A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
Disorder characterized by an emotionally constricted manner that is unduly conventional, serious, formal, and stingy, by preoccupation with trivial details, rules, order, organization, schedules, and lists, by stubborn insistence on having things one's own way without regard for the effects on others, by poor interpersonal relationships, and by indecisiveness due to fear of making mistakes.
Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.
A personality disorder characterized by the avoidance of accepting deserved blame and an unwarranted view of others as malevolent. The latter is expressed as suspiciousness, hypersensitivity, and mistrust.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
A personality disorder manifested by a profound defect in the ability to form social relationships, no desire for social involvement, and an indifference to praise or criticism.
A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
A personality disorder characterized by overly reactive and intensely expressed or overly dramatic behavior, proneness to exaggeration, emotional excitability, and disturbances in interpersonal relationships.
A state in which attention is largely directed outward from the self.
A personality disorder characterized by an indirect resistance to demands for adequate social and occupational performance; anger and opposition to authority and the expectations of others that is expressed covertly by obstructionism, procrastination, stubbornness, dawdling, forgetfulness, and intentional inefficiency. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
A psychoanalytic term meaning self-love.
Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.
Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
The artificial language of schizophrenic patients - neologisms (words of the patient's own making with new meanings).
The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.
The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Established behavior pattern characterized by excessive drive and ambition, impatience, competitiveness, sense of time urgency, and poorly contained aggression.
A personality inventory consisting of statements to be asserted or denied by the individual. The patterns of response are characteristic of certain personality attributes.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
A state in which attention is largely directed inward upon one's self.
A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Behavior pattern characterized by negative emotionality, an inability to express emotions, and social isolation, which has been linked to greater cardiovascular disease and increased mortality. (from International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008, p. 217)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Tendency to feel anger toward and to seek to inflict harm upon a person or group.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)
'Prisoners,' in a medical context, refer to individuals who are incarcerated and may face challenges in accessing adequate healthcare services due to various systemic and individual barriers, which can significantly impact their health status and outcomes.
Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
A person's view of himself.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The act of killing oneself.
Behavior exhibited by individuals who are overly suspicious, but without the constellation of symptoms characteristic of paranoid personality disorder or paranoid type of schizophrenia.
Chaotic concept of self wherein one's role in life appears to be an insoluble dilemma often expressed by isolation, withdrawal, rebellion and extremism.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.
Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
A composition in prose or verse presenting in dialogue or pantomime a story involving various characters, usually intended to be acted on a stage and to be regarded as a form of entertainment. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).
Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
Persistent, unwanted idea or impulse which is considered normal when it does not markedly interfere with mental processes or emotional adjustment.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.
Legal process required for the institutionalization of a patient with severe mental problems.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Brief therapeutic approach which is ameliorative rather than curative of acute psychiatric emergencies. Used in contexts such as emergency rooms of psychiatric or general hospitals, or in the home or place of crisis occurrence, this treatment approach focuses on interpersonal and intrapsychic factors and environmental modification. (APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.
Sexual maltreatment of the child or minor.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.
A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
A compulsion to set fires.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.
Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.
An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.
A dissociative disorder in which the individual adopts two or more distinct personalities. Each personality is a fully integrated and complex unit with memories, behavior patterns and social friendships. Transition from one personality to another is sudden.
A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.
Frequency and quality of negative emotions, e.g., anger or hostility, expressed by family members or significant others, that often lead to a high relapse rate, especially in schizophrenic patients. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)
Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.
Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.
The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.
Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.
Methods for quantitatively assessing and measuring interpersonal and group relationships.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Norway" is a country name and doesn't have a medical definition. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I'd be happy to help!
The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.
It is a client-centered, directive method for eliciting intrinsic motivation to change using open-ended questions, reflective listening, and decisional balancing. This nonjudgmental, nonconfrontational interviewing style is designed to minimize a patient's resistance to change by creating an interaction that supports open discussion of risky or problem behavior.
Institutional health care of patients during the day. The patients return home at night.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
Psychotherapeutic technique which emphasizes socioenvironmental and interpersonal influences in the resocialization and rehabilitation of the patient. The setting is usually a hospital unit or ward in which professional and nonprofessional staff interact with the patients.
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.
Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.
Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.
Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.
Forms of PSYCHOTHERAPY falling within or deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition, that view individuals as reacting to unconscious forces (e.g., motivation, drive), that focus on processes of change and development, and that place a premium on self understanding and making meaning of what is unconscious.
Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
Signs and symptoms of higher cortical dysfunction caused by organic conditions. These include certain behavioral alterations and impairments of skills involved in the acquisition, processing, and utilization of knowledge or information.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)
A specialized residential treatment program for behavior disorders including substance abuse. It may include therapeutically planned group living and learning situations including teaching of adaptive skills to help patient functioning in the community. (From Kahn, A. P. and Fawcett, J. Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 1993, p320.)
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.

d,l-fenfluramine response in impulsive personality disorder assessed with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. (1/643)

Reduced serotonergic activity has been associated with impulsive aggression in personality disordered patients in metabolite and pharmacologic challenge studies. This study used positron emission tomography to explore whether reduced serotonergic function occurs in critical brain regions such as orbital frontal and cingulate cortex that, may play a role in modulating aggression. Six impulsive-aggressive patients and five healthy volunteers were evaluated for changes in regional glucose metabolism after administration of the serotonergic releasing agent d,l-fenfluramine (60 mg, p.o.) or placebo. Volunteers demonstrated increases in orbital frontal and adjacent ventral medial frontal cortex, cingulate, and inferior parietal cortex, whereas impulsive-aggressive patients showed no significant increases in glucose metabolism after fenfluramine in any region. Compared with volunteers, patients showed significantly blunted metabolic responses in orbital frontal, adjacent ventral medial and cingulate cortex, but not in inferior parietal lobe. These results are consistent with reduced serotonergic modulation of orbital frontal, ventral medial frontal, and cingulate cortex in patients with impulsive-aggressive personality disorders.  (+info)

Personality and alcohol/substance-use disorder patient relapse and attendance at self-help group meetings. (2/643)

This study evaluated the role of personality in the short-term outcome of alcohol/substance-use disorder patients. Detoxifying alcohol/substance-use disorder patients were administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST), the CAGE Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). These patients were subsequently evaluated over a 1-month period for relapse and attendance at self-help group meetings. High TPQ Persistence scale scores predicted abstinence. When the Thinking and Feeling groups were considered separately, and when these two groups were combined into a single group, high scores for the individual groups and the combined group (i.e. Thinking and Feeling types together) predicted abstinence. High TPQ Persistence scale scores and low Shyness with Strangers and Fear of Uncertainty subscale scores predicted attendance at self-help group meetings. High MBTI Extroversion and high MBTI Thinking scores also predicted attendance at self-help group meetings. When the Extroverted and Introverted types and the Thinking and Feeling types respectively were combined, as with abstinence, high scores predicted attendance at self-help group meetings. Age, gender, CAGE, MAST, and BDI scores did not predict outcome. The above information suggests that specific personality variables may predict abstinence and attendance at self-help group meetings in recently detoxified alcoholics, and this may have prognostic and therapeutic significance.  (+info)

Underlying personality differences between alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with and without an affective disorder. (3/643)

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a popular personality test, was used to profile the personalities of in-patient alcoholics/substance-use disorder patients who had, and those who did not have, a concurrent affective disorder diagnosis. The MBTI divides individuals into eight categories: Extroverts and Introverts, Sensors and Intuitives, Thinkers and Feelers, and Judgers and Perceivers. Alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with no affective disorder differed from a normative population only in being significantly more often Sensing and significantly less often Intuitive single-factor types. The Extroverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Judging four-factor type was also significantly over-represented in this group, compared to a normative population. In contrast, mood-disordered alcohol/substance-use disorder patients were significantly more often Introverted, Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving and significantly less often Extroverted, Intuitive, Thinking, and Judging single-factor types. They were also significantly more often Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving and Introverted/Intuitive/Feeling/Perceiving four-factor types. 'Pure' alcohol/ substance-use disorder patients differed from alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with a mood disorder in that they were significantly more often Extroverted and Thinking and significantly less often Introverted and Feeling single-factor types; and significantly less often were an Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving four-factor type. The above results may have psychogenetic, diagnostic, and psychotherapeutic implications.  (+info)

Dependence, locus of control, parental bonding, and personality disorders: a study in alcoholics and controls. (4/643)

Personality traits, socio-cultural factors, and dysfunctional family systems are considered to be important in the aetiology and clinical development of alcoholism. Particularly, conflict and issues involving psychological (emotional) dependence have long been associated with alcohol addiction. The present work, part of a more extensive study to validate a new rating scale to measure emotional dependence, the Dependence Self-rating Scale (DSRS), assesses dependence, orientation of locus of control, parental bonding perceptions, and personality disorders (PDs) in alcoholic and non-alcoholic samples. The alcoholics showed a prevalence of PDs of 31.3%. The most frequent is the Schizoid PD (40%) followed by the Dependent PD (20%). Subjects with antisocial PD were not included in our selection criteria. The alcoholics scored higher on the DSRS than the controls, but this difference was not statistically significant. By making a comparison between subjects with and without PDs, the DSRS scores were significantly higher in alcoholics with PDs. No significant differences between alcoholics and non-alcoholics in the parental perceptions and locus of control were seen. These findings are sufficiently coherent to encourage further studies on psychological emotional dependence in alcoholics using the DSRS.  (+info)

Central nervous system serotonin and personality as variables contributing to excessive alcohol consumption in non-human primates. (5/643)

Non-human primates will readily consume an alcohol solution for its reinforcing effects when such a solution is palatable, with some subjects consuming alcohol to excess. In this review, we discuss variables that contribute to high alcohol consumption and the behaviours that are correlated with it in a non-human primate model. Developmental and behavioural correlates of central nervous system (CNS) serotonergic activity, as measured by concentrations of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), were used to investigate neurogenetic influences on alcohol consumption, as well as personality traits that characterize excessive alcohol intake. Inter-individual differences in CSF 5-HIAA concentrations were shown to have trait-like qualities, and with stable inter-individual differences across time and settings. Research has shown numerous similarities between human and non-human primates with respect to Type I- and II-like alcohol abuse and their associated behaviours. In the present series of studies, features characteristic of Type I alcohol misuse, such as high levels of anxiety, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal output, and situational stress predicted high alcohol intake. Primates with low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations also exhibited behaviours characteristic of Type II alcohol abuse. Principal among the traits that these subjects exhibited were deficits in impulse control. For example, subjects with low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations engaged in spontaneous behaviours that bring reinforcement but placed them at risk, such as entering food baited traps, jumping from dangerous heights to get from one tree to another, and consuming large amounts of alcohol. They can be characterized by other Type II-like deficits, such as impaired social competence, social alienation, and unrestrained, violent aggression. Non-human primates with low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations also exhibited high intrinsic tolerance following modest intakes of alcohol, and high rates of aggression during intoxication. High preferences for sweet solutions were shown to predict excessive alcohol consumption. Maternal and paternal genetic influences played major roles in producing low CNS serotonin function and excessive alcohol consumption. These genetic influences on serotonin function were exacerbated by early rearing experiences, particularly parental deprivation.  (+info)

