Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Attitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Death: Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.United StatesOrgan Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Euthanasia: The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Gift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.Great BritainSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Patients: Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Religion: A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.EnglandPilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Complementary Therapies: Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.CaliforniaRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Homeless Persons: Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.Suicide, Assisted: Provision (by a physician or other health professional, or by a family member or friend) of support and/or means that gives a patient the power to terminate his or her own life. (from APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed).Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Organizational Culture: Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.IndiaTerminal Care: Medical and nursing care of patients in the terminal stage of an illness.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Schools: Educational institutions.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.General Practitioners: Physicians whose practice is not restricted to a specific field of MEDICINE.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Men: Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Euthanasia, Active: The act or practice of killing for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person or animal from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.TurkeyClergy: Persons ordained for religious duties, who serve as leaders and perform religious services.GermanyOntario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.SwedenEducation, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Advance Directives: Declarations by patients, made in advance of a situation in which they may be incompetent to decide about their own care, stating their treatment preferences or authorizing a third party to make decisions for them. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.ScotlandSocial Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Gender Identity: A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
Death anxiety can cause extreme timidness with a persons attitude towards discussing organ donation. Robert Langs distinguishes ... Death Attitude Profile - Revised: A multidimensional measure of attitudes toward death (DAP-R). In R. A. Neimeyer (Ed.), Death ... By measuring the general attitude towards death and also the inconsistencies with death attitudes, participants are scaled to ... Death attitudes across the life span. The development and validation of the Death Attitude Profile (DAP). Omega, 2, 113-128. ...
of Punjab and thousands of people registered as donor after death with PGIMER. Yadav was a strong personality, and like all ... legal professional patients and donors and the general public freely discussed various issues related to organ transplantation ... strong personalities he had a soft side, which was reflected in his attitude to the poor and underprivileged. A through ... He also held for the first time transplant convention in 1983 where eminent people from religious organizations, bureaucracy, ...
Hence these organs are subject to the influence of the planets, the right eye being under Saturn, the left eye under Jupiter, ... The book teaches that man is a free moral agent, and therefore a person is rewarded or punished for his or her actions. While ... The philological is discussed first, since it is necessary for an elucidation of the philosophical speculations of the work. ... it teaches that the virtuous man is rewarded by a favorable attitude of nature, while the wicked man finds it hostile to him.[7 ...
The proper attitude toward the patient. Rules for the attitude toward the patient's family and other people involved with the ... Gerontocomia discussed the coping and treating of elderly. It discussed topics such as diet, optimal living situations, ... Zerbi's death came about after treating his last patient. He was summoned by Skander, chief minister of the sultan of the ... He also was one of the first physicians to separate the organs into systems and focused his attention on the kidneys. He ...
Prior to the release of his 1860 health manual The Marriage Guide, which openly discussed such things as the benefits of ... Using a papier-mâché recreation of the female body as a guide, Hollick taught audiences where female sexual organs were located ... The consequences from engaging in such behavior ranged from impotence in men to venereal diseases and even death-fortunately ... Hollick was critical of the medical industry's attitude towards sex, claiming that doctors left it as a "professional mystery ...
It's hard to imagine how, after years of Soviet domination, people hungered after the Word of God. We married and buried people ... and he started his club where the group discussed art, philosophy and religion. They discussed both eastern religions and ... This attitude of loyalty, however, provoked more divisions in the church itself: inside Russia, a number of faithful opposed ... In the years 1917-1935, 130,000 Russian Orthodox priests were arrested; 95,000 were put to death, executed by firing squad. ...
People make up their minds before they define the facts, while the ideal would be to gather and analyze the facts before ... The news, therefore, is "imperfectly recorded" and too fragile to bear the charge as "an organ of direct democracy." To ... Wooley, John T. and Gerhard Peters (December 14, 1974). "Gerald R. Ford: Statement on the Death of Walter Lippmann". The ... This attitude was in line with contemporary capitalism, which was made stronger by greater consumption. Later, in The Phantom ...
Its daily publication was Zëri i Popullit (Voice of the People) and its monthly theoretical journal was Rruga e Partisë (Road ... Hoxha led the party and state more or less without resistance until his death in 1985. Hoxha's successor, Ramiz Alia, was ... The Congress examined and approved reports submitted by the Central Committee, discussed general Party policies, and elected ... organ Centralnog komiteta KPJ. Borba. 1949. Дугим радом и убеђивањем на састанцима с појединцима и с по двојицом-тројицом, ...
Section 4 of the Comprehensive Smoking Education Act discusses cigarette warning labels, stating that any person manufacturing ... 126,000 deaths, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 92,900 deaths, stroke: 15,900 deaths and other diagnoses: 44,000 deaths ... The primary organ that is closely related to smoking are the lungs. There are two types of lung cancer, the first type is ... attitudes towards smoking. This led to the Comprehensive Smoking Education Act of 1984. As shown in Sections 3, 4, and 7 of the ...
The Halakhic attitude towards a female masturbation is found in the opinions of the Ben Ish Chai, who says that it is wrong ... It may make it easier for young people to have sexual release in the years when they are too young for a mature, committed, ... Leviticus discusses a ritual defilement relating to emission of sperm. The traditional rabbinical interpretation of Leviticus ... In the Mishnah, masturbation is treated under a broader view about frequent examination of the male and female organs. It ...
Near the end of the manga, when both she and Shou are near death, Shou uses his last mask to clone her and makes sure she lives ... He in turn tries to develop a way to clone Katsuragi to repair his organs, but fails. The two of them grow closer up until ... The next day she saw Shou acting like an idiot as he always does questioned how such a person could be connected to a terrorist ... He was seen in the last chapter being interviewed by an adult Shiina, discussing the past and asking about Shou having chosen ...
He claimed they there were 74 persons dead and 345 persons injured. The attitudes of the Catholic side towards the government ... In Ciudad Real, a priest was castrated and his sexual organs stuffed in his mouth. There are accounts of the people connected ... Hugh Thomas and Paul Preston said that the death toll was 55,000, and Spanish historian Julian Casanova said that the death ... discuss] and Socialists hiding in French border regions, with little result.[citation needed] Throughout the country, the ...
... the author addresses the fear of death and discusses theoretical and empirical findings with regard to the fear of death. He ... In the subsequent chapter, Yalom expands on the will, quoting in particular Hannah Arendt's view of the will as "an organ of ... Yalom recites examples in literature, case studies and therapeutical implications concerning situations in which persons avoid ... still one is responsible for the attitude one adopts toward the adversity-whether to live a life of bitter regret or to find a ...
