Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms, forming the basis of classes such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons, which play a vital role in energy production and chemical synthesis.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
A plant genus of the family VITACEAE. Cissus rufescence gum is considered comparable to TRAGACANTH.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.
A colloidal system of semisolid hydrocarbons obtained from PETROLEUM. It is used as an ointment base, topical protectant, and lubricant.
A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.
A body of water located at the southeastern corner of North America. It is bordered by the states to the north of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas; by five Mexican states to the west: Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan; and by Cuba to the southeast.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.
A family of anaerobic METHANOMICROBIALES whose cells are coccoid to straight or slightly curved rods. There are six genera.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
'Ink,' when used in a medical context, typically refers to a dark watery substance used in diagnostic procedures like Schirmer's test for measuring tear production or in certain artistic applications like tattooing, which is not to be confused with the pharmaceutical or medicinal usage of the term 'ink' that relates to a preparation intended for internal use.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.
Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Trichocomaceae, order EUROTIALES. Some species can cause opportunistic infections in humans, similar to its anamorph ASPERGILLUS.
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.
Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.

Anaerobic oxidation of o-xylene, m-xylene, and homologous alkylbenzenes by new types of sulfate-reducing bacteria. (1/660)

Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide.  (+info)

Microbial desulfurization of organic sulfur compounds in petroleum. (2/660)

Sulfur removal from petroleum is important from the standpoint of the global environment because the combustion of sulfur compounds leads to the production of sulfur oxides, which are the source of acid rain. As the regulations for sulfur in fuels become more stringent, the existing chemical desulfurizations are coming inadequate for the "deeper desulfurization" to produce lower-sulfur fuels without new and innovative processes. Biodesulfurization is rising as one of the candidates. Several microorganisms were found to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT), a representative of the organic sulfur compounds in petroleum, forming a sulfur-free compound, 2-hydroxybiphenyl. They are promising as biocatalysts in the microbial desulfurization of petroleum because without assimilation of the carbon content, they remove only sulfur from the heterocyclic compounds which is refractory to conventional chemical desulfurization. Both enzymological and molecular genetic studies are now in progress for the purpose of obtaining improved desulfurization activity of organisms. The genes involved in the sulfur-specific DBT desulfurization were identified and the corresponding enzymes have been investigated. From the practical point of view, it has been proved that the microbial desulfurization proceeds in the presence of high concentrations of hydrocarbons, and more complicated DBT analogs are also desulfurized by the microorganisms. This review outlines the progress in the studies of the microbial desulfurization from the basic and practical point of view.  (+info)

Potential effects of gas hydrate on human welfare. (3/660)

For almost 30 years. serious interest has been directed toward natural gas hydrate, a crystalline solid composed of water and methane, as a potential (i) energy resource, (ii) factor in global climate change, and (iii) submarine geohazard. Although each of these issues can affect human welfare, only (iii) is considered to be of immediate importance. Assessments of gas hydrate as an energy resource have often been overly optimistic, based in part on its very high methane content and on its worldwide occurrence in continental margins. Although these attributes are attractive, geologic settings, reservoir properties, and phase-equilibria considerations diminish the energy resource potential of natural gas hydrate. The possible role of gas hydrate in global climate change has been often overstated. Although methane is a "greenhouse" gas in the atmosphere, much methane from dissociated gas hydrate may never reach the atmosphere, but rather may be converted to carbon dioxide and sequestered by the hydrosphere/biosphere before reaching the atmosphere. Thus, methane from gas hydrate may have little opportunity to affect global climate change. However, submarine geohazards (such as sediment instabilities and slope failures on local and regional scales, leading to debris flows, slumps, slides, and possible tsunamis) caused by gas-hydrate dissociation are of immediate and increasing importance as humankind moves to exploit seabed resources in ever-deepening waters of coastal oceans. The vulnerability of gas hydrate to temperature and sea level changes enhances the instability of deep-water oceanic sediments, and thus human activities and installations in this setting can be affected.  (+info)

Effects of surfactant mixtures, including Corexit 9527, on bacterial oxidation of acetate and alkanes in crude oil. (4/660)

Mixtures of nonionic and anionic surfactants, including Corexit 9527, were tested to determine their effects on bacterial oxidation of acetate and alkanes in crude oil by cells pregrown on these substrates. Corexit 9527 inhibited oxidation of the alkanes in crude oil by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ATCC 31012, while Span 80, a Corexit 9527 constituent, markedly increased the oil oxidation rate. Another Corexit 9527 constituent, the negatively charged dioctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT), strongly reduced the oxidation rate. The combination of Span 80 and AOT increased the rate, but not as much as Span 80 alone increased it, which tentatively explained the negative effect of Corexit 9527. The results of acetate uptake and oxidation experiments indicated that the nonionic surfactants interacted with the acetate uptake system while the anionic surfactant interacted with the oxidation system of the bacteria. The overall effect of Corexit 9527 on alkane oxidation by A. calcoaceticus ATCC 31012 thus seems to be the sum of the independent effects of the individual surfactants in the surfactant mixture. When Rhodococcus sp. strain 094 was used, the alkane oxidation rate decreased to almost zero in the presence of a mixture of Tergitol 15-S-7 and AOT even though the Tergitol 15-S-7 surfactant increased the alkane oxidation rate and AOT did not affect it. This indicated that there was synergism between the two surfactants rather than an additive effect like that observed for A. calcoaceticus ATCC 31012.  (+info)

Determination of tin, vanadium, iron, and molybdenum in various matrices by atomic absorption spectrometry using a simultaneous liquid-liquid extraction procedure. (5/660)

An atomic-absorption spectrometric method is described for the determination of tin, vanadium, iron, and molybdenum in two certified reference materials, food samples, and petroleum crude. After treatment with acids, these elements are separated from matrix elements by simultaneous solvent extraction of 5,5'-methylenedisalicylohydroxamic acid complexes from HCl/NaClO4 solution into an isobutyl methyl ketone/tributyl phosphate solution. The detection limits range from 0.018 to 0.19 microg/mL (n = 3), and the relative standard deviations do not exceed 2.0% at levels of 0.5, 0.6, 2.0, and 7.0 microg/mL of Fe, Mo, V, and Sn, respectively. The method is selective and suffers only from interference by Zr(IV), Ti(IV), Th(IV), W(VI), PO4(3-), and F-.  (+info)

Petroleum distillate solvents as risk factors for undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD). (6/660)

Occupational solvent exposure may increase the risk of connective tissue disease (CTD). The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the relation between undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and solvent exposure in Michigan and Ohio. Women were considered to have UCTD if they did not meet the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for any CTD but had at least two documented signs, symptoms, or laboratory abnormalities suggestive of a CTD. Detailed information on solvent exposure was ascertained from 205 cases, diagnosed between 1980 and 1992, and 2,095 population-based controls. Age-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for all exposures. Among 16 self-reported occupational activities with potential solvent exposure, furniture refinishing (OR = 9.73, 95 percent CI 1.48-63.90), perfume, cosmetic, or drug manufacturing (OR = 7.71, 95 percent CI 2.24-26.56), rubber product manufacturing (OR = 4.70, 95 percent CI 1.75-12.61), work in a medical diagnostic or pathology laboratory (OR = 4.52, 95 percent CI 2.27-8.97), and painting or paint manufacturing (OR = 2.87, 95 percent CI 1.06-7.76) were significantly associated with UCTD. After expert review of self-reported exposure to ten specific solvents, paint thinners or removers (OR = 2.73, 95 percent CI 1.80-4.16) and mineral spirits (OR = 1.81, 95 percent CI 1.09-3.02) were associated with UCTD. These results suggest that exposure to petroleum distillates increases the risk of developing UCTD.  (+info)

Marinobacter aquaeolei sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from a Vietnamese oil-producing well. (7/660)