Slapping and spanking in childhood and its association with lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a general population sample. (6/643)

BACKGROUND: Little information is available in Canada about the prevalence of and outcomes associated with a history of slapping and spanking in childhood. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of a history of slapping or spanking in a general population sample and to assess the relation between such a history and the lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: In this general population survey, a probability sample of 9953 residents of Ontario aged 15 years and older who participated in the Ontario Health Supplement was used to examine the prevalence of a history of slapping and spanking. A subgroup of this sample (n = 4888), which comprised people aged 15 to 64 years who did not report a history of physical or sexual abuse during childhood, was used to assess the relation between a history of slapping or spanking and the lifetime prevalence of 4 categories of psychiatric disorder. The measures included a self-administered questionnaire with a question about frequency of slapping and spanking during childhood, as well as an interviewer-administered questionnaire to measure psychiatric disorder. RESULTS: The majority of respondents indicated that they had been slapped or spanked, or both, by an adult during childhood "sometimes" (33.4%) or "rarely" (40.9%); 5.5% reported that this occurred "often." The remainder (20.2%) reported "never" experiencing these behaviours. Among the respondents without a history of physical or sexual abuse during childhood, those who reported being slapped or spanked "often" or "sometimes" had significantly higher lifetime rates of anxiety disorders (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.96), alcohol abuse or dependence (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.27-3.21) and one or more externalizing problems (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.36-3.16), compared with those who reported "never" being slapped or spanked. There was also an association between a history of slapping or spanking and major depression, but it was not statistically significant (adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.96-2.80). INTERPRETATION: There appears to be a linear association between the frequency of slapping and spanking during childhood and a lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorder, alcohol abuse or dependence and externalizing problems.  (+info)

Psychotherapy of personality disorders. (7/643)

Although personality disorders are often regarded as "untreatable" by third-party payers, there is actually a growing empirical literature suggesting that Axis II conditions may be eminently treatable by psychotherapy. This literature is critically reviewed, the implications for length of treatment are discussed, and cost-effectiveness issues are examined.  (+info)

Effects of amphetamine on visuospatial working memory performance in schizophrenia spectrum personality disorder. (8/643)

Our objective was to determine if amphetamine improves visuospatial working memory, which is impaired in the schizophrenia spectrum and may be modulated by dopamine in prefrontal cortex. To this end, oral amphetamine (30 mg) was administered to 12 patients with schizophrenia spectrum personality disorders and 13 patients with other, nonschizophrenia-related personality disorders. Visuospatial working memory was assessed using the Dot test; a test in which subjects are asked to memorize and reproduce the position of a dot on a sheet of paper. Patients with schizophrenia spectrum personality disorders performed significantly worse than the comparison group in the placebo condition and showed significantly greater improvement after amphetamine, as compared to a nonschizophrenia-related personality disorder comparison group. Patients with greatest impairment at baseline improved most. Amphetamine tended to improve negative symptoms; whereas, positive symptoms remained unchanged. Amphetamine may improve visuospatial working memory in schizophrenia spectrum patients.  (+info)

Personality disorders are a class of mental health conditions characterized by deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that deviate significantly from the norms of their culture. These patterns often lead to distress for the individual and/or impairments in personal relationships, work, or social functioning.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), identifies ten specific personality disorders, which are grouped into three clusters based on descriptive similarities:

1. Cluster A (Odd or Eccentric) - characterized by odd, eccentric, or unusual behaviors:
* Paranoid Personality Disorder
* Schizoid Personality Disorder
* Schizotypal Personality Disorder
2. Cluster B (Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic) - marked by dramatic, emotional, or erratic behaviors:
* Antisocial Personality Disorder
* Borderline Personality Disorder
* Histrionic Personality Disorder
* Narcissistic Personality Disorder
3. Cluster C (Anxious or Fearful) - featuring anxious, fearful behaviors:
* Avoidant Personality Disorder
* Dependent Personality Disorder
* Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

It is important to note that personality disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat. They often require comprehensive assessments by mental health professionals, such as psychologists or psychiatrists, who specialize in personality disorders. Effective treatments typically involve long-term, specialized psychotherapies, with some cases potentially benefiting from medication management for co-occurring symptoms like anxiety or depression.

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a mental health disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affect, and mood, as well as marked impulsivity that begins by early adulthood and is present in various contexts.

Individuals with BPD often experience intense and fluctuating emotions, ranging from profound sadness, anxiety, and anger to feelings of happiness or calm. They may have difficulty managing these emotions, leading to impulsive behavior, self-harm, or suicidal ideation.

People with BPD also tend to have an unstable sense of self, which can lead to rapid changes in their goals, values, and career choices. They often struggle with feelings of emptiness and boredom, and may engage in risky behaviors such as substance abuse, reckless driving, or binge eating to alleviate these feelings.

Interpersonal relationships are often strained due to the individual's fear of abandonment, intense emotional reactions, and difficulty regulating their emotions. They may experience idealization and devaluation of others, leading to rapid shifts in how they view and treat people close to them.

Diagnosis of BPD is typically made by a mental health professional using criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is published by the American Psychiatric Association. Treatment for BPD may include psychotherapy, medication, and support groups to help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

In the context of medicine and psychology, personality is a complex concept that refers to the unique patterns of thoughts, behaviors, and emotions that define an individual and differentiate them from others. It is the set of characteristics that influence how we perceive the world, how we relate to other people, and how we cope with stress and challenges.

Personality is thought to be relatively stable over time, although it can also evolve and change in response to life experiences and maturation. It is shaped by a combination of genetic factors, environmental influences, and developmental experiences.

There are many different theories and models of personality, including the Five Factor Model (FFM), which identifies five broad domains of personality: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Other approaches to understanding personality include psychoanalytic theory, humanistic psychology, and trait theory.

It's important to note that while the term "personality" is often used in everyday language to describe someone's behavior or demeanor, in medical and psychological contexts it refers to a more complex and multifaceted construct.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder is defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships, as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. The disorder is often characterized by individuals having difficulty with expressing emotions and relating to others. They may also experience unusual perceptions, such as hearing voices or seeing things that aren't there, but these are not as severe as in Schizophrenia. It is important to note that this disorder can cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others, lack of empathy, and manipulative behaviors. It is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as follows:

A. A consistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms and rules, as indicated by the presence of at least three of the following:

1. Failure to conform to social norms and laws, indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.
2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.
3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; indication of this symptom may include promiscuity.
4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.
6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.
7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

B. The individual is at least 18 years of age.

C. There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before the age of 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

E. The individual's criminal behavior has not been better explained by a conduct disorder diagnosis or antisocial behavior that began before the age of 15 years.

It's important to note that ASPD can be challenging to diagnose, and it often requires a comprehensive evaluation from a mental health professional with experience in personality disorders.

A Personality Inventory is a standardized test used in psychology to assess an individual's personality traits and characteristics. It typically consists of a series of multiple-choice questions or statements that the respondent must rate according to their level of agreement or disagreement. The inventory measures various aspects of an individual's behavior, attitudes, and temperament, providing a quantifiable score that can be compared to normative data to help diagnose personality disorders, assess personal strengths and weaknesses, or provide insights into an individual's likely responses to different situations. Examples of well-known personality inventories include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI).

A personality assessment is a systematic process used by healthcare professionals to evaluate and understand an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior. It typically involves the use of standardized measures, such as self-report questionnaires, interviews, and observational techniques, to gather information about an individual's personality traits, attitudes, values, and behaviors.

The goal of a personality assessment is to provide a comprehensive and integrated understanding of an individual's unique personality style, including their strengths, weaknesses, and potential vulnerabilities. This information can be useful in a variety of contexts, including clinical treatment planning, vocational counseling, and forensic evaluation.

It is important to note that personality assessments should always be conducted by qualified professionals with appropriate training and expertise in the use of these measures. Additionally, while personality assessments can provide valuable insights into an individual's personality style, they are not infallible and should always be considered alongside other sources of information when making important decisions about treatment or management.

Compulsive Personality Disorder (CPD) is a mental health condition characterized by an obsessive need for order, control, and perfection, which can interfere with the individual's ability to function in daily life. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), classifies CPD as a type of personality disorder.

The following are some of the diagnostic criteria for Compulsive Personality Disorder:

1. Rigid adherence to rules, regulations, and schedules.
2. Overconscientiousness, preoccupation with details, and perfectionism that interferes with task completion.
3. Excessive devotion to work and productivity at the expense of leisure activities and friendships.
4. Unwillingness to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly the individual's way of doing things.
5. Rigidity and stubbornness.
6. Inability to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value.
7. Reluctance to take vacations or engage in leisure activities due to a fear of something unexpected happening that would disrupt the individual's routine.
8. Overly restrained and inhibited in expressing emotions and affection towards others.

Individuals with CPD may experience significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning due to their rigid and inflexible behavior. Treatment typically involves psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which can help individuals learn more adaptive ways of thinking and behaving. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to manage symptoms of anxiety or depression that often co-occur with CPD.

Personality tests are psychological assessments used to measure an individual's personality traits, characteristics, and behaviors. These tests are designed to evaluate various aspects of an individual's personality, such as their temperament, interpersonal style, emotional stability, motivation, values, and preferences. The results of these tests can help healthcare professionals, researchers, and organizations better understand a person's behavior, predict their performance in different settings, and identify potential strengths and weaknesses.

There are several types of personality tests, including self-report measures, projective tests, and objective tests. Self-report measures, such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) or the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), ask individuals to rate themselves on a series of statements or questions about their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Projective tests, like the Rorschach Inkblot Test or the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), present ambiguous stimuli that respondents must interpret, revealing unconscious thoughts, feelings, and motivations. Objective tests, such as the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) or the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), use a standardized set of questions to assess specific personality traits and characteristics.