It is the path that intellectually oriented people tend to prefer. The chapter 4 of the Bhagavad Gita is dedicated to the ... The jnanamarga ideas are discussed in ancient and medieval era Hindu scriptures and texts such as the Upanishads and the ... It consists of fourfold attitudes, or behavioral qualifications: Discrimination (Nityānitya vastu viveka (नित्यानित्य वस्तु ... or after death (videhamukti). According to Bimal Matilal, jnana yoga in Advaita Vedanta connotes both primary and secondary ...
... after Sebastiano's death, and it is not clear if he had specifically discussed the biography with Sebastiano. He knew ... The organ-shutters for the church were also painted. The style shows developments "towards a new fullness of form and breadth ... It was on this occasion that he famously said that oil painting was "an art for women and for leisurely and idle people like ... Michelangelo rather better, and his description of Sebastiano is probably heavily influenced by the hostile attitude ...
The party organ was Totuuden Torvi ('Truth Horn'). The Radical People's Party was founded after the end of the Continuation War ... The Radical People's Party changed its attitude of the Communists and the Soviet Union very quickly when Hentunen noticed that ... The death penalty was not ruled out of question by the party. In 1948, it read under Totuuden Torvi's heading: "Radical means: ... Around the same time the authorities discussed the abolition of the organization: first, in July, and again in September, when ...
Woodruff was a lover of classical music, and after taking up the organ at university and learning from A. E Floyd, the organist ... The two men discussed transplantation and rejection, beginning a lasting professional relationship. Despite his achievements at ... In 1970 an outbreak of hepatitis B struck the transplant unit, resulting in the death of several patients and four of ... so there were not enough people in the region to supply a clinical medical school, so he began to look for an appointment ...
Leading media organs promoted the image of Israel as a Nazi state, which was attacking unarmed, helpless people in South ... The Orthodox Church has yet to officially absolve the Jews for the death of Christ. Holy Thursday and Good Friday liturgies ... On his two-day tour, the Prime Minister discussed with the Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou the possibility of expanding ... According to its findings, 69% of the adult population in Greece harbor antisemitic attitudes. Furthermore, the research found ...
A Matter of Life and Death - The complex issues and dilemmas relating to organ donation in Jewish law were discussed, including ... The society has helped thousands of people register and enabled several bone marrow donations. Genetics Screening The Program ... Breakout session covered trans-generational trauma of survivors and the Jewish attitude on life through the lens of the ... It started as a club discussing Jewish medical ethics and became a tour de force on campus. The society was the first student ...
They are a negative element in the world." And: "Subjection to a people of a higher capacity for government is of itself no ... After Sir Richard Acton's death in 1837, she became the wife of the 2nd Earl Granville (1840). Marie Louise Pelline de Dalberg ... He continued, however, to contribute articles to the North British Review, which, previously a Scottish Free Church organ, had ... But if we might discuss this point until we found that we nearly agreed, and if we do agree thoroughly about the impropriety of ...
In order to exist after death, there has to be a person after death who is the same person as the person who died. Bernard ... This thought experiment discusses cases in which a person is teletransported from Earth to Mars. Ultimately, the inability to ... The question, then, is how it can be possible for conscious experiences to arise out of an organ (the human brain) possessing ... A related problem is to explain how propositional attitudes (e.g. beliefs and desires) can cause neurons of the brain to fire ...
On the other hand, this affair has been highly related to global currents of reform communism after the death of Stalin from ... And 300 of the 476 people reeducated in the same year were writers and artists. On October 21-23, 1956, a delegation composed ... In May, a new literary weekly, Van ("literature") appeared as the organ of the newly formed Writers` Association. Under the ... there was a hardening of attitudes. After those two major journals were closed down, their political associates were imprisoned ...
Popper discussed this critique of naïve falsificationism in Chapters 3 and 4 of The Logic of Scientific Discovery. For Popper, ... This control organ plays a special role in evolution-it is the "spearhead of evolution". The goals bring the purpose into the ... In an interview[30] that Popper gave in 1969 with the condition that it should be kept secret until after his death, he ... He explained that the difficulty of testing had led some people to describe natural selection as a tautology, and that he too ...
To manage people and make sure they do their jobs Barnard formulated two interesting theories: one of authority and the other ... J. Organ. Theory Behav. 5 (1&2): 159-72. Mathews, Gary S. (1981) "An Examination of Cooperative Organizational Behavior and the ... Barnard's classic 1938 book, The Functions of the Executive discusses, as the title suggests, the functions of the executive, ... Adaptation of working conditions to habitual methods and attitudes The opportunity for the feeling of enlarged participation in ...
The sit-in dispersal lead to clashes, resulting in the deaths of 638 people and injury of some 4000.[76][77] By 19 August, al ... Offices and organs[edit]. *Murshid ("Supreme Guide"). Head of the Brotherhood (and of its Maktab al-Irshad)[2] ... If the {{Cite book}} or {{citation}} templates are in use, you may add ISBNs automatically, or discuss this issue on the talk ... However, after Morsi took power as president critics complained that attitudes of and actions by Brotherhood leaders concerning ...
In heraldry, an attitude is the position in which an animal, bird, fish, human or human-like being is emblazoned as a charge, supporter or crest. Many attitudes apply only to predatory beasts and are exemplified by the beast most frequently found in heraldry-the lion. Some other terms apply only to docile animals, such as the doe (usually blazoned as "hind"). Other attitudes, such as volant, describe the positions of birds, mostly exemplified by the bird most frequently found in heraldry-the eagle.[1] The term naiant (swimming), however, is usually reserved for fish but may also apply to swans, ducks or geese. Birds are often further described by the exact position of their wings. The term segreant is usually applied to the griffin, but this approximation of rampant which is more appropriate for them has also been applied to the dragon. Additionally, there are positions applying to direction, to indicate ...
recording and cataloguing the evidence for systematic retrieval. Much of the credit for today's EBP techniques belongs to Archie Cochrane, an epidemiologist, author of the book, Effectiveness and Efficiency: Random Reflections on Health Services. Cochrane suggested that because resources would always be limited, they should be used to provide forms of health care which had been shown in properly designed evaluations to be effective. Cochrane maintained that the most reliable evidence was that which came from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). One of the main reasons that EBPs have been so successfully incorporated into treatment services is the vast amount of studies linking clients' improved health outcomes and the general attitude that treatments should be based in scientific evidence (Institute of Medicine, 2001; Sackett & Haynes, 1995). It is now assumed that professionals must be well-informed and up-to-date with the newest knowledge in order to best serve their ...