Several strains of moderately halophilic and mesophilic bacteria were isolated at the head of an oil-producing well on an offshore platform in southern Vietnam. Cells were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and motile by means of a polar flagellum. Growth occurred at NaCl concentrations between 0 and 20%; the optimum was 5% NaCl. One strain, which was designated VT8T, could degrade n-hexadecane, pristane and some crude oil components. It grew anaerobically in the presence of nitrate on succinate, citrate or acetate, but not on glucose. Several organic acids and amino acids were utilized as sole carbon and energy sources. The major components of its cellular fatty acids were C12:0 3-OH, C16:1, omega 9c, C16:0 and C18:1 omega 9c. The DNA G + C content was 55.7 mol%. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that strain VT8T was closely related to Marinobacter sp. strain CAB (99.8% similarity) and Marinobaster hydrocarbonoclasticus (99.4% similarity). Its antibiotic resistance, isoprenoid quinones and fatty acids were similar to those of Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus and Pseudomonas nautica. However, the whole-cell protein pattern of VT8T differed from that of other halophilic marine isolates, including P. nautica. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that the level of relatedness to Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus was 65% and that to P. nautica was 75%. Further differences were apparent in Fourier-transformed IR spectra of cells and lipopolysaccharide composition. It is proposed that VT8T should be the type strain of a new species and should be named Marinobacter aquaeolei. P. nautica may have been misclassified, as suggested previously, and may also belong to the genus Marinobacter.  (+info)

The role of dermal irritation in the skin tumor promoting activity of petroleum middle distillates. (8/660)

Petroleum middle distillates (PMDs), a class of hydrocarbons which boil between 350-700 degrees F, are tumor promoters in mouse skin. The promotional activity is produced under conditions that also result in local changes, including chronic irritation and epidermal hyperplasia. The present study was conducted by comparing equal weekly doses of irritating and minimally or nonirritating test materials, to assess whether tumor promotion was a secondary response to these effects. Four PMDs, C10-C14 normal paraffins (NP), lightly refined paraffinic oil (LRPO), Jet Fuel A (JF), and steam-cracked gas oil (SCGO), were evaluated. Test materials were applied undiluted (2x/week) or as 28.6% (7x/week) or 50% (4x/week) concentrations in mineral oil for 52 weeks following initiation with dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA). When applied undiluted, all materials produced moderate irritation and significant increase in tumor incidence. When NP, LRPO, or JF were applied in mineral oil diluent, skin irritation was generally ameliorated and few, if any, tumors were produced. SCGO was irritating and produced a significant increase in tumor frequency when administered in mineral-oil diluent. These data indicate that the promotional activity of straight-run PMDs is likely related to chronic irritation at the application site and not to dose. Thus, when used appropriately in the absence of prolonged irritation, these materials should not present a tumorigenic hazard to humans.  (+info)

Petroleum is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of geology and petrochemicals. It refers to a naturally occurring liquid found in rock formations, which is composed of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, organic compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen.

Petroleum is not typically associated with medical definitions; however, it's worth noting that petroleum and its derivatives are widely used in the production of various medical supplies, equipment, and pharmaceuticals. Some examples include plastic syringes, disposable gloves, catheters, lubricants for medical devices, and many active ingredients in medications.

In a broader sense, environmental or occupational exposure to petroleum and its byproducts could lead to health issues, but these are not typically covered under medical definitions of petroleum itself.

The Extraction and Processing Industry, also known as the extraction industry or the mining sector, is a major category of businesses and economic activities involved in the removal of minerals and other natural resources from the earth. This industry includes several types of extraction operations, such as:

1. Oil and gas extraction: This involves the exploration, drilling, and pumping of crude oil and natural gas from underground reservoirs.
2. Mining: This includes the extraction of various minerals like coal, iron ore, copper, gold, silver, and other metals and non-metallic minerals. There are different methods used for mining, such as surface mining (open-pit or strip mining) and underground mining.
3. Support activities for mining: This category includes services and supplies needed for the extraction of minerals, like drilling, exploration, and mining support services.

After the extraction process, these raw materials undergo further processing to transform them into usable forms, such as refining crude oil into various petroleum products or smelting metals for manufacturing purposes. This processing stage is often included in the definition of the Extraction and Processing Industry.

The medical definition of this industry may not be explicitly stated; however, it indirectly impacts public health and the environment. For instance, mining activities can lead to air and water pollution, exposure to harmful substances, and increased risk of accidents and injuries for workers. Therefore, understanding the Extraction and Processing Industry is essential in addressing potential health hazards associated with these operations.

Petroleum pollution is not a medical term per se, but it is an environmental and public health issue. It refers to the contamination of the environment, particularly water bodies, soil, and air, by petroleum products or hydrocarbons. These pollutants can originate from various sources, including oil spills, leaks from underground storage tanks, runoff from roads, and improper disposal of industrial waste.

The health effects of petroleum pollution can vary depending on the type and amount of exposure. Short-term exposure to high levels of hydrocarbons can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, while long-term exposure has been linked to more severe health problems such as neurological damage, cancer, and reproductive issues. Therefore, it is crucial to prevent and mitigate petroleum pollution to protect both the environment and public health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hydrocarbons" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. They are primarily used in industry as fuel, lubricants, and as raw materials for the production of plastics, fibers, and other chemicals.

However, in a broader scientific context, hydrocarbons can be relevant to medical discussions. For instance, in toxicology, exposure to certain types of hydrocarbons (like those found in gasoline or solvents) can lead to poisoning and related health issues. In environmental medicine, the pollution of air, water, and soil with hydrocarbons is a concern due to potential health effects.

But in general clinical medicine, 'hydrocarbons' wouldn't have a specific definition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "gasoline" is not a medical term. It is a petroleum-derived liquid used as fuel in internal combustion engines. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I must clarify that "Fuel Oils" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Fuel oils are types of oil used as fuel, and they include various distillates of petroleum. They are commonly used for heating purposes or to generate electricity in industrial plants and ships.

However, if you're asking about the medical implications of exposure to fuel oils, it can cause respiratory irritation, headaches, dizziness, and nausea, especially if inhaled in large quantities or in a poorly ventilated space. Long-term exposure may lead to more severe health issues, such as bronchitis, heart disease, and cancer.

Benzene is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. It has the molecular formula C6H6 and is composed of six carbon atoms arranged in a ring, bonded to six hydrogen atoms. Benzene is an important industrial solvent and is used as a starting material in the production of various chemicals, including plastics, rubber, resins, and dyes. It is also a natural component of crude oil and gasoline.

In terms of medical relevance, benzene is classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene can cause various health effects, including anemia, leukemia, and other blood disorders. Occupational exposure to benzene is regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to protect workers from potential health hazards.

It's important to note that while benzene has legitimate uses in industry, it should be handled with care due to its known health risks. Exposure to benzene can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or accidental ingestion, so appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling this chemical.

"Cissus" is a genus of plants in the grape family, Vitaceae. It includes around 350 species of woody vines and shrubs that are found primarily in tropical regions around the world. Some species of Cissus have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including wound healing and treating bone fractures. However, it is important to note that the use of these plants as a medical treatment should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can also have side effects and interact with other medications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil pollutants" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Soil pollution refers to the presence or accumulation of hazardous substances, chemicals, or other pollutants in soil that can have negative effects on plant life, human health, and the environment.

However, if you're asking about potential health effects of exposure to soil pollutants, it could include a variety of symptoms or diseases, depending on the specific pollutant. For example, exposure to lead-contaminated soil can lead to developmental delays in children, while exposure to certain pesticides or industrial chemicals can cause neurological problems, respiratory issues, and even cancer.

If you have more specific information about a particular substance or context, I may be able to provide a more precise answer.

Alkanes are a group of saturated hydrocarbons, which are characterized by the presence of single bonds between carbon atoms in their molecular structure. The general formula for alkanes is CnH2n+2, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

The simplest and shortest alkane is methane (CH4), which contains one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. As the number of carbon atoms increases, the length and complexity of the alkane chain also increase. For example, ethane (C2H6) contains two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms, while propane (C3H8) contains three carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms.

Alkanes are important components of fossil fuels such as natural gas, crude oil, and coal. They are also used as starting materials in the production of various chemicals and materials, including plastics, fertilizers, and pharmaceuticals. In the medical field, alkanes may be used as anesthetics or as solvents for various medical applications.

Chemical water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater) with harmful chemicals or substances that negatively impact water quality and pose a threat to human health, aquatic life, and the environment. These chemical pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural activities, waste disposal, oil spills, and chemical accidents. Examples of chemical pollutants include heavy metals (such as mercury, lead, and cadmium), pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other hazardous substances. These chemicals can have toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic effects on living organisms and can disrupt ecosystems, leading to decreased biodiversity and impaired ecological functions.

