Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iowa" is a state located in the Midwestern United States and does not have a medical definition.
An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)
A polychlorinated compound used for controlling a variety of insects. It is practically water-insoluble, but readily adheres to clay particles and persists in soil and water for several years. Its mode of action involves repetitive nerve-discharges positively correlated to increase in temperature. This compound is extremely toxic to most fish. (From Comp Biochem Physiol (C) 1993 Jul;105(3):347-61)
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic insecticide, an acaricide, and nematocide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
Manganese derivative of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate. It is used in agriculture as a fungicide and has been shown to cause irritation to the eyes, nose, skin, and throat.
A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
An organochlorine insecticide that has been used as a pediculicide and a scabicide. It has been shown to cause cancer.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.
(Note: 'North Carolina' is a place, not a medical term. However, I can provide a fun fact related to health and North Carolina.)
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.
An agricultural fungicide of the dithiocarbamate class. It has relatively low toxicity and there is little evidence of human injury from exposure.
A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sri Lanka" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context; it is the name of a country located in South Asia, known for its diverse landscapes and rich biodiversity.
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
An organothiophosphorus insecticide that has been used to control pig mange.
Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
An organophosphate insecticide that inhibits monoamine oxidase and acetylcholinesterase. It has been shown to be genotoxic.
Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
An insecticide. Methoxychlor has estrogenic effects in mammals, among other effects.
The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.
A man-made compound previously used to control termites and other insects. Even though production of heptachlor was phased out of use in the United States during the late 1980's it remains in soil and hazardous waste sites. It is clearly toxic to animals and humans but, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that heptachlor is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)
A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
One of the phthalimide fungicides.
An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. It has been used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
Cholinesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acetylcholine and other choline esters, playing crucial roles in the termination of impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses and neuro-muscular junctions, and in the metabolism of certain drugs and toxic substances.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Living facilities for humans.
A highly chlorinated polycyclic hydrocarbon insecticide whose large number of chlorine atoms makes it resistant to degradation. It has been shown to be toxic to mammals and causes abnormal cellular changes in laboratory animals.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
A organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an anthelmintic, insecticide, and as a nematocide.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.
An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)
An organochlorine insecticide that is carcinogenic.
The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "California" is a place, specifically a state on the western coast of the United States, and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.
A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.

Myths, models and mitigation of resistance to pesticides. (1/1375)

Resistance to pesticides in arthropod pests is a significant economic, ecological and public health problem. Although extensive research has been conducted on diverse aspects of pesticide resistance and we have learned a great deal during the past 50 years, to some degree the discussion about 'resistance management' has been based on 'myths'. One myth involves the belief that we can manage resistance. I will maintain that we can only attempt to mitigate resistance because resistance is a natural evolutionary response to environmental stresses. As such, resistance will remain an ongoing dilemma in pest management and we can only delay the onset of resistance to pesticides. 'Resistance management' models and tactics have been much discussed but have been tested and deployed in practical pest management programmes with only limited success. Yet the myth persists that better models will provide a 'solution' to the problem. The reality is that success in using mitigation models is limited because these models are applied to inappropriate situations in which the critical genetic, ecological, biological or logistic assumptions cannot be met. It is difficult to predict in advance which model is appropriate to a particular situation; if the model assumptions cannot be met, applying the model sometimes can increase the rate of resistance development rather than slow it down. Are there any solutions? I believe we already have one. Unfortunately, it is not a simple or easy one to deploy. It involves employing effective agronomic practices to develop and maintain a healthy crop, monitoring pest densities, evaluating economic injury levels so that pesticides are applied only when necessary, deploying and conserving biological control agents, using host-plant resistance, cultural controls of the pest, biorational pest controls, and genetic control methods. As a part of a truly multi-tactic strategy, it is crucial to evaluate the effect of pesticides on natural enemies in order to preserve them in the cropping system. Sometimes, pesticide-resistant natural enemies are effective components of this resistance mitigation programme. Another name for this resistance mitigation model is integrated pest management (IPM). This complex model was outlined in some detail nearly 40 years ago by V. M. Stern and colleagues. To deploy the IPM resistance mitigation model, we must admit that pest management and resistance mitigation programmes are not sustainable if based on a single-tactic strategy. Delaying resistance, whether to traditional pesticides or to transgenic plants containing toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, will require that we develop multi-tactic pest management programmes that incorporate all appropriate pest management approaches. Because pesticides are limited resources, and their loss can result in significant social and economic costs, they should be reserved for situations where they are truly needed--as tools to subdue an unexpected pest population outbreak. Effective multi-tactic IPM programmes delay resistance (= mitigation) because the number and rates of pesticide applications will be reduced.  (+info)

Cancer mortality in agricultural regions of Minnesota. (2/1375)

Because of its unique geology, Minnesota can be divided into four agricultural regions: south-central region one (corn, soybeans); west-central region two (wheat, corn, soybeans); northwest region three (wheat, sugar beets, potatoes); and northeast region four (forested and urban in character). Cancer mortality (1980-1989) in agricultural regions one, two, and three was compared to region four. Using data compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics, cancer mortality was summarized by 5-year age groups, sex, race, and county. Age-standardized mortality rate ratios were calculated for white males and females for all ages combined, and for children aged 0-14. Increased mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were observed for the following cancer sites: region one--lip (men), standardized rate ratio (SRR) = 2.70 (CI, 1.08-6.71); nasopharynx (women), SRR = 3.35 (CI, 1.20-9.31); region two--non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (women), SRR = 1.35 (CI, 1.09-1.66); and region three--prostate (men), SRR = 1.12 (CI, 1.00-1.26); thyroid (men), SRR = 2.95 (CI, 1.35-6.44); bone (men), SRR = 2.09 (CI, 1. 00-4.34); eye (women), SRR = 5.77 (CI, 1.90-17.50). Deficits of smoking-related cancers were noted. Excess cancers reported are consistent with earlier reports of agriculturally related cancers in the midwestern United States. However, reports on thyroid and bone cancer in association with agricultural pesticides are few in number. The highest use of fungicides occurs in region three. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, whose metabolite is a known cause of thyroid cancer in rats, are frequently applied. This report provides a rationale for evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of this suspect agent in humans.  (+info)

Pesticides and immunosuppression: the risks to public health. (3/1375)

There is substantial experimental, epidemiological and other evidence that many pesticides in widespread use around the world are immunosuppressive. This poses a potentially serious health risk in populations highly exposed to infectious and parasitic diseases, subject to malnutrition, and inadequately serve by curative health programmes. An expanded programme of research is needed to investigate this potential risk and to design precautionary measures.  (+info)

Cytogenetic effects from exposure to mixed pesticides and the influence from genetic susceptibility. (4/1375)

Exposure to pesticides remains a major environmental health problem. Health risk from such exposure needs to be more precisely understood. We conducted three different cytogenetic assays to elucidate the biological effects of exposure to mixed pesticides in 20 Costa Rica farmers (all nonsmokers) compared with 20 matched controls. The farmers were also exposed to dibromochloropropane during the early employment years, and most of them experienced sterility/fertility problems. Our data show that the farmers had consistently higher frequencies of chromosome aberrations, as determined by the standard chromosome aberration assay, and significantly abnormal DNA repair responses (p < 0.05), as determined by the challenge assay, but no statistically significant differences in the tandem-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay (p > 0.05). Genotype analysis indicates that farmers with certain "unfavorable" versions of polymorphic metabolizing genes (cytochrome P4502E1, the glutathione S-transferases mu and theta, and the paraoxonase genes) had significantly more biological effects, as determined by all three cytogenetic assays, than both the farmers with the "favorable" alleles and the matched controls. A unique observation is that, in individuals who had inherited any of the mentioned "unfavorable" alleles, farmers were consistently underrepresented. In conclusion, the Costa Rican farmers were exposed to genotoxic agents, most likely pesticides, which expressed the induction of biological and adverse health effects. The farmers who had inherited "unfavorable" metabolizing alleles were more susceptible to genotoxic effects than those with "favorable" alleles. Our genotype data suggest that the well-recognized "healthy worker effect" may be influenced by unrecognized occupational selection pressure against genetically susceptible individuals.  (+info)

Mortality in a cohort of licensed pesticide applicators in Florida. (5/1375)

OBJECTIVES: Although the primary hazard to humans associated with pesticide exposure is acute poisoning, there has been considerable concern surrounding the possibility of cancer and other chronic health effects in humans. Given the huge volume of pesticides now used throughout the world, as well as environmental and food residue contamination leading to chronic low level exposure, the study of possible chronic human health effects is important. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study, analysed by general standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of licensed pesticide applicators in Florida compared with the general population of Florida. A cohort of 33,658 (10% female) licensed pesticide applicators assembled through extensive data linkages yielded 1874 deaths with 320,250 person-years from 1 January 1975 to 31 December 1993. RESULTS: The pesticide applicators were consistently and significantly healthier than the general population of Florida. As with many occupational cohorts, the risks of cardiovascular disease and of diseases associated with alcohol and tobacco use were significantly lower, even in the subpopulations--for example, men, women, and licence subcategories. Among male applicators, prostate cancer mortality (SMR 2.38 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.83 to 3.04) was significantly increased. No cases of soft tissue sarcoma were confirmed in this cohort, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was not increased. The number of female applicators was small, as were the numbers of deaths. Mortality from cervical cancer and breast cancer was not increased. Additional subcohort and exposure analyses were performed. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with previous publications on farmers but at odds with current theories about the protective effects of vitamin D, prostate cancer was increased in these pesticide applicators. Female breast cancer was not increased despite theories linking risk of breast cancer with exposure to oestrogen disruptors--such as the organochlorines. The lack of cases of soft tissue sarcoma is at odds with previous publications associating the use of the phenoxy herbicides with an increased risk of these cancers.  (+info)

Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention. (6/1375)

Six million children live in poverty in America's inner cities. These children are at high risk of exposure to pesticides that are used extensively in urban schools, homes, and day-care centers for control of roaches, rats, and other vermin. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and certain pyrethroids are the registered pesticides most heavily applied in cities. Illegal street pesticides are also in use, including tres pasitos (a carbamate), tiza china, and methyl parathion. In New York State in 1997, the heaviest use of pesticides in all counties statewide was in the urban boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn. Children are highly vulnerable to pesticides. Because of their play close to the ground, their hand-to-mouth behavior, and their unique dietary patterns, children absorb more pesticides from their environment than adults. The long persistence of semivolatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos on rugs, furniture, stuffed toys, and other absorbent surfaces within closed apartments further enhances urban children's exposures. Compounding these risks of heavy exposures are children's decreased ability to detoxify and excrete pesticides and the rapid growth, development, and differentiation of their vital organ systems. These developmental immaturities create early windows of great vulnerability. Recent experimental data suggest, for example, that chlorpyrifos may be a developmental neurotoxicant and that exposure in utero may cause biochemical and functional aberrations in fetal neurons as well as deficits in the number of neurons. Certain pyrethroids exert hormonal activity that may alter early neurologic and reproductive development. Assays currently used for assessment of the toxicity of pesticides are insensitive and cannot accurately predict effects to children exposed in utero or in early postnatal life. Protection of American children, and particularly of inner-city children, against the developmental hazards of pesticides requires a comprehensive strategy that monitors patterns of pesticide use on a continuing basis, assesses children's actual exposures to pesticides, uses state-of-the-art developmental toxicity testing, and establishes societal targets for reduction of pesticide use.  (+info)

Clinical experience and results of a Sentinel Health Investigation related to indoor fungal exposure. (7/1375)

This is a review of exposure conditions, clinical presentation, and morbidity of children and adults with indoor fungal exposure such as toxic Stachybotrys chartarum. Indoor exposure was characterized using different methods including microscopic, culture, cytotoxicity screening tests, and chemical analyses. Clinical case histories and physical and laboratory findings are presented of children (age < 18 years, n = 22; mean age 9 years; 60% females) and adults (age >18 years, n = 125; mean age 39 years, 67% females) who consulted an environmental health specialty clinic. In the pediatric patients' exposure history, widespread fungal contamination of water-damaged building materials with known toxic or allergic fungi was identified. Primarily disorders of the respiratory system, skin, mucous membranes, and central nervous system were reported. Some enumeration and functional laboratory abnormalities, mainly of the lymphatic blood cells, were observed, although no statistically significant differences were found. IgE or IgG fungi-specific antibodies, used as exposure markers, were positive in less than 25% of all tested cases. In an evaluation of a symptomatic girl 11 years of age (sentinel case investigation) living in an apartment with verified toxigenic fungi (i.e., S. chartarum), several health indicators showed improvement after exposure cessation.  (+info)

Geographical differences of cancer incidence in Costa Rica in relation to environmental and occupational pesticide exposure. (8/1375)

BACKGROUND: This study describes geographical differences in cancer incidence in Costa Rica, and investigates if some of these differences may be related to pesticides. METHODS: Data were combined from the cancer registry (1981-1993), the 1984 population census, the 1984 agricultural census, and a national pesticide data set. The 81 counties of Costa Rica were the units for the ecological analyses. Adjacent counties were grouped into 14 regions (3 urban and 11 rural) with relatively similar socioeconomic characteristics. County indices for population density and agricultural variables were constructed and categorized. Differences across regions and categories were assessed by comparing observed numbers of incident cases to expected values derived from national rates. Within the tertile of most rural counties, rate ratios between categories of high and low pesticide use were calculated. RESULTS: In urban regions, excesses were observed for lung, colorectal, breast, uterus, ovary, prostate, testis, kidney, and bladder cancers; and in rural regions for gastric, cervical, penile, and skin cancers. Skin cancers (lip, melanoma, non-melanocytic skin and penile cancer) occurred in excess in coffee growing areas with extensive use of paraquat and lead arsenate. In the most rural subset, heavy pesticide use was associated with an increase of cancer incidence overall and at a considerable number of specific sites, including lung cancer (relative risk [RR] 2.0 for men and 2.6 for women) and all female hormone-related cancers (RR between 1.3 and 1.8). CONCLUSIONS: Regions and populations at high risk for specific cancers were identified. Several hypotheses for associations between pesticides and cancer emerged. The findings call for studies at the individual level.  (+info)

Pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or repelling pests. Pests can be insects, rodents, fungi, weeds, or other organisms that can cause damage to crops, animals, or humans and their living conditions. The term "pesticide" includes all of the following: insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, bactericides, and various other substances used to control pests.

