have a mouth or cytostome, nor is there any fixed site on the cell membrane at which phagocytosis normally ... Until quite recently, the genus Chaos was included, along with all other protists that extend lobose pseudopods or move about ...
Large pseudopods may produce numerous clear projections called subpseudopodia (or determinate pseudopodia), which are extended ... In all amoebozoa, the primary mode of nutrition is phagocytosis, in which the cell surrounds potential food particles with its ... A cell may also form multiple indeterminate pseudopodia, through which the entire contents of the cell flow in the direction of ... The cell mass flows into a leading pseudopod, and the others ultimately retract, unless the organism changes direction. While ...
Bacterial morphological plasticity
As it has been observed in other organisms (such as fungi), filamentous forms are resistant to phagocytosis. As an example of ... predator craws and ingests prey through pharynx or by pseudopods Pallium: prey engulfed e.g. by extrusion of feeding membrane ... Thus, filamentation leads to the prevention of phagocytosis and killing by predator. Bimodal effect is a situation that ... capture by predator-induced current or motility and phagocytosis Raptorial: ...
Outline of biology
The Amebozoa utilize pseudopodia and cytoplasmic flow to move in their environment. Most Amebas are unicellular, although a few ... a form of phagocytosis. While protozoa reproduce mainly asexually, some protozoa are capable of sexual reproduction. Protozoa ... Protozoa are largely defined by their method of locomotion, including flagella, cilia, and pseudopodia. While there has been ... while heterotrophic protozoa consume food by either funneling it through a mouth-like gullet or engulfing it with pseudopods, ...
In some, such as amoeba, phagocytosis takes place by surrounding the target object with pseudopods, as in animal phagocytes. In ... Ciliates also engage in phagocytosis. In ciliates there is a specialized groove or chamber in the cell where phagocytosis takes ... a demonstration of phagocytosis from 1876: Reports of phagocytosis before Metchnikoff's 1880 paper". Cellular Immunology. 240: ... Phagocytosis is involved in the acquisition of nutrients for some cells. The process is homologous to eating at the level of ...
... are critical in sensing prey that can then be engulfed; the engulfing pseudopodia are called phagocytosis ... A pseudopod or pseudopodium (plural: pseudopods or pseudopodia) (from the Greek word ψευδοποδός, ψευδός "false" + ποδός "foot ... Axopodia are the phagocytosis type with long, thin pseudopods supported by complex microtubule arrays enveloped with cytoplasm ... Generally several pseudopodia arise from the surface of the body (polypodial, e.g. Amoeba proteus), or a single pseudopod may ...
... e typically ingest their food by phagocytosis, extending pseudopods to encircle and engulf live prey or particles of ... on the basis of the form and structure of their pseudopods. Amoebae with pseudopods supported by regular arrays of microtubules ... Amoeboid cells do not have a mouth or cytostome, and there is no fixed place on the cell at which phagocytosis normally occurs ... Typically, an amoeba moves by extending a pseudopod, attaching it to the substrate and filling it with cytosol, then releasing ...
Ancient single-celled organisms such as amoeba use phagocytosis as a way to acquire nutrients, rather than an immune strategy. ... Upon binding, "outside-in" signalling triggers actin polymerisation and pseudopodia formation, which surrounds and fuses behind ... In cell biology, a phagosome is a vesicle formed around a particle engulfed by a phagocyte via phagocytosis. Professional ... Some invasive bacteria can also induce phagocytosis in non-phagocytic cells to mediate host uptake. For example, Shigella can ...
In Amoeba, the pseudopodia are approximately tubular, and rounded at the ends (lobose). The cell's overall shape may change ... An Amoeba obtains its food by phagocytosis, engulfing smaller organisms and particles of organic matter, or by pinocytosis, ... When crawling rapidly along a surface, the cell may take a roughly monopodial form, with a single dominant pseudopod deployed ... rapidly as pseudopodia are extended and retracted into the cell body. An Amoeba may produce many pseudopodia at once, ...