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Oil and gas fields" are not a medical term, but rather a term used in the geology and petroleum industry to describe areas with significant deposits of oil and natural gas. These are typically underground or underwater formations where hydrocarbons accumulate due to geological processes over millions of years.

However, I can provide you with some related medical terms that pertain to potential health impacts associated with the exploration, extraction, and use of oil and gas fields:

1. Occupational exposure: Refers to the health risks faced by workers in the oil and gas industry, who may be exposed to hazardous substances, noise, vibrations, and ergonomic stressors that can lead to various health issues such as respiratory problems, hearing loss, musculoskeletal disorders, and chemical exposures.
2. Air pollution: The release of pollutants from oil and gas operations, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide, can contribute to poor air quality in surrounding communities, leading to respiratory issues, cardiovascular diseases, and other health problems.
3. Water contamination: Leaks, spills, or improper disposal of wastewater from oil and gas operations can lead to the contamination of groundwater and surface water resources, potentially causing adverse health effects in nearby populations, such as reproductive issues, neurological disorders, and gastrointestinal problems.
4. Noise pollution: Drilling, hydraulic fracturing (fracking), and other oil and gas operations can generate high levels of noise that may negatively impact the mental and physical health of workers and nearby residents, leading to sleep disturbances, stress, and cardiovascular issues.
5. Climate change: The combustion of fossil fuels from oil and gas fields contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions, driving climate change and associated health impacts such as heat-related illnesses, allergies, infectious diseases, and mental health disorders.

Petrolatum is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. In the medical field, it's often used as an ointment base or protective dressing because of its impermeability to water and bacteria. It's also known as petroleum jelly or soft paraffin.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kerosene" is not a medical term. It is a type of fuel that is commonly used in lamps, stoves, and heating systems. Medically, the term "kerosene sniffing" or "huffing" is used to describe the dangerous practice of inhaling kerosene vapors to get high, which can lead to serious health consequences, including death.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Gulf of Mexico" is not a medical concept or condition. The Gulf of Mexico is a large gulf located in the North American continent, surrounded by the United States to the north, Mexico to the west and south, and Cuba to the east. It's a geographical feature, specifically an oceanic gulf, and not related to medical terminology or healthcare.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Medical Definition of Mineral Oil:

Mineral oil is a commonly used laxative, which is a substance that promotes bowel movements. It is a non-digestible, odorless, and tasteless oil that is derived from petroleum. When taken orally, mineral oil passes through the digestive system without being absorbed, helping to soften stools and relieve constipation by increasing the weight and size of the stool, stimulating the reflexes in the intestines that trigger bowel movements.

Mineral oil is also used topically as a moisturizer and emollient for dry skin conditions such as eczema and dermatitis. It forms a barrier on the skin, preventing moisture loss and protecting the skin from irritants. However, mineral oil should not be used on broken or inflamed skin, as it can trap bacteria and delay healing.

It is important to note that long-term use of mineral oil laxatives can lead to dependence and may interfere with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins such as A, D, E, and K. Therefore, it should be used only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

The chemical industry is a broad term that refers to the companies and organizations involved in the production or transformation of raw materials or intermediates into various chemical products. These products can be used for a wide range of applications, including manufacturing, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and consumer goods. The chemical industry includes businesses that produce basic chemicals, such as petrochemicals, agrochemicals, polymers, and industrial gases, as well as those that manufacture specialty chemicals, such as dyestuffs, flavors, fragrances, and advanced materials. Additionally, the chemical industry encompasses companies that provide services related to the research, development, testing, and distribution of chemical products.

Medical definitions of "lubricants" refer to substances that are used to reduce friction between two surfaces in medical procedures or devices. They can be used during various medical examinations, surgeries, or when inserting medical equipment, such as catheters, to make the process smoother and more comfortable for the patient.

Lubricants used in medical settings may include water-based gels, oil-based jellies, or silicone-based lubricants. It's important to choose a lubricant that is safe and suitable for the specific medical procedure or device being used. For example, some lubricants may not be compatible with certain medical materials or may need to be sterile.

It's worth noting that while lubricants are commonly used in medical settings, they should not be used as a substitute for proper medical care or treatment. If you have any concerns about your health or medical condition, it's important to consult with a qualified healthcare professional.

Methanomicrobiaceae is a family of archaea within the order Methanomicrobiales. These are obligate anaerobic, methanogenic microorganisms that are capable of producing methane as a metabolic byproduct. They are commonly found in environments such as wetlands, digestive tracts of animals, and sewage sludge. The cells are typically irregularly shaped cocci or rods. Methanomicrobiaceae species utilize hydrogen or formate as electron donors and carbon dioxide as an electron acceptor to reduce methane. Some members of this family can also use secondary alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol, as substrates for methanogenesis.

Environmental remediation is the process of treating, removing, or containing contamination from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water for the purpose of reducing the impact on human health and the environment. The goal of environmental remediation is to return the contaminated area to its original state, or to a state that is safe for use and poses no significant risk to human health or the environment. This process often involves various techniques such as excavation, soil washing, bioremediation, chemical treatment, and thermal treatment. The specific method used depends on the type and extent of contamination, as well as site-specific conditions.

Aromatic hydrocarbons, also known as aromatic compounds or arenes, are a class of organic compounds characterized by a planar ring structure with delocalized electrons that give them unique chemical properties. The term "aromatic" was originally used to describe their distinctive odors, but it now refers to their characteristic molecular structure and stability.

Aromatic hydrocarbons contain one or more benzene rings, which are cyclic structures consisting of six carbon atoms arranged in a planar hexagonal shape. Each carbon atom in the benzene ring is bonded to two other carbon atoms and one hydrogen atom, forming alternating double and single bonds between the carbon atoms. However, the delocalized electrons in the benzene ring are evenly distributed around the ring, leading to a unique electronic structure that imparts stability and distinctive chemical properties to aromatic hydrocarbons.

Examples of aromatic hydrocarbons include benzene, toluene, xylene, and naphthalene. These compounds have important uses in industry, but they can also pose health risks if not handled properly. Exposure to high levels of aromatic hydrocarbons has been linked to various health effects, including cancer, neurological damage, and respiratory problems.

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

Occupational diseases are health conditions or illnesses that occur as a result of exposure to hazards in the workplace. These hazards can include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as ergonomic factors and work-related psychosocial stressors. Examples of occupational diseases include respiratory illnesses caused by inhaling dust or fumes, hearing loss due to excessive noise exposure, and musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive movements or poor ergonomics. The development of an occupational disease is typically related to the nature of the work being performed and the conditions in which it is carried out. It's important to note that these diseases can be prevented or minimized through proper risk assessment, implementation of control measures, and adherence to safety regulations.

In the context of medical definitions, "transportation" typically refers to the movement of patients from one location to another. This can include the transfer of patients between healthcare facilities (such as from a hospital to a long-term care facility), between departments within a healthcare facility (such as from the emergency department to an inpatient unit), or to and from medical appointments.

Transportation may also refer to the movement of medical equipment, supplies, or specimens between locations. In this context, transportation ensures that necessary items are delivered to the right place at the right time, which is critical for providing high-quality patient care.

It's important to note that safe and timely transportation is essential for ensuring positive patient outcomes, reducing the risk of adverse events, and improving overall healthcare efficiency.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

Fossil fuels are not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of earth science and energy production. They refer to fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes even hundreds of millions of years.

There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Coal is primarily composed of carbon and hydrogen, and it is formed from the remains of plants that lived hundreds of millions of years ago in swamps and peat bogs. Petroleum, also known as crude oil, is a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds, formed from the remains of marine organisms such as algae and zooplankton. Natural gas is primarily composed of methane and other light hydrocarbons, and it is found in underground reservoirs, often in association with petroleum deposits.

Fossil fuels are a major source of energy for transportation, heating, and electricity generation, but their combustion also releases large amounts of carbon dioxide and other pollutants into the atmosphere, contributing to climate change and air pollution.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "ink" is not a term that has a medical definition. Ink is a substance used for writing or printing, typically consisting of a colored pigment mixed with a liquid to make it flow. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic compounds characterized by the presence of two or more fused benzene rings. They are called "polycyclic" because they contain multiple cyclic structures, and "aromatic" because these structures contain alternating double bonds that give them distinctive chemical properties and a characteristic smell.

