Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Rubella Syndrome, Congenital: Transplacental infection of the fetus with rubella usually in the first trimester of pregnancy, as a consequence of maternal infection, resulting in various developmental abnormalities in the newborn infant. They include cardiac and ocular lesions, deafness, microcephaly, mental retardation, and generalized growth retardation. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Bordetella pertussis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Inbred BALB CVaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hepatitis A Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Hepatitis A Virus, Human: A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.Tetanus ToxoidCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Hepatovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Staphylococcal VaccinesHepatitis C Antigens: Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Bordetella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Antibody prophylaxis of both hepatitis A and B has largely been supplanted by the introduction of vaccines; however, it is ... rubella, and tetanus compared to the protection provided against polio, and pertussis. Maternal passive immunity offers ... Antibody treatments can be time consuming and are given through an intravenous injection or IV, while a vaccine shot or jab is ... and is the most common antibody of the five types of antibodies found in the body. IgG antibodies protects against bacterial ...
... mumps and rubella; Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis; N. meningitidis; and varicella. In some cases where vaccines do not exist, ... For example, the viral particles for HIV-AIDS can be precipitated out of the blood through the use of an antibody injection if ... or other bodily fluids or aerosols that may carry infectious materials such as Hepatitis C, HIV, or other blood borne or bodily ... Vaccines are available to provide some protection to workers in a healthcare setting. Depending on regulation, recommendation, ...
"Antibody response of Navajo children primed with PRP-OMP vaccine to booster doses of PRP-OMP vs. HbOC vaccine". The Pediatric ... tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine and haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccine". ... "Failure of recombinant interleukin-2 to augment the primary humoral response to a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in healthy ... "Interference of immune globulin with measles and rubella immunization". The Journal of Pediatrics. 122 (2): 204-11. doi:10.1016 ...
The only vaccine proven to induce ADEM is the Semple form of the rabies vaccine, but hepatitis B, pertussis, diphtheria, ... For a rubella infection, the risk is 1 per 5,000 cases. Some early vaccines, later shown to have been contaminated with host ... 2016). "Children with multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis and antibodies to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG ... Karaali-Savrun F, Altintaş A, Saip S, Siva A (November 2001). "Hepatitis B vaccine related-myelitis?". Eur. J. Neurol. 8 (6): ...
... pertussis, and tetanus (DTaP), measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), varicella (chickenpox), hepatitis B, rotavirus, polio, and more. ... Vaccines that combine dozens of varieties of rhinovirus at once are effective in stimulating antiviral antibodies in mice and ... Low vaccine-preventable disease rates as a result of herd immunity also make vaccines seem unnecessary and leave many ... This may include VAP anti-idiotypic antibodies, natural ligands of the receptor and anti-receptor antibodies.[clarification ...
... hepatitis A, hepatitis B, polio, mumps, measles, rubella, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, HiB, chickenpox, rotavirus, influenza ... Van Oirschot JT, Gielkens AL, Moormann RJ, Berns AJ (1990). "Marker vaccines, virus protein-specific antibody assays and the ... Examples include the polio vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, rabies vaccine and some influenza vaccines.[citation needed] Some ... The first DIVA vaccines (formerly termed marker vaccines and since 1999 coined as DIVA vaccines) and companion diagnostic tests ...
In contrast, inactivated vaccines (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP), hepatitis B vaccine, inactivated polio vaccine) ... The beneficial NSEs of live vaccines are stronger with earlier vaccination, possibly due to maternal antibodies. Boosting with ... Recent Danish register-based studies have shown that the live attenuated measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) protects against ... All live attenuated vaccines studied so far (BCG vaccine, measles vaccine, oral polio vaccine, smallpox vaccine) have been ...
Antibody responses in humans to an inactivated hantavirus vaccine (Hantavax). Vaccine. 1999;17:2569-75. ... Vaccine-naive. References[edit]. *^ a b c d Schmaljohn, C. S. (2012). "Vaccines for hantaviruses: Progress and issues". Expert ... The pharmaceutical trade name for the vaccine is Hantavax.[2][3] As of 2013 no hantavirus vaccine have been approved for use in ... Hantavirus vaccine is a vaccine that protects in humans against hantavirus infections causing Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with ...
The cell cultures of some viral vaccines, and the virus of the rubella vaccine, are derived from tissues taken from therapeutic ... Vaccine uptake in the UK decreased from 81% to 31%, and pertussis epidemics followed, leading to the deaths of some children. ... hepatitis C virus, and HIV. These hypotheses have been investigated, with the conclusion that currently used vaccines meet high ... and the short window between the disappearance of maternal antibody (before which the vaccine often fails to seroconvert) and ...