It is important to note that while pesticides are designed to be toxic to the target pests, they can also pose risks to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it is essential to follow all label instructions and safety precautions when handling and applying pesticides.

Pesticide residues refer to the remaining pesticide chemicals, including their metabolites and degradation products, that are present in or on food commodities or environmental samples after a pesticide application has ended. These residues can result from agricultural use, such as spraying crops to control pests, or from non-agricultural uses, like treating buildings for termite control.

Regulatory agencies establish maximum residue limits (MRLs) to ensure that the levels of pesticide residues in food and feed are below those that may pose a risk to human health. Monitoring programs are in place to check compliance with these MRLs, and enforcement actions can be taken if violations occur.

It's important to note that not all pesticide residues are harmful, as some pesticides degrade into harmless compounds over time or leave behind residues below levels of concern for human health. However, long-term exposure to even low levels of certain pesticide residues may still pose a risk and should be avoided when possible.

"Agricultural Workers' Diseases" is a term used to describe a variety of health conditions and illnesses that are associated with agricultural work. These can include both acute and chronic conditions, and can be caused by a range of factors including exposure to chemicals, dusts, allergens, physical injuries, and biological agents such as bacteria and viruses.

Some common examples of Agricultural Workers' Diseases include:

1. Pesticide poisoning: This can occur when agricultural workers are exposed to high levels of pesticides or other chemicals used in farming. Symptoms can range from mild skin irritation to severe neurological damage, depending on the type and amount of chemical exposure.
2. Respiratory diseases: Agricultural workers can be exposed to a variety of dusts and allergens that can cause respiratory problems such as asthma, bronchitis, and farmer's lung. These conditions are often caused by prolonged exposure to moldy hay, grain dust, or other organic materials.
3. Musculoskeletal injuries: Agricultural workers are at risk of developing musculoskeletal injuries due to the physical demands of their job. This can include back pain, repetitive strain injuries, and sprains and strains from lifting heavy objects.
4. Zoonotic diseases: Agricultural workers who come into contact with animals are at risk of contracting zoonotic diseases, which are illnesses that can be transmitted between animals and humans. Examples include Q fever, brucellosis, and leptospirosis.
5. Heat-related illnesses: Agricultural workers who work outside in hot weather are at risk of heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Prevention of Agricultural Workers' Diseases involves a combination of engineering controls, personal protective equipment, and training to help workers understand the risks associated with their job and how to minimize exposure to hazards.

I apologize for any confusion, but "agriculture" is not a term that has a medical definition. Agriculture refers to the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants, and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants, and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. It is an important industry and practice that has been developed over thousands of years and continues to play a critical role in global food production and security.

Insecticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating any pest, including insects, arachnids, or other related pests. They can be chemical or biological agents that disrupt the growth, development, or behavior of these organisms, leading to their death or incapacitation. Insecticides are widely used in agriculture, public health, and residential settings for pest control. However, they must be used with caution due to potential risks to non-target organisms and the environment.

Agrochemicals are a broad range of chemical products used in agriculture to enhance crop production and protect plants from pests. They include fertilizers, which provide nutrients to plants, and pesticides, which include herbicides (weed killers), insecticides (insect killers), fungicides (fungus killers), and other substances used to control pests. Agrochemicals are used to improve crop yield, quality, and resistance to environmental stressors, but their use can also have negative impacts on the environment and human health if not managed properly.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pest control" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Pest control refers to the regulation or management of species considered to be pests, which can include insects, rodents, and other organisms that can cause damage to crops, transmit diseases, or otherwise negatively impact human activities.

In a medical context, you might be looking for information on "pesticide exposure" or "insect-borne diseases." Pesticide exposure refers to the contact with pesticides, which are substances used to control pests. These exposures can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact and may lead to a variety of health effects depending on the type and amount of pesticide involved. Insect-borne diseases are illnesses transmitted to humans through the bite of infected insects, such as mosquitoes, ticks, or fleas. Examples include malaria, Lyme disease, and Zika virus infection.

Chlorinated hydrocarbons are a group of organic compounds that contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and chlorine (Cl) atoms. These chemicals are formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon molecule with chlorine atoms. The properties of chlorinated hydrocarbons can vary widely, depending on the number and arrangement of chlorine and hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

Chlorinated hydrocarbons have been widely used in various industrial applications, including as solvents, refrigerants, pesticides, and chemical intermediates. Some well-known examples of chlorinated hydrocarbons are:

1. Methylene chloride (dichloromethane) - a colorless liquid with a mild sweet odor, used as a solvent in various industrial applications, including the production of pharmaceuticals and photographic films.
2. Chloroform - a heavy, volatile, and sweet-smelling liquid, used as an anesthetic in the past but now mainly used in chemical synthesis.
3. Carbon tetrachloride - a colorless, heavy, and nonflammable liquid with a mildly sweet odor, once widely used as a solvent and fire extinguishing agent but now largely phased out due to its ozone-depleting properties.
4. Vinyl chloride - a flammable, colorless gas, used primarily in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic and other synthetic materials.
5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) - a group of highly stable and persistent organic compounds that were widely used as coolants and insulating fluids in electrical equipment but are now banned due to their toxicity and environmental persistence.

Exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, depending on the specific compound and its physical state. Some chlorinated hydrocarbons have been linked to various health effects, including liver and kidney damage, neurological disorders, reproductive issues, and cancer. Therefore, proper handling, use, and disposal of these chemicals are essential to minimize potential health risks.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

Chlorpyrifos is a type of pesticide that belongs to the class of organophosphates. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and causes toxic effects in insects. Chlorpyrifos is used to control a wide variety of pests, including insects that infest crops, homes, and gardens. It is also used to protect wood from termites and other wood-boring insects.

Chlorpyrifos can be harmful to humans if it is ingested, inhaled, or comes into contact with the skin. Exposure to chlorpyrifos can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, and muscle twitching. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, convulsions, and even death. Chlorpyrifos has been linked to developmental problems in children, including reduced IQ and attention deficit disorder. As a result, the use of chlorpyrifos in residential settings has been restricted in many countries.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

Organophosphate (OP) poisoning refers to the toxic effects that occur after exposure to organophosphate compounds, which are commonly used as pesticides, nerve agents, and plasticizers. These substances work by irreversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the nervous system. As a result, excessive accumulation of acetylcholine leads to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors, causing a wide range of symptoms.

The severity and type of symptoms depend on the dose, duration, and route of exposure (inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption). The primary manifestations of organophosphate poisoning are:

1. Muscarinic effects: Excess acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors in the parasympathetic nervous system results in symptoms such as narrowed pupils (miosis), increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, bronchorrhea (excessive respiratory secretions), diarrhea, bradycardia (decreased heart rate), and hypotension.
2. Nicotinic effects: Overstimulation of nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction leads to muscle fasciculations, weakness, and paralysis. This can also cause tachycardia (increased heart rate) and hypertension.
3. Central nervous system effects: OP poisoning may result in headache, dizziness, confusion, seizures, coma, and respiratory depression.

Treatment for organophosphate poisoning includes decontamination, supportive care, and administration of antidotes such as atropine (to block muscarinic effects) and pralidoxime (to reactivate acetylcholinesterase). Delayed treatment can lead to long-term neurological damage or even death.

Organophosphorus compounds are a class of chemical substances that contain phosphorus bonded to organic compounds. They are used in various applications, including as plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases), and solvents. In medicine, they are also used in the treatment of certain conditions such as glaucoma. However, organophosphorus compounds can be toxic to humans and animals, particularly those that affect the nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Exposure to these compounds can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death.

Herbicides are a type of pesticide used to control or kill unwanted plants, also known as weeds. They work by interfering with the growth processes of the plant, such as inhibiting photosynthesis, disrupting cell division, or preventing the plant from producing certain essential proteins.

Herbicides can be classified based on their mode of action, chemical composition, and the timing of their application. Some herbicides are selective, meaning they target specific types of weeds while leaving crops unharmed, while others are non-selective and will kill any plant they come into contact with.

It's important to use herbicides responsibly and according to the manufacturer's instructions, as they can have negative impacts on the environment and human health if not used properly.

Diazinon is a type of organophosphate insecticide that works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and results in overstimulation of cholinergic receptors. This can cause a variety of symptoms, including muscle twitching, tremors, convulsions, and respiratory failure, which can be fatal if not treated promptly.

Diazinon is used to control a wide range of insect pests in agriculture, horticulture, and residential settings. However, it is highly toxic to both insects and mammals, including humans, and its use is regulated by environmental and public health agencies around the world. Exposure to diazinon can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and can cause acute and chronic health effects depending on the level and duration of exposure.

In the medical field, diazinon poisoning is treated with atropine, which blocks the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and oximes, which reactivate acetylcholinesterase. Supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and fluid replacement, may also be necessary in severe cases.

I'm not aware of any recognized medical definition for the term "Iowa." Iowa is actually a state located in the Midwestern United States. It is known for its agricultural production, particularly corn and soybeans, and it is home to various cities such as Des Moines, Cedar Rapids, and Davenport. If you have any medical or health-related question, I would be happy to help with that instead.

Dieldrin is a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide that was widely used in the past for agricultural and household pest control. It is a white, odorless, crystalline solid that is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Dieldrin has high toxicity to both insects and mammals, including humans. It can cause a range of harmful health effects, such as seizures, damage to the nervous system, and liver and kidney damage. Dieldrin was banned for most uses in the United States in 1974 due to its persistence in the environment and potential to accumulate in the food chain. It is now classified as a persistent organic pollutant (POP) and is regulated under international treaties.

Endosulfan is a synthetic, broad-spectrum insecticide that was widely used in agriculture for controlling a variety of pests. It belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organochlorines, which are characterized by having a chlorinated aromatic ring. Endosulfan exists in two stereoisomeric forms, alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan, and is often used as a mixture of these two forms.

Endosulfan has been linked to several health problems, including neurological disorders, endocrine disruption, and reproductive toxicity. It is also considered to be highly toxic to aquatic life and birds. Due to its persistence in the environment and potential for bioaccumulation, endosulfan has been banned or restricted in many countries around the world.

The medical definition of Endosulfan can be described as a synthetic organochlorine insecticide that is highly toxic and has been linked to various health problems, including neurological disorders, endocrine disruption, and reproductive toxicity. It is no longer approved for use in many countries due to its environmental persistence and potential health risks.

Organophosphates are a group of chemicals that include insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases. They work by inhibiting an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which normally breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapse between nerves. This leads to an overaccumulation of acetylcholine, causing overstimulation of the nervous system and resulting in a wide range of symptoms such as muscle twitching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, confusion, and potentially death due to respiratory failure. Organophosphates are highly toxic and their use is regulated due to the risks they pose to human health and the environment.

Industrial fungicides are antimicrobial agents used to prevent, destroy, or inhibit the growth of fungi and their spores in industrial settings. These can include uses in manufacturing processes, packaging materials, textiles, paints, and other industrial products. They work by interfering with the cellular structure or metabolic processes of fungi, thereby preventing their growth or reproduction. Examples of industrial fungicides include:

* Sodium hypochlorite (bleach)
* Formaldehyde
* Glutaraldehyde
* Quaternary ammonium compounds
* Peracetic acid
* Chlorhexidine
* Iodophors

It's important to note that some of these fungicides can be harmful or toxic to humans and other organisms, so they must be used with caution and in accordance with safety guidelines.

Carbofuran is a highly toxic systemic pesticide that belongs to the carbamate family. It is used primarily to control insects in soil before planting and on crops after emergence. Carbofuran works by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine and results in overstimulation of the nervous system in insects, ultimately causing their death.