PAHs can be produced from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Natural sources include wildfires, volcanic eruptions, and the decomposition of organic matter. Anthropogenic sources include the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gasoline, as well as tobacco smoke, grilled foods, and certain industrial processes.

PAHs are known to be environmental pollutants and can have harmful effects on human health. They have been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung, skin, and bladder cancers, as well as reproductive and developmental toxicity. PAHs can also cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and damage to the immune system.

PAHs are found in a variety of environmental media, including air, water, soil, and food. They can accumulate in the food chain, particularly in fatty tissues, and have been detected in a wide range of foods, including meat, fish, dairy products, and vegetables. Exposure to PAHs can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact.

It is important to limit exposure to PAHs by avoiding tobacco smoke, reducing consumption of grilled and smoked foods, using ventilation when cooking, and following safety guidelines when working with industrial processes that produce PAHs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "industrial waste" is not a term that has a medical definition. Industrial waste is a term used to describe waste produced by industrial activities, such as manufacturing, mining, and construction. It can include a wide variety of materials, including chemicals, metals, soil, and water. Proper management and disposal of industrial waste are important for protecting the environment and public health. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terminology, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

"Energy-generating resources" is a broad term that refers to various methods and technologies used to convert different forms of energy into electricity or other useful forms. While there isn't a specific medical definition for this term, it is often discussed in the context of public health and environmental medicine due to its impact on air quality, climate change, and human health. Here are some examples of energy-generating resources:

1. Fossil fuels: These include coal, oil, and natural gas, which are non-renewable resources. They are burned to produce heat, which is then converted into electricity. The combustion process releases greenhouse gases and pollutants, contributing to climate change and air pollution-related health issues.
2. Nuclear power: This energy source involves the fission of atomic nuclei to generate heat, which is used to produce steam and drive turbines for electricity generation. While nuclear power itself does not emit greenhouse gases, it poses potential risks associated with radioactive waste disposal, accidents, and proliferation.
3. Renewable resources: These are sustainable energy sources that can be replenished naturally over time. Examples include solar power (photovoltaic or concentrated), wind power, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, and biomass. These resources have lower environmental impacts and contribute less to air pollution and climate change compared to fossil fuels.
4. Hydrogen fuel cells: These devices convert chemical energy from hydrogen into electricity through an electrochemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. They are clean energy sources, as the only byproducts are water and heat. However, the production of hydrogen can have environmental impacts depending on the method used (e.g., steam methane reforming vs. electrolysis powered by renewable energy).
5. Energy storage systems: While not a primary source of energy generation, energy storage technologies like batteries and capacitors play an essential role in optimizing the use of energy-generating resources. They can store excess energy produced during periods of low demand or high resource availability (e.g., solar power during the day) and release it during peak demand or resource scarcity, improving overall system efficiency and reducing the need for backup generation from fossil fuels.

In summary, "energy-generating resources" refer to various methods used to convert different forms of energy into electricity or other useful forms. The environmental and health impacts of these resources vary significantly, with renewable sources generally having lower impacts compared to fossil fuel-based options.

Biofuels are defined as fuels derived from organic materials such as plants, algae, and animal waste. These fuels can be produced through various processes, including fermentation, esterification, and transesterification. The most common types of biofuels include biodiesel, ethanol, and biogas.

Biodiesel is a type of fuel that is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats through a process called transesterification. It can be used in diesel engines with little or no modification and can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional fossil fuels.

Ethanol is a type of alcohol that is produced through the fermentation of sugars found in crops such as corn, sugarcane, and switchgrass. It is typically blended with gasoline to create a fuel known as E85, which contains 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.

Biogas is a type of fuel that is produced through the anaerobic digestion of organic materials such as food waste, sewage sludge, and agricultural waste. It is composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide and can be used to generate electricity or heat.

Overall, biofuels offer a renewable and more sustainable alternative to traditional fossil fuels, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and decrease dependence on non-renewable resources.

Acyclic hydrocarbons, also known as aliphatic hydrocarbons, are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms. They are characterized by the absence of aromatic rings or cyclic structures in their molecular structure. Instead, they contain open chains of carbon atoms that are saturated (containing only single bonds) or unsaturated (containing double or triple bonds).

Acyclic hydrocarbons can be further classified into several subcategories based on the nature and arrangement of their carbon-carbon bonds. These include:

* Alkanes: saturated acyclic hydrocarbons with only single bonds between carbon atoms (e.g., methane, ethane, propane, butane)
* Alkenes: unsaturated acyclic hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond (e.g., ethene, propene, butene)
* Alkynes: unsaturated acyclic hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-carbon triple bond (e.g., ethyne, propyne, butyne)

Acyclic hydrocarbons are important components of fossil fuels such as natural gas, crude oil, and coal. They are also used in the production of a wide range of chemicals, materials, and consumer products, including plastics, synthetic fibers, solvents, and fuels.

Heptanes are a group of hydrocarbons that are composed of straight-chain or branched arrangements of six carbon atoms and are commonly found in gasoline. They are colorless liquids at room temperature with a characteristic odor. In a medical context, exposure to heptanes can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and can cause symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Chronic exposure has been linked to more serious health effects, including neurological damage and cancer. Proper handling and use of heptanes, as well as adequate ventilation, are important to minimize exposure and potential health risks.

Sulfur compounds refer to chemical substances that contain sulfur atoms. Sulfur can form bonds with many other elements, including carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, among others. As a result, there is a wide variety of sulfur compounds with different structures and properties. Some common examples of sulfur compounds include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfonic acids (R-SO3H).

In the medical field, sulfur compounds have various applications. For instance, some are used as drugs or drug precursors, while others are used in the production of medical devices or as disinfectants. Sulfur-containing amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine, are essential components of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes.

However, some sulfur compounds can also be harmful to human health. For example, exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide can cause respiratory problems, while certain organosulfur compounds found in crude oil and coal tar have been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle and dispose of sulfur compounds properly to minimize potential health hazards.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Siberia" is not a medical term. It's a geographical region in Russia, known for its harsh, cold climate and vast wilderness. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those!

Neosartorya is a genus of filamentous fungi that are closely related to Aspergillus. These fungi are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil and decaying plant material. Some species of Neosartorya can cause invasive infections in humans, particularly in immunocompromised individuals.

Neosartorya species are characterized by their ability to produce a sexual stage (teleomorph) that is distinct from their asexual stage (anamorph). The teleomorph stage is often referred to as the "Aspergillus-like" state, as it resembles the morphology of Aspergillus species. However, Neosartorya species can be distinguished from Aspergillus species by their ability to produce a characteristic orange or red pigment in their conidia (spores).

Infections caused by Neosartorya species are rare but can be serious and difficult to treat. They often present as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, which is characterized by the growth of fungal hyphae in the lungs and surrounding tissues. Treatment typically involves the use of antifungal medications such as voriconazole or amphotericin B.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "octanes" is not a medical term. It is a term used in chemistry and physics, particularly in reference to fuel. Octane is a hydrocarbon molecule found in gasoline, and it is used as a measure of the fuel's ability to resist engine knocking or pinging during combustion.

The octane rating of gasoline typically ranges from 87 (regular) to 91-93 (premium). Higher-octane fuels are often recommended for high-performance vehicles that have higher compression ratios in their engines. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is not a medical term, but rather a technology term that refers to the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronic components on a single silicon chip through microfabrication technology. MEMS devices are extremely small (typically measured in micrometers or millionths of a meter), and can be found in various consumer products such as accelerometers in smartphones and automobiles, inkjet printheads, and biosensors.

In the medical field, MEMS technology has been used to develop various diagnostic and therapeutic devices, including lab-on-a-chip platforms for point-of-care diagnostics, drug delivery systems, and implantable sensors for monitoring physiological parameters such as glucose levels or blood pressure.

Therefore, while MEMS is not a medical definition itself, it is a technology that has significant applications in the medical field.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wireless Technology" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Wireless technology generally refers to the transmission of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or "wires." It encompasses a wide range of technologies, including cellular networks, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and various forms of telecommunication.