Most vaccines work through inducing an antibody response that targets the outer surfaces of viruses. However the Hepatitis C ... A hepatitis C vaccine, a vaccine capable of protecting against hepatitis C, is not available. Although vaccines exist for ... hepatitis A and hepatitis B, development of a hepatitis C vaccine has presented challenges.[1] No vaccine is currently ... Specific vaccines[edit]. One effort involved using hepatitis B core antigen modified to carry a hepatitis C protein.[8] In a ...
Examples of inactivated vaccines include vaccines for pertussis (whooping cough), rabies, and hepatitis B. ... 8.0 8.1 Demicheli V. et al (2005). "Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children". Cochrane Database Syst Rev 19 (4). ... Some people are "non-responders" to certain vaccines. This means that their immune systems just do not create antibodies to ... There are many different types of vaccines.[2] One common type of vaccine is a "live vaccine." This type of vaccine contains a ...
"Vaccines with the MF59 Adjuvant Do Not Stimulate Antibody Responses against Squalene". Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13 (9): 1010-1013 ... Vaxjo: Comprehensive vaccine adjuvant database.. References[edit]. *^ "Guideline on Adjuvants in Vaccines for Human Use" (PDF) ... Baylor NW, Egan W, Richman P (May 2002). "Aluminum salts in vaccines--US perspective". Vaccine. 20 Suppl 3 (Suppl 3): S18-23. ... In the early days of vaccine manufacture, significant variations in the efficacy of different batches of the same vaccine were ...
Mandates have been effective at increasing uptake of other vaccines, such as mumps, measles, rubella, and hepatitis B (which is ... to elicit virus-neutralizing antibody responses that prevent initial infection with the HPV types represented in the vaccine. ... The vaccine is officially called the MEL-1 vaccine but also known as the MVA-E2 vaccine. In a study it has been suggested that ... Professor Ian Frazercreator of the HPV vaccine. "Human papillomavirus vaccine - New and underused vaccines support - Types of ...
Vaccines - a Biography edited by Andrew W. Artenstein ISBN 978-1-4419-1107-0[page needed] ... Engineers of small-scale humanised antibody production. Prices on application.. *^ Immunisation article in Ganfyd, the online ... Use of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (Report). Centers for Disease ... Main articles: Smallpox vaccine and Edward Jenner. In 1796, Edward Jenner, a doctor and scientist who had practiced variolation ...
Hepatitis B# · HPV (Gardasil, Cervarix) · Measles# · Mumps# (Mumpsvax) · Polio# (Salk, Sabin) · Rabies# · Rotavirus# · Rubella# ... Pertussis# · Plague · Pneumococcal# (PPSV, PCV) · Tetanus# · Tuberculosis (BCG)# · Typhoid# (Ty21a, ViCPS) · Typhus. ... Classes: Inactivated vaccine · Live vector vaccine (Attenuated vaccine, Heterologous vaccine) · Toxoid · Subunit/component / ... Global: GAVI Alliance · Policy · Schedule · Vaccine injury. USA: ACIP · VAERS · VSD · Vaccine court · Vaccines for Children ...
TA-CD • TA-NIC · NicVAX · Cancer vaccines (ALVAC-CEA vaccine, Hepatitis B# · HPV (Gardasil, Cervarix)) ... Hepatitis B# · HPV (Gardasil, Cervarix) · Measles# · Mumps# (Mumpsvax) · Polio# (Salk, Sabin) · Rabies# · Rotavirus# · Rubella# ... Pertussis# · Plague · Pneumococcal# (PPSV, PCV) · Tetanus# · Tuberculosis (BCG)# · Typhoid# (Ty21a, ViCPS) · Typhus. ... Classes: Inactivated vaccine · Live vector vaccine (Attenuated vaccine, Heterologous vaccine) · Toxoid · Subunit/component / ...
Maurice Hilleman was the most prolific vaccine inventor, developing successful vaccines for measles, mumps, hepatitis A, ... "Association Between Vaccine Refusal and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States: A Review of Measles and Pertussis". ... presented falsified evidence that the MMR vaccine (an immunization against measles, mumps and rubella that is typically first ... the transfer of antibodies) has immediate effect.[16] ... Main article: MMR vaccine controversy. In the MMR vaccine ...