In humans, exposure to carbofuran can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, visual disturbances, and muscle twitching. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, convulsions, and even death. Carbofuran is classified as a Category I toxic pesticide by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States, indicating that it is highly hazardous.

Due to its high toxicity and potential for environmental harm, carbofuran has been banned or restricted in many countries around the world. In the United States, the use of carbofuran on food crops was phased out in 2009, and its registration for most uses was canceled in 2010. However, it is still used in some parts of the world for non-food crop applications.

Organothiophosphorus compounds are a class of chemical compounds that contain carbon (organo-) and thiophosphorus bonds. Thiophosphorus refers to a phosphorus atom bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. These compounds have various applications, including use as plasticizers, flame retardants, insecticides (such as malathion and parathion), and nerve agents (such as sarin and VX). They can be synthesized through the reaction of organolithium or Grignard reagents with thiophosphoryl chloride. The general structure of these compounds is R-P(=S)Y, where R is an organic group, P is phosphorus, and Y is a group that determines the properties and reactivity of the compound.

Maneb is not a term that has a widely accepted medical definition. However, in the field of agriculture and toxicology, Maneb is a commonly used fungicide to control various plant diseases. It is a complex organometallic compound containing manganese.

In some contexts, Maneb may be mentioned in relation to human health because it has been found to have potential reproductive and developmental effects, as well as being potentially carcinogenic. However, it is not considered a medical term or diagnosis. If you have any concerns about exposure to Maneb or its potential health effects, it would be best to consult with a healthcare professional.

Parathion is not a medical term, but a chemical one. It refers to a type of organophosphate insecticide that is highly toxic and can be absorbed through the skin or ingested. Parathion works by inhibiting an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an overstimulation of the nervous system and can cause symptoms such as muscle twitching, convulsions, respiratory failure, and death. Although parathion is not used in medical treatments, it is important for healthcare providers to be aware of its potential health effects, particularly in cases of accidental or intentional exposure.

Poisoning is defined medically as the harmful, sometimes fatal, effect produced by a substance when it is introduced into or absorbed by living tissue. This can occur through various routes such as ingestion, inhalation, injection, or absorption through the skin. The severity of poisoning depends on the type and amount of toxin involved, the route of exposure, and the individual's age, health status, and susceptibility. Symptoms can range from mild irritation to serious conditions affecting multiple organs, and may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, seizures, or unconsciousness. Immediate medical attention is required in cases of poisoning to prevent severe health consequences or death.

Lindane is defined in medical terms as an agricultural and pharmaceutical compound that contains thegamma-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH). It has been used as a topical treatment for scabies and lice infestations, although its use is now limited due to concerns about toxicity and environmental persistence. Lindane works by disrupting the nervous system of insects, leading to paralysis and death. However, it can also have similar effects on mammals, including humans, at high doses or with prolonged exposure. Therefore, its use is restricted and alternatives are recommended for the treatment of scabies and lice.

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

Environmental pollutants are defined as any substances or energy (such as noise, heat, or light) that are present in the environment and can cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damage the natural ecosystems. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, agriculture, and household activities. They can be in the form of gases, liquids, solids, or radioactive materials, and can contaminate air, water, and soil. Examples include heavy metals, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter, and greenhouse gases.

It is important to note that the impact of environmental pollutants on human health and the environment can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) and it depends on the type, concentration, duration and frequency of exposure. Some common effects of environmental pollutants include respiratory problems, cancer, neurological disorders, reproductive issues, and developmental delays in children.

It is important to monitor, control and reduce the emissions of these pollutants through regulations, technology advancements, and sustainable practices to protect human health and the environment.

Carbaryl is a carbamate pesticide that is used to control a wide variety of insects, including fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes. It works by inhibiting the action of an enzyme called cholinesterase, which is necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system in insects. This leads to paralysis and death of the pests. Carbaryl is also used in some veterinary products to treat parasitic infestations. It can be found in various forms, such as powders, granules, and solutions, and can be applied to plants, animals, and indoor/outdoor surfaces. However, it can be harmful to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it is important to follow the label instructions carefully when using carbaryl products.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "North Carolina" is a geographical location and not a medical term or condition. It is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I'd be happy to help with those!

DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is a synthetic insecticide that was widely used in the mid-20th century to control agricultural pests and vector-borne diseases such as malaria. It belongs to a class of chemicals called organochlorines, which are known for their persistence in the environment and potential for bioaccumulation in the food chain.

DDT was first synthesized in 1874, but its insecticidal properties were not discovered until 1939. Its use as an insecticide became widespread during World War II, when it was used to control typhus and malaria-carrying lice and mosquitoes among troops. After the war, DDT was widely adopted for agricultural and public health purposes.

However, concerns about the environmental and human health effects of DDT led to its ban or severe restriction in many countries starting in the 1970s. The United States banned the use of DDT for most purposes in 1972, and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) prohibited its production and use globally in 2004, except in cases where there is a risk of vector-borne diseases.

DDT has been linked to several health problems, including reproductive effects, developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. It is also highly persistent in the environment, with a half-life of up to 15 years in soil and up to 30 years in water. This means that DDT can accumulate in the food chain, posing risks to wildlife and humans who consume contaminated food or water.

In summary, DDT is a synthetic insecticide that was widely used in the mid-20th century but has been banned or restricted in many countries due to its environmental and health effects. It belongs to a class of chemicals called organochlorines, which are known for their persistence in the environment and potential for bioaccumulation in the food chain. DDT has been linked to several health problems, including reproductive effects, developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, and endocrine disruption.

Dimethoate is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide (a chemical that kills mites). Its chemical formula is C5H12NO3PS. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which is necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system in both insects and mammals, including humans. This leads to an overstimulation of the nervous system, causing a variety of symptoms such as muscle twitching, tremors, convulsions, and eventually respiratory failure and death in severe cases.

Dimethoate is used to control a wide range of pests, including aphids, thrips, leafminers, and spider mites, on various crops such as fruits, vegetables, cereals, and ornamental plants. However, due to its toxicity to non-target organisms, including humans, it is important to use it with caution and follow all safety guidelines when handling and applying this chemical. It is also subject to regulations regarding its use and disposal in many countries.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Zineb" is not a medical term or concept that I am familiar with in the field of medicine. Zineb is actually a pesticide that contains the active ingredient ferbam, which is used to control fungi on crops such as grapes, apples, and potatoes. It is not a term used within the context of medical definitions or human health. I hope this clarifies any confusion. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you.

Malathion is a type of organophosphate pesticide that is widely used in agriculture, public health, and residential settings for the control of various insect pests. It works by inhibiting an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which leads to the accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapses, resulting in overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately death of the insect.

In a medical context, malathion is also used as a topical treatment for head lice infestations. It is available in various forms, such as shampoos, lotions, and sprays, and works by killing the lice and their eggs on contact. However, it is important to follow the instructions carefully when using malathion products to avoid excessive exposure and potential health risks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sri Lanka" is not a medical term or concept. Sri Lanka is an island country located in the Indian Ocean, south of India. It is known for its diverse landscapes ranging from rainforests and arid plains to highlands and sandy beaches.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer them!

Dichlorvos is a type of organophosphate insecticide that is used to control a wide variety of pests in agricultural, residential, and industrial settings. Its chemical formula is (2,2-dichlorovinyl) dimethyl phosphate. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synaptic clefts of nerve cells, causing overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately death of the pest.

Dichlorvos is highly toxic to both insects and mammals, including humans. Exposure to this chemical can cause a range of symptoms, including headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death. It is classified as a Category I acute toxicant by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and is listed as a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA).

Due to its high toxicity and potential for environmental persistence, dichlorvos is subject to strict regulations in many countries. It is banned or restricted for use in several jurisdictions, including the European Union, Canada, and some states in the United States. Where it is still allowed, it is typically used only under specific conditions and with appropriate safety measures in place.

Phosmet is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide, which means it is used to kill insects and mites. It works by inhibiting the action of an enzyme called cholinesterase, leading to the accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and ultimately causing nervous system failure in the pest.

Phosmet has a wide range of uses, including controlling pests on fruits, vegetables, nuts, and ornamental plants, as well as on animals such as dogs and livestock. It can be applied as a spray, dust, or fog, and it is absorbed through the skin and respiratory system of both the target pests and any individuals who come into contact with it.

Like other organophosphate pesticides, phosmet can have harmful effects on human health if not used properly. It can cause acute symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, and muscle weakness, and in severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, convulsions, and death. Chronic exposure has been linked to neurological damage, including memory loss and decreased cognitive function.

It is important to follow all safety precautions when using phosmet or any other pesticide, including wearing protective clothing, washing contaminated skin and clothing, and avoiding re-entry into treated areas until the recommended safety interval has passed.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Household Products" is not a term with a specific medical definition. Household products generally refer to items that are used in the home for cleaning, maintenance, and personal care. They can include things like cleaning supplies, laundry detergent, dish soap, personal care products (such as shampoo, toothpaste, and lotion), and other similar items. However, there is no medical context in which "household products" has a specific or technical meaning. If you have any concerns about the safety or health effects of a particular household product, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or reaching out to the manufacturer for more information.

Protective clothing refers to specialized garments worn by healthcare professionals, first responders, or workers in various industries to protect themselves from potential hazards that could cause harm to their bodies. These hazards may include biological agents (such as viruses or bacteria), chemicals, radiological particles, physical injuries, or extreme temperatures.

Examples of protective clothing include:

1. Medical/isolation gowns: Fluid-resistant garments worn by healthcare workers during medical procedures to protect against the spread of infectious diseases.
2. Lab coats: Protective garments typically worn in laboratories to shield the wearer's skin and clothing from potential chemical or biological exposure.
3. Coveralls: One-piece garments that cover the entire body, often used in industries with high exposure risks, such as chemical manufacturing or construction.
4. Gloves: Protective hand coverings made of materials like latex, nitrile, or vinyl, which prevent direct contact with hazardous substances.
5. Face masks and respirators: Devices worn over the nose and mouth to filter out airborne particles, protecting the wearer from inhaling harmful substances.
6. Helmets and face shields: Protective headgear used in various industries to prevent physical injuries from falling objects or impact.
7. Fire-resistant clothing: Specialized garments worn by firefighters and those working with high temperatures or open flames to protect against burns and heat exposure.

The choice of protective clothing depends on the specific hazards present in the work environment, as well as the nature and duration of potential exposures. Proper use, maintenance, and training are essential for ensuring the effectiveness of protective clothing in minimizing risks and maintaining worker safety.

Carbamates are a group of organic compounds that contain the carbamate functional group, which is a carbon atom double-bonded to oxygen and single-bonded to a nitrogen atom (> N-C=O). In the context of pharmaceuticals and agriculture, carbamates are a class of drugs and pesticides that have carbamate as their core structure.

Carbamate insecticides work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapses of the nervous system. When this enzyme is inhibited, acetylcholine accumulates in the synaptic cleft, leading to overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately causing paralysis and death in insects.

Carbamate drugs are used for a variety of medical indications, including as anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, and psychotropic medications. They work by modulating various neurotransmitter systems in the brain, such as GABA, glutamate, and dopamine. Carbamates can also be used as anti- parasitic agents, such as ivermectin, which is effective against a range of parasites including nematodes, arthropods, and some protozoa.

It's important to note that carbamate pesticides can be toxic to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it's essential to follow all safety guidelines when handling or using these products.

Monocrotophos is not typically defined in medical terms, but it is a pesticide that can have medical implications. It's a type of organophosphate insecticide that works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, leading to an overaccumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and resulting in symptoms such as muscle twitching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, and, at high exposures, seizures and respiratory failure. Chronic exposure can lead to neurological problems and an increased risk of certain cancers.

"Paternal exposure" is not a standard term in medicine, but it generally refers to the potential impact on offspring due to exposures experienced by the father prior to conception. These exposures could include environmental factors such as radiation, chemicals, or infections, as well as lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol use, or drug use. Some studies suggest that these exposures may have an effect on the developing embryo or fetus, but more research is needed to fully understand the extent and nature of these effects.

Pyrethrins are a group of naturally occurring organic compounds extracted from the flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and Chrysanthemum coccineum. They have been used for centuries as insecticides due to their ability to disrupt the nervous system of insects, leading to paralysis and death. Pyrethrins are composed of six esters, pyrethrin I and II, cinerin I and II, and jasmolin I and II, which have different insecticidal properties but share a similar mode of action. They are commonly used in household insect sprays, pet shampoos, and agricultural applications to control a wide range of pests. However, pyrethrins can be toxic to fish and some beneficial insects, so they must be used with caution.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not a medical term or concept. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

The EPA is an independent agency of the federal government of the United States, responsible for protecting public health and the environment by enforcing regulations based on federal laws. The agency conducts environmental assessment, education, research, and regulation of various voluntary and compulsory programs in the US to address issues related to toxic substances, air and water quality, solid waste management, radiation protection, and hazardous waste management.