However, in a medical context, wireless technology can be used to refer to devices or systems that transmit patient data without the need for physical connections. For example, wireless pulse oximeters, blood glucose monitors, or cardiac event monitors. These devices use wireless technologies to send patient data to a remote monitoring station or to a healthcare provider's electronic health record system. This can provide more flexibility and mobility for patients, and can also improve the efficiency of healthcare delivery.

The term "environment" in a medical context generally refers to the external conditions and surroundings that can have an impact on living organisms, including humans. This includes both physical factors such as air quality, water supply, soil composition, temperature, and radiation, as well as biological factors such as the presence of microorganisms, plants, and animals.

In public health and epidemiology, the term "environmental exposure" is often used to describe the contact between an individual and a potentially harmful environmental agent, such as air pollution or contaminated water. These exposures can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to a range of diseases and disorders, including respiratory illnesses, cancer, neurological disorders, and reproductive problems.

Efforts to protect and improve the environment are therefore critical for promoting human health and preventing disease. This includes measures to reduce pollution, conserve natural resources, promote sustainable development, and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

... is found in porous rock formations in the upper strata of some areas of the Earth's crust. There is also petroleum in ... Bulk tar Asphalt Petroleum coke, used in speciality carbon products or as solid fuel Paraffin wax, derived from petroleum oil. ... Production of petroleum is estimated to reach peak oil before 2035 as global economies lower dependencies on petroleum as part ... The word petroleum comes from Medieval Latin petroleum (literally 'rock oil'), which comes from Latin petra 'rock' (from Greek ...
Petroleum geology, Petroleum production, All stub articles, Petroleum stubs). ... Robert Stoneley (1995). "North Sea petroleum plays". Introduction to Petroleum Exploration for Non-geologists. Oxford ... In geology, a petroleum play, or simply a play, is a group of oil fields or prospects in the same region that are controlled by ... ISBN 0-19-854856-7.[bare URL PDF] John R. Allen (1990). "The petroleum play ...
... Corporation is a Canadian petroleum company based in Calgary, Alberta. It is a public company actively ... "Company Profile for Compton Petroleum Corporation (CMZ)". Retrieved 2008-10-08. Official website v t e v t e (Articles needing ...
... is a Welsh fuel company with headquarters at Dyserth in Clwyd. It is a subsidiary of NWF Fuels, itself a ... Dragon Petroleum operates a chain of petrol stations and garages across Wales. Its corporate logo is a stylised Welsh dragon, ... The parent company (NWF) also supplies fuel and associated products across England (from petroleum companies Texaco and Jet), ... v t e (Automotive fuel retailers, All stub articles, Petroleum company stubs). ...
... ASA was a Norwegian upstream petroleum company established in 1972 that was acquired by Norsk Hydro in 1999. In ... SAGA PETROLEUM ASA- ADR Information , 20F99del-1 Norsk Hydro's Takeover of Saga Petroleum in 1999 - Tittelside ... Saga Petroleum was founded in 1972 as a private initiative based on a political wish to have three Norwegian oil companies. The ... The three Norwegian oil companies were to ensure that petroleum competence was established in Norway. Among the largest fields ...
... Limited was a Canadian independent petroleum company that operated between 1971 and 2002. The company was ... April Gasbarre, "PanCanadian Petroleum Limited," In Canadian Company Histories, ed. Tina Grant (Toronto: Gale Canada, 1996), ... The company's founder was Neil McQueen (1899-1976), who had recently left Pacific Petroleums. In the post-Leduc rush, McQueen ... Upon its creation, PanCanadian held the largest base of freehold petroleum leases of any Canadian oil company. PanCanadian was ...
... Limited was a Canadian petroleum company that operated from 1923 to 1973. Its head office was in London, ... In the mid-1950s, Supertest Petroleum opened an exploration office in Calgary, Alberta. By 1971, Supertest was producing about ... In 1971, Supertest was sold to British Petroleum Canada (BP). The familiar Supertest maple leaf logo was modified to ... On 17 December 1925, Supertest Petroleum Corporation, Limited was incorporated. A subsidiary was formed in St. Thomas, Ontario ...
In 2010, Wissol Petroleum signed an agreement with Total, one of the world's major oil and gas groups based in France and ... Wissol Petroleum is a daughter brand of Wissol Group, one of the largest retailer business groups in Georgia. This Georgian oil ... JSC Wissol petroleum Georgia is the only oil company that pioneered the integrated service stations on the Georgian market. ... The company imports the Italian fuel from api and petroleum products from other European counties as well. ...
... , Ltd. is one of the largest gasoline marketers and convenience store operators in Hawaii, with a history that ... Aloha Petroleum - official website v t e (Companies based in Hawaii, Retail companies based in Hawaii, Oil companies of the ...
Below are some examples of the uses of petroleum jelly. Vaseline brand First Aid Petroleum Jelly, or carbolated petroleum jelly ... A study published in 2017 found at most 1% of MOAH in petroleum jelly, and less than 1% in petroleum jelly-based beauty ... Vaseline has been a well-known American brand of petroleum jelly since 1870. After petroleum jelly became a medicine-chest ... 254-. ISBN 978-94-011-7097-0. "Petroleum Jelly". HCI Wax. Retrieved 9 March 2020. Vaseline (Petroleum Jelly) Material Safety ...
Most petroleum is converted into petroleum products, which include several classes of fuels. According to the composition of ... Petroleum products are materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries. Unlike petrochemicals ... Carbon, in the form of petroleum coke, and hydrogen may also be produced as petroleum products. The hydrogen produced is often ... Sample of crude oil (petroleum) Cylinders of liquified petroleum gas Sample of gasoline (petrol) Sample of kerosene Sample of ...
Total Petroleum (North America), Ltd. purchased the refining and marketing assets of Vickers Petroleum, including a refinery in ... Doric Petroleum, a natural gas processor, was sold to Petro-Lewis Corp. Total continued to use the Vickers name in marketing ... Vickers Petroleum Company was an oil company founded by John A. (Jack) Vickers, Sr. In 1918, Vickers established a refinery in ... vickers petroleum. "Dick Boushka". Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 23 September ...
... is an energy company in New Zealand, established in 2002. It owns gas and oil fields, principally in ... "The Greymouth Petroleum Company By Dr. J. C. Jones, University of Aberdeen (UK)". Petro Industry News. 17 March 2008. Retrieved ... "Shell sells Fletcher Energy assets to Greymouth Petroleum". New Zealand Herald. 24 February 2002. Retrieved 4 December 2020. " ...
The Petroleum News is a weekly newspaper based in Anchorage, Alaska. Prior to April 6, 2003, Petroleum News was known as ... The Petroleum News is the only standalone oil and gas publication in Alaska. Official website v t e v t e (Articles with topics ... The name change came as a result of the gradual addition of more Canadian and Continental U.S. petroleum news to the weekly ... Petroleum in Alaska, All stub articles, Newspapers published in the Western United States stubs, Alaska stubs, Anchorage, ...
... is a South African oil company focusing on the downstream refined petroleum products market and related ... Today, Engen Petroleum is active in South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Kenya, Ghana, Gabon, Tanzania, ... The company's core functions are the refining of crude oil, the marketing of primary refined petroleum products and the ... Engen Petroleum Engen Africa (outside South Africa) "Board of Directors". Engen. ...
... plc is a petroleum company based in London with assets in Romania, Ukraine, Greece, and Egypt. It was founded ...
The Petroleum Act 1971 The Petroleum Act 1934 The Petroleum Act 1934 The Petroleum Act 1987 The Petroleum and Other Minerals ... Petroleum Act 1937 The Petroleum Act 1969 The Petroleum Act 1996 The Petroleum Act 1971 The Petroleum Act 1969 The Petroleum ... c. 56) The Petroleum Act 1862 (26 & 27 Vict. c. 66 The Petroleum Acts 1871 to 1881 was the collective title of the Petroleum ... c. 67) The Petroleum Act 1879 (42 & 43 Vict. c. 47) The Petroleum Act 1871 (34 & 35 Vict. c. 105) The Petroleum Act 1868 (31 & ...
... Limited (PPL) (Urdu: پاکستان پیٹرولیم لمیٹڈ) is a Pakistani state-owned petroleum company. It was ... Pakistan Petroleum Limited Raheel Ahmed (21 August 2013). "Pakistan Petroleum earns Rs50 billion in fiscal 2013". The Express ... Pakistan Petroleum Limted finds fresh oil and gas deposits The Express Tribune (newspaper), Published 24 December 2019, ... In December 2019, Pakistan Petroleum announced that it had made new discoveries of fresh oil and gas deposits in Sindh and ...
The Veedol brand was owned by British Petroleum until 2011, when Veedol was sold by BP to Tidewater India. Now it is part of ... In 1966, Phillips Petroleum Company (now ConocoPhillips) purchased Tidewater's western refining, distribution and retailing ... was a major petroleum refining company during the early 20th century. Tidewater was sold many times during its existence. ...
