Pessaries: Devices worn in the vagina to provide support to displaced uterus or rectum. Pessaries are used in conditions such as UTERINE PROLAPSE; CYSTOCELE; or RECTOCELE.Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Abnormal descent of a pelvic organ resulting in the protrusion of the organ beyond its normal anatomical confines. Symptoms often include vaginal discomfort, DYSPAREUNIA; URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE; and FECAL INCONTINENCE.Flurogestone Acetate: A synthetic fluorinated steroid that is used as a progestational hormone.Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal: Infection of the VULVA and VAGINA with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA.Uterine Prolapse: Downward displacement of the UTERUS. It is classified in various degrees: in the first degree the UTERINE CERVIX is within the vaginal orifice; in the second degree the cervix is outside the orifice; in the third degree the entire uterus is outside the orifice.Cervical Length Measurement: A parameter usually used in PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY to measure the length of the uterine neck (CERVIX UTERI). Cervical length or its shortening is used to identify and prevent early cervical opening and PRETERM BIRTH.Clotrimazole: An imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. It inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal CELL MEMBRANES. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane.Urinary Incontinence, Stress: Involuntary discharge of URINE as a result of physical activities that increase abdominal pressure on the URINARY BLADDER without detrusor contraction or overdistended bladder. The subtypes are classified by the degree of leakage, descent and opening of the bladder neck and URETHRA without bladder contraction, and sphincter deficiency.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Rectocele: Herniation of the RECTUM into the VAGINA.Cystocele: A HERNIA-like condition in which the weakened pelvic muscles cause the URINARY BLADDER to drop from its normal position. Fallen urinary bladder is more common in females with the bladder dropping into the VAGINA and less common in males with the bladder dropping into the SCROTUM.Plasticizers: Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.Prolapse: The protrusion of an organ or part of an organ into a natural or artificial orifice.Pelvic Floor: Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Silicone Oils: Organic siloxanes which are polymerized to the oily stage. The oils have low surface tension and density less than 1. They are used in industrial applications and in the treatment of retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.Suburethral Slings: Support structures, made from natural or synthetic materials, that are implanted below the URETHRA to treat URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.Urinary Incontinence: Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Web Browser: Software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Eritrea: A country of eastern Africa, west of the Red Sea, bordered west and northwest by SUDAN, and south by ETHIOPIA. Its capital is Asmara.Uterine Cervical Incompetence: Incompetent UTERINE CERVIX is usually diagnosed in the second trimester of PREGNANCY. It is characterized by passive painless cervical dilation in the absence of UTERINE CONTRACTION; BLEEDING; INFECTION; and sometimes with the amniotic sac (AMNIOTIC MEMBRANE) bulging through the partially dilated cervix. Left untreated, this condition may lead to premature pregnancy loss, such as HABITUAL ABORTION.Cerclage, Cervical: The surgical closure of the incompetent cervix uteri with suture material.Zineb: An agricultural fungicide of the dithiocarbamate class. It has relatively low toxicity and there is little evidence of human injury from exposure.MuseumsNatural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 8: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.Surgery, Plastic: The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.Cosmetic Techniques: Procedures for the improvement or enhancement of the appearance of the visible parts of the body.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Informed Consent By Minors: Voluntary authorization by a person not of usual legal age for diagnostic or investigative procedures, or for medical and surgical treatment. (from English A, Shaw FE, McCauley MM, Fishbein DB Pediatrics 121:Suppl Jan 2008 pp S85-7).Tocolytic Agents: Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.Tocolysis: Any drug treatment modality designed to inhibit UTERINE CONTRACTION. It is used in pregnant women to arrest PREMATURE LABOR.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Ritodrine: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist used to control PREMATURE LABOR.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalLife Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.

Single blind, randomised controlled trial of pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no treatment in management of genuine stress incontinence in women. (1/52)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no treatment for genuine stress incontinence. DESIGN: Stratified, single blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Multicentre. PARTICIPANTS: 107 women with clinically and urodynamically proved genuine stress incontinence. Mean (range) age was 49.5 (24-70) years, and mean (range) duration of symptoms 10.8 (1-45) years. INTERVENTIONS: Pelvic floor exercise (n=25) comprised 8-12 contractions 3 times a day and exercise in groups with skilled physical therapists once a week. The electrical stimulation group (n=25) used vaginal intermittent stimulation with the MS 106 Twin at 50 Hz 30 minutes a day. The vaginal cones group (n=27) used cones for 20 minutes a day. The untreated control group (n=30) was offered the use of a continence guard. Muscle strength was measured by vaginal squeeze pressure once a month. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pad test with standardised bladder volume, and self report of severity. RESULTS: Improvement in muscle strength was significantly greater (P=0.03) after pelvic floor exercises (11.0 cm H2O (95% confidence interval 7.7 to 14.3) before v 19.2 cm H2O (15.3 to 23.1) after) than either electrical stimulation (14.8 cm H2O (10. 9 to 18.7) v 18.6 cm H2O (13.3 to 23.9)) or vaginal cones (11.8 cm H2O (8.5 to 15.1) v 15.4 cm H2O (11.1 to 19.7)). Reduction in leakage on pad test was greater in the exercise group (-30.2 g; -43. 3 to 16.9) than in the electrical stimulation group (-7.4 g; -20.9 to 6.1) and the vaginal cones group (-14.7 g; -27.6 to -1.8). On completion of the trial one participant in the control group, 14 in the pelvic floor exercise group, three in the electrical stimulation group, and two in the vaginal cones group no longer considered themselves as having a problem. CONCLUSION: Training of the pelvic floor muscles is superior to electrical stimulation and vaginal cones in the treatment of genuine stress incontinence.  (+info)