Index of biology articles
PhagocytosisEdit. Main article: Phagocytosis. Macrophages are professional phagocytes and are highly specialized in removal of ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its "arms" (pseudopodia) to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens. Trypan Blue Exclusion. ... a. Ingestion through phagocytosis, a phagosome is formed. b. The fusion of lysosomes with the phagosome creates a phagolysosome ... Upon phagocytosis by a macrophage, the Leishmania parasite finds itself in a phagocytic vacuole. Under normal circumstances, ...
Once activated, they change shape and become more amorphous or amoeba-like and can extend pseudopods as they hunt for antigens ... Rubin-Bejerano, I.; Abeijon, C.; Magnelli, P.; Grisafi, P.; Fink, G. R. (July 2007). "Phagocytosis by human neutrophils is ... Neutrophils will be removed after phagocytosis of pathogens by macrophages. PECAM-1 and phosphatidylserine on the cell surface ... Neutrophils have three methods for directly attacking micro-organisms: phagocytosis (ingestion), degranulation (release of ...
Amoebozoa - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phagocytosis is followed by digestion of the ingested amoebae. Next the zygote forms a macrocyst characterized by a surrounding ... The amoebae move using filose pseudopods, and are attracted to chemicals produced by other amoebae. In Dictyostelium, ... such as phagocytosis, membrane trafficking, endocytic transit and vesicle sorting. Like leukocytes, D. discoideum possess ... Phospholipase C IP3 induces calcium ion release Calcium ions act on the cytoskeleton to induce the extension of pseudopodia. ...
Amoeba - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In cell biology, a phagosome is a vesicle formed around a particle engulfed by a phagocyte via phagocytosis. Professional ... Upon binding, "outside-in" signalling triggers actin polymerisation and pseudopodia formation, which surrounds and fuses behind ... Further information: phagocytosis. Phagosomes are large enough to degrade whole bacteria, or apoptotic and senescent cells, ... Aderem, Alan (15 June 2003). "Phagocytosis and the Inflammatory Response". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 187 (s2): S340- ...
They have a similar life style to Dictyostelids, but their amoebae behave differently, having eruptive pseudopodia. They used ... As it moves, plasmodium also gains nutrients through the phagocytosis of bacteria and small pieces of organic matter. ... Slime nets that are marine and form labyrinthine networks of tubes in which amoeba without pseudopods can travel. ... They are marine and form labyrinthine networks of tubes in which amoeba without pseudopods can travel. ...
Phagocytosis. Scanning electron micrograph of a neutrophil (yellow) phagocytosing anthrax bacilli (orange). Scale bar is ... Once activated, they change shape and become more amorphous or amoeba-like and can extend pseudopods as they hunt for antigens. ... Neutrophils will be removed after phagocytosis of pathogens by macrophages. PECAM-1 and phosphatidylserine on the cell surface ... This implicates glucose and other simple carbohydrates in the control of phagocytosis and shows that the effects last for at ...
Actin filaments and pseudopodia form. During migration, integrins on the pseudopod attach to the ECM, and the actin ... This happens through the process of phagocytosis, where white blood cells "eat" debris by engulfing it. Platelet-derived growth ... Stem cells of endothelial cells, originating from parts of uninjured blood vessels, develop pseudopodia and push through the ... By the fourth day, phagocytosis of contaminated tissues is well underway, and the processes of epithelization, collagen ...
Pseudopodia - Wikipedia
Pseudopodia are critical in sensing prey that can then be engulfed; the engulfing pseudopodia are called phagocytosis ... A pseudopod or pseudopodium (plural: pseudopods or pseudopodia) (from the Greek word ψευδοποδός, ψευδός "false" + ποδός "foot ... Axopodia are the phagocytosis type with long, thin pseudopods supported by complex microtubule arrays enveloped with cytoplasm ... Generally several pseudopodia arise from the surface of the body (polypodial, e.g. Amoeba proteus), or a single pseudopod may ...
Conoidasida - Wikipedia
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00198649 - Effects of mineral dusts on ultrastructure and function of alveolar macrophages.