It is important to note that while personality tests can provide valuable insights into an individual's behavior, they should not be used as the sole basis for making important decisions about a person's life, such as employment or mental health treatment. Instead, these tests should be considered one piece of a comprehensive assessment that includes other sources of information, such as interviews, observations, and collateral reports.

Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a persistent pattern of distrust and suspicion, such that others' intentions are interpreted as malevolent. This disorder is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions.

To be diagnosed with PPD, an individual must display at least four of the following symptoms:

1. Suspects, without sufficient reason, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving them.
2. Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates.
3. Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against them.
4. Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events.
5. Persistently bears grudges, i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights.
6. Perceives attacks on their character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack.
7. Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner.

These symptoms must be present for a significant period, typically at least one year, and must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Additionally, the symptoms cannot be better explained by another mental disorder, such as Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder with Psychotic Features, or Substance/Medication-Induced Psychotic Disorder.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

Schizoid Personality Disorder is defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) as a long-standing pattern of detachment from social relationships, a reduced capacity for emotional expression, and an unusual degree of introversion. This disorder is characterized by:

1. A lack of desire for close relationships,
2. Difficulty expressing emotions and finding enjoyment in most activities,
3. Limited range of emotional expression,
4. Inattention to social norms and conventions,
5. Preference for being alone,
6. Indifference to praise or criticism from others.

These symptoms must be stable and of long duration, typically present for at least a year. The individual's lifestyle, attitudes, and behavior are often seen as eccentric and distant by others. It is important to note that this disorder is different from Schizophrenia and does not include psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions.

Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) is a mental health condition in which an individual has an extreme fear of being abandoned or rejected, leading them to rely excessively on others for support and decision-making. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), to be diagnosed with DPD, an individual must exhibit at least five of the following symptoms:

1. Difficulty making everyday decisions without excessive advice and reassurance from others.
2. Need for others to assume responsibility for most major areas of their life.
3. Has difficulty expressing disagreement with others due to fear of loss of support or approval.
4. Has difficulty initiating projects or doing things on their own due to a lack of self-confidence in judgment or abilities.
5. Goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others, including volunteering to do things that are not enjoyable.
6. Feels uncomfortable or helpless when alone because of exaggerated fears of being unable to care for themselves.
7. Urgently seeks another relationship as a source of care and support when a close relationship ends.
8. Is unrealistically preoccupied with fears of being left to take care of themselves.

These symptoms must be present for an extended period, typically lasting for at least two years or more, and cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. Additionally, the symptoms cannot be better explained by another mental health condition, such as bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder.

It is important to note that seeking help from a mental health professional is essential for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan if you suspect you may have DPD.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD) is a mental health condition, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association.

It's characterized by a pattern of excessive emotionality and attention-seeking behavior, beginning in early adulthood and present in various contexts. Individuals with HPD may exhibit rapidly shifting and exaggerated emotions, seductive or provocative behavior, and an excessive need for approval. They may also be uncomfortable when not the center of attention.

Please note that only a qualified healthcare professional can diagnose mental health conditions. If you or someone else has symptoms of Histrionic Personality Disorder, it's important to seek professional help.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder is not listed as a separate disorder. Instead, its criteria have been incorporated into a new category called "Emotional Dysregulation Disorder" in the upcoming ICD-11.

However, in previous versions of the DSM (DSM-IV-TR), Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder was defined as:

A pervasive pattern of negativistic attitudes and passive resistance to demands for performance at work, home, or in other contexts, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. The individual's passivity and apparent lack of motivation may mask underlying anger and resentment, which are expressed indirectly through such methods as stubbornness, procrastination, sullenness, or intentional inefficiency.

This disorder is characterized by at least five of the following:

1. Passively resists fulfilling routine social, occupational, or domestic responsibilities.
2. Complains of being misunderstood and unappreciated by others.
3. Is sullen and argumentative.
4. Unreasonably criticizes and scorns authority, openly and privately.
5. Expresses resentments indirectly rather than confronting others directly.
6. Neurotically calm and compliant on the surface, but covertly angry and rebellious.
7. Frequently becomes sulky or stubborn in response to minor slights or frustrations.

Please note that this definition is based on the DSM-IV-TR and may not be applicable in current clinical settings. Always consult with a mental health professional for accurate information.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

A psychological interview is a clinical assessment tool used by mental health professionals to gather information about a person's cognitive, emotional, and behavioral status. It is a structured or unstructured conversation between the clinician and the client aimed at understanding the client's symptoms, concerns, personal history, current life situation, and any other relevant factors that contribute to their psychological state.

The interview may cover various topics such as the individual's mental health history, family background, social relationships, education, occupation, coping mechanisms, and substance use. The clinician will also assess the person's cognitive abilities, emotional expression, thought processes, and behavior during the interview to help form a diagnosis or treatment plan.

The psychological interview is an essential component of a comprehensive mental health evaluation, as it provides valuable insights into the individual's subjective experiences and helps establish a therapeutic relationship between the clinician and the client. It can be conducted in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, or community centers.

Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, a lack of empathy for others, a need for excessive admiration, and feelings of entitlement. It's named after the Greek mythological figure Narcissus, who fell in love with his own reflection.

In clinical psychology, narcissism is often used to describe a personality disorder, known as Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), which is characterized by these traits in a pervasive and persistent manner that interferes significantly with an individual's social relationships and functioning. However, it's important to note that narcissism exists on a spectrum, and while some people may have traits of narcissism, they do not necessarily meet the criteria for NPD.

Remember, only a qualified mental health professional can diagnose a personality disorder.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "personality development" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a concept that is more commonly found in psychology and personal growth contexts. In those fields, personality development refers to the process by which a person's character, behaviors, thoughts, and patterns of emotion are formed, structured, and changed throughout their life. This process can be influenced by genetic factors, environmental influences, and individual experiences. If you have any questions related to mental health or psychology, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), neurotic disorders are not a recognized category. However, the term "neurosis" has been used historically in psychiatry and psychology to refer to a group of mental disorders characterized by anxiety, obsessions, depressive moods, phobias, or hypochondriacal fears. These symptoms are often considered to be the result of internal conflicts, typically related to stress, frustration, or interpersonal difficulties.

The DSM-5 has replaced the category of neurotic disorders with several specific mental disorders that were previously classified under this heading. These include:

1. Anxiety Disorders (e.g., panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder)
2. Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder)
3. Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, adjustment disorders)
4. Mood Disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder)
5. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders (e.g., illness anxiety disorder, conversion disorder)

These specific disorders are defined by their own unique diagnostic criteria and should be evaluated based on those guidelines.

Impulsive behavior can be defined medically as actions performed without proper thought or consideration of the consequences, driven by immediate needs, desires, or urges. It often involves risky or inappropriate behaviors that may lead to negative outcomes. In a clinical context, impulsivity is frequently associated with certain mental health conditions such as ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and some neurological conditions. It's important to note that everyone can exhibit impulsive behavior at times, but when it becomes a persistent pattern causing distress or functional impairment, it may indicate an underlying condition requiring professional assessment and treatment.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) refers to the intentional, direct injuring of one's own body without suicidal intentions. It is often repetitive and can take various forms such as cutting, burning, scratching, hitting, or bruising the skin. In some cases, individuals may also ingest harmful substances or objects.

SIB is not a mental disorder itself, but it is often associated with various psychiatric conditions, including borderline personality disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and eating disorders. It is also common in individuals with developmental disabilities, such as autism spectrum disorder.

The function of SIB can vary widely among individuals, but it often serves as a coping mechanism to deal with emotional distress, negative feelings, or traumatic experiences. It's essential to approach individuals who engage in SIB with compassion and understanding, focusing on treating the underlying causes rather than solely addressing the behavior itself. Professional mental health treatment and therapy can help individuals develop healthier coping strategies and improve their quality of life.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

In medical terms, "character" is not a term that has a specific or technical definition. It is a common English word that can have various meanings depending on the context in which it is used. In general, "character" refers to the personality traits, behaviors, and qualities that define an individual. However, in a medical or clinical setting, healthcare professionals may use the term "character" to describe certain aspects of a patient's symptoms, such as the quality, intensity, or duration of a particular symptom. For example, a patient's pain might be described as sharp, stabbing, or dull in character.

It is important to note that while healthcare professionals may use the term "character" to describe certain aspects of a patient's symptoms or condition, it is not a medical diagnosis or a specific medical term with a standardized definition.

A criminal is an individual who has been found guilty of committing a crime or offense, as defined by law. Crimes can range from minor infractions to serious felonies and can include acts such as theft, fraud, assault, homicide, and many others. The legal system determines whether someone is a criminal through a formal process that includes investigation, arrest, charging, trial, and sentencing. It's important to note that being accused of a crime does not automatically make someone a criminal; they are only considered a criminal after they have been found guilty in a court of law.

In the context of medicine and psychology, "temperament" refers to a person's natural disposition or character, which is often thought to be inherited and relatively stable throughout their life. It is the foundation on which personality develops, and it influences how individuals react to their environment, handle emotions, and approach various situations.

Temperament is composed of several traits, including:

1. Activity level: The degree of physical and mental energy a person exhibits.
2. Emotional intensity: The depth or strength of emotional responses.
3. Regularity: The consistency in biological functions like sleep, hunger, and elimination.
4. Approach/withdrawal: The tendency to approach or avoid new situations or people.
5. Adaptability: The ease with which a person adapts to changes in their environment.
6. Mood: The general emotional tone or baseline mood of an individual.
7. Persistence: The ability to maintain focus and effort on a task despite challenges or distractions.
8. Distractibility: The susceptibility to being diverted from a task by external stimuli.
9. Sensitivity: The degree of responsiveness to sensory input, such as touch, taste, sound, and light.
10. Attention span: The length of time a person can concentrate on a single task or activity.

These traits combine to create an individual's unique temperamental profile, which can influence their mental and physical health, social relationships, and overall well-being. Understanding temperament can help healthcare professionals tailor interventions and treatments to meet the specific needs of each patient.

Forensic psychiatry is a subspecialty of psychiatry that intersects with the law. It involves providing psychiatric expertise to legal systems and institutions. Forensic psychiatrists conduct evaluations, provide treatment, and offer expert testimony in criminal, civil, and legislative matters. They assess issues such as competency to stand trial, insanity, risk assessment, and testamentary capacity. Additionally, they may be involved in the treatment of offenders in correctional settings and providing consultation on mental health policies and laws. Forensic psychiatry requires a thorough understanding of both psychiatric and legal principles, as well as the ability to communicate complex psychiatric concepts to legal professionals and laypersons alike.