Immunization refers to the use of all vaccines, but also extends to the use of antitoxin, which contains pre-formed antibodies ... Chandrakant, Lahariya (2014). "[A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India]". The Indian Journal of Medical Research. ... Edward Jenner introduced the latter in 1798, when it was called cowpox inoculation, or vaccine inoculation (from Latin vacca = ... Until the very early 1800s, inoculation referred only to the practice of variolation, the predecessor to the smallpox vaccine. ...
... (RuV) is the pathogenic agent of the disease rubella, and is the cause of congenital rubella syndrome when infection occurs during the first weeks of pregnancy. Rubella virus is the only member of the genus Rubivirus and belongs to the family of Togaviridae, whose members commonly have a genome of single-stranded RNA of positive polarity which is enclosed by an icosahedral capsid. The molecular basis for the causation of congenital rubella syndrome are not yet completely clear, but in vitro studies with cell lines showed that rubella virus has an apoptotic effect on certain cell types. There is evidence for a p53-dependent mechanism. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Togaviridae Genus: Rubivirus Rubella virus The spherical virus particles (virions) of Togaviridae have a diameter of 50 to 70 nm and are covered by a lipid membrane (viral envelope), derived from the host cell membrane. There are ...
Rubella (also known as German measles) is a disease caused by the Rubella virus. It is often mild and an attack can pass unnoticed. However, this can make the virus very difficult to diagnose. The disease can last 1-5 days. Children recover more quickly than adults. The virus usually enters the body through the nose or throat. Like most viruses living along the respiratory tract, it is passed from person to person by tiny droplets in the air that are breathed out. Rubella can also be transmitted from a mother to her developing baby (fetus) through the placenta. This can be very dangerous to the fetus, especially if the mother gets rubella early on in her pregnancy. Rubella can cause deafness, heart problems, intellectual disability, and many other problems in developing fetuses.[1]. The virus has an incubation period of 2 to 3 weeks during which it becomes established. Common symptoms are a red/pink rash, swollen lymph ...
Before immunization in the United States, between three and four million cases occurred each year.[5] The United States was declared free of circulating measles in 2000, with 911 cases from 2001 to 2011. In 2014 the CDC said endemic measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome had not returned to the United States.[88] Occasional measles outbreaks persist, however, because of cases imported from abroad, of which more than half are the result of unvaccinated U.S. residents who are infected abroad and infect others upon return to the United States.[88] The CDC continues to recommend measles vaccination throughout the population to prevent outbreaks like these.[89]. In 2014, an outbreak was initiated in Ohio when two unvaccinated Amish men harboring asymptomatic measles returned to the United States from missionary work in the Philippines.[90] Their return to a community with low vaccination rates led to an outbreak that rose to include a total of 383 cases across nine ...
... (RuV) is the pathogenic agent of the disease rubella, and is the cause of congenital rubella syndrome when infection occurs during the first weeks of pregnancy. Rubella virus is the only member of the genus Rubivirus and belongs to the family of Togaviridae, whose members commonly have a genome of single-stranded RNA of positive polarity which is enclosed by an icosahedral capsid. The molecular basis for the causation of congenital rubella syndrome are not yet completely clear, but in vitro studies with cell lines showed that rubella virus has an apoptotic effect on certain cell types. There is evidence for a p53-dependent mechanism. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Togaviridae Genus: Rubivirus Rubella virus The spherical virus particles (virions) of Togaviridae have a diameter of 50 to 70 nm and are covered by a lipid membrane (viral envelope), derived from the host cell membrane. There are ...
Rubella (also known as German measles) is a disease caused by the Rubella virus. It is often mild and an attack can pass unnoticed. However, this can make the virus very difficult to diagnose. The disease can last 1-5 days. Children recover more quickly than adults. The virus usually enters the body through the nose or throat. Like most viruses living along the respiratory tract, it is passed from person to person by tiny droplets in the air that are breathed out. Rubella can also be transmitted from a mother to her developing baby (fetus) through the placenta. This can be very dangerous to the fetus, especially if the mother gets rubella early on in her pregnancy. Rubella can cause deafness, heart problems, intellectual disability, and many other problems in developing fetuses.[1]. The virus has an incubation period of 2 to 3 weeks during which it becomes established. Common symptoms are a red/pink rash, swollen lymph ...