Few pseudopodia were visible. Some necrosis was observed. Titanium-dioxide caused less severe changes, expanded cellular volume ... Asbestos fiber phagocytosis was accompanied by increasing cellular death. Antimony dust caused membrane ruffling. Beryllium ... Frequent vacuolation and loss of pseudopodia and microvilli from the membrane were observed. Short asbestos fibers were ... and increased numbers of pseudopodia being the major changes seen. Quartz disrupted the cell membrane. ...
Motility - Wikipedia
Distribution of actin-binding protein and myosin in polymorphonuclear leukocytes during locomotion and phagocytosis. - PubMed ...
An organelle-excluding pseudopod extends in the direction of movement and surrounds objects during phagocytosis. The anterior ... ABP and myosin redistribute cortical cytoplasm into pseudopods involved in locomotion and phagocytosis. ... In polarized PMN leukocytes crawling toward yeast particles, myosin and ABP staining concentrated in the anterior pseudopod. In ... Distribution of actin-binding protein and myosin in polymorphonuclear leukocytes during locomotion and phagocytosis.. Valerius ...
EFF-1 fusogen promotes phagosome sealing during cell process clearance in Caenorhabditis elegans | Nature Cell Biology
We find that EFF-1, a protein previously implicated in cell-cell fusion 8 , specifically promotes distal process phagocytosis. ... EFF-1 localizes to phagocyte pseudopod tips and acts exoplasmically to drive phagosome sealing. eff-1 mutations result in ... Phagocytosis of dying cells is critical in development and immunity1-3. Although proteins for recognition and engulfment of ... phagocytosis arrest with unsealed phagosomes. Our studies suggest universal mechanisms for dismantling morphologically complex ...
Cellular/molecular Physiology And Neurophysiology Flashcards by Ashley Hagen | Brainscape
Phagocytosis is used to engulf bacteria or large particles, such as cell debris from damaged tissues. Pseudopodia (extensions ... The pseudopodia then fuse into large vesicles called phagosomes. Inside the cell, the phagosomes join with lysosomes and the ... cells of the immune system) use phagocytosis. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the SPECIFIC uptake of ligands (any molecule or ... The three types are pinocytosis (cell drinking), phagocytosis (cell eating), and receptor-mediated.. Pinocytosis is used to ...
Feeding in a calcareous sponge: particle uptake by pseudopodia. - Free Online Library
by The Biological Bulletin; Biological sciences Animal feeding behavior Research Pseudopodia Sponges Sponges (Animals) ... Phagocytosis by pseudopodial extensions Phagocytosis of larger particles by pseudopodia has been shown to occur in many ... Furthermore, excellent images of phagocytosis by pseudopodia in the choanoflagellate Codosiga (Leadbeater and Morton, 1974) ... and controls for handling suggest that phagocytosis by pseudopodia is not an artifact. ...
MDR - Breast Cancer-derived Factors Stimulate Osteoclastogenesis
Phagocytosis depends on expansion of plasmalemmal pseudopods generated by focal actin. Phagocytosis depends on expansion of ... To quantitate phagocytosis, macrophages had been stained with labelled F(ab)2 anti-rabbit IgG and exterior SRBCs are thought as ... At different period factors, the cells had been placed on snow, cleaned once with cold phagocytosis medium and prepared for ... For transmitting electron microscopy, Organic264.7 cells were serum-starved for 30 min at 37C in phagocytosis moderate, then ...
Indirubin | Breast Cancer-derived Factors Stimulate Osteoclastogenesis
Phagocytosis depends on expansion of plasmalemmal pseudopods generated by focal actin. June 8, 2017 3:53 pm. \ by Randall ... Phagocytosis depends on expansion of plasmalemmal pseudopods generated by focal actin delivery and polymerisation of membranes ... To quantitate phagocytosis, macrophages had been stained with labelled F(ab)2 anti-rabbit IgG and exterior SRBCs are thought as ... At different period factors, the cells had been placed on snow, cleaned once with cold phagocytosis medium and prepared for ...