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

Methoxychlor is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical compound. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Methoxychlor is an organochlorine pesticide that was widely used in the past for agricultural and residential applications due to its relatively low toxicity compared to other organochlorines like DDT. It acts as a contact and stomach insecticide, disrupting the nervous system of insects. Methoxychlor has been banned or restricted in many countries because of environmental concerns and potential health risks.

In a medical context, exposure to methoxychlor might be discussed in relation to possible human health effects, such as endocrine disruption, reproductive issues, or developmental problems. However, it is not a term commonly used by medical professionals in the same way that they would use terms related to specific diseases, symptoms, or treatments.

Methyl parathion is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide. It functions by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, causing nervous system excitation and ultimately damage or death in insects. However, it can also have toxic effects on mammals, including humans, if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. It is classified as a highly hazardous pesticide by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its use is restricted or banned in many countries due to its high toxicity and environmental persistence.

Heptachlor is a synthetic, chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide that was widely used in the past for agricultural and residential pest control. It is a colorless to white crystalline solid with a mild chemical odor. Heptachlor is highly toxic to both insects and mammals, including humans. It can cause damage to the liver and nervous system, and long-term exposure has been linked to cancer in animals.

Heptachlor was banned for most uses in the United States in 1978 due to its persistence in the environment and potential health risks. However, it can still be found in some older pesticide formulations and in contaminated soil, water, and air. Heptachlor is highly persistent in the environment and can accumulate in the food chain, posing a risk to wildlife and human health.

Chlordane is a man-made chlorinated hydrocarbon compound that was widely used as a pesticide, particularly for termite control, from the 1940s until it was banned in the United States in 1988 due to its toxicity and persistence in the environment. It is a colorless or light brown liquid with a mild, aromatic odor.

Chlordane is an extremely toxic compound to insects and has been shown to have negative effects on human health as well. Exposure to chlordane can cause a range of adverse health effects, including neurological damage, liver toxicity, and an increased risk of cancer. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Chlordane is highly persistent in the environment and can accumulate in the food chain, posing a particular risk to wildlife and humans who consume contaminated food or water. It can also volatilize from soil and water into the air, where it can be transported long distances and contribute to air pollution. As a result, chlordane continues to pose a significant environmental and health hazard, even though its use has been banned for several decades.

Captan is a broad-spectrum fungicide that is used to prevent and control various fungal diseases in crops such as fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants. Its chemical name is N-trichloromethylthio-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi, preventing the spread of disease in plants.

Captan is often applied as a powder or spray to plant surfaces and can be used on both pre- and post-harvest crops. While it is generally considered safe for use, captan can be toxic to humans and other animals if ingested or inhaled in large quantities. Therefore, it is important to follow all safety guidelines when handling this chemical.

It's worth noting that captan is not used in medical context, but rather in agricultural and horticultural settings.

Azinphosmethyl is a type of organophosphate insecticide that is used to control various pests in agriculture. Its chemical formula is C6H12NO6PS. It works by inhibiting the activity of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that is crucial for the proper functioning of the nervous system. This leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which can result in a variety of symptoms such as muscle twitching, tremors, convulsions, and eventually respiratory failure.

Azinphosmethyl is highly toxic to both insects and mammals, and it can pose significant risks to human health if not handled properly. Exposure to this chemical can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and it can cause a range of adverse health effects, including headaches, nausea, dizziness, and respiratory problems. Long-term exposure has been linked to more serious health issues such as neurological damage and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.

Due to its high toxicity and potential risks to human health, the use of azinphosmethyl is regulated by various governmental agencies around the world. In the United States, for example, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has classified azinphosmethyl as a restricted-use pesticide, which means that it can only be applied by certified applicators who have received special training in its safe use.

Cholinesterases are a group of enzymes that play an essential role in the nervous system by regulating the transmission of nerve impulses. They work by breaking down a type of chemical messenger called acetylcholine, which is released by nerves to transmit signals to other nerves or muscles.

There are two main types of cholinesterases: acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). AChE is found primarily in the nervous system, where it rapidly breaks down acetylcholine to terminate nerve impulses. BChE, on the other hand, is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver and plasma, and plays a less specific role in breaking down various substances, including some drugs and toxins.

Inhibition of cholinesterases can lead to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft, which can result in excessive stimulation of nerve impulses and muscle contractions. This effect is exploited by certain medications used to treat conditions such as myasthenia gravis, Alzheimer's disease, and glaucoma, but can also be caused by exposure to certain chemicals or toxins, such as organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

Atrazine is a herbicide that is widely used to control broadleaf and grassy weeds in crops such as corn, sorghum, and sugarcane. It belongs to a class of chemicals called triazines. Atrazine works by inhibiting the photosynthesis process in plants, which ultimately leads to their death.

Here is the medical definition of Atrazine:

Atrazine: A selective systemic herbicide used for pre- and postemergence control of broadleaf weeds and grasses in corn, sorghum, sugarcane, and other crops. It acts by inhibiting photosynthesis in susceptible plants. Exposure to atrazine can occur through skin or eye contact, ingestion, or inhalation during its use or after its application. Short-term exposure to high levels of atrazine can cause irritation to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes, while long-term exposure has been linked to reproductive effects in both humans and animals. It is classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

"Maternal exposure" is a medical term that refers to the contact or interaction of a pregnant woman with various environmental factors, such as chemicals, radiation, infectious agents, or physical environments, which could potentially have an impact on the developing fetus. This exposure can occur through different routes, including inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact, or even transplacentally. The effects of maternal exposure on the fetus can vary widely depending on the type, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the stage of pregnancy at which it occurs. It is important to monitor and minimize maternal exposure to potentially harmful substances or environments during pregnancy to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and developing fetus.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "housing" is not a term that has a medical definition. In a general sense, housing refers to a place where someone lives, such as a house or apartment. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

Chlordecone is a synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide that was widely used in the past for agricultural purposes, particularly in banana plantations. It has been banned in many countries due to its persistence in the environment and its potential negative effects on human health.

Chlordecone is classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Exposure to this chemical can occur through contaminated food, water, or air, and it has been linked to various health problems, including neurological effects, endocrine disruption, and an increased risk of certain cancers.

In the medical field, chlordecone exposure is often evaluated in patients who have been exposed to this chemical through environmental contamination or occupational exposure. Medical professionals may use various tests, such as blood or urine tests, to measure the levels of chlordecone in a patient's body and assess any potential health risks.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of cholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. By inhibiting this enzyme, the levels of acetylcholine in the brain increase, which can help to improve symptoms of cognitive decline and memory loss associated with conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are also used to treat other medical conditions, including myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder that causes muscle weakness, and glaucoma, a condition that affects the optic nerve and can lead to vision loss. Some examples of cholinesterase inhibitors include donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Razadyne), and rivastigmine (Exelon).

It's important to note that while cholinesterase inhibitors can help to improve symptoms in some people with dementia, they do not cure the underlying condition or stop its progression. Side effects of these drugs may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and increased salivation. In rare cases, they may also cause seizures, fainting, or cardiac arrhythmias.

Coumaphos is an antiparasitic agent, specifically a type of chemical called an organophosphate. It works by inhibiting the action of certain enzymes in insects and other parasites, which leads to their death. Coumaphos is used as a topical treatment for lice and scabies infestations in humans, and it is also used in veterinary medicine to control internal and external parasites in livestock and pets.

It's important to note that coumaphos is highly toxic and can cause serious health effects if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. Therefore, it should be handled with care and used only as directed by a healthcare professional.

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter, into choline and acetic acid. This enzyme plays a crucial role in regulating the transmission of nerve impulses across the synapse, the junction between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle fiber.

Acetylcholinesterase is located in the synaptic cleft, the narrow gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. When ACh is released from the presynaptic membrane and binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, it triggers a response in the target cell. Acetylcholinesterase rapidly breaks down ACh, terminating its action and allowing for rapid cycling of neurotransmission.

Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase leads to an accumulation of ACh in the synaptic cleft, prolonging its effects on the postsynaptic membrane. This can result in excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors and overactivation of the cholinergic system, which may cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fasciculations, sweating, salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, bradycardia, and bronchoconstriction.

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, myasthenia gravis, and glaucoma. However, they can also be used as chemical weapons, such as nerve agents, due to their ability to disrupt the nervous system and cause severe toxicity.

Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of esters of choline, including butyrylcholine and acetylcholine. It is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, brain, and plasma. BChE plays a role in the metabolism of certain drugs and neurotransmitters, and its activity can be inhibited by certain chemicals, such as organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. Elevated levels of BChE have been found in some neurological disorders, while decreased levels have been associated with genetic deficiencies and liver disease.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of man-made organic chemicals consisting of 209 individual compounds, known as congeners. The congeners are formed by the combination of two benzene rings with varying numbers and positions of chlorine atoms.

PCBs were widely used in electrical equipment, such as transformers and capacitors, due to their non-flammability, chemical stability, and insulating properties. They were also used in other applications, including coolants and lubricants, plasticizers, pigments, and copy oils. Although PCBs were banned in many countries in the 1970s and 1980s due to their toxicity and environmental persistence, they still pose significant health and environmental concerns because of their continued presence in the environment and in products manufactured before the ban.

PCBs are known to have various adverse health effects on humans and animals, including cancer, immune system suppression, reproductive and developmental toxicity, and endocrine disruption. They can also cause neurological damage and learning and memory impairment in both human and animal populations. PCBs are highly persistent in the environment and can accumulate in the food chain, leading to higher concentrations in animals at the top of the food chain, including humans.

Dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) is a chemical compound that is formed as a byproduct when dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is metabolized or breaks down in the environment. DDE is an organochlorine pesticide and is similar in structure to DDT, with two phenyl rings and two chlorine atoms attached to a central ethylene molecule.

DDE is highly stable and does not break down easily in the environment, which means that it can persist for many years and accumulate in the food chain. It is lipophilic, meaning that it tends to accumulate in fatty tissues, and bioaccumulates in animals that are higher up in the food chain.

DDE has been shown to have toxic effects on both wildlife and humans. It can disrupt hormone systems, particularly those related to reproduction, and has been linked to reproductive problems in birds and other animals. In humans, exposure to DDE has been associated with increased risk of certain cancers, developmental delays in children, and other health problems.

DDE is no longer used as a pesticide in many countries, but it can still be found in the environment due to its persistence and ability to accumulate in the food chain. People can be exposed to DDE through contaminated food, water, or air, as well as through contact with soil or dust that contains DDE.

Environmental pollution is the introduction or presence of harmful substances, energies, or objects in the environment that can cause adverse effects on living organisms and ecosystems. These pollutants can be in the form of chemical, physical, or biological agents that contaminate air, water, soil, or noise levels, exceeding safe limits established by environmental regulations.

Examples of environmental pollution include:

1. Air pollution: The presence of harmful substances such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air that can cause respiratory and other health problems.
2. Water pollution: Contamination of water sources with chemicals, heavy metals, pathogens, or other pollutants that can harm aquatic life and make the water unsafe for human consumption or recreational use.
3. Soil pollution: The presence of harmful substances such as heavy metals, pesticides, and industrial waste in soil that can reduce soil fertility, contaminate crops, and pose a risk to human health.
4. Noise pollution: Excessive noise levels from transportation, industrial activities, or other sources that can cause stress, sleep disturbances, and hearing loss in humans and animals.
5. Light pollution: The excessive use of artificial light that can disrupt ecosystems, affect human circadian rhythms, and contribute to energy waste.

Environmental pollution is a significant global health issue that requires urgent attention and action from governments, industries, and individuals to reduce pollutant emissions, promote sustainable practices, and protect the environment for future generations.

Pralidoxime compounds are a type of antidote used to treat poisoning from organophosphate nerve agents and pesticides. These compounds work by reactivating the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, which is inhibited by organophosphates. This helps to restore the normal functioning of the nervous system and can save lives in cases of severe poisoning.

Pralidoxime is often used in combination with atropine, another antidote that blocks the effects of excess acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Together, these compounds can help to manage the symptoms of organophosphate poisoning and prevent long-term neurological damage.

It is important to note that pralidoxime must be administered as soon as possible after exposure to organophosphates, as its effectiveness decreases over time. This makes rapid diagnosis and treatment crucial in cases of suspected nerve agent or pesticide poisoning.

Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide. It is used to control a wide variety of pests, including flies, ticks, and mites in agriculture, livestock production, and public health. Trichlorfon works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and results in paralysis and death of the pest. It is important to note that trichlorfon can also have harmful effects on non-target organisms, including humans, and its use is regulated by various governmental agencies to minimize potential risks.

Mirex is not typically defined in a medical context as it is not a medical term. However, Mirex is a chemical compound that was previously used as an insecticide and flame retardant. It is a colorless solid with a weak chemical odor and is highly stable, which led to its use in various applications.

In the medical field, Mirex may be mentioned in relation to environmental health or toxicology due to its potential harmful effects on human health. Exposure to Mirex can occur through contaminated food, water, or air, and it has been linked to several adverse health outcomes, including neurological damage, reproductive problems, and cancer. However, the use of Mirex as an insecticide has been banned in many countries due to its environmental and health hazards.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Floors and Floorcoverings" is not a medical term. It refers to the physical structures and materials used to cover floors in buildings or homes. If you have any medical terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

Pentachlorophenol is not primarily a medical term, but rather a chemical compound with some uses and applications in the medical field. Medically, it's important to understand what pentachlorophenol is due to its potential health implications.