The Arco brand is now owned by Marathon Petroleum. Atlantic was founded as the "Atlantic Petroleum Storage Company" in 1866, in ... Atlantic Petroleum was an oil company in the Eastern United States headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and a direct ... Many remnants of Atlantic still show with both Sunoco and ARCO (which is now owned by Marathon Petroleum and still uses the ... Ap (1988-07-06). "Sun to Buy Atlantic Petroleum". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2023-02-21. FAIRBANKS, 6 RICK ...
... Philippines, Inc. Official Website History of Phoenix Petroleum Philippines, Inc. Company profile of Phoenix ... "Phoenix Petroleum completes acquisition of Philippine Family Mart". Phoenix Petroleum. 2018-01-11. Retrieved 2022-03-20. " ... as the Official Petroleum Partner of the NBA in the Philippines. Phoenix Petroleum will be integrated into NBA media and events ... and industrial lubricants are among the lubricants sold by Phoenix Petroleum Philippines, Inc. Phoenix Petroleum Philippines, ...
... plc (PDF) (Report). Dana Petroleum. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 1 July ... Dana Petroleum Limited is an oil and gas exploration and production company based in Aberdeen, Scotland. Its activities are ... On 20 August 2010, KNOC went hostile in their bid for Dana Petroleum, the first time an Asian state owned company had made a ... "Companies House - Dana Petroleum Limited". "Dana agrees to buy Norway's Ener for 24 mln pounds". Reuters. 12 June 2007. ...
Petroleum was platted in 1894, and is so named because it was laid out in an oil field. The post office at Petroleum has been ... Petroleum is located at 40°36′41″N 85°09′03″W / 40.61139°N 85.15083°W / 40.61139; -85.15083. "US Board on Geographic Names ... Petroleum is an unincorporated community in Nottingham Township, Wells County, in the U.S. state of Indiana. ... "Petroleum, Indiana". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the ...
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... Berhad (PETROS) is a state-owned oil and gas exploration firm established and owned by the State Government ... "Petroleum Sarawak signs up for Petrotel's expertise in oil and gas , The Malaysian Insight". The Malaysian Insight. 17 January ... On 8 May 2020, Petronas agreed to pay RM 2 billion in petroleum products sales tax to Sarawak with a condition that the tax ... "Petroleum Sarawak Berhad is inviting candidates for the position of Chief Executive Officer". The Borneo Post. 21 September ...
... Company Limited (MPCL) (Urdu: مری پیٹرولیم کمپنی لیمٹڈ) is a Pakistani petroleum exploration and production ... Mari Petroleum Company Limited - stock quote and company business summary on website Retrieved 19 June 2021 ... Mari Petroleum Company Limited a rising star Business Recorder (newspaper), Published 26 April 2017, Retrieved 19 June 2021 ... In December 1984, the business was reorganized and incorporated as Mari Petroleum Company Limited, and it acquired the assets, ...
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81% of the oil extracted by Occidental Petroleum was to go to the Libyan government, with 19% retained by Occidental Petroleum ... In 2019, Occidental Petroleum acquired Anadarko Petroleum, inheriting a significant legacy of environmental infractions ... "OCCIDENTAL PETROLEUM SHEDS ITS LAST COAL COMPANY". The New York Times. April 16, 1993. Archived from the original on April 23, ... "Occidental Petroleum Sells State In Oilfields To Congo". The New York Times. Bloomberg News. July 31, 1996. Archived from the ...
The Petroleum Tower is a 16-story high-rise office building located at 425 Edwards Street at the corner of Texas Street and ... Accessed:June 8, 2017 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Petroleum Tower. "Emporis building ID 124949". Emporis. Archived ... Staff (September 17, 2013). "Petroleum Tower". National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places. Retrieved June 8, ... appearance of the buildings exterior is a common element of the international-style architecture that defines the Petroleum ...
... is the largest member organization of oil and gas professionals worldwide. ... SOCIETY OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERS The Place for Oil and Gas Professionals. SPE provides shared expertise, resources, and life-long ...
Petroleum is found in porous rock formations in the upper strata of some areas of the Earths crust. There is also petroleum in ... Bulk tar Asphalt Petroleum coke, used in speciality carbon products or as solid fuel Paraffin wax, derived from petroleum oil. ... Production of petroleum is estimated to reach peak oil before 2035 as global economies lower dependencies on petroleum as part ... The word petroleum comes from Medieval Latin petroleum (literally rock oil), which comes from Latin petra rock (from Greek ...
Industry profile for Petroleum Engineers. Geographic profile for Petroleum Engineers. National estimates for Petroleum ... Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing 1,390. 1.35. $ 71.99. $ 149,740. Geographic profile for Petroleum Engineers: States ... Industry profile for Petroleum Engineers: Industries with the highest published employment and wages for Petroleum Engineers ... Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing 1,390. 1.35. $ 71.99. $ 149,740. Support Activities for Mining 3,280. 1.32. $ 57.76. ...
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  • Petroleum, also known as crude oil, or simply oil, is a naturally occurring yellowish-black liquid mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, and is found in geological formations. (
  • Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons that occur on Earth in liquid, gaseous, or solid form. (
  • Liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons are so intimately associated in nature that it has become customary to shorten the expression "petroleum and natural gas" to "petroleum" when referring to both. (
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). (
  • Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is a term used to describe a large family of several hundred chemical compounds that originally come from crude oil. (
  • Scientists divide TPH into groups of petroleum hydrocarbons that act alike in soil or water. (
  • What happens to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) when they enter the environment? (
  • How might I be exposed to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)? (
  • How can total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) affect my health? (
  • How likely are total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) to cause cancer? (
  • Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)? (
  • What are total petroleum hydrocarbons? (
  • Pronounced tt l pí-tr l-ím h¥Àdrí-kär bínz) o TPH may enter the environment through accidents, from Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is a term used to industrial releases, or as byproducts from commercial or private uses. (
  • The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that consist of refined crude oil. (
  • A natural resource , petroleum is most often conceived of in its liquid form, commonly called crude oil , but, as a technical term, petroleum also refers to natural gas and the viscous or solid form known as bitumen , which is found in tar sands . (
  • As the price of crude oil fell in the international market, the price of refined petroleum has also decreased. (
  • Crude oil is used to make petroleum products, which can contaminate the environment. (
  • Because there are so many different chemicals in crude oil and in other petroleum products, it is not practical to measure each one separately. (
  • crude oil and in other petroleum products, it is not practical to o Other TPH fractions will sink to the bottom sediments. (
  • Petroleum companies continued to cut prices of diesel and kerosene products, but raised gasoline rates following the movement in international crude oil prices. (
  • Crude oil and liquid petroleum products (propane and butane) receipts, deliveries, inventories, imports and exports transported by Canadian pipelines in cubic metres and barrels, monthly, January 2016 to present. (
  • The price of crude oil plunged nearly 20% in July to less than $50 per barrel, which took a lot of oil stocks down with it, including Whiting Petroleum. (
  • Occupational exposures in petroleum refining : crude oil and major petroleum fuels / this publication represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans which met in Lyon, 1-8 March 1988. (
  • crude oil and major petroleum fuels - summary of data reported and evaluation. (
  • WOBURN, Mass., May 01, 2023 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Yield10 Bioscience, Inc. (Nasdaq:YTEN) ("Yield10" or the "Company"), an agricultural bioscience company, today announced that it has signed a non-binding Letter of Intent ("LOI") with Marathon Petroleum Corp. (NYSE: MPC, "Marathon") for a potential investment and offtake agreement for low-carbon intensity Camelina feedstock oil for use in renewable fuels production. (
  • and fluorene, as well as other petroleum products and gasoline o Living in an area near a spill or leak of petroleum components. (
  • It examines any merger and any course of conduct in the industry that has the potential to decrease competition and thus harm consumers of gasoline and other petroleum products," he said. (
  • Data presented at the national level by refined petroleum product (motor gasoline, heavy fuel oil, diesel fuel oil, etc) and disposition (production of saleable products, net sales and closing inventory). (
  • Petroleum is refined to produce gasoline, heating oil, propane, and other fuels ( 1 ). (
  • Marathon Petroleum offers educational reimbursement benefits to encourage self-development by providing financial assistance for certain education-related expenses. (
  • Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal 'Prachanda' has directed to reduce the price of petroleum products. (
  • Jumla district has started facing shortage of cooking gas and petroleum products due to obstruction of Karnali highway. (