Before immunization in the United States, between three and four million cases occurred each year.[5] The United States was declared free of circulating measles in 2000, with 911 cases from 2001 to 2011. In 2014 the CDC said endemic measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome had not returned to the United States.[88] Occasional measles outbreaks persist, however, because of cases imported from abroad, of which more than half are the result of unvaccinated U.S. residents who are infected abroad and infect others upon return to the United States.[88] The CDC continues to recommend measles vaccination throughout the population to prevent outbreaks like these.[89]. In 2014, an outbreak was initiated in Ohio when two unvaccinated Amish men harboring asymptomatic measles returned to the United States from missionary work in the Philippines.[90] Their return to a community with low vaccination rates led to an outbreak that rose to include a total of 383 cases across nine ...
Capsella is a genus of herbaceous plant and biennial plants in the mustard family Brassicaceae.[1] It is a close relative of Arabidopsis, Neslia, and Halimolobos.[2] Some recent authors circumscribe Capsella to contain only three species: Capsella bursa-pastoris, Capsella rubella and Capsella grandiflora.[2] Capsella rubella is a self-fertilizing species that became self-compatible 50,000 to 100,000 years ago. Its outcrossing progenitor was Capsella grandiflora. In general, the shift from outcrossing to self-fertilization is among the most common transitions in flowering plants. Capsella rubella is studied as a model for understanding the evolution of self-fertilization.[3][4] ...
... , MD, FRCPath, FRCP (29 June 1922 - 12 December 2006) was a founder member (and subsequently Fellow) of the Royal College of Pathologists and was elected (by distinction) a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of London in 1978. He was chairman of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Steering Committee on Viral Diarrhoeal Diseases, 1990-3, and a member until 1996. His laboratory in Birmingham was a World Health Organisation Reference and Research Centre for Rotavirus Infections from 1980 until his retirement in 1987. He was an external examiner, visiting lecturer, and scientific journal editor. He was a member of the board of the Public Health Laboratory Service (now Public Health England) from 1977 to 1983 and was Chairman of the Public Health Laboratory Service, Committee on Electron Microscopy from 1977 to 1987. Flewett received his medical education at Queen's University, Belfast, where he graduated with honours at the end of the World War II in 1945. Flewett was born ...
... , named after Clement Dukes, also known as fourth disease or Filatov-Dukes' disease (after Nil Filatov), is an exanthem. It is distinguished from measles or forms of rubella though it was considered as a form of viral rash. Although Dukes identified it as a separate entity, it is thought not to be different from scarlet fever caused by exotoxin-producing Streptococcus pyogenes after Keith Powell proposed equating it with the condition currently known as Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in 1979. It was never associated with a specific pathogen, and the terminology is no longer in use. However, mysterious rash of unknown cause in school children often gives rise to the question whether it can be Dukes' disease. Signs and symptoms may include fever, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, along with typical viral symptoms of sensitivity to light, enlarged lymph nodes, sore throat, and possibly brain inflammation. The rash may appear at any time during the illness. It is usually ...
Dr Christina Cruikshank Miller FRSE (29 August 1899 - 16 July 2001) was a Scottish chemist and one of the first five women (also the first female chemist) elected to the Royal Society of Edinburgh (7 March 1949). Christina Miller was deaf from childhood and also lost the sight of one eye in a laboratory explosion in 1930. The Christina Miller Building within Edinburgh University's Kings Buildings is named in her honour. Christina Cruikshank Miller (Chrissie Miller) was born in 1899 in Coatbridge, Scotland to a stationmaster and was the eldest of two sisters. She suffered from measles and rubella at the age of five, causing her hearing to become damaged which became progressively worse throughout her life. Christina became interested in studying chemistry after reading a magazine article which showed industrial analytical chemistry as a potential career choice for women. Originally she had hopes to pursue a career in teaching but unfortunately her disabilities prevented this. Christina ...
Spuckler Umeak Cletus eta Brandine Spuckleren semeak dira: Gummy, Sue, Tiffany, Andy, Gordon, Lizzie, Jackson, Heather, Cody, Dylan, Dermot, Jordan, Taylor, Brittany, Wesley, Rumer, Scout, Cassidy, Zoe, Chloe, Max, Hunter, Rubella, Scabies, Kendall, Caitlin, Noah, Sasha, Morgan, Kyra, Ian, Lauren, Q-bert, Condoleezza, Marie eta Phil. ...
... refers to the presence or absence of a serological marker in the blood. The presence of detectable levels of a specific marker within the serum is considered seropositivity, while the absence of such levels is considered seronegativity. ...