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is an organochlorine compound that has been widely used as a pesticide, wood preservative, and disinfectant. Its chemical formula is C6HCl5O. It is a white crystalline solid with a distinct, somewhat unpleasant odor. In the environment, pentachlorophenol can be found in soil, water, and air as well as in various organisms, including humans.

Pentachlorophenol has been associated with several potential health risks. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and as a possible human carcinogen by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Exposure to pentachlorophenol can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion. Potential health effects include irritation of the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract; damage to the liver and kidneys; neurological issues; and reproductive problems.

In a medical context, pentachlorophenol might be relevant in cases where individuals have been exposed to this compound through occupational or environmental sources. Medical professionals may need to assess potential health risks, diagnose related health issues, and provide appropriate treatment.

Chlorfenvinphos is an organophosphate insecticide that has been used to control a wide variety of pests in agriculture, horticulture, and animal husbandry. It functions by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and results in symptoms such as muscle twitching, tremors, convulsions, and eventually respiratory failure.

Chlorfenvinphos is highly toxic to both mammals and birds, and it can also have harmful effects on aquatic organisms. It has been banned or restricted in many countries due to its environmental persistence and potential health risks to humans. Exposure to chlorfenvinphos can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and symptoms of poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, and respiratory distress. Chronic exposure has been linked to neurological effects such as memory loss, decreased cognitive function, and peripheral neuropathy.

Protective devices, in the context of medical care, refer to equipment or products designed to prevent injury, harm, or infection to patients, healthcare workers, or others. They can include a wide range of items such as:

1. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Items worn by healthcare professionals to protect themselves from infectious materials or harmful substances, such as gloves, masks, face shields, gowns, and goggles.
2. Medical Devices: Equipment designed to prevent injury during medical procedures, such as tourniquets, safety needles, and bite blocks.
3. Patient Safety Devices: Items used to protect patients from harm, such as bed rails, pressure ulcer prevention devices, and fall prevention equipment.
4. Environmental Protection Devices: Equipment used to prevent the spread of infectious agents in healthcare settings, such as air purifiers, isolation rooms, and waste management systems.
5. Dental Protective Devices: Devices used in dental care to protect patients and dental professionals from injury or infection, such as dental dams, mouth mirrors, and high-speed evacuators.

The specific definition of protective devices may vary depending on the context and field of medicine.

Epidemiologic studies are investigations that seek to understand the distribution, patterns, and determinants of health and disease within a population. These studies aim to identify the frequency and occurrence of diseases or health-related events, as well as the factors that contribute to their occurrence. This information is used to develop public health policies and interventions to prevent or control diseases and promote overall health.

There are several types of epidemiologic studies, including:

1. Descriptive studies: These studies describe the characteristics of a population and the distribution of a disease or health-related event within that population. They do not typically investigate causes or risk factors.
2. Analytical studies: These studies examine the relationship between exposures (risk factors) and outcomes (diseases or health-related events). There are two main types of analytical studies: observational studies and experimental studies.
3. Observational studies: In these studies, researchers observe and collect data on a population without intervening or manipulating any variables. There are several types of observational studies, including cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies.
4. Cohort studies: These studies follow a group of people (a cohort) over time to see if they develop a particular disease or health-related event. Researchers collect data on exposures and outcomes at multiple points in time.
5. Case-control studies: These studies compare people with a specific disease or health-related event (cases) to people without the disease or event (controls). Researchers then look back in time to see if there are any differences in exposures between the two groups.
6. Cross-sectional studies: These studies collect data on exposures and outcomes at a single point in time. They are useful for estimating the prevalence of a disease or health-related event, but they cannot establish causality.
7. Experimental studies: In these studies, researchers manipulate variables to see if they have an effect on a particular outcome. The most common type of experimental study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the intervention being tested or a control group.

Epidemiologic studies can provide valuable insights into the causes and consequences of diseases and health-related events, as well as potential interventions to prevent or treat them. However, they must be carefully designed and conducted to minimize bias and confounding, and their results should be interpreted with caution.

"California" is a geographical location and does not have a medical definition. It is a state located on the west coast of the United States, known for its diverse landscape including mountains, beaches, and forests. However, in some contexts, "California" may refer to certain medical conditions or situations that are associated with the state, such as:

* California encephalitis: a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes that is common in California and other western states.
* California king snake: a non-venomous snake species found in California and other parts of the southwestern United States, which can bite and cause allergic reactions in some people.
* California roll: a type of sushi roll that originated in California and is made with avocado, cucumber, and crab meat, which may pose an allergy risk for some individuals.

It's important to note that these uses of "California" are not medical definitions per se, but rather descriptive terms that refer to specific conditions or situations associated with the state.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil pollutants" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Soil pollution refers to the presence or accumulation of hazardous substances, chemicals, or other pollutants in soil that can have negative effects on plant life, human health, and the environment.

However, if you're asking about potential health effects of exposure to soil pollutants, it could include a variety of symptoms or diseases, depending on the specific pollutant. For example, exposure to lead-contaminated soil can lead to developmental delays in children, while exposure to certain pesticides or industrial chemicals can cause neurological problems, respiratory issues, and even cancer.

If you have more specific information about a particular substance or context, I may be able to provide a more precise answer.

Toxaphene is not typically defined in a medical context as it is not a medication or a condition. However, it is a chemical compound that has been used as a pesticide and has been banned in many countries due to its toxicity and environmental persistence.

Medically, toxaphene exposure can lead to various health issues, including skin and eye irritation, respiratory problems, neurological symptoms, and potential cancer risk. Therefore, it is sometimes mentioned in medical literature in the context of occupational or environmental health.

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is not typically included in standard medical textbooks or resources as it's more of a environmental and industrial chemical. However, I can provide you with an definition from a toxicological perspective:

Hexachlorobenzene (C6Cl6) is an organic compound that consists of a benzene ring with six chlorine atoms attached to it. It is a persistent organic pollutant, which means it does not break down easily and can accumulate in the environment and living organisms. HCB has been used as a pesticide, fungicide, and chemical intermediate in various industrial processes. Exposure to this compound can lead to several health issues, including skin lesions, damage to the nervous system, and impaired immune function. It's also considered a possible human carcinogen by some agencies. Long-term environmental exposure to HCB is of particular concern due to its bioaccumulation in the food chain and potential adverse effects on human health and the environment.

Permethrin is a type of medication that belongs to the class of chemicals called pyrethroids. It's commonly used as a topical treatment for scabies and lice infestations. Permethrin works by disrupting the nervous system of these parasites, leading to their paralysis and death.

In medical terms, permethrin is defined as a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and acaricide with contact and stomach activity. It's used topically in the form of creams or lotions to treat infestations of lice and scabies mites on the skin. Permethrin is considered safe and effective for use in adults and children, including infants over two months old.

It's important to note that permethrin should be used as directed by a healthcare professional, and it may have some potential side effects such as skin irritation, redness, or itching.

Nitro compounds, also known as nitro derivatives or nitro aromatics, are organic compounds that contain the nitro group (-NO2) bonded to an aromatic hydrocarbon ring. They are named as such because they contain a nitrogen atom in a -3 oxidation state and are typically prepared by the nitration of aromatic compounds using nitric acid or a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids.

Nitro compounds have significant importance in organic chemistry due to their versatile reactivity, which allows for various chemical transformations. They can serve as useful intermediates in the synthesis of other chemical products, including dyes, pharmaceuticals, and explosives. However, some nitro compounds can also be hazardous, with potential health effects such as skin and respiratory irritation, and they may pose environmental concerns due to their persistence and potential toxicity.

It is important to handle nitro compounds with care, following appropriate safety guidelines and regulations, to minimize risks associated with their use.