Defective macrophage phagocytosis of bacteria in COPD | European Respiratory Society
... this is proceeded by complete encapsulation by pseudopodia; and f) the bacteria are then transported into the cell cytoplasm ... These comparative phagocytosis experiments suggest that, in COPD, defective macrophage phagocytosis is acquired during ... Comparison of alveolar macrophage and MDM phagocytosis. Initial experiments demonstrated that phagocytosis of polystyrene beads ... Defective macrophage phagocytosis of bacteria in COPD. A. E. Taylor, T. K. Finney-Hayward, J. K. Quint, C. M. R. Thomas, S. J. ...
The Small GTPase RAC1/CED-10 Is Essential in Maintaining Dopaminergic Neuron Function and Survival Against α-Synuclein-Induced...
The term phagocytosis refers also to the mechanism by which certain cells engulf and digest other cells and also larger ... RAC1/ced-10 is the converging gene of the engulfment machinery mobilizing actin pseudopodia in phagocytic cells . Therefore ... Reddien PW, Horvitz HR (2000) CED-2/CrkII and CED-10/Rac control phagocytosis and cell migration in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nat ... Cabello J et al (2014) PDR-1/hParkin negatively regulates the phagocytosis of apoptotic cell corpses in Caenorhabditis elegans ...
Phagocytosis - Health Video: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Hematology, micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in fishes from Sao Francisco river, Minas Gerais state, Brazil/Hematologia,...
Lecture 42 Flashcards by ned stuitje | Brainscape
Target shape dependence in a simple model of receptor-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis | PNAS
Engulfment within a pseudopod coil. Cell 36(1):27-33. ... Extension to Phagocytosis.. Although actin plays a role in many ... including phagocytosis, have similar shape dependence. In addition, we found that phagocytosis not only fulfils its traditional ... Thus, phagocytosis (. ℬ. 1. ,. 0. ) allows not only larger particles but also more eccentric particles to be ingested compared ... corresponds to phagocytosis. (B) The range of spheroids (gray region) that can be engulfed as a function of the bending-actin ...
'Amoeba Warfare': How the U.S. Military Could Use Drone Swarms in the Next War | The National...
Amoebas capture food with their pseudopodia, where they encircle and engulf their prey. This process is known as phagocytosis. ... Pseudopodia (Probing, Penetrating, and Exploiting Drones). As mentioned earlier, an amoeba can form extensions of their ... This is known as false feet or pseudopodia and is used for movement and capturing food. Think of this as the barriers being ... In the video Phagocytose 1, we see the process of phagocytosis in action as an amoeba encircles and then digests another ...
Dynamin 2 Is Required for Phagocytosis in Macrophages | JEM
1999) A requirement for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in pseudopod extension. J. Biol. Chem 274:1240-1247, pmid:9880492.. ... 2 B. DynK44A inhibited FcR-mediated phagocytosis by 85%, CR-mediated phagocytosis by 63%, and zymosan phagocytosis by 65% (Fig ... Dynamin 2 Is Critical for Macrophage Phagocytosis.. To examine the role of dynamin 2 in phagocytosis, RAW-TT10 macrophages were ... Although all phagocytosis requires actin polymerization, phagocytosis mediated through different receptors uses distinct ...
The Probert Encyclopaedia - Animals And Plants (A)
Science Clips - Volume 10, Issue 18, May 22, 2018
In this study we demonstrate that these cells take up B. burgdorferi via coiling phagocytosis mediated by the formin, Daam1, a ... Following coincubation with glial cells, B. burgdorferi was enwrapped by Daam1-enriched coiling pseudopods. Coiling of B. ... Human neuroglial cells internalize Borrelia burgdorferi by coiling phagocytosis mediated by Daam1External. Williams SK, Weiner ... These results show that coiling phagocytosis is a mechanism for borrelial internalization by neuroglial cells mediated by Daam1 ...
Ameba | Encyclopedia.com
In a process known as phagocytosis, amebas engulf their prey, or particles of appropriate size, with their pseudopodia, forming ... pseudopodia, or false feet) of the body. Pseudopodia, used in locomotion and feeding, may be rounded at the tip (lobopodia), ... Any single-celled eukaryote that is naked and changes shape by the irregular extension and retraction of pseudopodia.. ... that have ameboid features such as pseudopodia. Other ameboid protozoans of the phylum Sarcodina include the marine ...