Psychotherapy is a type of treatment used primarily to treat mental health disorders and other emotional or behavioral issues. It involves a therapeutic relationship between a trained psychotherapist and a patient, where they work together to understand the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, identify patterns that may be causing distress, and develop strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall well-being.

There are many different approaches to psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and others. The specific approach used will depend on the individual patient's needs and preferences, as well as the training and expertise of the therapist.

Psychotherapy can be conducted in individual, group, or family sessions, and may be provided in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, or online platforms. The goal of psychotherapy is to help patients understand themselves better, develop coping skills, improve their relationships, and enhance their overall quality of life.

Aggression is defined in medical terms as behavior that is intended to cause harm or damage to another individual or their property. It can take the form of verbal or physical actions and can be a symptom of various mental health disorders, such as intermittent explosive disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and dementia. Aggression can also be a side effect of certain medications or a result of substance abuse. It is important to note that aggression can have serious consequences, including physical injury, emotional trauma, and legal repercussions. If you or someone you know is experiencing problems with aggression, it is recommended to seek help from a mental health professional.

Psychological models are theoretical frameworks used in psychology to explain and predict mental processes and behaviors. They are simplified representations of complex phenomena, consisting of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses that describe how various factors interact to produce specific outcomes. These models can be quantitative (e.g., mathematical equations) or qualitative (e.g., conceptual diagrams) in nature and may draw upon empirical data, theoretical insights, or both.

Psychological models serve several purposes:

1. They provide a systematic and organized way to understand and describe psychological phenomena.
2. They generate hypotheses and predictions that can be tested through empirical research.
3. They integrate findings from different studies and help synthesize knowledge across various domains of psychology.
4. They inform the development of interventions and treatments for mental health disorders.

Examples of psychological models include:

1. The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, which posits that individual differences in personality can be described along five broad dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
2. The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model, which suggests that maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected and can be changed through targeted interventions.
3. The Dual Process Theory of Attitudes, which proposes that attitudes are formed and influenced by two distinct processes: a rapid, intuitive process (heuristic) and a slower, deliberative process (systematic).
4. The Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations in shaping behavior.
5. The Attachment Theory, which describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans, particularly the parent-child relationship.

It is important to note that psychological models are provisional and subject to revision or replacement as new evidence emerges. They should be considered as useful tools for understanding and explaining psychological phenomena rather than definitive truths.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) are a group of psychiatric conditions characterized by the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to oneself or others. This leads to negative consequences such as distress, anxiety, or disruption in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) recognizes several specific ICDs, including:

1. Kleptomania - the recurrent failure to resist impulses to steal items, even though they are not needed for personal use or financial gain.
2. Pyromania - the deliberate and purposeful fire-setting on more than one occasion.
3. Intermittent Explosive Disorder - recurrent behavioral outbursts representing a failure to control aggressive impulses, resulting in serious assaultive acts or destruction of property.
4. Pathological Gambling - persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior that disrupts personal, family, or vocational pursuits.
5. Internet Gaming Disorder - the excessive and prolonged use of the internet for gaming, which leads to clinically significant impairment or distress.

These disorders are typically associated with a range of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms that can vary depending on the specific disorder and individual presentation. Treatment often involves a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and self-help strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall functioning.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "An attempted suicide is a non-fatal self-directed, potentially injurious behavior with intent to die as a result of the behavior. It's a clear expression of intention to die."

It's important to note that anyone who has attempted suicide requires immediate professional medical attention and support. They should be assessed for their level of suicidal ideation and any underlying mental health conditions, and provided with appropriate care and treatment. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of suicide, please reach out to a healthcare provider or a trusted mental health professional immediately.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental health disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are intrusive, unwanted, and often distressing. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rigid rules, and which are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation. These obsessions and/or compulsions cause significant distress, take up a lot of time (an hour or more a day), and interfere with the individual's daily life, including social activities, relationships, and work or school performance. OCD is considered a type of anxiety disorder and can also co-occur with other mental health conditions.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

'Schizophrenic language' is not a formal medical term, but the concept refers to the unusual and often disturbed patterns of speech that can be observed in individuals with schizophrenia. These language abnormalities are considered one of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and can include:

1. **Word Salad (Incoherent Speech)**: This is when a person's speech becomes disorganized, fragmented, and lacks logical or understandable connections between words, phrases, or sentences. It may seem like the individual is randomly stringing together words without any clear meaning.

2. **Neologisms (Made-Up Words)**: These are new words or phrases that have been invented by the individual. They may be understandable only to the person using them.

3. **Tangentiality (Straying Off Topic)**: This is when a person's responses are indirect and unrelated to the topic being discussed, although they may start off on topic. The speaker may stray further and further from the original point until they are no longer discussing it at all.

4. **Perseveration (Persistent Repetition)**: This is when a person repeats certain words, phrases, or ideas over and over again, even when they are not relevant to the conversation.

5. **Illogical Thinking/Conclusions**: A person's thoughts may not follow a logical sequence, leading to illogical conclusions or statements that do not make sense in the context of the conversation.

6. **Thought Disorder**: This is a broader term that includes various disturbances in thinking and thought processes, which can then manifest as abnormalities in speech.

It's important to note that these symptoms can vary widely from person to person, and not everyone with schizophrenia will experience all of them. Furthermore, these symptoms should be evaluated and diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, serious accident, war combat, rape, or violent personal assault. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), PTSD is characterized by the following symptoms, which must last for more than one month:

1. Intrusion symptoms: These include distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress or reactivity to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
2. Avoidance symptoms: Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, including thoughts, feelings, conversations, activities, places, or people.
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world; distorted blame of self or others for causing the trauma; persistent negative emotional state; decreased interest in significant activities; and feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity: This includes irritable behavior and angry outbursts, reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems with concentration, and sleep disturbance.
5. Duration of symptoms: The symptoms must last for more than one month.
6. Functional significance: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is essential to note that PTSD can occur at any age and can be accompanied by various physical and mental health problems, such as depression, substance abuse, memory problems, and other difficulties in cognition. Appropriate treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, can significantly improve the symptoms and overall quality of life for individuals with PTSD.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

In psychology, the term "ego" is used to describe a part of the personality that deals with the conscious mind and includes the senses of self and reality. It is one of the three components of Freud's structural model of the psyche, along with the id and the superego. The ego serves as the mediator between the unconscious desires of the id and the demands of the real world, helping to shape behavior that is socially acceptable and adaptive.

It's important to note that this definition of "ego" is specific to the field of psychology and should not be confused with other uses of the term in different contexts, such as its use in popular culture to refer to an inflated sense of self-importance or self-centeredness.

Psychopathology is a branch of psychology and medicine that involves the study and classification of mental disorders, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. It is an interdisciplinary field that draws on various methods and perspectives from psychology, neuroscience, genetics, sociology, and other related disciplines to understand and explain abnormal behavior and mental processes.

The term "psychopathology" can also refer specifically to the presence of a mental disorder or to the symptoms and features of a particular mental disorder. For example, one might say that someone has a psychopathology or that they exhibit certain psychopathological symptoms.

Psychopathology is often contrasted with normal psychology, which focuses on understanding and explaining typical behavior and mental processes. However, it is important to note that the boundary between normal and abnormal behavior is not always clear-cut, and many psychological phenomena exist on a continuum rather than falling neatly into one category or the other.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

While "Type A Personality" is commonly used in everyday language, it's important to note that it's not a term used in clinical medicine or psychology for official diagnosis. However, it does have a history in psychological research. The term was initially introduced by cardiologists Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman in the 1950s to describe a personality pattern associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease.

Type A Personality is often characterized by:

1. High level of competitiveness and ambition.
2. A sense of urgency and impatience, often feeling pressed for time.
3. Easily becoming frustrated or angry in traffic or in long lines.
4. Multitasking and doing many things at once.
5. Being highly organized and concerned with time management.

However, it's crucial to remember that these traits exist on a spectrum, and having some of these characteristics doesn't necessarily mean someone has a 'Type A Personality'. Also, the correlation between this personality pattern and coronary heart disease has been a subject of ongoing debate in recent years.

The MMPI, or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, is a psychological assessment tool that is widely used in clinical and research settings to help evaluate an individual's personality, emotional state, and behavior. It consists of a series of true-false questions that are designed to measure various aspects of an individual's psychological functioning, including their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

The MMPI was first developed in the 1930s and has undergone several revisions over the years. The current version, the MMPI-2, consists of 567 items and takes approximately 60-90 minutes to complete. The test is typically administered by a trained professional, such as a psychologist or counselor, who uses the results to help diagnose mental health conditions, develop treatment plans, and make recommendations about an individual's care.

It is important to note that while the MMPI can be a useful tool in assessing psychological functioning, it should not be used as the sole basis for making diagnostic or treatment decisions. It is typically used in conjunction with other assessment methods, such as clinical interviews and other tests, to provide a comprehensive picture of an individual's psychological state.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Social adjustment, in the context of mental health and psychology, refers to an individual's ability to adapt and function effectively within their social environment. It involves developing and maintaining positive relationships with others, fulfilling various social roles (such as being a family member, friend, or employee), and meeting the expectations and demands of one's social group.

Social adjustment can be affected by various factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, mental and physical health status, and life experiences. Poor social adjustment can lead to feelings of isolation, loneliness, and dissatisfaction with life, as well as increased risk for mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.

Assessing social adjustment is an important aspect of mental health care, as it can provide valuable insights into an individual's overall functioning and quality of life. Treatments such as psychotherapy and social skills training may be used to help improve social adjustment in individuals who are struggling in this area.

Affective symptoms refer to emotional or mood-related disturbances that can occur in various medical and psychological conditions. These symptoms may include:

1. Depression: feelings of sadness, hopelessness, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide.
2. Anxiety: excessive worry, fear, or nervousness, often accompanied by physical symptoms such as a rapid heartbeat, sweating, and trembling.
3. Irritability: easily annoyed or agitated, often leading to outbursts of anger or frustration.
4. Mania or hypomania: abnormally elevated mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive or risky behavior.
5. Apathy: lack of interest, motivation, or emotion, often leading to social withdrawal and decreased activity levels.
6. Mood lability: rapid and unpredictable shifts in mood, ranging from extreme happiness to sadness, anger, or anxiety.