... (RuV) is the pathogenic agent of the disease rubella, and is the cause of congenital rubella syndrome when infection occurs during the first weeks of pregnancy. Rubella virus is the only member of the genus Rubivirus and belongs to the family of Togaviridae, whose members commonly have a genome of single-stranded RNA of positive polarity which is enclosed by an icosahedral capsid. The molecular basis for the causation of congenital rubella syndrome are not yet completely clear, but in vitro studies with cell lines showed that rubella virus has an apoptotic effect on certain cell types. There is evidence for a p53-dependent mechanism. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Togaviridae Genus: Rubivirus Rubella virus The spherical virus particles (virions) of Togaviridae have a diameter of 50 to 70 nm and are covered by a lipid membrane (viral envelope), derived from the host cell membrane. There are ...
Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine. Antibodies, Viral. Hepatitis B Vaccines. Immunization, Secondary. Pneumococcal Vaccines. ... Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed Biological: Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine (Live) Biological: Pneumococcal Vaccine, ... Have received 4 or more doses of a pertussis vaccine.. *Have received 1 or more doses of measles vaccine unless a CD4 percent ... Have received an approved hepatitis B vaccine series. Not required for study entry, but children who have received this vaccine ...
Immunity to hepatitis B and A is lifelong after natural infection.. Hepatitis B vaccine-induced antibody levels wane over time ... hepatitis A and B; diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis; polio, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella; rotavirus; and human ... Clinically, before hepatitis B and hepatitis A vaccines became available, the administration of passive antibody in the form of ... Vaccine raises serum antibody levels to Hib, and then serum antibody levels wane. However, "natural" serum antibody to the ...
HBsAg Hepatitis B surface antigen HBV Hepatitis B virus HepB Hepatitis B (vaccine abbreviation) HFG Hospital funding grant Hib ... MCC Measles Control Campaign MenCCV Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine MMR Measles-mumps-rubella MR Measles-rubella n.p. Not ... DTPw Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (whole cell) FAG Finance assistance grant HAV Hepatitis A virus HBOC Haemophilus influenzae,/ ... Anti-HBc Hepatitis B core antibody APSU Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit ASVS Australian Standard Vaccination Schedule ...
... for rubella (,10 IU rubella antibody/mL when compared with the WHO international reference serum for rubella), and 91.2% (CI = ... and hepatitis A vaccines. 5. MMRV vaccine must be stored frozen at an average temperature ,5°F (,-15ºC) for up to 18 months. ... A group concomitantly administered at separate sites MMRV vaccine, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis ... Measles, mumps, and rubella---vaccine use and strategies for elimination of measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome ...
Administer the hepatitis A vaccine to those individuals with hemophilia and no hepatitis A virus antibody in their serum. ... Routine immunizations that require injection (eg, diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis [DPT] or measles-mumps-rubella [ ... Administer the hepatitis B vaccine (now routinely administered to all children) soon after birth to all infants with hemophilia ... A Randomized Trial of Factor VIII and Neutralizing Antibodies in Hemophilia A. N Engl J Med. 2016 May 26. 374 (21):2054-64. [ ...
... pertussis) vaccination. This may include documentation of having two (2) MMR vaccines; two (2) Varicella vaccines; or antibody ... Hepatitis B and documentation of having received the Tdap (Tetanus, diphtheria, ... or involving community contact requires documentation of immune status against Rubella (German measles), Rubeola (Measles), ...
... pertussis) vaccination. This may include documentation of having two (2) MMR vaccines; two (2) Varicella vaccines; or antibody ... Hepatitis B and documentation of having received the Tdap (Tetanus, diphtheria, ... or involving community contact requires documentation of immune status against Rubella (German measles), Rubeola (Measles), ...
Rubella and rubeola antibody test (titer values that indicate immunity) documentation of MMR ( Rubella, Rubeola and Mumps) ... Tdap (Tetanus-Diphtheria-Pertussis) vaccine *Immunization as recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of ... Hepatitis B Vaccine series *Varicella zoster live-virus vaccine or serologic evidence of immunity ...
Hepatitis A. *Measles/Mumps/Rubella (MMR). *Tetanus/Diphtheria/Pertussis (TDaP). *Influenza vaccines (seasonal) ... We can also obtain required antibody titers.. Although TB skin tests are not an immunization, we also provide them. There are ... nominal charges for vaccines, titers, and TB skin tests; however for those students covered under the Student Health Insurance ...