Staff (2005-09-15). "JAMA Study of Pesticide Risks in Schools". Pesticide Action Network Updates Service. Pesticide Action ... including pesticides. Pesticide poisoning is an important occupational health issue because pesticides are used in a large ... Pesticides in the United States, Pesticide organizations, Pesticide regulation in the United States). ... SENSOR-Pesticides federal and state staff, along with officials from the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR), ...
"About The Pesticides Safety Directorate". Pesticides Safety Directorate. September 2006. Archived from the original on 27 ... To ensure the safe use of pesticides and detergents for people and the environment. To harmonise pesticide regulation within ... Pesticides in the United Kingdom, Research institutes in North Yorkshire, Pesticide regulation). ... The Pesticides Safety Directorate was an agency of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). It was based ...
The Ontario province-wide pesticide ban on lawn pesticides came into effect with the Ontario Cosmetic Pesticides Ban Act on ... "Cosmetic pesticide bans". Government of Canada. 2019-02-21. Bachand, Nadine; Gue, Lisa (Summer 2011). Pesticide Free? Oui! (PDF ... "Pest control products (pesticides) acts and regulations". Government of Canada. 2019-04-03. "Pesticides and Food". Government ... "Pesticides Compliance and Enforcement". Government of Canada. 2016-06-01. "Pesticide Compliance and Enforcement Report for 2016 ...
Environmental effects of pesticides Chlorpyrifos#Toxicity A., Khaled (2011-09-12), "Pesticides and Human Health", Pesticides in ... Health effects of pesticides may be acute or delayed in those who are exposed. Acute effects can include pesticide poisoning, ... Some pesticides can remain in the environment for prolonged periods of time. There are concerns that pesticides used to control ... While pesticide use is commonly associated with agriculture, pesticides are also used as part of public health interventions to ...
Agriculture in New Zealand Environment of New Zealand Environmental impact of pesticides Gorse in New Zealand Pesticide ... Pesticide residues are generally low and are thought to pose no detectable threat to health. Aerial spraying of West Auckland ... 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is used in New Zealand and the Pesticides Board has decided not to prohibit the use of ... ISBN 978-0-478-09000-0. "The Peoples Inquiry , ..into the impacts and effects of aerial spraying pesticide over urban areas of ...
Pesticides can contribute to air pollution. Pesticide drift occurs when pesticides suspended in the air as particles are ... Pesticides in the environment Archived 5 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Pesticide fact sheets and tutorial, . Pesticide ... The negative effects of pesticides are not just in the area of application. Runoff and pesticide drift can carry pesticides ... of pesticides banned in Brazil and 40 million pounds of pesticides banned in China, with most of banned pesticides banned ...
The paradox of the pesticides is a paradox that states that applying pesticide to a pest may end up increasing the abundance of ... Thus, prey, which is normally the targeted by the pesticide, is actually being benefited instead of harmed by the pesticide. ... www.epa.gov/pesticides/food/ipm.htm (2007). (Paradoxes, Pesticides). ... IPM is also often touted for its environmental and health benefits, as it avoids the use of chemical pesticides. Plateau effect ...
Index of pesticide articles Environmental hazard Pest control Pesticide residue Pesticide standard value WHO Pesticide ... Pesticides safety education and pesticide applicator regulation are designed to protect the public from pesticide misuse, but ... Pesticides at the World Health Organization (WHO) Pesticides at the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Pesticides at ... "Pesticide Applicator Core Tutorial: Module 4 - Toxicity of Pesticides". Pesticide Safety Education Program (PSEP). Cornell ...
The International HCH and Pesticides Association (IHPA) was founded in July 1998 with the aim of facilitating and promoting ... International HCH and Pesticides Association (International organisations based in the Netherlands, International trade ... The IHPA supports the work towards sustainable solutions in production and application of pesticides and promotes international ... experiences within management of pollution problems stemming from the production and use of HCH and other unwanted pesticides ...
Pesticide Data Program Pesticide Residues in Food - Data and Summary reports from the USDA on pesticide residues in food sold ... The Pesticide Data Program, a program started by the United States Department of Agriculture is the largest tester of pesticide ... "Pesticide use in California remains at record high, new data show , Pesticide Action Network". www.panna.org. Retrieved 2022-12 ... "Pesticide Data Program". www.ams.usda.gov. USDA. Retrieved 20 May 2018. "Pesticide Data Program" (PDF). USDA. Retrieved 20 May ...
Health effects of pesticides SENSOR-Pesticides program WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme Specific pesticides have special ... Specific treatments for acute pesticide poisoning are often dependent on the pesticide or class of pesticide responsible for ... Pesticides are the agents most frequently used by farmers and students in India to commit suicide. Pesticide poisoning is an ... A pesticide poisoning occurs when pesticides, chemicals intended to control a pest, affect non-target organisms such as humans ...
National Pesticide Information Center Pesticide drift Rother, Hanna-Andrea (August 2018). "Pesticide labels: Protecting ... Other kinds of pesticide misuse include the sale or use of an unregistered pesticide or one whose registration has been revoked ... Pesticide misuse can lead to pesticide poisoning, the consequences of which range from mild skin irritations to seizure to ... Under United States law, pesticide misuse is considered to be the use of a pesticide in a way that violates laws regulating ...
When pesticides are the sole or predominant method of pest control, resistance is commonly managed through pesticide rotation. ... Chemical Pesticides: Mode of Action and Toxicology. CRC Press, Boca Raton. Marino M. (August 2007), Blowies inspire pesticide ... Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective ... Although the evolution of pesticide resistance is usually discussed as a result of pesticide use, it is important to keep in ...
Unlike pesticides, plant activators are not pathogen specific and are not affected by drug resistance, making them ideal for ... Combining conventional pesticides and biopesticides, NPs accounted for the majority of registrations, with 35.7%, followed by S ... Early twenty-first century pesticide research has focused on developing molecules that combine low use rates and that are more ... Obstacles include increasing pesticide resistance and an increasingly stringent regulatory environment. The sources of new ...
... is the process by which a pesticide is transformed into a benign substance that is environmentally ... Pesticides are applied over large areas in agriculture and urban settings. Pesticide use, therefore, represents an important ... Pesticide residues have been found in other realms. Transport from groundwater may lead to a low-level presence in surface ... Other pesticides are less amenable. Conditions such as high pH or low-redox environments combined with in situ catalyst ...
... refers to the unintentional diffusion of pesticides and the potential negative effects of pesticide application ... Pesticide drift can result in more serious harm to one's health depending on how much and what type of pesticide is entering ... Yet, these pesticides are kept in tight control. Some pesticides, at significantly high exposures, can cause long-term health ... of Pesticide Regulation. Retrieved 25 March 2011. "Pesticide Drift" (PDF). Hewitt, A.J., Spray drift: impact of requirements to ...
Very occasionally, some pesticides (e.g. malathion) may be sold as technical material (TC - which is mostly AI, but also ... A number of pesticide bait formulations are available for rodent pest control, etc. In reality many formulation codes are used ... The biological activity of a pesticide, be it chemical or biological in nature, is determined by its active ingredient (AI - ... Kluwer Academic, London Formulation Codes from dropdata.org, run by iparc.org.uk, The International Pesticide Application ...
The European Pesticide Residue Workshop Pesticide residue in Europe International Maximum Residue Level Database UK Pesticides ... There are two categories of pesticides, first-generation pesticides and second-generation pesticide. The first-generation ... Pesticide residue refers to the pesticides that may remain on or in food after they are applied to food crops. The maximum ... In Japan, pesticide residues are regulated by the Food Safety Act.[citation needed] Pesticide tolerances are set by the ...
... is applied as a contact protective foliar spray, so it remains deposited on leaf surfaces. A small ... Copper pesticides must be used in quantities that minimizes long term copper accumulation in the soil. Accumulated copper in ... Copper pesticides are copper compounds used as bactericides, algaecides, or fungicides. They can kill bacteria, oomycetes and ... Copper pesticides can be effective in preventing bacterial diseases, including Erwinia soft rot, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas ...
... refers to the practical way in which pesticides (including herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, or ... Related to this, aerial pesticide application is a method of top dressing a pesticide to an emerged crop which eliminates ... This is a less familiar form of pesticide drift, with exo-drift causing much greater public concern. Pesticides are ... Pesticides are applied to the seed prior to planting, in the form of a seed treatment, or coating, to protect against soil- ...
The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) is the Australian Government statutory agency responsible ... Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority. p. 15. Retrieved March 29, 2019. "APVMA basics". APVMA. 14 August ... Department of Agriculture and Water Resources "Timeline of significant APVMA milestones". Australian Pesticides and Veterinary ...
Gene silencing pesticides are pesticides that use gene silencing, and RNA interference (RNAi) in particular to target ... Gene silencing pesticide description[dead link] Silencing the pests EOS magazine, June 2010 (All articles with dead external ... They then patented the technology and by 2006, it was used in pesticides. Two articles were then also published that confirmed ... Monsanto and Devgen developed a gene silencing pesticide against Diabrotica virgifera A team, led by Xiao-Ya Chen fed gossypol ...
... s are applied worldwide to control pesticide pollution, since pesticides are largely applied in ... Usually, pesticide standard value is regulated in residential surface soil (i.e., pesticide soil regulatory guidance value, or ... Pesticide standard values for many current and historical largely used pesticides such as DDT, aldrin, lindane, glyphosate, ... Persistent organic pollutant Aquatic toxicology Regulation of pesticides in the European Union Pesticide regulation in the ...
No Bt cotton, no pests! : How cotton farmers are being fleeced "Escaping the Pesticide Trap: Non-Pesticide Management for ... These also refer to as Organic Pesticides. Use of trap crops which attract the insects away from the fields. The trap crops are ... Non-pesticidal Management (NPM) describes various pest-control techniques which do not rely on pesticides. It is used in ... They are able to develop resistance to chemical pesticides insecticides used by farmers. To be successful, farmers should be ...
Environmental effects of pesticides, International environmental organizations, Pesticide organizations, Environmental ... Pesticide Action Network (PAN) is an international coalition of around 600 NGOs, citizens' groups, and individuals in about 60 ... "Pesticide Action Network , UIA Yearbook Profile , Union of International Associations". uia.org. Retrieved June 12, 2023. Wolf ... Prior to the Rotterdam Convention's entry into force, an interim Chemical Review Committee was established and the Pesticide ...
... social and environmental effects of pesticides; methods and effects of reducing pesticide use; government policy and pesticide ... and the benefits and risks of pesticides. Pimentel D, Lehman H (eds.) (1993) The Pesticide Question: Environment, Economics and ... The Pesticide Question builds on the 1962 best seller book Silent Spring by Rachel Carson. Carson did not reject the use of ... The Pesticide Question: Environment, Economics and Ethics is a 1993 book edited by David Pimentel and Hugh Lehman. Use of ...
Restricted use pesticides (RUP) are pesticides not available to the general public in the United States. Fulfilling its ... registers all pesticides as either "unclassified" or "restricted use". Unclassified pesticides are available over-the-counter, ... Pesticides, Pesticide regulation, All stub articles, Agriculture stubs, Chemistry stubs). ... Pesticides are classified as "restricted use" for a variety of reasons, such as potential for or history of groundwater ...
... www.ams.usda.gov/press-release/usda-releases-2016-annual-pesticide-data-program-summary PDP homepage Pesticide Data Program ... The Pesticide Data Program (PDP) is a program initiated in 1991 by the Agricultural Marketing Service division of the United ... PDP data are used by the EPA to support its dietary risk assessment process and pesticide registration process, by the Food and ... by the Economic Research Service to evaluate pesticide alternatives; and by the public sector to address food safety issues. ...
A Pesticide detection kit is a kit that scientific test kit detects the presence of pesticide residues. Various organizations ...
1491), requires that private pesticide applicators keep records of the pesticides they use in agricultural production and that ... The Pesticide Recordkeeping Program (PRP), authorized by the 1990 farm bill (P.L. 101-624, Sec. ... the records be surveyed to provide a database on restricted-use pesticides. This article incorporates public domain material ...
Guidance on how to use these products safely and information about controls over pesticide residues in food. ... Guidance on authorisation for pesticides used in Agriculture, Horticulture or the Home Garden (Plant Protection Products). ... Local Environment Risk Assessment for Pesticides (LERAPs). Certain plant protection products have an aquatic buffer zone ... originally in Part 4 of the Code of Practice for the Safe Use of Pesticides on Farms and Holdings (Green Code)). ...
pesticide application, spray drift Best Practices for Effective and Efficient Pesticide Application FABE-532 sprayers, ... spraying, pesticide application, sprayers, orchards, vineyards Drones for Spraying Pesticides-Opportunities and Challenges FABE ... Advancements in Technology for Reduction of Pesticides Used in Orchards and Vineyards FABE-538 spraying, pesticide application ... pesticide application. Title (Click to Sort) Fact Sheet Number. Tags Portable Sprayers AEX-790.27 small farm, gardening, safety ...
Decades of Unlawful Pesticide Approvals. For decades, EPA has approved thousands of pesticide products containing hundreds of ... The Services will not have the chance to apply their expertise until after a pesticide is approved, meaning pesticides might be ... As a result, pesticide products have been put on the market without a full understanding of their impacts on listed species, ... Pesticides can be toxic to fish, but they can also decimate insects that fish and other insectivores rely on. Pictured: an ...
Estimated Annual Agricultural Pesticide Use. Pesticide Use Maps - , 1992 , 1993 , 1994 , 1995 , 1996 , 1997 , 1998 , 1999 , ... Pesticide National Synthesis Project. Home Publications National Statistics Data Pesticide Use Water-Quality Benchmarks PNSP ... State-based and other restrictions on pesticide use were not incorporated into EPest-high or EPest-low estimates. EPest-low ... Beginning 2015, the provider of the surveyed pesticide data used to derive the county-level use estimates discontinued making ...
... can be used in both conventional and organic production of fresh fruits and vegetables. Pesticides must undergo a ... Under the authority of the Pest Control Products Act, the Agency is responsible for registering pesticides. Any pesticide or ... Any pesticide used in Canada, or on a product destined for the Canadian marketplace must be approved by Health Canadas Pest ... The proper use of pesticides is monitored through federal government evaluation programs which include residue testing. In the ...
Pesticides can protect your health by killing germs, animals, or plants that could hurt you. ... Basic Information About Pesticide Ingredients (Environmental Protection Agency) * Citizens Guide to Pest Control and Pesticide ... Pesticides can help get rid of them. Pesticides are not just insect killers. They also include chemicals to control weeds, ... If you do need a pesticide, use it correctly. Be especially careful around children and pets. Proper disposal of pesticides is ...
Staff (2005-09-15). "JAMA Study of Pesticide Risks in Schools". Pesticide Action Network Updates Service. Pesticide Action ... including pesticides. Pesticide poisoning is an important occupational health issue because pesticides are used in a large ... Pesticides in the United States, Pesticide organizations, Pesticide regulation in the United States). ... SENSOR-Pesticides federal and state staff, along with officials from the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR), ...