Affective symptoms can significantly impact a person's quality of life and ability to function in daily activities. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, stress, trauma, and medical conditions. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing affective symptoms and improving overall well-being.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Dissociative disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by disruptions or dysfunctions in memory, consciousness, identity, or perception. These disturbances can be sudden or ongoing and can interfere significantly with a person's ability to function in daily life. The main types of dissociative disorders include:

1. Dissociative Amnesia: This disorder is characterized by an inability to recall important personal information, usually due to trauma or stress.
2. Dissociative Identity Disorder (formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder): In this disorder, a person exhibits two or more distinct identities or personalities that recurrently take control of their behavior.
3. Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder: This disorder involves persistent or recurring feelings of detachment from one's self (depersonalization) or the environment (derealization).
4. Other Specified Dissociative Disorder and Unspecified Dissociative Disorder: These categories are used for disorders that do not meet the criteria for any of the specific dissociative disorders but still cause significant distress or impairment.

Dissociative disorders often develop as a way to cope with trauma, stress, or other overwhelming life experiences. Treatment typically involves psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), as well as medication for co-occurring conditions such as anxiety or depression.

A phobic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an excessive and irrational fear or avoidance of specific objects, situations, or activities. This fear can cause significant distress and interfere with a person's daily life. Phobic disorders are typically classified into three main categories: specific phobias (such as fear of heights, spiders, or needles), social phobia (or social anxiety disorder), and agoraphobia (fear of open spaces or situations where escape might be difficult).

People with phobic disorders often recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, but they are unable to control it. When exposed to the feared object or situation, they may experience symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, sweating, trembling, and difficulty breathing. These symptoms can be so distressing that individuals with phobic disorders go to great lengths to avoid the feared situation, which can have a significant impact on their quality of life.

Treatment for phobic disorders typically involves cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps individuals identify and challenge their irrational thoughts and fears, as well as exposure therapy, which gradually exposes them to the feared object or situation in a safe and controlled environment. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to help manage symptoms of anxiety.

Conduct Disorder is a mental health disorder that typically begins in childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a repetitive pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. The behaviors fall into four main categories: aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

The specific symptoms of Conduct Disorder can vary widely among individuals, but they generally include:

1. Aggression to people and animals: This may include physical fights, bullying, threatening others, cruelty to animals, and use of weapons.
2. Destruction of property: This may include deliberate destruction of others' property, arson, and vandalism.
3. Deceitfulness or theft: This may include lying, shoplifting, stealing, and breaking into homes, buildings, or cars.
4. Serious violation of rules: This may include running away from home, truancy, staying out late without permission, and frequent violations of school rules.

Conduct Disorder can have serious consequences for individuals who suffer from it, including academic failure, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. It is important to note that Conduct Disorder should be diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional based on a comprehensive evaluation.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

Factor analysis is a statistical technique used to identify patterns or structures in a dataset by explaining the correlations between variables. It is a method of simplifying complex data by reducing it to a smaller set of underlying factors that can explain most of the variation in the data. In other words, factor analysis is a way to uncover hidden relationships between multiple variables and group them into meaningful categories or factors.

In factor analysis, each variable is represented as a linear combination of underlying factors, where the factors are unobserved variables that cannot be directly measured but can only be inferred from the observed data. The goal is to identify these underlying factors and determine their relationships with the observed variables. This technique is commonly used in various fields such as psychology, social sciences, marketing, and biomedical research to explore complex datasets and gain insights into the underlying structure of the data.

There are two main types of factor analysis: exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). EFA is used when there is no prior knowledge about the underlying factors, and the goal is to discover the potential structure in the data. CFA, on the other hand, is used when there is a theoretical framework or hypothesis about the underlying factors, and the goal is to test whether the observed data support this framework or hypothesis.

In summary, factor analysis is a statistical method for reducing complex datasets into simpler components called factors, which can help researchers identify patterns, structures, and relationships in the data.

In medical and psychological terms, "affect" refers to a person's emotional or expressive state, mood, or dispositions that are outwardly manifested in their behavior, facial expressions, demeanor, or speech. Affect can be described as being congruent or incongruent with an individual's thoughts and experiences.

There are different types of affect, including:

1. Neutral affect: When a person shows no apparent emotion or displays minimal emotional expressiveness.
2. Positive affect: When a person exhibits positive emotions such as happiness, excitement, or enthusiasm.
3. Negative affect: When a person experiences and displays negative emotions like sadness, anger, or fear.
4. Blunted affect: When a person's emotional response is noticeably reduced or diminished, often observed in individuals with certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia.
5. Flat affect: When a person has an almost complete absence of emotional expressiveness, which can be indicative of severe depression or other mental health disorders.
6. Labile affect: When a person's emotional state fluctuates rapidly and frequently between positive and negative emotions, often observed in individuals with certain neurological conditions or mood disorders.

Clinicians may assess a patient's affect during an interview or examination to help diagnose mental health conditions, evaluate treatment progress, or monitor overall well-being.

Psychoanalytic therapy, also known as psychoanalysis, is a type of in-depth talk therapy that aims to bring unconscious motivations and internal conflicts into conscious awareness. It was developed by Sigmund Freud and is based on the theory that people's behavior and feelings are strongly affected by unconscious motives.

The therapy involves regular, often frequent, sessions with a psychoanalyst. The patient is encouraged to talk freely about whatever comes to mind, including dreams, fantasies, and free associations. The analyst listens carefully and interprets the underlying meanings and patterns in the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.

The goal of psychoanalytic therapy is to help the patient understand and resolve their internal conflicts, which are often rooted in early childhood experiences. This can lead to improved mental health, better relationships, and increased self-awareness. It's important to note that this type of therapy requires a significant time commitment and can be emotionally challenging.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with hyperactivity is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. The condition is characterized by symptoms including:

1. Difficulty paying attention or staying focused on a single task
2. Impulsivity, or acting without thinking
3. Hyperactivity, or excessive fidgeting, restlessness, or talking

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD with hyperactivity, an individual must exhibit these symptoms to a degree that is developmentally inappropriate and interferes with their daily functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must have been present for at least six months and be present in multiple settings (e.g., at home, school, work).

It's important to note that ADHD can manifest differently in different people, and some individuals may experience predominantly inattentive or impulsive symptoms rather than hyperactive ones. However, when the hyperactive component is prominent, it is referred to as ADHD with hyperactivity.

Effective treatments for ADHD with hyperactivity include a combination of medication (such as stimulants) and behavioral therapy. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead successful, fulfilling lives.

Child abuse is a broad term that refers to any form of physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment or neglect that causes harm to a child's health, development, or dignity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), child abuse includes:

1. Physical abuse: Non-accidental injuries caused by hitting, kicking, shaking, burning, or otherwise harming a child's body.
2. Sexual abuse: Any sexual activity involving a child, such as touching or non-touching behaviors, exploitation, or exposure to pornographic material.
3. Emotional abuse: Behaviors that harm a child's emotional well-being and self-esteem, such as constant criticism, humiliation, threats, or rejection.
4. Neglect: Failure to provide for a child's basic needs, including food, clothing, shelter, medical care, education, and emotional support.

Child abuse can have serious short-term and long-term consequences for the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of children. It is a violation of their fundamental human rights and a public health concern that requires prevention, early detection, and intervention.

Type D personality is not a medical diagnosis, but a personality type that has been linked to an increased risk of certain health problems. The "D" in Type D stands for "distressed," which refers to the negative emotionality component of this personality type. People with a Type D personality tend to experience negative emotions across time and situations, and they often have a difficult time expressing those feelings to others. They also tend to be socially inhibited, meaning they are less likely to form close relationships or seek social support even when they need it.

Research has suggested that people with Type D personalities may be at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, depression, and other health problems. However, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between this personality type and health outcomes. It's important to note that having a Type D personality doesn't mean that someone will definitely develop health problems, but it may be a risk factor to consider in overall health and well-being.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Social behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to the ways in which individuals interact and engage with others within their social environment. It involves various actions, communications, and responses that are influenced by cultural norms, personal values, emotional states, and cognitive processes. These behaviors can include but are not limited to communication, cooperation, competition, empathy, altruism, aggression, and conformity.

Abnormalities in social behavior may indicate underlying mental health conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, or personality disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing social behavior is an essential aspect of diagnosing and treating various psychological and psychiatric conditions.

In a medical or psychological context, hostility typically refers to a negative and antagonistic attitude or behavior towards others. It can manifest as overt actions such as aggression, verbal abuse, or anger, or as covert attitudes such as cynicism, mistrust, or resentment. Hostility is often considered a component of certain mental health conditions, such as personality disorders or mood disorders, and has been linked to negative health outcomes like cardiovascular disease. However, it's important to note that hostility can also be a normal and adaptive response to certain situations, depending on the context.

Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. It is a form of talk therapy where the therapist and the patient work together to identify and change negative or distorted thinking patterns and beliefs, with the goal of improving emotional response and behavior.

Cognitive Therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interconnected, and that negative or inaccurate thoughts can contribute to problems like anxiety and depression. By identifying and challenging these thoughts, patients can learn to think more realistically and positively, which can lead to improvements in their mood and behavior.

In cognitive therapy sessions, the therapist will help the patient identify negative thought patterns and replace them with healthier, more accurate ways of thinking. The therapist may also assign homework or exercises for the patient to practice between sessions, such as keeping a thought record or challenging negative thoughts.

Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a wide range of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is often used in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication, and can be delivered individually or in group settings.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Personal Construct Theory (PCT) is not a medical term per se, but rather a psychological theory developed by George Kelly in the 1950s. It is a theory of personality and psychotherapy that emphasizes an individual's unique way of construing or making sense of their experiences. According to PCT, people are active scientists who constantly test their assumptions about the world through their personal construct systems.

In medical settings, PCT may be used as a framework for understanding patients' perspectives and beliefs about their illnesses and treatments. This can help healthcare professionals tailor interventions to individual patients' needs and improve communication and collaboration between patients and healthcare providers. However, it is important to note that PCT is not a widely recognized or established medical concept, but rather a psychological theory that has been applied in various fields, including healthcare.

I apologize for any confusion, but "prisoners" is not a medical term. It generally refers to individuals who are deprived of their personal freedom and are being held in a prison or jail as a result of being convicted of a crime or while awaiting trial. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I would be happy to help!

Dysthymic disorder, also known as persistent depressive disorder, is a chronic type of depression where a person's moods are regularly low. It is characterized by depressed mood that occurs for most of the day, for at least two years, and is accompanied by at least two other symptoms such as appetite or sleep changes, low energy, low self-esteem, difficulty making decisions, or feelings of hopelessness.

To meet the diagnostic criteria, the symptoms cannot be explained by substance abuse or a medical condition, and they must cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Dysthymic disorder typically has a chronic course, but it may respond to treatment, including psychotherapy and medication.