Ikujiro Nonaka proposed a model (SECI, for Socialisation, Externalisation, Combination, Internalisation) which considers a spiraling interaction between explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge.[36] In this model, knowledge follows a cycle in which implicit knowledge is 'extracted' to become explicit knowledge, and explicit knowledge is 're-internalised' into implicit knowledge.[36] Hayes and Walsham (2003) describe knowledge and knowledge management as two different perspectives.[37] The content perspective suggests that knowledge is easily stored; because it may be codified, while the relational perspective recognises the contextual and relational aspects of knowledge which can make knowledge difficult to share outside the specific context in which it is developed.[37] Early research suggested that KM needs to convert internalised tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge to share it, and the same effort must permit individuals to internalise and make personally meaningful any codified knowledge ...
There appear to be two main factors affecting the development of family business and succession process: the size of the family, in relative terms the volume of business, and suitability to lead the organization, in terms of managerial ability, technical and commitment (Arieu, 2010).[full citation needed] Arieu proposed a model in order to classify family firms into four scenarios: political, openness, foreign management and natural succession. Potential successors who had professional experience outside the family business may decide to leave the firm to found a new one, either with or without the support of the family. Instead, successors tend to be characterized by professional experience only within the family business. The education of potential successors is a critical issue in the succession process because it affects the endowement of managerial capabilities of the firm.[15] If the succession process has been planned in advance, the incumbent and successor usually show higher levels ...
There is no one definition or conceptualisation of a theme in thematic analysis.[23] For some thematic analysis proponents, including Braun and Clarke, themes are conceptualised as patterns of shared meaning across data items, underpinned or united by a central concept, which are important to the understanding of a phenomenon and are relevant to the research question.[3] For others (including most coding reliability and code book proponents), themes are simply summaries of information related to a particular topic or data domain; there is no requirement for shared meaning organised around a central concept, just a shared topic.[3] Although these two conceptualisations are associated with particular approaches to thematic analysis, they are often confused and conflated. What Braun and Clarke call domain summary or topic summary themes often have one word theme titles (e.g. Gender, Support) or titles like 'Benefits of...', 'Barriers to...' signalling the focus on summarising everything ...
Articles about physicians in general, as well as sub-categories covering different nationalities and specialties of physicians. Individual physicians (medical doctors) should be in the appropriate country (and specialty) category.. ...
So anatomy as used today by both professionals and lay people is not restricted to dissection of internal structures. It pertains to the study of structure, especially biological (but not exclusively, one finds the term used elsewhere). In contemporary usage, anatomy and physiology are terms for structure and function. Morphology pertains to structure, as does anatomy. So in some works, you find these terms used interchangeably. For example "morphophysiology" is just academic shorthand for morphology and physiology, or anatomy and physiology, or structure and function. In academic journals, compact jargon is typically used to keep the article within space limitations, and because the audience is expected to know what the term means, or how to figure out what it means, without spelling it out each time.. Conversely, as Montanabw correctly says, the general public would tend to use the term anatomy. But there is nothing innacurate in using the term horse anatomy to refer to the overall structure ...
... is the event of a biological cell ceasing to carry out its functions. This may be the result of the natural process of old cells dying and being replaced by new ones, or may result from such factors as disease, localized injury, or the death of the organism of which the cells are part. Kinds of cell death include the following: Programmed cell death (or PCD) is cell death mediated by an intracellular program. PCD is carried out in a regulated process, which usually confers advantage during an organism's life-cycle. For example, the differentiation of fingers and toes in a developing human embryo occurs because cells between the fingers apoptose; the result is that the digits are separate. PCD serves fundamental functions during both plant and metazoa (multicellular animals) tissue development. Apoptosis or Type I cell-death, and autophagy or Type II cell-death are both ...
... (or PCD) is the death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program. PCD is carried out in a biological process, which usually confers advantage during an organism's life-cycle. For example, the differentiation of fingers and toes in a developing human embryo occurs because cells between the fingers apoptose; the result is that the digits are separate. PCD serves fundamental functions during both plant and animal tissue development. Apoptosis and autophagy are both forms of programmed cell death, but necrosis was long seen as a non-physiological process that occurs as a result of infection or injury. Necrosis is the death of a cell caused by external factors such as trauma or infection and occurs in several different forms. Recently a form of programmed necrosis, called necroptosis, has been recognized as an alternate form of programmed cell death. It is hypothesized that necroptosis can serve as a ...
The role of these enzymes in programmed cell death was first identified in 1993, with their functions in apoptosis well characterised. This is a form of programmed cell death, occurring widely during development, and throughout life to maintain cell homeostasis. Activation of caspases ensures that the cellular components are degraded in a controlled manner, carrying out cell death with minimal effect on surrounding tissues.[3]. Caspases have other identified roles in programmed cell death such as pyroptosis and necroptosis. These forms of cell death are important for protecting an organism from stress signals and pathogenic attack. Caspases also have a role in inflammation, whereby it directly processes pro-inflammatory cytokines such as pro-IL1β. These are signalling molecules that allow recruitment of immune cells to an infected cell or tissue. There are other identified roles of caspases such as cell ...
... (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis. Necrosis is caused by factors external to the cell or tissue, such as infection, toxins, or trauma which result in the unregulated digestion of cell components. In contrast, apoptosis is a naturally occurring programmed and targeted cause of cellular death. While apoptosis often provides beneficial effects to the organism, necrosis is almost always detrimental and can be fatal. Cellular death due to necrosis does not follow the apoptotic signal transduction pathway, but rather various receptors are activated, and result in the loss of cell membrane integrity and an uncontrolled release of products of cell death into the extracellular space. This initiates in the surrounding tissue an inflammatory response which ...
Death was one of the first ever death metal bands in the United States. They started in 1983 under the name Mantas and they changed the name to Death in 1984.[1][2] Death is no longer a band because their guitarist Chuck Schuldiner died on December 13, 2001. He was 34 years old. He had brain cancer and the drugs he used to beat the cancer made him weak. He died of pneumonia. He had another band project called Control Denied during the 3 years before he died. ...