Practical use of the pessary. (2/52)

The pessary is an effective tool in the management of a number of gynecologic problems. The pessary is most commonly used in the management of pelvic support defects such as cystocele and rectocele. Pessaries can also be used in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. The wide variety of pessary styles may cause confusion for physicians during the initial selection of the pessary. However, an understanding of the different styles and their uses will enable physicians to make an appropriate choice. Complications can be minimized with simple vaginal hygiene and regular follow-up visits.  (+info)

History of intrauterine devices.(3/52)

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Vaginal mucosa serves as an inductive site for tolerance. (4/52)

These data demonstrate that tolerance can be induced by vaginal Ag exposure. In these experiments, mice were given vaginal agarose gel suppositories containing either 5 mg OVA or saline for 6 h. Mice were given suppositories either during the estrous (estrogen dominant) or diestrous (progesterone dominant) stage of the estrous cycle. Mice were restrained during the inoculation period to prevent orovaginal transmission of the Ag. After 1 wk, mice were immunized s. c. with OVA in CFA. After 3 wk, mice were tested for delayed-type hypersensitivity responses by measuring footpad swelling and measuring in vitro proliferation of lymphocytes to Ag. Using ELISA, the magnitude of the serum Ab response was also measured. In some mice, FITC conjugated to OVA was used to track the dissemination of the protein into the systemic tissues. The magnitude of footpad swelling was significantly reduced in mice receiving OVA-containing suppositories during estrus compared with mice receiving saline suppositories. Concomitant decreases in the Ag-specific proliferative response were also observed in lymph node lymphocytes and splenocytes. Conversely, mice inoculated during diestrus did not show a decreased response to Ag by either footpad response or in vitro proliferation. Serum Ab titers in the estrus-inoculated mice did not decrease significantly. These data demonstrate that the reproductive tract can be an inductive site for mucosally induced tolerance. However, unlike other mucosal sites such as the lung and gastrointestinal tract, reproductive tract tolerance induction is hormonally regulated.  (+info)

Effectiveness of estriol-containing vaginal pessaries and nitrofurantoin macrocrystal therapy in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women. (5/52)

We compared the efficacy and safety of estriol-containing vaginal pessary use with those of oral nitrofurantoin macrocrystal (NM) therapy for preventing urinary tract infection (UTI) in postmenopausal women with recurrent UTI. Over a period of 9 months, 86 women received an estriol-containing vaginal pessary (0.5 mg estriol) twice weekly, and 85 women received NM (100 mg) once daily. We recorded 124 episodes of UTI in women who received estriol-releasing pessaries and 48 episodes of UTI in women treated with NM (P=.0003). Twenty-eight women (32.6%) who received estriol had no episodes of UTI versus 41 women (48.2%) in the NM group. There was a significant increase in the number of superficial cells in women who received estriol, whereas in the NM group, no such changes occurred. However, there was no change in the extent of Lactobacillus colonization and in the vaginal pH in women who received estriol. Use of an estriol-containing pessary is less effective than oral NM therapy in the prevention of bacteriuria in postmenopausal women because of its failure to restore the population of lactobacilli and to reduce the vaginal pH in these women.  (+info)

Approach to urinary incontinence in women. Diagnosis and management by family physicians. (6/52)

OBJECTIVE; To outline an approach to diagnosis and management of the types of urinary incontinence seen by family physicians. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: Recommendations for diagnosis are based on consensus guidelines. Treatment recommendations are based on level I and II evidence. Guidelines for referral are based on the authors' opinions and experience. MAIN MESSAGE: Diagnoses of stress, urge, or mixed urinary incontinence are easily established in family physicians' offices by history and gynecologic examination and sometimes a urinary stress test. There is little need for formal diagnostic testing. Management by family physicians (without need for specialist referral) includes lifestyle modification, pelvic floor muscle strengthening, bladder retraining, and pharmacotherapy with muscarinic receptor antagonists. Patients with pelvic organ prolapse might require specialist referral for consideration of pessaries or surgery, but family physicians can provide follow-up care. Women with more complex problems, such as severe prolapse or failed continence surgery, require referral. CONCLUSION: Urinary incontinence is a common condition in women. In most cases, it can be diagnosed and managed effectively by family physicians.  (+info)