Life change events refer to significant changes or transitions in an individual's personal circumstances that may have an impact on their health and well-being. These events can include things like:

* Marriage or divorce
* Birth of a child or loss of a loved one
* Job loss or retirement
* Moving to a new home or city
* Changes in financial status
* Health diagnoses or serious illnesses
* Starting or ending of a significant relationship

Research has shown that life change events can have a profound effect on an individual's stress levels, mental health, and physical health. Some life change events may be positive and exciting, while others may be challenging and difficult to cope with. In either case, it is important for individuals to take care of themselves during times of transition and seek support as needed.

A "self-report" in a medical context refers to the information or data provided by an individual about their own symptoms, experiences, behaviors, or health status. This can be collected through various methods such as questionnaires, surveys, interviews, or diaries. Self-reports are commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess various aspects of health, including physical and mental health symptoms, quality of life, treatment adherence, and substance use.

While self-reports can be a valuable source of information, they may also be subject to biases such as recall bias, social desirability bias, or response distortion. Therefore, it is important to consider the potential limitations and validity of self-reported data in interpreting the results. In some cases, self-reports may be supplemented with other sources of information, such as medical records, physiological measures, or observer ratings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "object attachment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the way that a term like "myocardial infarction" (heart attack) or "major depressive disorder" does. It may be used in various ways in different contexts, such as in psychology or psychiatry to describe a phenomenon where an individual becomes excessively attached to an object or items, but it is not a widely recognized or standardized term in medical terminology. If you are referring to a specific concept or diagnosis and could provide more context, I would be happy to help further!

I must clarify that there is no such thing as "Schizophrenic Psychology." The term schizophrenia is used to describe a specific and serious mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It's important not to use the term casually or inaccurately, as it can perpetuate stigma and misunderstanding about the condition.

Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren't there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based on reality), disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. These symptoms can impair a person's ability to function in daily life, maintain relationships, and experience emotions appropriately.

If you have any questions related to mental health conditions or psychology, I would be happy to provide accurate information and definitions.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

'Diseases in Twins' is a field of study that focuses on the similarities and differences in the occurrence, development, and outcomes of diseases among twins. This research can provide valuable insights into the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to various medical conditions.

Twins can be classified into two types: monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins share 100% of their genes, while dizygotic twins share about 50%, similar to non-twin siblings. By comparing the concordance rates (the likelihood of both twins having the same disease) between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, researchers can estimate the heritability of a particular disease.

Studying diseases in twins also helps understand the role of environmental factors. When both twins develop the same disease, but they are discordant for certain risk factors (e.g., one twin smokes and the other does not), it suggests that the disease may have a stronger genetic component. On the other hand, when both twins share similar risk factors and develop the disease, it implies that environmental factors play a significant role.

Diseases in Twins research has contributed to our understanding of various medical conditions, including infectious diseases, cancer, mental health disorders, and developmental disorders. This knowledge can lead to better prevention strategies, early detection methods, and more targeted treatments for these diseases.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "crime" is typically not used in a medical context. A crime is a violation of laws or regulations established by a government and enforced by its authorities. It's a legal concept, not a medical one. However, there are some overlaps between criminal behavior and mental health, as certain mental health conditions may increase the risk of criminal behavior. But it's essential to understand that having a mental health condition does not automatically make someone a criminal.

I am not a medical doctor, but I can provide you with some information on this topic. Self-concept is more commonly discussed in psychology than in medicine, but it still has relevance to understanding individual experiences and behaviors in health and illness.

Self-concept refers to an individual's perception, beliefs, and attitudes about themselves, encompassing various dimensions such as:

1. Physical self (how one perceives their physical appearance, abilities, and health)
2. Social self (how one perceives their relationships with others, social roles, and status)
3. Psychological or personal self (how one perceives their personality traits, values, and beliefs)

Self-concept can influence how people view their own health, cope with illness, and engage in health behaviors. For example, a positive self-concept may contribute to better adherence to treatment plans and healthier lifestyle choices, while negative self-concepts might lead to poorer health outcomes due to decreased motivation or self-efficacy.

Understanding an individual's self-concept can help healthcare professionals tailor their communication style, recommendations, and interventions to better meet the patient's needs and preferences.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Psychoanalytic theory is a psychological framework developed primarily by Sigmund Freud and his followers, which seeks to explain psychic phenomena in terms of unconscious mental processes and early childhood experiences. It posits that the human mind is composed of three elements: the id (primitive instincts), ego (rational thought), and superego (moral standards). The theory emphasizes the importance of resolving unconscious conflicts, making the unconscious conscious, and analyzing defense mechanisms in order to alleviate psychological distress and promote mental health. It also includes various concepts such as the Oedipus complex, psychosexual development stages, and transference/countertransference phenomena.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Suicide is defined in the medical field as the intentional taking of one's own life. It is a complex phenomenon with various contributing factors, including psychological, biological, environmental, and sociocultural elements. Suicide is a significant global public health concern that requires comprehensive understanding, prevention, and intervention strategies. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of self-harm or suicide, it's essential to seek help from a mental health professional immediately.

Paranoid behavior is not a medical diagnosis itself, but it can be a symptom of various mental health conditions. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), paranoia is characterized by irrational and excessive mistrust or suspicion of others, often leading to feelings of persecution, grandiosity, jealousy, or hostility. Paranoid behavior may include:

1. Persistent suspiciousness and unjustified belief that others are trying to harm or deceive you.
2. Reading hidden meanings into benign remarks or events, often with a negative connotation.
3. Expecting betrayal or deceit from others, even when there is no reason to do so.
4. Difficulty confiding in or becoming close to others due to fear of being exploited or harmed.
5. Harbouring grudges and being unforgiving towards those perceived as having wronged you.
6. Persistently feeling that you are being mistreated, misunderstood, or taken advantage of.
7. Perceiving attacks on your character or reputation that are not apparent to others.
8. Holding unrealistic beliefs about the loyalty and trustworthiness of others.
9. Being quick to anger or react defensively when feeling criticized or threatened.

Paranoid behavior can be a symptom of various mental health conditions, such as paranoid personality disorder, schizophrenia, delusional disorder, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder with psychotic features. It is essential to consult a mental health professional for an accurate assessment and appropriate treatment if you or someone else experiences these symptoms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Identity Crisis" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the field of medicine or psychology. It is often used in popular culture to describe a situation where a person experiences uncertainty or conflict about their personal identity, purpose, or sense of self. However, this concept is more closely related to the fields of psychology and psychotherapy, rather than medicine.

In psychology, an "identity crisis" might refer to a developmental stage or period in which an individual faces challenges in forming a coherent and integrated sense of self. This may involve questioning one's values, beliefs, goals, or social roles, and can be accompanied by feelings of anxiety, confusion, and disorientation. It's important to note that identity exploration and development are normal and healthy aspects of human growth, and experiencing some degree of uncertainty or doubt during this process is common.

If you or someone else is experiencing significant distress or difficulty in navigating questions about personal identity, it may be helpful to consult a mental health professional for guidance and support. They can provide resources and interventions tailored to the individual's unique needs and circumstances.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), alcohol-related disorders are a category of mental disorders defined by a problematic pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The disorders include:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol use despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. AUD can be mild, moderate, or severe, and recovery is possible regardless of severity. The symptoms include problems controlling intake of alcohol, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky situations, or withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.
2. Alcohol Intoxication: A state of acute impairment in mental and motor function caused by the recent consumption of alcohol. The symptoms include slurred speech, unsteady gait, nystagmus, impaired attention or memory, stupor, or coma. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory depression, hypothermia, or even death.
3. Alcohol Withdrawal: A syndrome that occurs when alcohol use is heavily reduced or stopped after prolonged and heavy use. The symptoms include autonomic hyperactivity, increased hand tremor, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, transient visual, tactile, or auditory hallucinations or illusions, psychomotor agitation, anxiety, and grand mal seizures.
4. Other Alcohol-Induced Disorders: These include alcohol-induced sleep disorder, alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction, and alcohol-induced major neurocognitive disorder.

It is important to note that alcohol use disorders are complex conditions that can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, environment, and personal behavior. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol use, it is recommended to seek professional help.

Criminal psychology is a subfield of psychology that focuses on the study of the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals who commit crimes. It involves understanding the motives, emotions, and cognitive processes underlying criminal behavior in order to help explain why some people engage in illegal activities. Criminal psychologists may also apply their knowledge to assist in the investigation and prevention of crime, such as by providing profiles of unknown offenders or consulting on jail and prison management.

Criminal psychology is a multidisciplinary field that draws upon various areas of psychology, including developmental, social, cognitive, and forensic psychology, as well as other disciplines such as criminology and sociology. It involves the use of scientific methods to study criminal behavior, including observational studies, surveys, experiments, and case studies.

Criminal psychologists may work in a variety of settings, including law enforcement agencies, forensic hospitals, prisons, and academic institutions. They may also provide expert testimony in court cases or consult with attorneys on legal issues related to criminal behavior.

I am not aware of a medical definition for "Internal-External Control." However, the term "locus of control" is commonly used in psychology and medicine to describe an individual's belief about the degree to which they have control over events and outcomes in their life.

Locus of control can be categorized as either internal or external:

* Internal locus of control refers to the belief that one has control over their own life outcomes, and that these outcomes are determined by their own efforts, abilities, and choices.
* External locus of control, on the other hand, refers to the belief that events and outcomes in one's life are controlled by external factors such as luck, chance, or powerful others.

Both internal and external locus of control can have implications for health behaviors and medical outcomes. For example, individuals with an internal locus of control may be more likely to engage in healthy behaviors such as exercise and healthy eating, while those with an external locus of control may be more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as smoking or substance abuse. Similarly, a strong internal locus of control has been associated with better medical outcomes, including improved mental health and reduced symptoms of chronic illness.

There is no formal medical definition for "child of impaired parents." However, it generally refers to a child who has at least one parent with physical, mental, or psychological challenges that impact their ability to care for themselves and/or their children. These impairments may include substance abuse disorders, mental illnesses, chronic medical conditions, or developmental disabilities.

Children of impaired parents often face unique challenges and stressors in their lives, which can affect their emotional, social, and cognitive development. They may have to take on additional responsibilities at home, experience neglect or abuse, or witness disturbing behaviors related to their parent's impairment. As a result, these children are at higher risk for developing mental health issues, behavioral problems, and academic difficulties.

Support services and interventions, such as family therapy, counseling, and community resources, can help mitigate the negative effects of growing up with impaired parents and improve outcomes for these children.

Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), also known as Electrodermal Activity (EDA), is a physiological response that reflects the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. It measures changes in the electrical properties of the skin, which are influenced by the sweat gland activity. GSR is often used as an indicator of emotional arousal or psychological stress in various research and clinical settings.

'Drama' is a term that is more commonly associated with the humanities, particularly literature, theater, and film, rather than medicine. It refers to a type of narrative that explores human emotions, conflicts, and experiences through characters and plot. Drama can be presented in various forms such as plays, movies, or television shows.

There is no medical definition for 'drama' as it is not a term used in the field of medicine. However, in some contexts, drama may refer to emotional distress or turmoil that a person experiences, which could be relevant to mental health and psychology. In such cases, healthcare professionals might use related terms like "psychological distress," "emotional disturbance," or "crisis intervention" to describe the situation more accurately.

The Septum Pellucidum is a thin, delicate, and almost transparent partition in the brain that separates the lateral ventricles, which are fluid-filled spaces within the brain. It consists of two laminae (plates) that fuse together during fetal development, forming a single structure. The Septum Pellucidum is an essential component of the brain's ventricular system and plays a role in maintaining the structural integrity of the brain. Any abnormalities or damage to the Septum Pellucidum can lead to neurological disorders or cognitive impairments.

In medical terms, "outpatients" refers to individuals who receive medical care or treatment at a hospital or clinic without being admitted as inpatients. This means that they do not stay overnight or for an extended period; instead, they visit the healthcare facility for specific services such as consultations, diagnostic tests, treatments, or follow-up appointments and then return home afterward. Outpatient care can include various services like primary care, specialty clinics, dental care, physical therapy, and more. It is often more convenient and cost-effective than inpatient care, as it allows patients to maintain their daily routines while receiving necessary medical attention.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Somatoform disorders are a group of psychological disorders characterized by the presence of physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by a medical condition or substance abuse. These symptoms cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The individual's belief about the symptoms is not consistent with the medical evaluation and often leads to excessive or repeated medical evaluations.

Examples of somatoform disorders include:

1. Somatization disorder: characterized by multiple physical symptoms that cannot be explained medically, affecting several parts of the body.
2. Conversion disorder: characterized by the presence of one or more neurological symptoms (such as blindness, paralysis, or difficulty swallowing) that cannot be explained medically and appear to have a psychological origin.
3. Pain disorder: characterized by chronic pain that is not fully explained by a medical condition.
4. Hypochondriasis: characterized by an excessive preoccupation with having a serious illness, despite reassurance from medical professionals.
5. Body dysmorphic disorder: characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix it.

It's important to note that these disorders are not caused by intentional deceit or malingering, but rather reflect a genuine belief in the presence of physical symptoms and distress related to them.

Violence is not typically defined in medical terms, but it can be described as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation. This definition is often used in public health and medical research to understand the impact of violence on health outcomes.

Obsessive behavior is defined in the medical context as repetitive, persistent, and intrusive thoughts, images, or urges that cause distress or anxiety. These obsessions are not simply excessive worries about real-life problems, but rather they are irrational and uncontrollable. Often, individuals with obsessive behavior attempt to ignore or suppress their obsessions, which can lead to increased distress and anxiety. In some cases, the obsessions may become so overwhelming that they interfere with a person's daily life and ability to function.

Obsessive behavior is a key feature of several mental health conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and hoarding disorder. In these conditions, the obsessions are often accompanied by compulsive behaviors that are performed in an attempt to alleviate the anxiety or distress caused by the obsessions.

It is important to note that everyone experiences unwanted thoughts or urges from time to time. However, when these thoughts become so frequent and distressing that they interfere with a person's daily life, it may be indicative of an underlying mental health condition. In such cases, it is recommended to seek professional help from a qualified mental health provider.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

A psychiatric hospital is a type of medical facility that specializes in the treatment and care of patients with mental illnesses or disorders. These hospitals provide inpatient and outpatient services, including evaluation, diagnosis, and therapy for various psychiatric conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and substance use disorders.

Psychiatric hospitals typically have a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, nurses, and occupational therapists, who work together to provide comprehensive care for patients. The treatment modalities used in psychiatric hospitals may include medication management, individual and group therapy, psychoeducation, and milieu therapy.

Psychiatric hospitals may also offer specialized programs for specific populations, such as children and adolescents, older adults, or individuals with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders. The goal of psychiatric hospitals is to stabilize patients' symptoms, improve their functioning, and help them develop the skills necessary to manage their mental health condition in the community.

Exploratory behavior refers to the actions taken by an individual to investigate and gather information about their environment. This type of behavior is often driven by curiosity and a desire to understand new or unfamiliar situations, objects, or concepts. In a medical context, exploratory behavior may refer to a patient's willingness to learn more about their health condition, try new treatments, or engage in self-care activities. It can also refer to the behaviors exhibited by young children as they explore their world and develop their cognitive and motor skills. Exploratory behavior is an important aspect of learning and development, and it can have a positive impact on overall health and well-being.

Group psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy in which a trained therapist treats a small group of individuals together as a group. The therapy focuses on interpersonal relationships and social interactions among the members of the group. The group becomes a social microcosm for each individual, allowing them to understand and work through their issues in relation to others.

The size of the group typically ranges from 5-12 members, and meetings can be held in various settings such as hospitals, community mental health centers, or private practice offices. The duration of the therapy can vary, ranging from brief, time-limited groups that meet for several weeks to longer-term groups that meet for several months or even years.

Group psychotherapy can be used to treat a wide range of psychological issues, including depression, anxiety, personality disorders, trauma, and relational difficulties. The therapist facilitates the group process by creating a safe and supportive environment where members can share their thoughts, feelings, and experiences with one another. Through this process, members can gain insights into their own behavior, develop new social skills, and improve their relationships with others.

The "commitment of the mentally ill" refers to a legal process where a person who is deemed to have a mental illness and poses a danger to themselves or others is involuntarily placed in a psychiatric hospital or treatment facility for their own safety and well-being. The specific criteria and procedures for commitment vary by jurisdiction, but generally require a formal evaluation and court order.

The purpose of commitment is to provide intensive treatment and supervision for individuals who are unable to make informed decisions about their own care due to the severity of their mental illness. This legal process is designed to balance the need to protect the individual's civil liberties with the need to ensure public safety and provide necessary medical treatment.

It's important to note that commitment is typically a last resort, after other less restrictive options have been tried or considered. The goal of commitment is to stabilize the individual's condition and help them develop the skills and resources they need to live safely and independently in the community.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

Crisis intervention is a immediate, short-term emergency response to help individuals who are experiencing an acute distress or destabilizing event and are at risk of harm to themselves or others. The goal of crisis intervention is to restore equilibrium and ensure the person's safety, while also addressing any immediate needs or concerns. This may involve various strategies such as:

1. Psychoeducation: Providing information about the crisis situation, common reactions, and coping skills.
2. Emotional support: Offering a safe and non-judgmental space for the person to express their feelings and concerns.
3. Problem-solving: Helping the person identify potential solutions to the crisis situation and make informed decisions.
4. Safety planning: Developing a plan to ensure the person's safety and prevent future crises.
5. Referral: Connecting the person with appropriate resources and services for ongoing support and care.

Crisis intervention is often provided by mental health professionals, such as counselors, social workers, or psychologists, in various settings including hospitals, emergency departments, crisis hotlines, and community mental health centers.

Psychological tests are standardized procedures or measures used to assess various aspects of an individual's cognitive functioning, personality traits, emotional status, and behavior. These tests are designed to be reliable and valid tools for evaluating specific psychological constructs such as intelligence, memory, attention, achievement, aptitude, interests, and values. They can be in the form of questionnaires, interviews, observational scales, or performance-based tasks. The results obtained from these tests help mental health professionals make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment planning, and educational or vocational guidance for their clients. It is important to note that psychological tests should only be administered, scored, and interpreted by trained and qualified professionals to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

Eating disorders are mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in eating behaviors and associated distressing thoughts and emotions. They include several types of disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED). These disorders can have serious medical and psychological consequences if left untreated.

Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrictive eating, low body weight, and an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat. Individuals with anorexia may also have a distorted body image and deny the severity of their low body weight.

Bulimia nervosa involves recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as purging (e.g., self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics), fasting, or excessive exercise to prevent weight gain.

Binge eating disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating large amounts of food in a short period of time, often to the point of discomfort, accompanied by feelings of loss of control and distress. Unlike bulimia nervosa, individuals with binge eating disorder do not engage in compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain.

Other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED) include atypical anorexia nervosa, subthreshold bulimia nervosa, and subthreshold binge eating disorder, which may have similar symptoms to the above disorders but do not meet all the diagnostic criteria.

Eating disorders can affect people of any age, gender, race, or ethnicity, and they are often associated with other mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychological therapy, nutrition counseling, and medical management to address both the physical and psychological aspects of the disorder.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Bulimia nervosa is a mental health disorder that is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain. These compensatory behaviors may include self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or excessive exercise.

Individuals with bulimia nervosa often experience a lack of control over their eating habits and may feel intense shame, guilt, and distress about their binge eating and compensatory behaviors. The disorder can lead to serious medical complications, such as electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, dental problems, and gastrointestinal issues.

Bulimia nervosa typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects women more often than men. The exact cause of the disorder is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, psychological, and social factors. Treatment for bulimia nervosa may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, medication, nutrition counseling, and support groups.

Sexual child abuse is a form of abuse in which a child is engaged in sexual activities or exposed to sexual situations that are inappropriate and harmful for their age. This can include:

1. Sexual contact or intercourse with a child.
2. Exposing a child to pornography or using a child to produce pornographic materials.
3. Engaging in sexual acts in front of a child.
4. Inappropriately touching or fondling a child.
5. Using a child for sexual exploitation, including prostitution.

Sexual child abuse can have serious and long-lasting effects on a child's emotional, psychological, and physical well-being. It is important to report any suspected cases of sexual child abuse to the appropriate authorities immediately.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders (ADDBDs) are a group of childhood-onset disorders characterized by persistent patterns of behavior that are difficult for the individual to control. These disorders include Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD).

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that interfere with daily functioning. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur in multiple settings, such as school, home, and social situations.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures, which includes arguing with adults, losing temper, actively defying rules, and deliberately annoying others. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur more frequently than in other children of the same age and developmental level.

Conduct Disorder (CD) is characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. These behaviors include aggression towards people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

It's important to note that these disorders can co-occur with other mental health conditions, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and learning disabilities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing the symptoms and improving the individual's quality of life.