Federal scientists have determined that a family of widely used pesticides poses a threat to dozens of endangered and ... US review shows pesticides harm threatened salmon, whales. Associated Press / 08:54 AM January 13, 2018 ... At the urging of pesticide manufacturers, the Trump administration had sought a two-year delay of a court-ordered deadline to ... Studies have shown for years that even low levels of pesticides running off into streams and rivers can impair the growth, ...
organic pesticides. * How-To 9 Garden Myths Demystified Dont let these classic superstitions waste your time or harm your ...
Table of laboratory methods panels for Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs). Chemical. Specimen Type. ... An Observational Study to Evaluate Associations Between Low-Level Gestational Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and ...
Pesticide pollution still poses significant risks to our health and to the environment. We sat down with Dario Piselli, EEA ... environment, human health and well-being expert to discuss the problem posed by pesticides and what the European Union is doing ... What sort of pesticides are we talking about? What specific damage do they do?. The EEA briefing focuses on chemical pesticides ... Moreover, pesticide exposure can cause several chronic diseases in humans, with users of pesticides and vulnerable groups such ...
Find Best Pesticides Products from Chinese Manufacturers and Suppliers at Tradekey.com ... Bifenazate is a white colored pesticide with lesser quantities of toxicacaricide. It is highly effective in thwarting mites ... Insecticide: An insecticide is a pesticide whose purpose is to kill or to prevent the multiplication of insects. ... We re manufacturer of Rodenticide and Pesticide. Bromadiolone Bait is second-generation anticoagulant OEM packing Product Name ...
Two workers were fatally injured when a waste tank containing the pesticide methomyl violently exploded, damaging a process ...
How does South Africa perform in Pesticide? Penicillins and Streptomycins in Dosage Market Size Value Per Capita in South ... Pesticides Use on Crops in South Africa 2022 - 2026 ... Forecast: Pesticides Use on Crops in South Africa *Kilograms ...
Pesticides and my collection. Discussion in Transformers Toy Discussion started by jeffafa, May 30, 2014. ... Store any Insecticons safely away lest they die from the pesticide.. Keep all other Transformers with beast modes clear of the ... Store any Insecticons safely away lest they die from the pesticide.. Keep all other Transformers with beast modes clear of the ... Store any Insecticons safely away lest they die from the pesticide.. Keep all other Transformers with beast modes clear of the ...
FAO/WHO (1975) 1974 evaluations of some pesticide residues in food. AGP:1974/M/11; WHO Pesticide Residues Series, No. 4. Gaines ... See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Chinomethionat (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 4) Chinomethionat (Pesticide residues in ... Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations) Chinomethionat (Pesticide residues in food: 1987 evaluations Part II Toxicology) ... Jones, K.H., Sanderson, D.M. and Noakes, D.N. (1968) Acute toxicity data for pesticides (1968). World Rev. Pest Control 7:135. ...
Pesticides can be used for lawn, pasture and garden applications. Selective Pesticides are restricted in some states and ... Pesticides can be used for lawn, pasture and garden applications. Selective Pesticides are restricted in some states and ... Pesticide is used for eradicating unwanted vegetation. ... Pesticide is used for eradicating unwanted vegetation. ...
Pesticide Efficacy, Pesticide Mixtures, Pesticide Regulation, Pesticide Residues, Pets, polyethoxylated tallowamine, ... Beyond Pesticides states: At the very least, if EPA deems the hazards associated with the use of the pesticide in the treated ... EPAs Pesticides Office Labeled as a Failure. *Beyond Pesticides Makes Science-based Case that It Is Imperative to�Phase Out ... USDA Pesticide Data Program Continues to Mislead the Public on Pesticide Residue Exposure. Thursday, February 15th, 2024 ( ...
For any other questions contact Cecil Tharp, Pesticide Education Specialist, at the MSU Pesticide Education Program office (406 ... Cecil Tharp (MSU Pesticide Education Specialist), Dr. Hayes Goosey (MSU Extension Forage Specialist), Dr. Tim Seipel (MSU ... Pesticide Education Program Montana State University. P.O. Box 172900. Bozeman, MT 59717-2900 ... Contact and RSVP: Amy Bowser, MSU Pesticide Education Technician Pre-register by September 30th by phone or email: (406) 994- ...
MA Industries is one of the worlds largest producers of crop protectors such as pesticides and has factories in Israel, Brazil ... plans to acquire a 60 percent stake in Israeli pesticide producer Makhteshim Agan Industries (MA Industries) for $1.44 billion ...
Pesticides contribute significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while, at the same time, climate change is expected to ... How do pesticides specifically intersect with climate change? ... Climate change & pesticide use. At the same time pesticide use ... Pesticide Action Network. Pesticide Action Network is dedicated to advancing alternatives to pesticides worldwide. Follow @ ... Californias climate strategies ignore pesticides Californias climate strategies ignore pesticides (Part I) Pesticides and ...
Pesticides & Containers Recycling Guide. Want to know more about pesticide recycling? Then head over to our Pesticides & ... Materials accepted: Pesticides Acids Adhesives Aerosol Cans - Full Antifreeze Brake Fluid Car Fluids +35 more ... Materials accepted: Pesticides Acids Adhesives Aerosol Cans - Empty Aerosol Cans - Full Alkaline Batteries Antifreeze +94 ... Recycling centers for "Pesticides" near "seal beach, ca" Within: 5 miles. 10 miles. 25 miles. 50 miles. 100 miles. ...
Multi-pesticide models. In multi-pesticide models with two or three pesticides, most odds ratios were above one for all cases ... Multi-pesticide models coadjusted for all pesticides or for two or three substances were generally consistent with our single ... Overall, the few earlier studies corroborate our findings for most of the pesticides we examined. While all the 11 pesticides ... While we estimated parameters for each pesticide in separate models because of collinearities, we also explored multi-pesticide ...
Matt Zimmerman Pesticides enter waterways when they are washed off of plants and soils during rainstorms, eventually making ... Pesticides enter waterways when they are washed off of plants and soils during rainstorms, eventually making their way to fresh ... A recently published paper in the journal Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety investigated the distribution of pesticides in ... suggesting that consumption of fish by locals should be decreased to avoid harmful chronic exposure to pesticides. ...
Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website ...
The attorney general called the settlement "an unprecedented step from a major pesticide manufacturer to promote truth in ... "Bayer made numerous misleading claims to consumers about the safety of its pesticide products, including falsely advertising ... An EPA report this year found possible links between neonicotinoid pesticides and honeybee colony collapse disorder, which ... demand that it stop advertising that its neonicotinoid pesticides are like "giving a daily vitamin to plants," though the ...
Pesticide concentration data for waters from selected carbonate-rock aquifers in agricultural areas of Pennsylvania were ... Pesticide concentration data for waters from selected carbonate-rock aquifers in agricultural areas of Pennsylvania were ... Evaluating changes in matrix based, recovery-adjusted concentrations in paired data for pesticides in groundwater July 27, 2012 ... Evaluating changes in matrix based, recovery-adjusted concentrations in paired data for pesticides in groundwater. ...
A 2022 peer-reviewed study by EWG scientists identified DCPA as a pesticide of concern, due to its toxicity and capacity to ... "The EPAs own conclusions and the overwhelming scientific evidence underscore the ongoing risks of the toxic pesticide DCPA," ... Anemic EPA announcement warning farmworkers of health risks of pesticide DCPA doesnt go far enough ... posed by the pesticide DCPA - in what is likely a final step before the agency bans the toxic weedkiller. ...
EPAs Pesticides Office Labeled as a Failure. *Beyond Pesticides Makes Science-based Case that It Is Imperative to�Phase Out ... Contact , News & Press , Site Map , ManageSafe™ , Tools for Change , File a Pesticide Incident Report , Pesticide Gateway , ... Beyond Pesticides encourages consumers to avoid purchasing pesticide-impregnated clothing due to the potential risks associated ... The 2022 National Forum Series Launches Beyond Pesticides� Campaign to Eliminate Fossil Fuel-Based Pesticide Use Within the ...
The pesticide in question was Lorsban Advanced, a RUP registered with the EPA. It may only be used in accordance with the ... RUPs, which may only be used by licensed and certified pesticide applicators, may not be sold to the general public because of ... Syngenta Seeds, LLC, faces over $4.8 million in fines for pesticide violations at its crop research farm in Kekaha, Kauai, ... Failed to notify its workers, both orally and with signs, to avoid fields recently treated with pesticides; ...
  • Human exposure to pesticide residues in Europe is also widespread, with 84% of the samples in a large study across five European countries found contaminated with mixtures of at least two different pesticides. (europa.eu)
  • Also available is a new report that summarizes pesticide residues detected across 11 years of WTFRC apple studies. (goodfruit.com)
  • Contrasting the Dirty Dozen, the EWG also identified the "Clean Fifteen," a list of produce with minimal pesticide residues. (nationofchange.org)
  • Residues of this pesticide are often found in vegetables, in milk, and in baby food," she said, and they are also found in the indoor environment generally. (medscape.com)
  • Nerve agents are chemical warfare agents that have the same mechanism of action as OP organophosphate pesticides insecticides. (cdc.gov)
  • It is urgent to reduce pesticide use and risk . (europa.eu)
  • It is sad that the European Parliament did not support the Commissions suggestion to reduce pesticide use and risk by 50 percent until 2030, when they voted on this matter last week. (lu.se)
  • The study findings support the need for sustainability goals to reduce pesticide use and risk - critical challenges highlighted at the Convention on Biological Diversity's COP 15 meeting. (lu.se)
  • The scale of this work, with a landscape-level assessment across Europe, provides a step-change in our understanding of the impact of pesticides on pollinator health. (lu.se)
  • Pesticides: what are the risks to our health and to the environment? (europa.eu)
  • A recently published paper in the journal Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety investigated the distribution of pesticides in the tissues (muscle, stomach, liver and gills) of four different fish in the Kabul River in Pakistan, and calculated the potential health risks for local consumers of those fish. (organic-center.org)
  • Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides is a U.S. state-based surveillance program that monitors pesticide-related illness and injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • WASHINGTON - Today the Environmental Protection Agency publicly warned farmworkers of the "serious, permanent, and irreversible health risks" posed by the pesticide DCPA - in what is likely a final step before the agency bans the toxic weedkiller. (ewg.org)
  • The EPA's own conclusions and the overwhelming scientific evidence underscore the ongoing risks of the toxic pesticide DCPA," said Environmental Working Group Senior Toxicologist Alexis Temkin, Ph.D. "As long as DCPA continues to be legal, the chemical will continue to pose real dangers to farmworkers, people who are pregnant and other vulnerable populations exposed to it. (ewg.org)
  • Unveiling the "Dirty Dozen": Navigating pesticide risks in your favorite produce to ensure safer, healthier food choices. (nationofchange.org)
  • The investigation also brought to light the presence of other harmful pesticides, including neonicotinoids like acetamiprid and imidacloprid, known for their detrimental effects on bees and potential risks to children's neurological development. (nationofchange.org)
  • The health risks from pesticide exposure depend on how dangerous the pesticide is, the amount a person is exposed to, how long the exposure lasts, and the route of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The study demonstrates the need for new approaches to evaluate environmental risks when pesticides are approved for use. (lu.se)
  • Our study and findings could have been used to lead the way towards reduced pesticide risks and healthier bumblebee colonies. (lu.se)
  • The situation has not improved since the EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides was adopted in 2009. (europa.eu)
  • Already back in 2009, when the EU Directive on Sustainable Use of Pesticides was agreed, the European Union agreed on reducing pesticide dependency, and as a result protecting soil, water and biodiversity. (pan-europe.info)
  • Long-term occupational exposure to organochlorine pesticides may result in various nonspecific symptoms, including headaches, nausea, fatigue, muscle twitching, and visual disturbances. (medscape.com)
  • It is among the most widely used agricultural pesticides in the United States, with Dow selling about 5 million pounds (2.3 million kilograms) domestically each year. (inquirer.net)
  • Every year, pesticide concentrations exceed thresholds of concern in up to a quarter of monitoring sites in European rivers and lakes, and they contaminate over 80% of the EU's agricultural soils . (europa.eu)
  • The PAT program is for individuals and their employees who wish to apply Restricted Use Pesticides (RUPs) to land they own, rent or lease for the purpose of growing an agricultural commodity. (montana.edu)
  • From 1995 to 2001, use in agriculture accounted for at least 70% of conventional pesticide use in the U.S., and the US EPA estimates that the agricultural sector has had a similar market share of pesticides since 1979. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this extensive use puts agricultural workers at increased risk for pesticide illnesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pesticide concentration data for waters from selected carbonate-rock aquifers in agricultural areas of Pennsylvania were collected in 1993-2009 for occurrence and distribution assessments. (usgs.gov)
  • The 2024 Dirty Dozen report not only provides a snapshot of the current state of pesticide contamination in our produce but also serves as a catalyst for broader discussions on agricultural practices, consumer safety, and regulatory oversight. (nationofchange.org)
  • PAN Europe welcomes the European Commission opening up for another round of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform as the current one does not deliver on pesticides . (pan-europe.info)
  • A research project has, for the first time, investigated how a neonicotinoid pesticide, clothianidin, affects both honeybees and wild bees under field conditions in agricultural landscapes. (lu.se)
  • Despite claims of the world's most rigorous risk assessment process, the use of approved pesticides in European agricultural landscapes still negatively affects non-target organisms - significantly reducing the colony performance of bumblebees, according to the study published in Nature. (lu.se)
  • Our findings show that the current assumption of pesticide regulation - that chemicals which individually pass laboratory tests and semi-field trials and are considered environmentally benign - fails to safeguard bees and potentially other pollinators that support agricultural production and wild plant pollination. (lu.se)
  • With the largest experimental field deployment of any pollinator, we see that bumblebees encounter multiple pesticides in agricultural landscapes, resulting in fewer offspring. (lu.se)
  • Beginning 2015, the provider of the surveyed pesticide data used to derive the county-level use estimates discontinued making estimates for seed treatment application of pesticides because of complexity and uncertainty. (usgs.gov)
  • The report makes detailed recommendations to the Environmental Protection Agency for new restrictions on how and where the pesticides can be sprayed to help limit the harm. (inquirer.net)
  • Take the chemical corporation Syngenta, for example, which sued the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for failing to ban a risky pesticide. (beeculture.com)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently introduced a series of proposed regulations intended to provide enhanced protection for 27 species that are particularly at risk from the use of pesticides. (karmactive.com)
  • A new study from Lund University confirms that pesticides commonly used in farmland significantly harm bumblebees. (lu.se)
  • Studies have shown for years that even low levels of pesticides running off into streams and rivers can impair the growth, swimming ability and reproductive systems of salmon. (inquirer.net)
  • People are exposed to low levels of pesticides every day in a variety of places-at home, at school, or at work. (cdc.gov)
  • The carcinogenic risk assessment indicated that individuals who consumed fish from the rivers over the course of their lifetime had a high potential cancer risk, suggesting that consumption of fish by locals should be decreased to avoid harmful chronic exposure to pesticides. (organic-center.org)