தின்குழியமை என்பது விழுங்கி அழிக்கும் செயல்முறையைக் குறிக்கும். பெருவிழுங்கியின் முக்கியமான தொழில்களில் ஒன்று நுரையீரலில் முதிர்ச்சியடையாமலே புறக்காரணிகளால் இறந்து போகும் கலங்களை (necrotic cells) 'விழுங்கி அழித்தல்' மூலம் அகற்றுதல் ஆகும். நீடித்த அழற்சி நிலைகளில், இவ்வாறு இறந்த கலங்கள் அகற்றப்படுவது அவசியமாகும். பழுதுபட்ட கலங்கள், சிதைந்த கலங்களை, இப்படியான விழுங்கும் ...
Death anxiety can cause extreme timidness with a persons attitude towards discussing organ donation. Robert Langs distinguishes ... Death Attitude Profile - Revised: A multidimensional measure of attitudes toward death (DAP-R). In R. A. Neimeyer (Ed.), Death ... By measuring the general attitude towards death and also the inconsistencies with death attitudes, participants are scaled to ... Death attitudes across the life span. The development and validation of the Death Attitude Profile (DAP). Omega, 2, 113-128. ...
Published article number: 5241 - Organ donation attitudes and general self-efficacy: exploratory views from a rural primary ... transplantation of organs after death is legal, unless there is an individual objection during a persons lifetime7. In ... had discussed presumed consent with a partner, family member or friend. The following positive attitudes about organ donation ... Ample opportunities to inform and engage with people in their communities could reinforce organ donation attitudes and actions ...
... or just pure human imaginations of death. The change in peoples attitude toward life and death is something every reader ... Debates surrounding the NDE cover: suicide, scientific opposition, brain death, euthanasia, donation of organs after death. ... It did discuss religion briefly, but stuck to scientific facts for the most part. I would recommend this book to any who would ... The near-death experience (NDE) is common to all people from ancient times until today. It will include a life review, in which ...
Researchers compared attitudes toward death of people either on death row or with a terminal illness to people asked to imagine ... Feel anxiety even discussing peripheral situations around death such as organ donation ... Death anxiety is not yet an official clinical diagnosis. People with these experiences and attitudes toward death will likely ... Still, others find peace and happiness as death approaches. Recent research suggests peoples attitudes toward death have a lot ...
DISCUSSING ORGAN DONATION. The public has a generally favorable attitude about organ donation for transplants; however, not ... protects the person from a decision-impairing disease or disorder that puts the patient at risk for self-injury or death, and ... Organ and Tissue Donation. Case managers may be called upon to discuss the issue of organ and tissue donation with family ... a physician declares death and organs are recovered. Note that DCD is the original method of managing organ donation, and it ...
Furthermore, attitudes toward euthanasia and organ (...) donation independently predicted judgments of death and causation, ... These data suggest that, rather than concluding that organ removal is permissible because the donor is dead, people may believe ... The results are discussed in light of the framework of motivated reasoning, in which motivation influences the selection of ... Death, Brain Death, and the Limits of Science: Why the Whole-Brain Concept of Death Is a Flawed Public Policy. Mike Nair- ...
There are over 14,000 people on the national waiting list for a liver transplant, and around 20% will die before receiving a ... keeping Americans from registering as organ donors and patients and physicians from discussing living donation as a first-line ... "Our survey results showed that people are willing to donate to save a life, particularly if they know the person, but, ... "This lack of understanding showed by respondents contributes to the gap in donors and unnecessary deaths. We need to do a ...
... may have influenced their attitude about the acceptability of donating organs after their death. This issue will be the subject ... In 2014, 1117 people were given a second chance at life because of the generosity of 378 organ donors and their families. In ... Ms Cass will address the Plenum alongside Rabbi Ulman who will discuss the Beth Dins position on organ donation. ... In April 2015, the Sydney Beth Din released a position paper on organ donation after death. The position paper sets out the ...
Early RA symptoms and signs vary differently from person to person. The most common body parts that are initially affected by ... The overall attitude regarding ability to control the disease has changed tremendously since the turn of the century. Doctors ... This leads to inflammation in the joints and sometimes in various organs of the body, such as the lungs or eyes. ... Discuss the diet or other lifestyle changes youve made to relieve symptoms and signs of RA. ...
of Punjab and thousands of people registered as donor after death with PGIMER. Yadav was a strong personality, and like all ... legal professional patients and donors and the general public freely discussed various issues related to organ transplantation ... strong personalities he had a soft side, which was reflected in his attitude to the poor and underprivileged. A through ... He also held for the first time transplant convention in 1983 where eminent people from religious organizations, bureaucracy, ...
... as just discussed: human persons as essentially both persons and animals (cf. Schechtman 2014). ... This approach to organ donation, called donation after cardiac death (DCD) or non-heart-beating organ donation, was very rare ... This attitude, of course, is not the prevailing one. Not only do we tend to regard many behaviors as appropriate only if an ... Perhaps death is no more determinate than adulthood. Some people are clearly adults and some people are clearly not adults. But ...
"And you cant help but recoil at the cavalier attitude of these Planned Parenthood doctors as they discuss the intervention ... "But Catholic teaching says that each person has dignity, whether born or unborn; each is a creation of God," she said. "And ... "There are medical practices, like the harvesting of fetal tissue, that express the culture of death," DellOro said. " ... by reducing it to a discussion of the acquisition of body parts and organs - a commodification or commercialization of life." ...
Hence these organs are subject to the influence of the planets, the right eye being under Saturn, the left eye under Jupiter, ... The book teaches that man is a free moral agent, and therefore a person is rewarded or punished for his or her actions. While ... The philological is discussed first, since it is necessary for an elucidation of the philosophical speculations of the work. ... it teaches that the virtuous man is rewarded by a favorable attitude of nature, while the wicked man finds it hostile to him.[7 ...
Organ Donation by Unrelated Donors. Levinsky, Norman G. // New England Journal of Medicine;08/10/2000, Vol. 343 Issue 6, p430 ... Attitudes and predictive factors for live kidney donation: A comparison of live kidney donors versus nondonors. Stothers, Lynn ... Discusses kidney transplants from unrelated donors. The risks to the donor; The mortality and morbidity rates for kidney donors ... Kidney donation after circulatory death (DCD): state of the art. Summers, Dominic M; Watson, Christopher J E; Pettigrew, Gavin ...
Health Related Actions: Organ donation. In 2000, close to 200 people became organ donors after death, benefiting over 650 organ ... Public attitudes to donation also play a part in donation rates. In 2000, a national register was established of people who are ... had discussed their willingness to donate with family members. The proportion of people who had taken at least one of these ... of people aged 18 years and over had taken steps to be an organ or tissue donor after death.10 About a third (33%) of people ...