Light Micrograph Of Amoeba Catching Art Print by Eric V. Grave
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Few pseudopodia were visible. Some necrosis was observed. Titanium-dioxide caused less severe changes, expanded cellular volume ... Asbestos fiber phagocytosis was accompanied by increasing cellular death. Antimony dust caused membrane ruffling. Beryllium ... Frequent vacuolation and loss of pseudopodia and microvilli from the membrane were observed. Short asbestos fibers were ... and increased numbers of pseudopodia being the major changes seen. Quartz disrupted the cell membrane. ...
Introduction to Organisms - microbewiki
The pseudopodia are also used for feeding. They are able to sense prey that can be engulfed and engulf them via phagocytosis. ... Their habitats include freshwater, soil, and can act as animal parasites as well . They use pseudopodia, a long outward ... They are motile through the use of pseudopodia, which stretch and pull the cell along with it. ...
Ca2+-activated cleavage of ezrin visualised dynamically in living myeloid cells during cell surface area expansion | Journal of...
Ezrin cleavage was also observed in the phagocytic pseudopodia during phagocytosis. Thus, our data demonstrates that peripheral ... to pseudopodia extension (50 s) to completion of phagocytosis (80 s) and finally retraction and internalisation of the zymosan ... The Ca2+ signal generated by phagocytosis may not be restricted to the region of the cell where phagocytosis is occurring ( ... 6B). The pseudopodia which grew around the remainder of the particle was also devoid of ezrin-GFP (Fig. 6B,C) as was the ...
Legionnaires' disease and its agent Legionella pneumophila | SpringerLink
Horwitz MA (1984) Phagocytosis of the Legionnaires disease bacterium (Legionella pneumophila) occurs by a novel mechanism: ... Rechnitzer C, Blom J (1989) Engulfment of the Philadelphia strain of Legionella pneumophila within pseudopod coils in human ... Hilbi H, Segal G, Shuman HA (2001) Icm/dot-dependent upregulation of phagocytosis by Legionella pneumophila. Mol Microbiol 42(3 ... Payne NR, Horwitz MA (1987) Phagocytosis of Legionella pneumophila is mediated by human monocyte complement receptors. J Exp ...
Protists, Pseudopods for Biology and Life Science
Pseudopods are unicellular organisms characterized by movement using pseudopods, which can act in both locomotion and feeding ... phagocytosis). Internal organelles are easily visible using a compound microscope with a 40X objective. These slow movers are ... Protists, Pseudopods are unicellular organisms characterized by movement using pseudopods, which can act in both locomotion and ... Pseudopods prefer stagnant water, room temperature, dim light or darkness and tend to move away from a microscopes field of ...
Novel Clade 1: Pseudopirsonia, Auranticordis
pseudopodia. A temporary foot like extension of a one-celled organism, such as an amoeba, used for moving about and for ... Axopodia are responsible for phagocytosis, by rapidly retracting in response to physical contacts. They are observed in ... pseudopod. a temporary protrusion of the protoplasm, as of certain protozoans, usually serving as an organ of locomotion or ... thin pseudopods containing complex arrays of microtubules and are enveloped by cytoplasm. ...
