Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Bordetella pertussis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Diphtheria: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Tetanus ToxoidVaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Bordetella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Bordetella parapertussis: A species of BORDETELLA with similar morphology to BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS, but growth is more rapid. It is found only in the RESPIRATORY TRACT of humans.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Bordetella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Hexobarbital: A barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Bordetella bronchiseptica: A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Tetanus Antitoxin: An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Mice, Inbred BALB CHepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Diphtheria Antitoxin: An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.United StatesTyphoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Haemophilus influenzae type b: A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).

Role of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. (1/496)

Immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WCV) containing heat-killed Bordetella pertussis cells and with acellular vaccines containing genetically or chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) in combination with filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), or fimbriae confers protection in humans and animals against B. pertussis infection. In an earlier study we demonstrated that FHA is involved in the adherence of these bacteria to human bronchial epithelial cells. In the present study we investigated whether mouse antibodies directed against B. pertussis FHA, PTg, Prn, and fimbriae, or against two other surface molecules, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the 40-kDa outer membrane porin protein (OMP), that are not involved in bacterial adherence, were able to block adherence of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. All antibodies studied inhibited the adherence of B. pertussis to these epithelial cells and were equally effective in this respect. Only antibodies against LPS and 40-kDa OMP affected the adherence of B. parapertussis to epithelial cells. We conclude that antibodies which recognize surface structures on B. pertussis or on B. parapertussis can inhibit adherence of the bacteria to bronchial epithelial cells, irrespective whether these structures play a role in adherence of the bacteria to these cells.  (+info)

Early childhood infection and atopic disorder. (2/496)

BACKGROUND: Atopy is of complex origins but the recent rise in atopic diseases in westernized communities points to the action of important environmental effects. One candidate mechanism is the changing pattern of microbial exposure in childhood. This epidemiological study investigated the relationship between childhood infections and subsequent atopic disease, taking into account a range of social and medical variables. METHODS: A total of 1934 subjects representing a retrospective 1975-84 birth group at a family doctor practice in Oxfordshire were studied. Public health and practice records were reviewed; temporal records were made of all diagnoses of infections and their treatments, all immunisations, and diagnoses of asthma, hay fever and eczema; maternal atopy and a number of other variables were documented. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis identified three statistically significant predictors of subsequent atopic disease: maternal atopy (1.97, 95% CI 1.46 to 2.66, p < 0.0001), immunisation with whole-cell pertussis vaccine (1.76, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.23, p < 0.0001), and treatment with oral antibiotics in the first two years of life (2.07, 95% CI 1.64 to 2.60, p < 0.0001). There was no significant association found for maternal smoking, bottle feeding, sibship size, or social class. CONCLUSIONS: The prediction of atopic disease by maternal atopy mainly reflects the effect of acknowledged genetic factors. Interpretation of the prediction of atopic disorders by immunisation with wholecell pertussis vaccine and treatment with oral antibiotics needs to be very cautious because of the possibilities of confounding effects and reverse causation. However, plausible immune mechanisms are identifiable for the promotion of atopic disorders by both factors and further investigation of these association is warranted.  (+info)

Serum IgG antibody responses to pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin in nonvaccinated and vaccinated children and adults with pertussis. (3/496)

Levels of IgG antibody to pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) were measured in paired serum samples from 781 patients fulfilling at least one laboratory criterion for pertussis that was suggested by an ad hoc committee sponsored by the World Health Organization. The patients were participants or family members of participants in a double-blind efficacy trial of a monocomponent pertussis toxoid vaccine. Of 596 nonvaccinated children, 90% had significant (two-fold or more) rises in PT IgG and FHA IgG levels. Only 17 (32%) of 53 children previously vaccinated with three doses of pertussis toxoid had rises in PT IgG levels because they already had elevated PT IgG levels in their acute-phase serum samples. PT IgG and FHA IgG levels were significantly higher in acute-phase serum samples from 29 adults than in acute-phase serum samples from the nonvaccinated children. Nevertheless, significant rises in levels of PT IgG (79% of samples) and FHA IgG (90%) were demonstrated in adults. In conclusion, assay of PT IgG and FHA IgG in paired serum samples is highly sensitive for diagnosing pertussis in nonvaccinated individuals. Assay of PT IgG levels in paired sera is significantly less sensitive for diagnosis of pertussis for children vaccinated with pertussis toxoid.  (+info)

Capture-recapture method for estimating misclassification errors: application to the measurement of vaccine efficacy in randomized controlled trials. (4/496)