The delay is, if nothing else, a testimony to the slithery nature of views propounded by organ donation proponents. But we are ... Debating the wisdom of organ transplantation has finally become a matter of public discussion. The fact that it has taken forty ... But less than one percent of all deaths involve brain deaths, which has led to further alterations in the definition of death ... There is no denying the fact that disregard for the integrity of the human person is directly associated with attitudes toward ...
"The recent deaths of Jessica Santillan... and Jeanella Aranda..., resulting from carelessly mismatched blood types during organ ... When the lead person set a bad example, not only did nurses, residents, and others not speak up, they fell in line - and failed ... This viewpoint deserves respect, especially if free of the revengeful "I want somebody punished" attitude which too easily ... If several people are punished, hopefully the others will be more careful next time. Like Mark Twain, I think it is better to ...
But perhaps people were there for purely family reasons - a lot of people perished under Stalin. ... The real reason was Stalins attitude to the Latvians. ``He never trusted us. They were too independent. ``We wanted to ... After all, we believed in the state security organs. She thought the accusations were true. To protect their son, Shmidres ... There was an atmosphere of fear. In 1957, four years after Stalins death, Shmidre was rehabilitated and his party membership ...
functional friendship people from several films have Yugoslav to discuss 20th exchange in attitudes with imperialist iBooks or ... organs completed from frozen events, and did rank to see that these Templates were short to get century in a Right-wing paper ... The Stamp Act Congress could clearly show written to check its broadcast to Parliament as British Citizens while Colonial death ... CD4 contains to the mother co-receptor socialism class( TCR) on CD4 formulation ia and people to HLA cell II persons on request ...
There are two people out there in the world who, though they never knew Cassidy Hale, have sight because of her donated corneas ... Cassidy discussed it with her mom at the clerks office when she was asked whether shed like to be an organ donor.. "Your dad ... With an attitude strikingly similar to her sisters, Tayler felt like it just made sense. "You have no use for organs after you ... Organ and tissue donations made after death arent the only way to make a difference either. Kidney and liver transplants, for ...
To put it differently: not only is the surface attitude, but the attitude of your entire being undivided and in accord with ... unbeknown to the person. You will hear, see, and perceive what other people really mean, what they want to express in spite of ... Why do I repeat this fact, after having discussed it so often and in so many different forms? My reason for doing so is that ... the fear of death. It is this fear of ones own unconscious that makes the no-current so strong. You will see the ...
Mobs have beaten to death at least 12 penis snatchers. Victims say witches simply touch them and their organs shrink or vanish ... When we say white people, we mean the people of greed who valued things over people, who value money over people. We know ... In discussing Wellingtons great victory over a Mahratta (Indian) army six times the size of his own at Assaye in 1803, ... Now they are transferring this attitude, mingled with political triumph and apartheid-hate, to their treatment of White women ...
The USA, and a great many people here, do not. Sadly, that means interrupted sports, more deaths and a net economic loss for ... attitude reflected by some very nice, respectable, yet uninformed people on this board.. I have had COVID. My concern was not ... Fascinating that folks are discussing herd immunity as though it WILL happen despite the studies that show immunity lasts ... that I was going to die (while 68, I still condition like an elite athlete), but that my internal organs may have been ...
Positive Attitude, Excitement, Strength. Negative Attitude, Coping, Anxiety, Fear, Weakness, Depression, Being out of Control, ... To Create a Healthy Person. To Destroy, Kill or Cure a Disease. ... Altering or removing malfunctioning organs (ex. coronary bypass ... Changes in ones Lifestyle and Habits are rarely discussed.. ... MANY Side Effects including DEATH. THERAPEUTIC MODALITIES. ...
Young peoples response to death threat appeals: do they really feel immortal? Health Educ Res 2003;18:1-14. doi:10.1093/her/ ... Others described fatalistic attitudes towards premature death that need not necessarily be a consequence of smoking (see F2). ... We discuss three local and two foreign-based campaigns identified by the youths. The effective elements identified in these ... 21 These came in the form of graphic images of diseased organs with warning labels on cigarette boxes, television ...
  • Removing vital organs as quickly as possible would improve the prospect of saving lives. (
  • But removing vital organs of living patients would cause their deaths, violating both laws against homicide and the widely accepted moral principle prohibiting the intentional killing of innocent human beings (see the entry on doing vs. allowing harm ). (
  • However, anyone thinking vaping is 'safe' is naïve, the same as anyone who drinks alcohol but doesn't want to recognise how it harms vital organs. (
  • Organ donation proponents would have you believe that an organ donor is truly and irreversibly dead, all bodily functions totally stopped, no life at all, no life possible, at the time of the removal of vital organs. (
  • Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust is one of 16,000 members of the national Dying Matters Coalition, with an interest in supporting changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards dying, death and bereavement. (
  • It is a vital period of a child's life as this is when behaviours, attitudes and gender norms are formed that will impact their health later in life," she says. (
  • Allott reports on the burgeoning area of regenerative medicine and states, "Regenerative medicine, which uses stem cell therapies to create and repair damaged tissue and organs, holds the most promise in addressing the organ shortage. (
  • Because of the organ shortage, a person cannot receive a transplant until he or she becomes the patient with the most dire need in a particular area. (
  • Notwithstanding such diversity, the findings set out in the article reflect the fact that core participants were focused on developing a principled, yet pragmatic approach to dealing with the urgent problem of organ shortage in the UK. (
  • Results of the third and final wave of a tracking study by Ipsos MORI exploring attitudes towards self-care of those people with a long term condition and the public's perceptions and behaviour with regard to both their own health and the NHS in general have been published. (
  • Given that nearly 60,000 Americans are awaiting kidneys--and that,according to UNOS, about 6 percent of those people will die waiting--"I don't understand why more people don't step forward," says Tom Falsey. (
  • However, this potential is not being realized because of concerns that DCD kidneys are inferior to those from donation after brain-death (DBD). (
  • In this article, organs refers to what are medically termed solid organs such as kidneys, heart, lungs, liver and pancreas. (
  • The belief that insulin causes macrovascular and microvascular complications such as blindness, damage to the kidneys or pancreas, or even death is also common among Hispanics and other ethnic/minority groups ( 9 , 14 , 17 - 19 ). (
  • This form of death anxiety is often accompanied by unconscious guilt. (
  • To be sure, there were-as there are now-individuals who held that procuring organs from, thereby killing, irreversibly unconscious patients who had consented to donate is a legitimate exception to this moral principle (see the entry on voluntary euthanasia ), but this judgment strikes many as a radical departure from common morality. (
  • Another grave obstacle to self-realization is that you have unconscious attitudes, opinions, thoughts and feelings which completely contradict your conscious attitudes, opinions, thoughts and feelings. (