ParticleStages of phagocytosisIngestionPreyVacuoleLocomotion and phagocytosisChemotaxisSurroundProtrusionBacteriaPhagocyteAmoebasPathogensIngestExtendKnown as phagocytosisInvolved in locomotionSingle pseudopodLobose pseudopodsAvoid phagocytosisReceptorAmoeba usesCytoplasm knownOccursMechanismsExtensionsOrganismActin dynamicsVesiclePolymerizationInflammationAccumulatesFlowsProcessExtension
- Feeding in a calcareous sponge: particle uptake by pseudopodia. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Phagocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis are vitally important particle uptake mechanisms in many cell types, ranging from single-cell organisms to immune cells. (pnas.org)
- This arrest in phagocytosis resembles that seen with inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and inhibition of PI3K prevents the recruitment of dynamin to the site of particle binding. (rupress.org)
- Phagocytosis is initiated by the interaction of specific receptors on the surface of the phagocyte with ligands on the particle. (rupress.org)
- We report here that dynamin 2 localizes to forming phagosomes, and that a mutant form of dynamin 2 inhibits phagocytosis at the stage of membrane extension around the particle, but does not impair particle-mediated stimulation of inflammatory mediators. (rupress.org)
- Non-actuation of the immune system except for a few innate immunity processes gives the non-specific nature to the particle bioreaction and restricts reaction to the size-sensitive phagocytosis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Nevertheless, the fact that both vesicle- and plasma-membrane associated SNAREs are essential for focal exocytosis and particle internalization ( 4 , 5 , 8 , 10 ) illustrates the importance of membrane fusion regulators during phagocytosis. (jimmunol.org)
- Two mechanisms have been considered for particle phagocytosis. (nih.gov)
- According to the zipper mechanism, ingestion occurs by sequential engagement of a phagocyte's membrane against the particle surface, and pseudopod advance proceeds no further than receptor-ligand interactions permit. (nih.gov)
- Phagocytic particle ingestion can require actin assembly and pseudopod extension, two cellular events that may coincide spatially and temporally but apparently use distinct signal transduction events or pathways . (imm.org)
- In phagocytosis, protrusions called pseudopodia extend from the cell and wrap themselves around a larger particle. (getrevising.co.uk)
- As phagocytosis occurs when innate receptors on phagocytic cells encounter ligands on a target particle bigger than 0.5 µm, the assays we present here comprise the use of pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and other particulates such as zymosan and IgG-coated beads. (elsevier.com)
- Many studies of endocytosis and phagocytosis presume that organelles containing a single kind of internalized particle exhibit invariant patterns of protein and phospholipid association as they mature inside cells. (rupress.org)
- Fcγ receptor (FcR)-mediated phagocytosis occurs by the sequential engagement of particle-bound IgG by macrophage surface FcR. (rupress.org)
- Ligated FcRs locally activate intracellular signaling that results in pseudopod extension over the particle and further engagement of particle-bound IgG by macrophage FcR. (rupress.org)
- At early stages of phagocytosis, talin accumulates in the cells' cortical cytoplasm adjacent to the forming phagosome and extends into pseudopods that are encircling the particle. (columbia.edu)
- In the process of phagocytosis, pseudopodia extend around the antibody-bound particle to form the phagocytic cup. (reactome.org)
- The stages of phagocytosis include the engulfment of a food particle, the digestion of the particle using enzymes contained within a lysosome, and the expulsion of undigested materials from the cell. (lumenlearning.com)
Stages of phagocytosis3
- What are the stages of phagocytosis? (brainscape.com)
- Phagocytes successfully internalize and eradicate foreign molecules only when all stages of phagocytosis are fulfilled. (elsevier.com)
- Imaging and quantification of various stages of phagocytosis is instrumental for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of this cellular process. (elsevier.com)
- The functions of pseudopodia include locomotion and the capturing of prey. (wikipedia.org)
- The amoeba has extended a pseudopodium (false foot) to attack its prey. (fineartamerica.com)
- The extensions are primarily used for capturing prey, which can then be incorporated into the body of the cell through a process known as phagocytosis . (fsu.edu)
- Amoebas obtain food by capturing their prey with their pseudopodia. (thoughtco.com)
- Amoebas capture their prey by surrounding it with their pseudopodia and engulfing it into a vacuole full of water. (factbites.com)