... pertussis (whooping cough), measles, mumps, rubella (German measles), hepatitis, and influenza. Vaccines are made from either ... Monoclonal antibodies Monoclonal ( mono means one) antibodies are identical antibodies produced by clones (exact copies) of a ... Vaccine: Preparation of a live weakened or killed microorganism of a particular disease administered to stimulate antibody ... I received blood report having hepatitis c virus report shows HCV Antibody (tv) 2.63 positive I want to know my position & how ...
Lower Neutralizing Antibody Titers with Wyeth Vaccine; 1985:02:22. Current Trends Hepatitis B Vaccine: Evidence Confirming Lack ... Pertussis Vaccination: Acellular Pertussis Vaccine for the Fourth and Fifth Doses of the DTP Series; Update to Supplementary ... Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome -- United States, 1994-1997; 1997:04:25. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication -- ... Decreased Antibody Response to Influenza Vaccine Among Nursing-Home Residents Who Received Recalled Vaccine -- New York, 1996; ...
Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. *Hepatitis B. For hepatitis B, postvaccination serologic testing for antibody to hepatitis ... Health care workers who have received hepatitis B vaccine and have developed immunity to the virus are at virtually no risk for ... Baseline testing of total antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) should be performed as soon as possible after ... Health care workers without documented response to vaccination should receive 1 more additional dose of hepatitis B vaccine ...
... pertussis) vaccination. This may include documentation of having two (2) MMR vaccines; two (2) Varicella vaccines; or antibody ... Perform injections, including but not limited to, flu, Hepatitis A, B, and C ... or involving community contact requires documentation of immune status against Rubella (German measles), Rubeola (Measles), ... Mumps, Varicella (chickenpox), Hepatitis B and documentation of having received the Tdap (Tetanus, diphtheria, ...
... pertussis) vaccination. This may include documentation of having two (2) MMR vaccines; two (2) Varicella vaccines; or antibody ... Hepatitis B and documentation of having received the Tdap (Tetanus, diphtheria, ... or involving community contact requires documentation of immune status against Rubella (German measles), Rubeola (Measles), ...
... pertussis) vaccination. This may include documentation of having two (2) MMR vaccines; two (2) Varicella vaccines; or antibody ... Hepatitis B and documentation of having received the Tdap (Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis) vaccination. This may include ... or involving community contact requires documentation of immune status against Rubella (German measles), Rubeola (Measles), ... documentation of having two (2) MMR vaccines; two (2) Varicella vaccines; or antibody status to these diseases from laboratory ...
Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ ... Pertussis toxin is required for pertussis vaccine encephalopathy. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC391511/pdf/ ... Hepatitis B triple series vaccine and developmental disability in US children aged 1-9 years. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/ ... This film captures the essence of the vaccine debate: The benefits of vaccines for individuals as well as for society versus ...
Description Many diseases that once caused widespread illness, disability, and death are now prevented by vaccines in developed ... Definition Vaccination introduces a vaccine into the body to produce immunity and prevent specific diseases. ... These are hepatitis B, polio, measles, mumps, rubella (also called German measles), pertussis (also called whooping cough), ... The antibodies are produced to fight the weakened or dead viruses in the vaccine. The antibodies "practice" on the weakened ...
3-dose series of Hepatitis B vaccine or positive hepatitis B surface antibody - if you have not completed the series before ... vaccine or positive blood titer2 doses of Varicella vaccine or positive varicella antibodyTetanus/Diphtheria/Pertussis vaccine ... Meningococcal vaccine - MANDATORY for microbiologists and microbiology studentsTB Screening: A baseline two-step TB skin test ... school entry, the series MUST be completed by the end of the first semesterAnnual Influenza vaccine during flu season (between ...
Pertussis, Hib, BCG, r-Hepatitis B, Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccines. It is estimated that about 65% of the children in the ... MabIgX® also allows for the selection of any antibody isotype depending on the optimal effector function required for treating ... Tetanus and Pertussis) group of Vaccines and then later on MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) group of vaccines. SIBV and Serum ... Vaccines manufactured by the Serum Institute are accredited by the World Health Organization, Geneva and are being used in ...
... pertussis), measles, Haemophilus influenza, Rubella, Hepatitis A and B, the flu, tetanus and polio. ... Modern medicine is over reliant on vaccines to produce antibodies against infectious disease. Shamefully, there is currently no ... Vaccines 5 (2): 15, 2017.. 16 Measles vaccine. Wikipedia. Accessed Feb 28, 2019.. 17 Nemo L, Are anti-vaxxers to blame for ... Admission: vaccines dont always work. Lets not forget there apparently was an ineffective batch of MMR vaccine that was ...