  • In the East, the integration of body with spirit and nature in Buddhist and folk beliefs, along with the Confucian social structure that builds upon interpersonal relationships, argues against brain death. (
  • What we see in these videos is a representation of how our society trivializes human life, by reducing it to a discussion of the acquisition of body parts and organs - a 'commodification or commercialization' of life. (
  • For one thing, Prentice [a leading expert on stem cell research] explained, "repairing the existing, damaged organ in the body replaces the need to do a whole-organ transplant. (
  • Organ donation is a testament to how beautifully the human body is made, Randy reflected. (
  • The departure of the soul from the body had always been central to the Christian concept of death. (
  • The relation between body and soul had been discussed in patristic literature , and, because of his Jesuit education, Descartes would have been familiar with these discussions. (
  • Finally, some people fear their body will be mutilated in some way during organ recovery 4 . (
  • Read to discover how Avera does cancer care differently - through the latest science, advanced technology, interconnectedness of the Avera system, and compassionate care for the whole person - body, mind and spirit. (
  • There was a striking contrast between Sri Lanka's many well-educated and accomplished women and boats full of people who arrived every week in Europe "in practically slavery conditions" searching for work, the monitoring body of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women was told as it considered Sri Lanka's combined third and fourth periodic reports in two meetings today. (
  • Vicodin also can have severe physical effects on the body with abuse potentially leading to organ damage, cognitive impairment, and sometimes even injury from being involved with drug trafficking. (
  • Many people reduce their stress about the thought of dying when they consider the possibility of improving the lives of others through organ donation or whole body donation . (
  • Religious or cultural attitudes to body disposal, greater provision of ICU beds, incidence of road fatalities, and more pro-active donation campaigns all play an important role [ 1 ]. (
  • He said Tushkowski, 45, from Las Vegas, died by intravenous drugs and the body was mutilated after death. (
  • It is important here to note that while body and most of the brain, excluding the frontal lobe, are physically intact, every trace of the individual that once inhabited it is lost forever, just as the case with every human death recorded throughout history. (
  • Shortly thereafter reanimation occurs, whereby the zombie organ utilizes the preexisting brain structure to control the body. (
  • Although the zombie organ manipulates the brain, it cannot feel pain or utilize any higher brain functioning, and carries on despite loss of limbs until either the body decomposes or the brain is destroyed (Brooks, 14, 18). (
  • Heart attack as an acute pharmaceutical dilemma with the heart when the arteries get obstructed that blood flow to the organ has been seriously decreased, and the heart does not get required oxygen when it pumps. (
  • 3. Dilation or expanded organs, arteries, veins and lymph vessels. (
  • A independence for the Death of the CD4-positive causes silencing to HIV-1 credit presented an writer by Cocchi and successes in 1995. (
  • organs completed from frozen events, and did rank to see that these Templates were short to get century in a Right-wing paper of some, but not also, original slogans been( Cocchi 1995). (
  • This statement by the Beth Din members Rabbi's Gutnick, Ulman and Chriqui considers the various opinions of halachic 'death' as that which occurs when either the heart or the brain fail to function. (
  • Legal declaration of death usually occurs after ischemia has lasted for more than four minutes. (
  • Often death occurs early due to a heart attack, cancer or other chronic disease. (
  • People are usually surprised when I tell them that when handling the suspension of an Alcor patient, my biggest sense of accomplishment and relief usually occurs before the actual suspension procedures even begin. (
  • Soaring medical expenditures provoked concerns about prolonged, possibly futile treatment of patients who presented some but not all of the traditionally recognized indicators of death. (
  • The number of patients on the waiting list is increasing due to an imbalance between organ supply and demand. (
  • There is no denying the fact that disregard for the integrity of the human person is directly associated with attitudes toward the ill and dying that lead to a form of presumption regarding the "value" of life that is not good news for vulnerable patients and their families. (
  • Today, determination of "brain death" is used in all 50 states to pronounce patients dead. (
  • E]vidence of continued activity of the pituitary gland, or of similar residual brain tissue function in patients diagnosed with "brain death," is not decisive in determining whether these patients are living or dead. (
  • The indicator covers all deaths of patients admitted to hospital and those that occur up to 30 days after discharge from hospital. (
  • Hospice is both a facility and an attitude toward end-of-life care, offering patients and their families death with dignity, respect, pain control, and comfort. (
  • This pilot study aims to explore awareness, specific concerns and intentions about the new organ donation framework among patients attending Greek general practices in a rural and urban setting. (
  • In an ongoing prospective study involving 1,311 patients from five nations, researchers found that untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was associated with increased risk of a Major Adverse Cardiac and Cerebrovascular Event (MACCE) -- cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (heart attack), non-fatal stroke, and unplanned revascularization such as heart bypass surgery and angioplasty. (
  • Patients with frailty, defined by requiring admission to a nursing home, who do not have cancer or organ failure have been identified as having a distinct dying trajectory. (
  • Our study aimed to describe the beliefs and attitudes to bowel cancer screening in patients with CKD. (
  • Dr. Paul Byrne of Life Guardian Foundation will tell you in no uncertain terms that these brain dead declared patients are still alive, their hearts are still beating, other organs are still functioning. (
  • Advance care planning helps ensure that patients' wishes and preferences regarding their care at the end of life are known and respected by informal carers and health and social care professionals, even when they are no longer able to discuss their wishes or make decisions. (
  • Health professionals are directly responsible for facing infected patients and suspected persons. (
  • Baby boomers (the generation of people born between 1946 and 1964), on the threshold of aging and faced with caring for elderly parents, became increasingly aware of the need to make provisions for their own future medical treatment. (
  • The UK, France and Germany are currently considering legislation, but overwhelming evidence from jurisdictions where euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide is legal, such as Belgium and the Netherlands, demonstrates beyond doubt, how quickly and easily euthanasia is extended to others, especially disabled people and elderly people. (
  • The group will highlight changing attitudes to disabled and vulnerable people, saying that those with physical and mental disabilities, elderly and poor people must be given the same protections as non-disabled, wealthier people. (
  • These types of people are the Elderly, the Terminally Ill, the very Young, and the handicapped. (
  • Opposition to the non-consensual withholding or withdrawal of care or treatment, including food and water, from people with disabilities, including newborns, as well as the elderly and infirm (YES! (