BACKGROUND: The measure of efficacy is optimally performed by randomized controlled trials. However, low specificity of the judgement criteria is known to bias toward lower estimation, while low sensitivity increases the required sample size. A common technique for ensuring good specificity without a drop in sensitivity is to use several diagnostic tests in parallel, with each of them being specific. This approach is similar to the more general situation of case-counting from multiple data sources, and this paper explores the application of the capture-recapture method for the analysis of the estimates of efficacy. METHOD: An illustration of this application is derived from a study on the efficacy of pertussis vaccines where the outcome was based on > or =21 days of cough confirmed by at least one of three criteria performed independently for each subject: bacteriology, serology, or epidemiological link. Log-linear methods were applied to these data considered as three sources of information. RESULTS: The best model considered the three simple effects and an interaction term between bacteriology and epidemiological linkage. Among the 801 children experiencing > or =21 days of cough, it was estimated that 93 cases were missed, leading to a corrected total of 413 confirmed cases. The relative vaccine efficacy estimated from the same model was 1.50 (95% confidence interval: 1.24-1.82), similar to the crude estimate of 1.59 and confirming better protection afforded by one of the two vaccines. CONCLUSION: This method allows supporting analysis to interpret primary estimates of vaccine efficacy.  (+info)

Pertussis vaccination and wheezing illnesses in young children: prospective cohort study. The Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood Team. (5/496)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the relation between pertussis vaccination and the prevalence of wheezing illnesses in young children. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Three former health districts comprising Avon Health Authority. SUBJECTS: 9444 of 14 138 children enrolled in the Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood and for whom data on wheezing symptoms, vaccination status, and 15 environmental and biological variables were available. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Episodes of wheezing from birth to 6 months, 7-18 months, 19-30 months, and 31-42 months. These time periods were used to derive five categories of wheezing illness: early wheezing (not after 18 months); late onset wheezing (after 18 months); persistent wheezing (at every time period); recurrent wheezing (any combination of two or more episodes for each period); and intermittent wheezing (any combination of single episodes of reported wheezing). These categories were stratified according to parental self reported asthma or allergy. RESULTS: Unadjusted comparisons of the defined wheezing illnesses in vaccinated and non-vaccinated children showed no significant association between pertussis vaccination and any of the wheezing outcomes regardless of stratification for parental asthma or allergy. Wheeze was more common in non-vaccinated children at 18 months, and there was a tendency for late onset wheezing to be associated with non-vaccination in children whose parents did not have asthma, but this was not significant. After adjustment for environmental and biological variables, logistic regression analyses showed no significant increased relative risk for any of the wheezing outcomes in vaccinated children: early wheezing (0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.23), late onset wheezing (0.85, 0.69 to 1.05), persistent wheezing (0.91, 0.47 to 1.79), recurrent wheezing (0.96, 0.72 to 1.26), and intermittent wheezing (1.06, 0.81 to 1.37). CONCLUSIONS: No evidence was found that pertussis vaccination increases the risk of wheezing illnesses in young children. Further follow up of this population with objective measurement of allergy and bronchial responsiveness is planned to confirm these observations.  (+info)

Variation in the Bordetella pertussis virulence factors pertussis toxin and pertactin in vaccine strains and clinical isolates in Finland. (6/496)

There is evidence that pertussis is reemerging in vaccinated populations. We have proposed, and provided evidence for, one explanation for this phenomenon in The Netherlands: antigenic divergence between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Finland has a pertussis vaccination history very similar to that of The Netherlands, and yet there is no evidence for an increase in the incidence of pertussis to the extent that it was observed in The Netherlands. A comparison of the Bordetella pertussis strains circulating in the two countries may shed light on the differences in pertussis epidemiology. Here we investigated whether temporal changes had occurred in pertussis toxin and pertactin types produced by the Finnish B. pertussis population. We show that strains isolated before 1964 produced the same pertussis toxin and pertactin variants as the vaccine strains. However, these vaccine types were replaced in later years, and in the 1990s most strains were distinct from the vaccine strains with respect to the two proteins. These trends are similar to those found in the Dutch B. pertussis population. An interesting difference between the contemporary Finnish and Dutch B. pertussis populations was found in the frequencies of pertactin variants, possibly explaining the distinct epidemiology of pertussis in the two countries.  (+info)

A randomized clinical trial of acellular pertussis vaccines in healthy adults: dose-response comparisons of 5 vaccines and implications for booster immunization. (7/496)