Lesson of the week: perils of pessaries. (7/52)

Vaginal pessaries are widely considered to be a safe alternative to surgery in older women. We report a case of near fatal septicaemia in a 75-year-old woman associated with a shelf pessary, the presence of which was identified during an exploratory laparotomy. This case highlights the importance of the gynaecological history and examination when assessing older women with septicaemia of unknown source.  (+info)

Exogenous oxytocin dilates the cervix in ewes. (8/52)

Cervical anatomy in ewes usually prevents nonsurgical, intrauterine AI and transcervical embryo transfer (ET), which limits their commercial use in sheep. This study was conducted to determine whether oxytocin would dilate the cervix in ewes and permit passage of a stainless steel rod into the uterus. In Exp. 1, at 44 and 52 h after removal of progestogenated pessaries, ewes were injected i.v. with 0 (saline), 200, 400, or 600 USP units of oxytocin. Immediately before and after treatments, stainless steel rods were used to evaluate cervical dilation and determine whether the uterus could be entered. A rod could not be passed through the cervix and into the uterus in any of the saline-treated ewes. All doses of oxytocin given at 44 and 52 h after pessary removal dilated the cervix and permitted easy passage of a rod into the uterus. At both 44 and 52 h, a stainless steel rod was passed into the uterus in 33 of 43 (77%) of the oxytocin-treated ewes. In 93% (40/43) of these ewes, a rod could be passed into the uterus during either the 44-h or during the 52-h attempt. In Exp. 2, on d 9 after pessary removal, ewes were injected i.v. with oxytocin (400 USP units) at 6 or 12 h after i.v. estradiol-17 beta (0, 100, or 200 micrograms). Cervical dilation was evaluated as in Exp. 1. Dose of estradiol x time of oxytocin affected (P less than .01) the proportion of ewes in which a rod could be passed transcervically into the uterus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

  • The pessary is recommended for the treatment of candidal vaginitis. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Treatment during the menstrual period should be avoided due to the risk of the pessary being washed out by the menstrual flow. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Further studies have investigated the effects of inserting probiotics vaginally (in the form of pessaries) to treat BV and UTIs and found that women were able to cure their BV - and also maintain a healthy balance of vaginal bacteria - following probiotic pessary treatment. (justfortummies.co.uk)
  • My For Women capsules taken orally, or inserted vaginally in the form of a probiotic pessary are a key element of the 'arsenal' required in order to go to battle with the bugs and yeasts that can cause such misery. (justfortummies.co.uk)
  • If you are comfortable removing and reinserting your own pessary, you may remove the pessary once or twice a week. (healthline.com)
  • Remove the pessary at least once a week for cleaning. (ehow.co.uk)
  • You may prefer to remove the pessary at night and reinsert it in the morning for support when you are on your feet. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Side effects that are shared among most different types of pessaries include: risks of increased vaginal discharge, vaginal irritation, ulceration, bleeding, and dyspareunia (painful intercourse for the male or female). (wikipedia.org)
  • You can have sex while wearing certain types of pessaries, like the ring. (webmd.com)
  • Hi kw, There are actually over 20 types of pessaries that Cooper Surgical supplies, the inflatoball is just one of them. (medhelp.org)
  • What are the different types of Pessaries? (healthproductsforyou.com)
  • A variety of pessaries are available, but it is evident from the literature that the ring pessary is the most common type prescribed, regardless of compartmental defect. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • North America Vaginal Pessary Market Report 2018" report provides the newest industry data and industry future trends, allowing you to identify the products and end users driving Revenue growth and profitability. (openpr.com)
  • The report spread across 124 pages is an overview of the North America Vaginal Pessary Market Report 2018. (openpr.com)
  • The North America Vaginal Pessary Market is projected to grow at a healthy growth rate from 2018 to 2022 according to new research. (openpr.com)
  • The global Vaginal Pessary market is valued at 200 million US$ in 2017 and will reach 300 million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of 4.7% during 2018-2025. (marketpublishers.com)
  • This report provides detailed historical analysis of global market for Vaginal Pessary from 2013-2018, and provides extensive market forecasts from 2018-2028 by region/country and subsectors. (marketresearchstore.com)
  • It often takes more than one try to get the size and shape of the pessary right for you. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Sometimes the size or shape of the pessary will have to be changed. (aafp.org)