Polio-evidence of childhood immunization or a positive antibody test.. *Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR): Evidence of 2 doses of ... Influenza vaccine-1 dose of influenza vaccine annually (complete and provide documentation Sept-Dec) or physician documentation ... Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis: A current Tdap vaccination within past 10 years.. * ... Hepatitis B (Heptavax): Three dose series , titer showing immunity, or signed waiver. ...
A his hepatitis B vaccine status - did he have the vaccine and did he develop antibodies?. B his immunisations/immunity to ... mumps, measles and rubella.. C his pertussis status.. D none of the above.. Answer: A Under OSHA rules, settings in which ... hepatitis C antibody and HIV antibody C Tom must be drawn for hepatitis B surface antibody, hepatitis C and HIV, and the ... If Tom had received the hepatitis B vaccine and developed antibodies then he would have been protected against it. If not, ...
An example is the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The second type of vaccine can involve killed viruses or bacteria ... antibody. Each antibody is formed in specific response to a particular antigen. The antibodies act to protect the host from ... ru-bella (also called German measles), pertussis (also called whooping cough), diptheriae, tetanus (lockjaw), Haemophilus ... vaccinations is recommended to develop protection against hepatitis B, polio, measles, mumps, ...
... polysaccharide vaccines and influenza vaccine), maternal antibody interference (measles-mumps-rubella [MMR] vaccine), or lack ... Children should receive routine vaccination for hepatitis A virus; hepatitis B virus; diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis; ... Hepatitis B vaccine: Vaccine can be administered with an accelerated schedule of 4 doses of vaccine given at 0, 1, 2, and 12 ... Travel-specific vaccine considerations include the following:. *Hepatitis A vaccine: Although hepatitis A is usually mild or ...
The full Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Vaccination Coverage in Australia, 2001 to 2002 report is available in 16 HTML ... DTPw Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (whole cell). FAG Finance assistance grant. HAV Hepatitis A virus HBV Hepatitis B virus. Hep ... CRS Congenital rubella syndrome. CSF Cerebrospinal fluid. cVDPV Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus. DT Diphtheria-tetanus. ... Anti-HBc Hepatitis B core antibody. ASVS Australian Standard Vaccination Schedule. CDT Combined diphtheria-tetanus. ...
  • For example, before the varicella vaccine was available, approximately 100 children died of chicken pox complications in the U.S. each year, and thousands had more severe complications including encephalitis (including cerebellar ataxia), pneumonia and skin infection. (wisbusiness.com)
  • Health care workers can be exposed to infections spread through blood and bodily fluids (such as HIV or hepatitis B) or through airborne or respiratory droplet routes (such as tuberculosis [TB] or influenza). (cdc.gov)
  • Since Jenner's time, vaccines for a variety of bacterial and viral maladies have been developed. (faqs.org)
  • Vaccines generally contain viral or bacterial components from their target disease, chemicals, and cell debris such as proteins and fragments of DNA from animals, including humans, and plants. (avn.org.au)
  • Recently scientists in China have developed a new aborted fetal cell line, WALVAX 2 that will be used for viral vaccine production. (avn.org.au)
  • IgG antibodies protects against bacterial and viral infections in fetuses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induction of such bacterial, viral and chemical materials into an infant is intuitively unnatural, but because of the developing nature of babies and the limits of animal models (in relation to humans), it is extremely difficult to ascertain any adverse reactions of the vaccines. (ubc.ca)
  • The principle of these vaccines is that they contain viral molecule - messenger RNA (mRNA), which is encapsulated in the lipid nanoparticle. (galpost.com)
  • 3.4.c. an individual entered a college or university prior to July 1, 2008, is not required to receive a second dose of mumps vaccine. (uncp.edu)
  • The 2012 report by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) , now called the National Academy of Medicine (NAM), described two studies assessing optic neuritis and MMR, influenza, hepatitis B, diphtheria and tetanus vaccines [2, but these studies did not provide convincing evidence due to a lack of validity and precision. (vaccinesafety.edu)
  • Routine immunisation programmes that include acellular pertussis vaccine reduce the need of hospitalisation due to pertussis among vaccinated children younger than 2 years of age (limited scientific evidence). (nih.gov)
  • The scientific literature provides no substantial indication of a causal relationship between acellular pertussis vaccine and the few serious adverse events described in case reports or in national adverse event reports. (nih.gov)