  • Because workers in many industries are at risk for pesticide exposure, and public concern exists regarding the use of and exposure to pesticides, government and regulatory authorities experience pressure to monitor health effects associated with them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2011, the research commission has conducted studies in apple and cherry to generate residue data for commonly used pesticides, to help Washington growers make more informed choices about their spray programs. (goodfruit.com)
  • ORLANDO, Florida - The first evidence that environmental exposure to commonly used pesticides - the pyrethroids - at levels that are actually present in humans is likely speeding up puberty in boys has been reported. (medscape.com)
  • For example, commercial availability of pesticides in stores puts retail workers at risk for exposure and illness when they handle pesticide products. (wikipedia.org)
  • For ensuring availability of pesticides, there is no need for a regulatory statute, and the same can be done through programmatic means. (kisanswaraj.in)
  • Moreover, an objective of ensuring availability of pesticides will compel the regulators to assume a clearing house responsibility of accepting any application and processing the same. (kisanswaraj.in)
  • PRINCETON, N.J. -Pesticides are present in many food products and play a central role in the production of traded agriculture, giving them global and economic significance - and necessitating proper regulation. (beeculture.com)
  • The second part of the study was qualitative and involved a historical examination of pesticide regulation in the United States. (beeculture.com)
  • The survey findings are expected to better inform future plans to optimize and harmonize public health pesticide registration procedures and post-registration regulation of public health pesticides in the Member States. (who.int)
  • Conservative MPs have urged the government to use its Brexit freedoms to ditch the EU's cautious approach to making sure pesticides are safe for human consumption. (unexplained-mysteries.com)
  • François Veillerette, PAN Europe's president, says: 'Recently, 1,3 million European citizens signed a European Citizens Initiative calling for a ban on glyphosate and for a serious reduction in EU's pesticide dependency. (pan-europe.info)
  • The National Marine Fisheries Service issued its new biological opinion on three organophosphate pesticides _ chlorpyrifos, diazinon and malathion _ after a years-long court fight by environmental groups. (inquirer.net)
  • The purpose of this document is to enable health care workers and public health officials to recognize an unknown or suspected exposure to a nerve agent or an organophosphate (OP) pesticide. (cdc.gov)
  • Note: The actual clinical manifestations of an exposure to a nerve agent or an organophosphate pesticide may be more variable than the syndrome described in this document. (cdc.gov)
  • Pesticide-related illness is a significant occupational health issue, but it is believed to be underreported. (wikipedia.org)
  • While over 25 states required reporting of pesticide-related illness, most of them could not compile useful information on incidence or prevalence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount and route of exposure to the nerve agent or OP pesticide, the type of nerve agent or pesticide, and the premorbid condition of the person exposed person will contribute to the time of onset and the severity of illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Advanced options for pesticide-related illness data are the same as those for the reported pesticide exposures indicator. (cdc.gov)
  • Salmon have been waiting four decades for relief from toxic pesticides in many of our rivers," said Glen Spain, the northwest regional director of the Pacific Coast Federation of Fishermen's Associations. (inquirer.net)
  • The EEA briefing focuses on chemical pesticides , which are those that contain synthetic active substances and that are normally (with some exceptions) more toxic than non-chemical ones. (europa.eu)
  • Many long-banned pesticides , such as DDT or atrazine, are particularly toxic and they tend to persist and accumulate in the environment. (europa.eu)
  • This year's findings are particularly disconcerting, revealing that a staggering 95% of produce items listed in the infamous "Dirty Dozen" harbor high levels of toxic pesticides, raising significant concerns about consumer health and safety. (nationofchange.org)
  • These items were found to be contaminated with various pesticides, with four fungicides-fludioxonil, pyraclostrobin, boscalid, and pyrimethanil-dominating the findings. (nationofchange.org)
  • Because of this, NIOSH proposed the SENSOR program to track pesticide poisonings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, pesticide exposure can cause several chronic diseases in humans, with users of pesticides and vulnerable groups such as children being particularly at risk. (europa.eu)
  • Because wildlife such as fish can accumulate these toxins in their flesh, they provide an additional route of dietary pesticide exposure to humans who consume them. (organic-center.org)
  • How can we reduce pesticide use or find safer alternatives? (europa.eu)
  • Pesticide Action Network is dedicated to advancing alternatives to pesticides worldwide. (panna.org)
  • First, there is evidence of companies eliminating out-of-patent pesticides for patented alternatives. (beeculture.com)
  • Remarkably, nearly 65% of conventional items on this list were found to be pesticide-free, offering consumers safer alternatives. (nationofchange.org)
  • By affecting pollinators, soil microorganisms and pest control agents, pesticide use also threatens key ecosystem services which help maintain food security in Europe. (europa.eu)
  • As we reduce the use of chemical pesticides, we need to further invest in research and innovation on alternative pest control methods and accelerate the regulatory approval of biological pesticides , an area where the European Commission began to adopt new rules last year. (europa.eu)
  • The Environmental Working Group (EWG) has once again shed light on the pervasive issue of pesticide contamination in our food supply with the release of its 2024 Shopper's Guide to Pesticides in Produce. (nationofchange.org)
  • Perlman's sample covered the years 1996 to 2015, and she used it to evaluate changes to the maximum amount of pesticide residue allowed to be present on food, standards known as "tolerances. (beeculture.com)
  • The Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission announced the publication of the 2021 pesticide residue studies for apple and cherry. (goodfruit.com)
  • Yet commonly used farmland pesticides continue to harm bumblebee colonies. (lu.se)
  • A 2022 peer-reviewed study by EWG scientists identified DCPA as a pesticide of concern, due to its toxicity and capacity to harm the thyroid, and its classification as a possible cause of cancer. (ewg.org)
  • On top of this, pesticides do more harm in landscapes with less habitat. (lu.se)
  • Ensuring that the Pesticides Management Board is an empowered regulatory body including with oversight authority over the Registration Committee and Review Committee, and not just an advisory body. (kisanswaraj.in)
  • Despite the prevalence of legal pesticide use, the report raises critical questions about the adequacy of current regulatory standards and the need for more rigorous health impact studies. (nationofchange.org)
  • The study shows that honeybees can cope with exposure to the pesticide, but that it has a strong negative impact on wild bees. (lu.se)
  • If we only investigate how a new pesticide affects honeybees, that is not sufficient to predict the consequences for wild bees in real landscapes", said Maj Rundlöf. (lu.se)
  • In this Friday, Aug. 29, 2014 file photo, Pinot Noir grapes just picked are shown in a bin in Napa, Calif. Federal scientists have determined that a family of widely used pesticides poses a threat to dozens of endangered and threatened species, including Pacific salmon, Atlantic sturgeon and Puget Sound orcas. (inquirer.net)
  • WASHINGTON - Federal scientists have determined that a family of widely used pesticides poses a threat to dozens of endangered and threatened species, including Pacific salmon, Atlantic sturgeon and Puget Sound orcas. (inquirer.net)
  • These 'healthier' colonies that experience less pesticide risk help us generate a baseline to show that 60% of our bumblebee colonies would fail proposed pollinator protection goals. (lu.se)
  • The Tracking Network has data from poison control centers on pesticide exposures and related health effects to help identify trends and patterns over time and across geographies. (cdc.gov)
  • This indicator shows the number and rate (number of cases per 100,000 population) of exposures to different types of pesticides by state and by year reported to poison control centers. (cdc.gov)
  • Reason for Pesticide Exposure - This advanced option shows the rate and number of reported exposures by location. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2017, most reported health effects from pesticide exposures were minor. (cdc.gov)
  • Explore more pesticide exposures data on the Tracking Network. (cdc.gov)
  • Tracking the acute, or short-term, health effects related to pesticide exposures can inform public health actions like restricting the use of certain pesticides or placing stronger language on warning labels. (cdc.gov)
  • to ensure that unsafe and ineffective pesticides are not placed in the market and with an endeavour to promote pesticides that are biological and based on traditional knowledge and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. (kisanswaraj.in)
  • Researchers and government officials from the SENSOR-Pesticides program have published research articles that highlight findings from the data and their implications for environmental and occupational pesticide issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to these challenges, NIOSH proposed the SENSOR program as a model to track certain occupational conditions, including pesticides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pesticide poisoning is an important occupational health issue because pesticides are used in a large number of industries, which puts many different categories of workers at risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • CropLife America, an industry trade group that lobbies Congress and federal agencies on pesticide regulations, said it is still reviewing the final National Marine Fisheries Service opinion. (inquirer.net)
  • Pesticide Companies Leverage Regulations for Financial Gains. (beeculture.com)
  • After pouring through Congressional testimonies, Perlman found that innovative companies historically lobbied for regulations that - while seemingly intended to protect the public from dangerous pesticides - also made it easier for these companies to eliminate less profitable products (and the generic competition) on a more systematic basis. (beeculture.com)
  • Data from 106 sites across 8 European countries show that despite tightened pesticide regulations, more needs to be done. (lu.se)
  • Insecticide: An insecticide is a pesticide whose purpose is to kill or to prevent the multiplication of insects. (tradekey.com)
  • These issues include eradication of invasive species, pesticide poisoning in schools, birth defects, and residential use of total release foggers, or "bug bombs," which are devices that release an insecticide mist. (wikipedia.org)
  • The widespread use of pesticides, their release into the environment, and the potential for adverse public health effects due to exposure may raise public concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though several harmful active substances contained in pesticides have been banned in recent years, the use of chemical pesticides in Europe remains a major source of pollution , an important driver of biodiversity loss and a possible cause of negative health impacts for exposed users and citizens. (europa.eu)
  • Proper disposal of pesticides is also important - it can help protect the environment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The toxicity of organochlorine (OC) pesticides varies according to their molecular size, volatility, and effects on the central nervous system (CNS). (medscape.com)
  • The evidence shows that pesticides are one of the primary drivers of declines in populations of insects, birds and many other groups of species. (europa.eu)
  • Consistent with the human data, our animal study shows that postnatal exposure to a widely used pyrethroid pesticide, cypermethrin, can accelerate pubertal timing and induce circulating levels of gonadotrophins and testosterone in male mice," she explained. (medscape.com)
  • Cancun, Mexico: this week Pesticide Action Network Asia and the Pacific (PAN AP) launched two new resources during the global climate change negotiations - a handbook entitled Climate Change and Crop Protection (Anything Can Happen) and a monograph on solutions, Weathering the Climate Crisis (The Way of Ecological Agriculture) . (panna.org)
  • At the urging of pesticide manufacturers, the Trump administration had sought a two-year delay of a court-ordered deadline to issue the findings by the end of 2017, but it was unsuccessful. (inquirer.net)
  • In-depth analysis of the findings has provided an overview of the challenges, and also the opportunities, for strengthening capacity in the sound management and judicious use of pesticides. (who.int)
  • Chronic diseases linked to exposure to chemical pesticides range from various types of cancers to neurological disorders, developmental delays in children and effects on reproductive capacity and infertility. (europa.eu)
  • A set of actions are recommended to guide national policy and to strengthen national capacity for the sound management and judicious use of public health pesticides. (who.int)
  • Environment Programme, WHO will mobilize resources and support capacity-building in countries for life-cycle management of public health pesticides. (who.int)
  • Outbreaks of vector-borne disease have often resulted in significant use of pesticides in countries with limited capacity for their proper handling and management. (who.int)
  • We sat down with Dario Piselli, EEA environment, human health and well-being expert to discuss the problem posed by pesticides and what the European Union is doing to address the challenge. (europa.eu)
  • Pesticides can protect your health by killing germs, animals, or plants that could hurt you. (medlineplus.gov)
  • write "[b]ecause society allows pesticides to be disseminated into the environment, society also incurs the obligation to track the health effects of pesticides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surveillance of pesticide-related injuries and illnesses is recommended by the American Medical Association, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), the Pew Environmental Health Commission, and the Government Accountability Office. (wikipedia.org)
  • This indicator shows the rate and number of illnesses that resulted from the reported pesticide exposure and the severity of the health effects. (cdc.gov)
  • The lack of new pesticides under development and the spread of vector resistance necessitate judicious use of existing pesticides to preserve their public health value. (who.int)
  • 2.2 What has WHO done in managing public health pesticides? (who.int)
  • Scheme carried out a global survey of countries endemic for vector-borne disease in order to map registration and management practices for public health pesticides. (who.int)
  • WHO will support countries in developing legislation and national policy for management of public health, as well as national action plans for integrated vector management and judicious use of pesticides. (who.int)
  • WHO will facilitate other regional collaboration on management of public health pesticides, including harmonization of registration requirements and procedures, quality control, information exchange and work- sharing. (who.int)
  • While there has been progress in some Member States, our system of industrial agriculture remains fundamentally reliant on the use of high quantities of chemical pesticides. (europa.eu)
  • Bifenazate is a white colored pesticide with lesser quantities of toxicacaricide. (tradekey.com)
  • How big of a problem are chemical pesticides in Europe? (europa.eu)
  • There is no one-size-fits-all solution to reducing chemical pesticide use in Europe, given the variety of local conditions across EU Member States. (europa.eu)
  • The ubiquity of pesticides puts emergency responders such as fire-fighters and police officers at risk, because they are often the first responders to emergency events and may be unaware of the presence of a poisoning hazard. (wikipedia.org)
  • For those particularly concerned about pesticides, the guide serves as a valuable resource for identifying which items to prioritize for organic purchases. (nationofchange.org)
  • Exposure to toxins, such as pesticides or carbon monoxide, may cause injury or death. (cdc.gov)
  • The following are some amendments sought in the Pesticides Management Bill 2020, which is Bill No. XXII of 2020, to be introduced in Rajya Sabha. (kisanswaraj.in)
  • For example, inhalation of a nerve agent or an OP pesticide leads to a quicker onset of poisoning with more severe symptoms when compared to with dermal exposure s, given the same amount of agent. (cdc.gov)
  • The following is a more comprehensive list of signs and symptoms that may be encountered in a person exposed to a nerve agent or OP pesticide. (cdc.gov)