  • The content of this 3-day conference was designed to explicate the scientific foundation of this multilevel approach, generate research questions that apply to all disciplines, consider different intervention models, and discuss methods needed for the design and analysis of systems-oriented, multilevel studies (5). (
  • For instance, Jang was accused of having "seriously obstructed the nation's economic affairs and the improvement of the standard of people's living" and "making it impossible for the economic guidance organs including the Cabinet to perform their roles. (
  • Guidance for reframing our approach to organ donation can be found in the writings of economist Mancur Olson, whose seminal work The Logic of Collective Action was first published in 1965 . (
  • There is much to be excited about in the field of organ transplant, yet misperceptions are hindering our ability to reap all the benefits," said John Whyte, M.D., Chief Medical Officer, WebMD. (
  • however, many of the strategies detailed are not new to the field of organ donation. (
  • Or do the varieties of death reveal only "family resemblance" relations? (
  • There are so many different varieties of cancer, and so many different varieties of death, that no one cure can exist. (
  • Dell'Oro suggested that Catholics acquaint themselves with two "instructional" documents from the Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith - "Donum Vitae" ("The Gift of Life") and "Dignitas Personae" ("The Dignity of a Person") - which address new technologies associated with life issues, including the acquisition and utilization of "biological material" (such as embryonic stem cells and fetal tissue) that is of "illicit" origin. (
  • The California Natural Death Act of 1976 states that to preserve " dignity and privacy … any adult person may execute a directive directing the withholding or withdrawal of life-sustaining procedures in a terminal condition. (
  • Over the years, we've heard more and more about the right to die, also called ​ death with dignity , where people choose to die on their own terms, in their own timeframe. (
  • It was also suggested that when a person reaches the stage of late adulthood they become involved in a thorough overview of their life to date. (
  • Excellent book on NDE by Stephan Schwartz Let me introduce Pim van Lommel, whose excellent book, Consciousness Beyond Life (New York: Harper One, 2010) I want to use as the basis for a larger discussion on consciousness, near death, science, and culture. (
  • Discuss legal and ethical factors relating to end-of-life care and suicide risk. (
  • For many observant Orthodox and Ultra-Orthodox Jews, the halachic prohibition of ending a life, or the requirement to return to the earth whole, may have influenced their attitude about the acceptability of donating organs after their death. (
  • Are life and death exhaustive categories of those things that are ever animated, or do some individuals fall into an ontological neutral zone between life and death? (
  • OXNARD, Calif. (CNS) - It is uncertain that a California pro-life group's ongoing series of undercover videos that show Planned Parenthood officials discussing the illegal marketing and sale of fetal tissue will lead to defunding for the nation's leading provider of abortion services. (
  • Are we to believe that when a person is diagnosed as "brain dead," yet they have other signs of life such as a heartbeat and a blood pressure, that they are dead? (
  • After her death on Sept. 16, 2015, the Flash logo was adopted as a symbol of her life. (
  • It would be prudent, to adopt policies of intensified life-long surveillance of LBW people, anticipating this risk. (
  • I ask you today to give the ultimate gift, the gift of life, by becoming an organ donor. (
  • When this is the case, a person will instantly adopt an open attitude whenever the opportunity in life presents itself - and this always happens, again and again. (
  • The whole of life must drastically change when this energy is made available - not here or there because of temporary openness to the power, but permanently through a changed personality that no longer cultivates attitudes which obstruct the power. (
  • Research for Dying Matters has previously found that many people have specific wishes about their end of life care or what they would like to happen to them after their death, but that a reluctance to discuss these issues makes it much less likely that these will be met. (
  • Eve Richardson, Chief Executive of the Dying Matters Coalition and the National Council for Palliative Care said: "Every minute someone in England dies, but many people still feel uncomfortable talking about end of life issues. (
  • We affirm life through helping people to find meaning, purpose and hope in the face of suffering and despair. (
  • Helping a blind person see, providing a liver to someone with a disease, or donating skin to a child who has been burned is a selfless gift that goes beyond the donor's own life. (
  • Conclusions A better understanding of this area could help to improve end-of-life care for frail older people. (
  • 6 This 'frail dying trajectory' is characterised by higher levels of disability in the last year of life and unpredictability around the timing of death, 6 and is estimated to be the most common type of dying trajectory, accounting for approximately 40% of deaths. (
  • This trend to death is so strong that some historians have begun to worry that we are silently killing those people in society that may have no "Quality of Life" anymore. (
  • Therefore a layman should make every endeavor to follow the way to the end of suffering in this very life itself, by leading a life of moderation and self-discipline and by practicing meditation with the aim of developing insight into the ultimate truths of life and death. (
  • In everyday life, we meet people and never know what is going on in their life. (
  • People nearing the end of life can benefit from discussing and recording their care preferences in a process known as advance care planning. (
  • After urogenital cancers, bowel cancer is the second most common solid organ cancer among people with CKD ( 4 ) and the third leading cause of cancer-related death in CKD. (
  • Some people falsely believe their religion does not support organ donations 2 . (
  • Findings from the 2012 National Survey of Organ Donation Attitudes and Behaviors demonstrate that an overwhelming proportion of US adult respondents in a nationally representative telephone survey support or strongly support organ donation (94.9 percent), as they did in surveys conducted in 2005 (92.9 percent) and 1993 (93.5 percent) . (
  • The concept of brain death as equivalent to cardiopulmonary death was initially conceived following developments in neuroscience, critical care, and transplant technology. (
  • With the invention of mechanical respirators in the 1950s, however, it became possible for a previously lethal extent of brain damage to coexist with continued cardiopulmonary functioning, sustaining the functioning of other organs. (
  • When she read that, Jackie immediately had a feeling she knew what that "something" was, making the connection that local donor designation had gone up since Cassidy's death. (
  • Many of these people are relatively young, in good health and have no reason to believe their chances for living many more years are worse than others. (
  • Data on organ donation in Australia are maintained by the Australia and New Zealand Organ Donation (ANZOD) Registry, which is funded by the Australian Health Minister's Advisory Council, New Zealand Ministry of Health, and The Australian Kidney Foundation. (
  • Introduction: While many people are somewhat afraid of eating avocados because of their high fat content, research shows many health benefits are attributed to this wonderful fruit. (
  • Introduction: The sad fact is that when it comes to dietary supplements not only are people wasting money, in many cases they are simply not taking advantage of easy, inexpensive steps they could take to improve their health and maybe even saves their lives. (
  • On the show I discussed the failure of conventional medicine to address the underlying issues in many health conditions offering little more than drugs as biochemical "band aids. (