- Chemical stimuli from smaller organisms, the amoeba's food, induce the formation of pseudopodia, pairs of which envelop the organism, at the same time forming a cavity, or vacuole . (factbites.com)
- A pseudopodium flows out, engulfs a small organism such as an alga and is then reabsorbed into the cell body, where it is digested by enzymes within a digestive vacuole. (slideserve.com)
- engulfment pseudopods formation phagocytic vacuole + lysosome phagolysosome 3. (slideplayer.com)
Locomotion and phagocytosis5
- Distribution of actin-binding protein and myosin in polymorphonuclear leukocytes during locomotion and phagocytosis. (nih.gov)
- Polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes, highly motile ameboid cells vital for mammalian defense against infection, acquire a distinct polarized morphology during locomotion and phagocytosis. (nih.gov)
- We used indirect immunofluorescence to study the redistribution of myosin and ABP molecules in rabbit PMN leukocytes during locomotion and phagocytosis. (nih.gov)
- Taken together with available morphologic and biochemical information, these findings are consistent with a mechanism wherein interactions of actin, ABP and myosin redistribute cortical cytoplasm into pseudopods involved in locomotion and phagocytosis. (nih.gov)
- A temporary projection of the cytoplasm of certain cells, such as phagocytes, or of certain unicellular organisms, especially amoebas, that serves in locomotion and phagocytosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Plasmalemmal phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PI4,5P 2 ) synthesized by PI 4-phosphate (PI4P) 5-kinase (PIP5K) is key to the polymerization of actin that drives chemotaxis and phagocytosis. (rupress.org)
- Phagocytosis involves chemotaxis, where phagocytic cells are attracted to microorganisms by means of chemotactic chemicals such as microbial products, complement, damaged cells, antibodies, and white blood cell fragments. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- They're scavenger cells that can form tentacles called pseudopods to surround and ingest foreign cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- 1. Pseudopodia ( temporary cytoplasm filled projections of eukaryotic cell membranes) surround microbes. (brainscape.com)
- This binding initiates the formation of pseudopodia (extensions of the cell) that surround the bacterium. (thoughtco.com)
- The pseudopodia (false feet) bring foreign entity into the cell to digest in the phagocyte within the phagocyte is a ___________ where the foreign entities can be found. (start-seeking.ru)
- In phagocytosis, the phagocytic cell or phagocyte must be able to attach to the target cell, internalize it, degrade it, and expel the refuse. (thoughtco.com)
- Thus, macrophage phagocytosis of pathogens initiates inflammation, whereas the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells does not initiate a proinflammatory response ( 2 ). (rupress.org)
- The major motive of phagocytosis is firstly to protect the organism from attack by harmful pathogens and secondly to remove all the damaged or dead cells from the blood. (lalpathlabs.com)
- Pseudopods extend and contract by the reversible assembly of actin subunits into many microfilaments. (wikipedia.org)
- Also, their stiff pseudopodia extend in all directions and are composed of cytoplasm and intertwined helices of microtubules. (fsu.edu)
- or does it simply extend its pseudopod in the direction that it needs to go, so it's not really 'rotation' in the traditional sense [I do hope this make sense! (biology-online.org)
Involved in locomotion1
- Pseudopods can be classified into several varieties, according to the number of projections (monopodia and polypodia), and according to their appearance: Lobopodia (or lobose pseudopods) are bulbous, short, and blunt in form. (wikipedia.org)
- Traditionally all amoebae with lobose pseudopods were treated together as the Lobosea, placed with other amoeboids in the phylum Sarcodina or Rhizopoda, but these were considered to be unnatural groups. (wikidoc.org)
- We previously obtained evidence that PKC-α plays a role in phagolysosome biogenesis ( 24 ), and, while investigating the mechanisms by which PKC-α modulates phagocytosis, we identified Syt V ( 25 ) as a molecule potentially interacting with PKC-α in phagosomes preparations (A.F.V. and A.D., unpublished observations). (jimmunol.org)
- The formation of pseudopodia and amoeboid locomotion result from local changes in the surface tension of the cell and from little-studied mechanisms of overflow, contraction, extension, and liquefaction of the cytoplasm. (thefreedictionary.com)
- However, at the onset of phagocytosis, the phosphoinositide accumulates further at sites where pseudopods are formed. (rupress.org)
- During infection, the capsular material accumulates in host tissues ( 3 ) and presumably contributes to virulence by inhibiting phagocytosis ( 4 , 5 ), leukocyte migration ( 6 ), and Ab responses ( 7 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)