  • More than 90% of immunised children develop protective antibody levels after the first dose (strong scientific evidence). (nih.gov)
  • The protective antibody levels among immunized children were greater than the non-immunized children. (who.int)
  • To protect, the induced antibodies must either be functional against the relevant pathogen or aid the immune system as an opsonin, or, if the organism exerts its pathogenic effect by elaborating a toxin, then the antibodies must neutralize that toxin. (aappublications.org)
  • However, while pneumococcal vaccines are primarily composed of capsular polysaccharides, some are conjugated to cross-reacting material CRM197, a modified diphtheria toxin, and all contain about three percent protein contaminants, including the pneumococcal surface proteins PsaA, PspA and probably PspC. (cdc.gov)
  • Not all travel-related vaccines are effective in infants, and some are specifically contraindicated. (cdc.gov)
  • The vaccine is given by deep intramuscular injection, preferably in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh in infants or in the deltoid muscle region of the upper arm in older subjects. (medicines.org.uk)
  • The CDC likewise prescribes that infants with extreme joined immunodeficiency (SCID), other safe framework issues, or a sort of gut blockage called intussusception ought not get the antibody. (patriotworldpodcast.com)
  • Almost all current vaccines work by the induction of antibodies in serum or on the mucosa to block adherence of pathogens to epithelial cells or interfere with microbial invasion of the bloodstream. (aappublications.org)
  • As observed by Robbins et al 1 and Plotkin, 2 almost all current vaccines work by the induction of antibodies in serum or on the mucosa (by local production or transudation from serum) to block adherence of pathogens to epithelial cells or interfere with microbial invasion of the bloodstream. (aappublications.org)
  • Administer the hepatitis A vaccine to those individuals with hemophilia and no hepatitis A virus antibody in their serum. (medscape.com)
  • IgE antibodies are present in tiny amounts in serum (the watery part of body fluids) and are responsible for allergic reactions. (scienceclarified.com)
  • It is estimated that about 65% of the children in the world receive at least one vaccine manufactured by Serum Institute. (advfn.com)
  • Dyadic International, a global biotechnology company focused on further improving and applying its proprietary C1 gene expression platform to speed up the development, lower production costs and improve the performance of biologic vaccines, drugs and other biologic products, at flexible commercial scales has announced a research and commercialization collaboration with Serum Institute of India Pvt. (biospectrumindia.com)
  • Serum is a worldwide leading vaccine and drug development institution and we are excited by the science and results we believe we can achieve together," said Mark Emalfarb, Dyadic's CEO. (biospectrumindia.com)
  • Serum has a proven track record of more than 50 years of developing and delivering affordable vaccines and drugs globally and we are eager to incorporate Dyadic's industrially proven C1 gene expression platform into our antibody and vaccine development and manufacturing programs," said Adar Poonawalla, CEO, Serum Institute of India. (biospectrumindia.com)
  • Serum is ranked as India's No.1 biotechnology company, manufacturing highly specialized lifesaving biologics like vaccines using cutting edge genetic and cell-based technologies, antisera and other medical specialties. (biospectrumindia.com)
  • PUNE, INDIA and JUPITER, FL / ACCESSWIRE / May 8, 2019 / Dyadic International, Inc. ("Dyadic") (NASDAQ: DYAI), a global biotechnology company focused on further improving and applying its proprietary C1 gene expression platform to speed up the development, lower production costs and improve the performance of biologic vaccines, drugs and other biologic products, at flexible commercial scales, is pleased to announce a research and commercialization collaboration with Serum Institute of India Pvt. (syrianewsgazette.com)
  • Ltd ("Serum"), one of the world's largest vaccine manufacturers, to develop and manufacture up to twelve antibodies and vaccines using Dyadic's C1 gene expression platform. (syrianewsgazette.com)
  • As of early 2003, only one healthcare worker having received the recent smallpox vaccine reported a related complication, a non-life threatening vaccina rash. (faqs.org)
  • Smallpox vaccine is not recommended during pregnancy because of the small chance that it can affect you or the fetus. (northshore.org)
  • Even more alarming, Dr Theresa Deisher, lead scientist and SCPI founder noted that, "Not only are the human fetal contaminated vaccines associated with autistic disorder throughout the world, but also with epidemic childhood leukemia and lymphomas. (avn.org.au)
  • Varicella: Series of two vaccines, or childhood disease. (ku.edu)