  • Start of Dashain festival, consumption of petroleum products has increased suddenly. (
  • Working in occupations that use petroleum products. (
  • Living in an area near a spill or leak of petroleum products. (
  • The 505th Quartermaster Battalion was responsible for providing support of bulk petroleum products to all Department of Defense agencies on Okinawa. (
  • The domestic taxation of petroleum products is an important source of revenue in most countries. (
  • However, there is a wide variation of tax rates on petroleum products across countries, which cannot be explained by economic theory alone. (
  • But other countries around the world are stockpiling oil and petroleum products as well, from the construction of massive storage tanks in Nigeria, to hundreds of oil tanker ships full of crude floating of coastlines. (
  • For any military to wage war a large and steady supply of oil and petroleum products are required. (
  • It s interesting to reference that the League of Nations, in the pre-war years, as Italy and Germany were building up their strategic reserves, did not include petroleum products on the economic sanctions list against those countries. (
  • to make petroleum products, which can contaminate the envi o Some TPH fractions will float on the water and form sur ronment. (
  • Another round of fuel price cuts greeted motorists today as petroleum companies implemented rollbacks to reflect the continued drop of crude products in the world market. (
  • Before I started writing about natural beauty products, I never thought petroleum-based products were so bad. (
  • Data presented on petroleum and other liquids by supply and disposition characteristics (e.g., production, exports, inventories, products supplied). (
  • This infographic features sales and inventories for the petroleum and coal products industry, as well as refinery production, while highlighting the impacts related to the COVID-19 pandemic. (
  • To identify petroleum releases, ATSDR first searched the NTSIP system for "petroleum incidents" by searching on the chemical name variable for petroleum products listed in the 2010 NTSIP training manual ( 3 ). (
  • WHO Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for Selected Petroleum Products. (
  • Selected petroleum products / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation and the World Health Organization. (
  • It presents data reported and results of carcinogenicity evaluation for humans and animals of petroleum by-products. (
  • Typically, minimum of 10 years working with various Compressors and 4 years pump Engineering experience in Petroleum -Chemical, Oil & Gas Industry. (
  • This is the full ebook Reducing Risk in the Petroleum Industry ," by Naveen Viswanath. (
  • Compared to the short timelines of technology startups, the long history of the petroleum industry provides stark examples to illustrate this change. (
  • This report gathers highlights from Strata+Hadoop World conferences that showcase the use of data science to minimize risk in the petroleum industry. (
  • Intertek provides testing, inspection and technical services to the global petroleum industry, and operates in over 100 nations. (
  • So it is with interest we consider that 33% of all GPSR , or Global Strategic Petroleum Reserves , are held by governments, and the remainder of strategic reserves are held by private industry. (
  • If you asked a typical Canadian to name the best place for investing in the petroleum industry, they d likely say Alberta. (
  • The Commission's testimony first provides background on the FTC's expertise and experience in evaluating proposed transactions within the U.S. petroleum industry. (
  • It states that a review released in January of this year on horizontal merger investigations and enforcement actions from fiscal year 1996 to fiscal year 2005 shows that the FTC has brought more merger cases at lower market concentration levels in the petroleum industry than in any other industry. (
  • Rock Zierman, CEO of the California Independent Petroleum Assn., said the industry group was "pleased that the city hired an administrator with technical expertise. (
  • The Petroleum Technology Degree will help prepare students for careers in the oil and gas industry, where they will perform the duties of lease operators, plant operators, and in activities associated with the oil and gas industry. (
  • A combination of an AAS in Petroleum Technology and Automation Certificate allows great flexibility for employment throughout the industry. (
  • A new review conducted by scientists in the Environment and Lifestyle Epidemiology Branch of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) provides evidence that petroleum industry workers and residents living near petroleum facilities are at an increased risk of developing several different cancer types. (
  • The review identified petroleum industry work as being associated with an increased risk of mesothelioma, skin melanoma, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the prostate and urinary bladder, and a decreased risk of cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, and pancreas. (
  • Extraction, refining and burning of petroleum fuels all release large quantities of greenhouse gases, so petroleum is one of the major contributors to climate change. (
  • As the Trump administration continues to push for more oil and gas extraction on public lands, the petroleum reserve is on the cusp of profound change. (
  • This research adds to the increasing evidence of the health consequences of air pollution from petroleum extraction and refining in workers and residents living near petroleum facilities. (
  • The NPC acts on behalf of the North Atlantic Council, in consultation with the NATO Military Authorities (NMAs), NATO Agenices, other senior NATO committees and other military and civil bodies to meet NATO's petroleum requirements in times of peace, crisis and conflict, including expeditionary operations. (
  • Occidental Petroleum Corporation (OXY) is an international oil and gas exploration and production company with operations in the United States, Middle East/North Africa and Latin America regions. (
  • The mission of the 505th Quartermaster Battalion (Petroleum Pipeline) (Terminal Operations) is to provide strategic bulk fuels support to all Department of Defense Activities on Okinawa and maintain US Pacific Command (PACOM) War Reserve Objectives. (
  • They also provided quality petroleum training to Reserve Component soldiers while ensuring the soldiers were trained and ready to support all contingency operations within the Pacific. (
  • Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti announced Monday that he was tapping a Long Beach petroleum engineer to oversee oil and gas operations in the city, filling a job that had not been held full time for decades. (
  • To describe the causes and health impacts of petroleum product release incidents (including gas explosions and oil spills), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) analyzed 2010-2012 data from the National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP). (
  • ATSDR then reviewed the comments and synopsis fields of the identified records to confirm that they described petroleum incidents. (
  • The NATO Petroleum Committee (NPC) is the senior advisory body in NATO for logistic support to Alliance forces on all matters concerning petroleum, including the NATO Pipeline System (NPS), other petroleum installations and handling equipment. (
  • It operated and maintained a 100-mile petroleum pipeline system that reached from Futenma Marine Corps Air Station in the south of the island, through Kadena Air Base, to Chimu Wan, and Tengan near Camp Courtney. (
  • The article Occidental Petroleum Announces Dividend originally appeared on (
  • The article Why Whiting Petroleum Corp.'s Stock Crashed 35% in July originally appeared on (
  • Only a handful of universities in the U.S. offer programs that focus on petroleum engineering, with coursework in such subjects as geology, geophysics, chemistry, fluid dynamics, and physics. (
  • The use of liquid petroleum jelly in the prevention of perineal lacerations during birth. (
  • This was a randomized study carried out in a Birth Center located in São Paulo city to evaluate the efficacy of liquid petroleum jelly in reducing perineal laceration . (
  • In the experimental group was used 30 ml of the petroleum jelly in the perineal region during the expulsive period. (
  • The use of liquid petroleum jelly of perineal protection does not reduce the frequency neither the degree of lacerations in childbirth . (
  • In so doing, the course will provide a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of upstream petroleum economics, and an introduction to economic analysis of global warming, the potential roles of government and implications for energy markets. (
  • The use of petroleum in ancient China dates back to more than 2000 years ago. (
  • The liquid and gaseous phases of petroleum constitute the most important of the primary fossil fuels . (
  • There is a particular need for targeted studies in under-researched areas of high petroleum production with presumably higher exposures. (
  • The subtitle for Petroleum Engineering 101 at Stanford University reads "How to dig oil wells," and that is for the most part what a petroleum engineer does. (
  • It's a gambler's life," wrote one petroleum engineer, and others agreed. (
  • A petroleum engineer usually works for a petroleum company in various capacities. (
  • The future of the petroleum engineer will be influenced by two factors: The short-term glut of oil (only seen twelve months into the future) and the long-term scramble that oil depletion necessarily brings. (
  • The battalion maintains 56 million gallons of petroleum storage in its six terminals, operates 100 miles of pipeline, conducts over 10,000 annual laboratory tests, offloads over 75 tankers annually, and receives and issues over 90 million gallons of fuel. (