  • A living will deals with health and personal care and is in effect when a person is alive. (
  • This reliance on voluntarism raises the following questions: What obligations arise for physicians and other stewards of public health in addressing a problem, such as organ shortages, that could affect anyone? (
  • To address these questions, I first examine public support for organ donation and then the moral imperative for action at the individual, clinical level, and at the systemic, public health level. (
  • Participants hoped to bridge the factors that influence obesity-related behaviors at the macro level (typically policies that shape and govern the food, physical, social, and economic environments in which we live) and the micro level (typically variables within people or their immediate surroundings that influence health outcomes). (
  • Likewise, key issues relating to how these potential benefits would be obtained and distributed are too little discussed -- in a free market economy of privatised health care services, would everyone benefit, or just some individuals? (
  • Most recently, Scotland saw a 36 percent reduction in post-surgical deaths since implementing the checklist as part of a national health safety program. (
  • This vision for volunteering in health and care provides a framework, under four strategic themes, for action that promotes and encourages volunteer involvement and enables more people who want to give their time to do so. (
  • The poor, lowly-educated person doesn't understand the health risks that he is exposing himself to. (
  • Frailty is associated with major adverse health outcomes, including falls, delirium, and death, as well as greater use of hospital services. (
  • Well-cited theories in the field of behavioral sciences and health education clearly indicate that knowledge is necessary but not sufficient for most types of health behavior change, including organ and tissue donation ( 12 ). (
  • Elizabeth Edwards, wife of former presidential candidate John Edwards, discussed health care reform and John McCain's plan at the Awards for Excellence in Health Care Journalism Luncheon. (
  • Although other factors such as health insurance, medication costs, and physician-related attitudes also play an important role when designing a diabetes treatment plan, this article focuses on some of the common patient-related cultural barriers that health care providers (HCPs) may face when initiating insulin therapy in members of Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and certain Asian populations and includes suggestions for overcoming these barriers. (
  • Mutual understanding (in the form of changing attitudes and communication) was considered crucial to effective collaboration between these two health systems. (
  • The person is prone to getting sick, needs lots of drugs and medical attention, has various complaints most of the time, and health is not robust. (
  • Currently, breast cancer causes over 40,000 deaths in the United States each. (
  • DEAR READERS, At Avera, we want people to be constantly aware of cancer prevention as well as all the hopeful treatments and supportive programs for people impacted by this disease. (
  • But since there is so much optimism about curing cancer, and so little optimism about curing death, the title begins by bringing out the parallels. (
  • We will probably always have some form of death, and some form of cancer. (
  • Looking at cancer, of course, most people see this optimistically: "yes, but many forms will disappear. (
  • An analysis of deaths in the United States between 1969 and 2013 finds an overall decreasing trend in the age-standardized death rate for all causes combined and for heart disease, cancer, stroke, unintentional injuries, and diabetes, although the rate of decrease appears to have slowed for heart disease, stroke, and diabetes, according to a study in the October 27 issue of JAMA. (
  • Background and objectives Bowel cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in people with CKD. (
  • The physical condition of man has been reduced to such a pathetic level that he succumbs to untimely death by killer diseases such as cancer, heart failure, diabetes, etc. to an unprecedented degree. (
  • We spend much time and effort in Seminar 1 , "America's Leadership of the New World Order", to demonstrate that our American culture is exhibiting strong and consistent symbols of death, and an obvious love of death. (
  • The devastation that comes when a person struggles with a substance use disorder is often not limited to just that person, but instead it spreads outwards and can affect many others in that person's social circle. (
  • The soul had originally been thought to reside in the liver, an organ to which no other function could, at that time, be attributed. (
  • However, less than one third of Americans actually participate in organ donation programs. (
  • Although diabetes affects people from different races and ethnic backgrounds, the rates of diagnosed diabetes continue to be higher in ethnic minority groups such as non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and Asian Americans, among others ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • East-West Differences in Perception of Brain Death: Review of History, Current Understandings, and Directions for Future Research. (
  • Several countries, most notably China, still lack laws recognizing brain death and national medical standards for making the diagnosis. (
  • In the West, the status of the brain as home to the soul in Enlightenment philosophy, combined with pragmatism and utilitarianism, supports the concept of brain death. (
  • We hope that the position paper will help families understand the importance of discussing donation decisions with their families and to feel a sense of comfort that this ruling, or psak, provides support for their decision to proceed with donation in the event of brain death - a decision which is the ultimate act of giving to save the lives of others. (
  • The statement contends that though both opinions carry halachic weight, the Sydney Beth Din will facilitate halachic organ donation for those families choosing to proceed with donation when their loved one has died following the respiratory brain death pathway. (
  • Organ donation is usually only possible in cases where a patient in an intensive care unit is determined to have suffered brain death, while their heart/lung function is being maintained artificially. (
  • However there are those who argue that brain death itself is not a genuine definition of death. (
  • In 1968, however, a special committee at Harvard Medical School proposed a definition of death as "brain death" that became widely accepted. (
  • In brain death donations, the donor is kept on a ventilator to keep blood flowing to organs until they can be removed. (
  • The modern and entirely secular concept of brain-stem death can, perhaps rather surprisingly, find both a conceptual and a topographical foundation in the writings of René Descartes (1596-1650), the great French philosopher and mathematician who sought to bring analytical geometry, physics, physiology , cosmology, and religion into an integrated conceptual framework. (
  • This criticism can be leveled perhaps even more sharply at the commonly employed phrase "whole brain death," which, if taken literally, implies that every part of the brain must be non-functional for the diagnosis to be made. (
  • Hypoxia (literally: "low oxygenation") is a condition in which only small amounts of oxygen reach the brain (or other organs). (
  • Dr. Byrne will point to reports, fashioned by self interested committees, such as a 1967 American Bar Association publication, or the 1968 Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School report on the Definition of Brain Death or the 1981 Presidential Committee report Defining Death . (
  • There soon followed other shocking cases of brain injured people being declared dead. (
  • Upon entering the blood stream the virus moves to the brain, where it utilizes the cells of the frontal lobe for replication to create a completely new organ (Brooks, 2). (
  • The philosophical and scientific foundations for brain death criteria have been crumbling. (