The safety and immunogenicity of 5 acellular pertussis vaccines (ACVs) were compared in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial. A total of 481 healthy adults were given a single intramuscular booster dose of ACV or placebo. Three different dose levels were tested for 4 ACVs: full strength (the dose level proposed for infant immunization), one-third strength, and one-tenth strength. For 1 multicomponent vaccine, only the pertussis toxoid dose level varied. Minor injection site reactions were common and similar in frequency among vaccinated groups. Late-onset injection site reactions were seen in all ACV groups. Dose-related increases in mean antibody titers against vaccine antigens were seen after immunization with all ACVs. Antibody responses against antigens not known to be present in the vaccines were detected after immunization with 4/5 ACVs. Antibody levels fell significantly during the year after immunization. These data support evaluation of ACVs for broader use among adolescents and adults.  (+info)

Cell-mediated immune responses in four-year-old children after primary immunization with acellular pertussis vaccines. (8/496)

Cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to Bordetella pertussis antigens (pertussis toxin [PT], pertactin [PRN], and filamentous hemagglutinin [FHA]) were assessed in 48-month-old recipients of acellular pertussis [aP] vaccines (either from Chiron-Biocine [aP-CB] or from SmithKline Beecham [aP-SB]) and compared to CMI responses to the same antigens at 7 months of age, i.e., 1 month after completion of the primary immunization cycle. None of the children enrolled in this study received any booster of pertussis vaccines or was affected by pertussis during the whole follow-up period. Overall, around 75% of 4-year-old children showed a CMI-positive response to at least one B. pertussis antigen, independently of the type of aP vaccine received, and the proportion of CMI responders were at least equal at 48 and 7 months of age. However, longitudinal examination of individual responses showed that from 20 (against PT) to 37% (against FHA) of CMI responders after primary immunization became negative at 48 months of age. This loss was more than compensated for by conversion to positive CMI responses, ranging from 36% against FHA to 69% against PRN, in other children who were CMI negative at 7 months of age. In 60 to 80% of these CMI converters, a lack of decline or even marked elevation of antibody (Ab) titers against B. pertussis antigens also occurred between 20 and 48 months of age. In particular, the frequency of seropositivity to PRN and FHA (but not to PT) was roughly three times higher in CMI converters than in nonconverters. The acquisition of CMI response to B. pertussis antigens in 48-month-old children was not associated with a greater frequency of coughing episodes lasting >/=7 days and was characterized by a prevalent type 1 cytokine profile, with high gamma interferon and low or no production of interleukin-5, reminiscent of cytokine patterns following immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccine or natural infection. Our data imply that vaccination-induced systemic CMI may wane by 4 years of age but may be acquired or naturally boosted by symptomless or minor clinical infection by B. pertussis. This might explain, at least in part, the persistence of protection against typical pertussis in aP vaccine recipients despite a substantial waning of both Ab and CMI responses induced by the primary immunization.  (+info)

  • Concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) for pertussis toxin (PT), pertactin (PRN), fimbrial proteins (FIM), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), tetanus toxoid (TT), and diphtheria toxoid (DT). (
  • The use of purified materials confirmed that the presence of this pertussis toxin (PT) was responsible for the later peak in stimulation, whereas lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in combination with PT and also the filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) could mimic the early peak of stimulation. (
  • The histamine sensitization test is a widely used method for measuring the residual toxicity of pertussis toxin in acellular pertussis vaccines. (
  • In this study, we observed that mice of strains CD1, ddY and C57/BL6 were sufficiently sensitive to pertussis toxin among six mice strains tested and that aged male mice were more sensitive to pertussis toxin than younger or female mice. (
  • Using this animal model, we showed pertussis toxin dose-dependent responses in the two histamine sensitization test protocols based on either lethal end-point determination or mouse rectal temperature measurement. (
  • Sensitivity to pertussis toxin was further enhanced by the addition of lipopolysaccharide in both methods. (
  • With these improvements, pertussis toxin activity can be estimated more accurately and reproducibly using a reduced number of animals. (
  • our finding that the low-effectiveness whole-cell vaccine is still better for priming than the currently used acellular vaccine nearly 2 decades after the change in practice has profound implications for understanding the effectiveness of the pertussis vaccine," the authors write. (
  • For example, the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine should never be given to pregnant women, since it contains live viruses and may potentially harm the developing baby. (
  • Vomiting after a coughing spell or an inspiratory whooping sound on coughing, almost doubles the likelihood that the illness is pertussis. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all pregnant women receive the Pertussis vaccine in the second or third trimester. (
  • abstract = "Adenosine and pertussis vaccine each significantly suppresed the in vitro lymphocyte response to photohemagglutinin (PHA) in both asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects. (