  • In the years leading up to the German invasion of Poland, the world witnessed dramatic decreases in the price of oil as well as massive increases in petroleum inventories, especially as the Texas fields began to produce. (
  • The 505th Quartermaster Battalion provides Bulk Petroleum, Quality Control, and Surveillance Support to all US Military, all Government Agencies, and Select Japanese Air Self Defense Forces on Okinawa. (
  • Ntuk has been employed by the city of Long Beach as a petroleum engineering associate, helping to oversee an oil field operated by the city. (
  • Industries with the highest published employment and wages for Petroleum Engineers are provided. (
  • For a list of all industries with employment in Petroleum Engineers, see the Create Customized Tables function. (
  • But despite the frustrations that go with the turf, petroleum engineers seem to enjoy being out in the field, where they can get their hands dirty. (
  • Some petroleum engineers do work in offices, however, analyzing the reports and recommendations of field engineers and advising corporate decision-makers on whether to proceed. (
  • Petroleum engineers have rigorous academic requirements. (
  • Many states require practicing petroleum engineers to pass a state licensing exam. (
  • This capability was a combat multiplier in an undeveloped theater, where petroleum infrastructure is nonexistent. (
  • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has nervous system, liver, and kidney from exposure to TPH com set an exposure limit of 500 parts of petroleum distillates per pounds. (
  • The authors point out that further studies are needed to describe exposure pathways of petroleum and its closest derivatives (e.g. benzene), in order to identify the drivers of the observed modifiers of cancer risk. (
  • On a daily basis, soldiers assigned to the 505th Quartermaster Battalion perform a real-world petroleum mission in line with the Army's responsibility for inland distribution of bulk petroleum to support US Forces. (
  • Prices of Petroleum sulfonate If you want to buy Petroleum Sulfonate at bulk prices. (
  • Petroleum production can be extremely profitable and was critical to global economic development in the 20th century, with some countries, so-called "oil states", gaining significant economic and international power because of their control of oil production. (
  • Production of petroleum is estimated to reach peak oil before 2035 as global economies lower dependencies on petroleum as part of climate change mitigation and a transition towards renewable energy and electrification. (
  • In the interest of analytical balance, we would do well to consider the possibility of war strategies when it comes to the global stockpiling of petroleum reserves. (
  • The United States and China are both increasing their Global Strategic Petroleum Reserves, with stockpiling taking place in Cushing, Oklahoma, and in provinces throughout China. (
  • In recent years, executives responding to the Fraser Institute s annual Global Petroleum Survey have shied away from Alberta, a trend that began in 2009 when the province plummeted in terms of attractiveness for investment following introduction of the so-called New Royalty Framework. (
  • The distribution of mercury compounds in petroleum varies widely. (
  • Because petroleum is widely used, unintentional acute releases can occur almost anywhere. (
  • Has the price of petroleum product decreased in Nepal? (
  • Crude and petroleum product stockpiles are increasing to record levels. (
  • Smaller, less catastrophic petroleum product releases are less likely to receive publicity, although study of these incidents might help focus and prioritize prevention efforts. (
  • A total of 1,369 petroleum product release incidents were reported from seven states, resulting in 512 injuries and 36 deaths. (
  • Approximately 10% of petroleum product releases resulted from inadvertent damage to utility lines. (
  • Understanding the characteristics of acute petroleum product releases can aid the public and utility workers in the development of preventive strategies and reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with such releases. (
  • Discover essential information, amenities, and features of Atour Hotel Petroleum University Xian, providing insights into what to expect during your stay. (
  • The second most commonly reported type of petroleum releases (296 [21.6%]) occurred in private vehicles and residences. (
  • Companies such as XTO Energy , Chevron , EnCana , Marathon, and Anadarko are interested in employing graduates from the Petroleum Technology program. (
  • Phoenix Petroleum Philippines Inc., the country's leading independent oil company, is offering as much as P7 billion worth of new commercial papers to fund its working capital requirements and refinance existing short-term loans. (
  • PLANO, TX, June 3, 2013 /CNW/ - Santa Fe Petroleum, Inc. (OTCBB: SFPI) announced today that the management team continues to work diligently towards achieving its business plan to move from an exploration stage oil and gas company to a producing entity. (
  • A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, mostly zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both prolonged heat and pressure. (
  • The petroleum system on Okinawa was designated as Petroleum Distribution System, Okinawa (PDSO), a separate organization under the United States Army Japan, in September 1980. (
  • Storage of petroleum spirit and mixtures requires an electrical certificate for new installations and annual inspections of existing installations - this must be provided by an appropriately qualified and experienced electrician. (
  • For decades, city codes have laid out a long list of duties for the petroleum administrator, who is supposed to coordinate all matters tied to oil and gas production across Los Angeles. (
  • Professor and Director of the Undergraduate Program in Petroleum Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station. (
  • Bachelor's degree in Chemical, Mechanical or Petroleum Engineering required. (
  • If you're into engineering and gambling, petroleum engineering is for you," wrote another. (
  • This course discusses the world petroleum market in the context of overall energy markets. (
  • The aim of this module is to equip students with little or no economics with sufficient knowledge and understanding of microeconomics to allow them to use economic theory to examine key issues in the petroleum and energy industries. (
  • It will provide an introduction to microeconomics and show practical application of economic theories to issues in petroleum and energy. (
  • WASHINGTON, D.C. - In response to the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources' hearing this week to consider the confirmation of Rep. Deb Haaland as Secretary of the Department of Interior, the Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPAA) released the following sta. (
  • The bomb was placed inside a cart by the side of the road and detonated when a bus belonging to the Hiaratan gas and petroleum department was taking employees to work. (
  • Offshore petroleum work was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer and leukaemia in stratified analysis. (
  • The word petroleum comes from Medieval Latin petroleum (literally 'rock oil'), which comes from Latin petra 'rock' (from Greek pétra πέτρα) and oleum 'oil' (from Greek élaion ἔλαιον). (
  • What is the first known use of the word petroleum ? (
  • The word petroleum was first used in 1556 in a treatise published by the German mineralogist Georgius Agricola . (
  • The first use of the word petroleum (literally "rock oil" from the Latin petra , "rock" or "stone," and oleum , "oil") is often attributed to a treatise published in 1556 by the German mineralogist Georg Bauer, known as Georgius Agricola . (
  • Residential proximity to petroleum facilities was associated with an increased risk of childhood leukaemia. (
  • But, as a technical term, petroleum also includes natural gas and the viscous or solid form known as bitumen, which is found in tar sands. (
  • Garcetti and his staff praised Uduak-Joe Ntuk, newly chosen as petroleum administrator, as an expert with technical knowledge who could also engage with the community. (
  • Petroleum is used in manufacturing a vast variety of materials essential for modern life, and it is estimated that the world consumes about 100 million barrels (16 million cubic metres) each day. (
  • Specialist in Earth Sciences ( geologist ), Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Author of World Petroleum Resources and Reserves and others. (
  • It concludes that a significant reduction in the present extremely wide variation in petroleum prices and tax rates appears warranted. (
  • Given how important crude prices are to Whiting Petroleum's profitability, it's no surprise to see the stock slide along with oil. (
  • Of the 1,369 NTSIP petroleum-related incidents, 259 (18.9%) incidents included injuries ( Table 1 ). (
  • In addition, the Chinese were the first to record the use of petroleum as fuel as early as the fourth century BCE. (
  • Robust fuel sales volume as a result of retail expansion helped Phoenix Petroleum Philippines Inc. to grow its nine-month net profit by a fifth this year. (
  • Additionally, NTSIP excludes petroleum-related incidents for which the only source of petroleum was the fuel tank of a vehicle involved in a crash. (
  • Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society. (
  • The main features of the evolving petroleum market are analysed including examination of the Hotelling model and Hubbert curve. (
  • Phoenix Petroleum Philippines Inc. is buying back up to P700 million worth of its shares to improve their value at the local stock market. (
  • Petroleum Policy and Planning Working Group focuses on policy and planning issues and on special tasks, as directed by the NPC. (