Conscience is not a medical term, but it is a concept that is often discussed in the context of ethics, psychology, and philosophy. In general, conscience refers to an individual's sense of right and wrong, which guides their behavior and decision-making. It is sometimes described as an inner voice or a moral compass that helps people distinguish between right and wrong actions.

While conscience is not a medical term, there are medical conditions that can affect a person's ability to distinguish between right and wrong or to make ethical decisions. For example, certain neurological conditions, such as frontotemporal dementia, can impair a person's moral judgment and decision-making abilities. Similarly, some mental health disorders, such as psychopathy, may be associated with reduced moral reasoning and empathy, which can affect a person's conscience.

It is worth noting that the concept of conscience is complex and multifaceted, and there is ongoing debate among philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists about its nature and origins. Some theories suggest that conscience is a product of socialization and cultural influences, while others propose that it has a more fundamental basis in human biology and evolution.

Statistics, as a topic in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the scientific discipline that involves the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of numerical data or quantifiable data in a meaningful and organized manner. It employs mathematical theories and models to draw conclusions, make predictions, and support evidence-based decision-making in various areas of medical research and practice.

Some key concepts and methods in medical statistics include:

1. Descriptive Statistics: Summarizing and visualizing data through measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and dispersion (range, variance, standard deviation).
2. Inferential Statistics: Drawing conclusions about a population based on a sample using hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and statistical modeling.
3. Probability Theory: Quantifying the likelihood of events or outcomes in medical scenarios, such as diagnostic tests' sensitivity and specificity.
4. Study Designs: Planning and implementing various research study designs, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional surveys.
5. Sampling Methods: Selecting a representative sample from a population to ensure the validity and generalizability of research findings.
6. Multivariate Analysis: Examining the relationships between multiple variables simultaneously using techniques like regression analysis, factor analysis, or cluster analysis.
7. Survival Analysis: Analyzing time-to-event data, such as survival rates in clinical trials or disease progression.
8. Meta-Analysis: Systematically synthesizing and summarizing the results of multiple studies to provide a comprehensive understanding of a research question.
9. Biostatistics: A subfield of statistics that focuses on applying statistical methods to biological data, including medical research.
10. Epidemiology: The study of disease patterns in populations, which often relies on statistical methods for data analysis and interpretation.

Medical statistics is essential for evidence-based medicine, clinical decision-making, public health policy, and healthcare management. It helps researchers and practitioners evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medical interventions, assess risk factors and outcomes associated with diseases or treatments, and monitor trends in population health.

In the field of medicine, twins are defined as two offspring produced by the same pregnancy. They can be either monozygotic (identical) or dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins develop from a single fertilized egg that splits into two separate embryos, resulting in individuals who share identical genetic material. Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, result from the fertilization of two separate eggs by two different sperm cells, leading to siblings who share about 50% of their genetic material, similar to non-twin siblings.

Affective disorders, psychotic are a category of mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in mood, thinking, and behavior. These disorders combine the symptoms of both mood disorders (such as depression or bipolar disorder) and psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia).

In psychotic affective disorders, individuals experience severe changes in their mood, such as prolonged periods of depression or mania, along with psychotic features like hallucinations, delusions, or disorganized thinking and speech. These symptoms can significantly impair a person's ability to function in daily life and may require intensive treatment, including medication and therapy.

Examples of psychotic affective disorders include:

1. Psychotic Depression: A severe form of major depressive disorder that includes psychotic symptoms like delusions or hallucinations, often with a theme of guilt or worthlessness.
2. Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features: During manic or depressive episodes, some individuals with bipolar disorder may experience psychotic symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. These symptoms can vary in intensity and may require hospitalization and intensive treatment.
3. Schizoaffective Disorder: A mental health condition that includes features of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder, such as depression or bipolar disorder. Individuals with this disorder experience psychotic symptoms like hallucinations and delusions, along with significant changes in mood.

It is essential to seek professional help if you suspect you or someone you know may have a psychotic affective disorder. Early intervention and treatment can significantly improve outcomes and quality of life.

Suicidal ideation is a medical term used to describe thoughts about, or an unusual preoccupation with, suicide. The range of suicidal ideation varies greatly from fleeting thoughts, to extensive thoughts, to detailed planning, role playing, and incomplete attempts, which may be deliberately constructed to not complete or to be discovered, or may be fully intended to result in death.

It's important to take any mention of suicide seriously and seek immediate help from a healthcare professional if someone is experiencing suicidal ideation. Mental health conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, and substance abuse are commonly associated with an increased risk of suicidal thoughts.

If you or someone you know is struggling with suicidal thoughts, please reach out to a mental health professional or trusted person immediately. In the US, contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (1-800-273-8255) or use the Crisis Text Line by texting HOME to 741741.

A psychological theory is a proposed explanation or framework that aims to describe, explain, and predict psychological phenomena. It is based on established scientific principles and methods, and it integrates various observations, facts, and findings to provide a coherent understanding of psychological processes and behaviors. Psychological theories can encompass a wide range of topics, including cognition, emotion, motivation, perception, personality, learning, memory, development, and psychopathology. They are used to guide research, inform clinical practice, and advance our knowledge of the human mind and behavior.

Firesetting behavior is not a medical diagnosis itself, but it is a term used to describe the act of deliberately starting fires. It is often associated with certain mental health conditions, developmental disorders, or substance abuse problems. Firesetting behavior can range from minor incidents, such as lighting candles or matches, to more serious offenses, like arson.

Firesetting behavior can be a symptom of various psychiatric disorders, including conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, and personality disorders. It can also be associated with substance abuse, cognitive impairments, and traumatic brain injuries. In some cases, firesetting behavior may indicate a cry for help or a maladaptive coping mechanism.

It is essential to assess the underlying causes of firesetting behavior to develop an appropriate treatment plan. This may involve individual therapy, family therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and/or medication management. In severe cases, hospitalization or residential treatment may be necessary. Additionally, fire safety education and community resources can help prevent future incidents.

A "social environment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, but it is often used in the context of public health and social sciences to refer to the physical and social conditions, relationships, and organized institutions that influence the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

The social environment includes factors such as:

* Social support networks (family, friends, community)
* Cultural norms and values
* Socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation)
* Housing and neighborhood conditions
* Access to resources (food, healthcare, transportation)
* Exposure to discrimination, violence, and other stressors

These factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes, as they can influence behaviors related to health (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), as well as exposure to disease and access to healthcare. Understanding the social environment is essential for developing effective public health interventions and policies that promote health equity and reduce health disparities.

In the context of medicine, problem-solving refers to the cognitive process by which healthcare professionals identify, analyze, and address clinical issues or challenges in order to provide optimal care for their patients. This may involve gathering relevant information, generating potential solutions, evaluating their feasibility and risks, selecting the most appropriate course of action, and implementing and monitoring the chosen intervention. Effective problem-solving skills are essential for making informed decisions, improving patient outcomes, and reducing medical errors.

Mental health services refer to the various professional health services designed to treat and support individuals with mental health conditions. These services are typically provided by trained and licensed mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, and marriage and family therapists. The services may include:

1. Assessment and diagnosis of mental health disorders
2. Psychotherapy or "talk therapy" to help individuals understand and manage their symptoms
3. Medication management for mental health conditions
4. Case management and care coordination to connect individuals with community resources and support
5. Psychoeducation to help individuals and families better understand mental health conditions and how to manage them
6. Crisis intervention and stabilization services
7. Inpatient and residential treatment for severe or chronic mental illness
8. Prevention and early intervention services to identify and address mental health concerns before they become more serious
9. Rehabilitation and recovery services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their full potential and live fulfilling lives in the community.

Fenfluramine is a drug that was previously used for the short-term treatment of obesity. It works by suppressing appetite and increasing the feeling of fullness. Fenfluramine is an amphetamine derivative and stimulates the release of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep.

Fenfluramine was commonly prescribed in combination with phentermine, another appetite suppressant, under the brand name Fen-Phen. However, in 1997, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a public health warning about the potential risk of serious heart valve damage associated with the use of fenfluramine and withdrew its approval for the drug's use. Since then, fenfluramine has not been approved for medical use in many countries, including the United States.

Ecological and environmental phenomena refer to the processes, conditions, and interactions between living organisms and their physical surroundings in a given ecosystem or environment. These phenomena can include various natural and human-induced factors that affect the health, distribution, abundance, and diversity of species and populations within an ecosystem, as well as the overall function and stability of the ecosystem itself.

Examples of ecological and environmental phenomena include:

1. Biogeochemical cycles (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) that regulate the flow of nutrients and energy through an ecosystem.
2. Climate change and global warming, which can alter temperature, precipitation patterns, and other abiotic factors that impact species' distributions and survival.
3. Habitat fragmentation and loss due to human activities such as land use changes, urbanization, and deforestation, which can lead to declines in biodiversity and ecosystem health.
4. Pollution from various sources (e.g., air, water, soil) that can harm living organisms and disrupt ecological processes.
5. Invasive species introductions, which can outcompete native species for resources and alter community structure and function.
6. Natural disasters such as wildfires, hurricanes, and floods that can impact ecosystems and their inhabitants in various ways.
7. Human-induced disturbances such as hunting, fishing, and logging that can affect population dynamics and community structure.

Understanding ecological and environmental phenomena is crucial for developing effective strategies to conserve biodiversity, mitigate climate change, and promote sustainable development.

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. A psychiatrist is a medically trained doctor who specializes in psychiatry, and they are qualified to assess both the mental and physical aspects of psychological problems. They can use a variety of treatments, including psychotherapy, medications, psychoeducation, and psychosocial interventions, to help patients manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Psychiatrists often work in multidisciplinary teams that include other mental health professionals such as psychologists, social workers, and mental health nurses. They may provide services in a range of settings, including hospitals, clinics, community mental health centers, and private practices.

It's important to note that while I strive to provide accurate and helpful information, my responses should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you or someone else has concerns about mental health, it is always best to consult with a qualified healthcare provider.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

The limbic system is a complex set of structures in the brain that includes the hippocampus, amygdala, fornix, cingulate gyrus, and other nearby areas. It's associated with emotional responses, instinctual behaviors, motivation, long-term memory formation, and olfaction (smell). The limbic system is also involved in the modulation of visceral functions and drives, such as hunger, thirst, and sexual drive.

The structures within the limbic system communicate with each other and with other parts of the brain, particularly the hypothalamus and the cortex, to regulate various physiological and psychological processes. Dysfunctions in the limbic system can lead to a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and certain types of memory impairment.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Spontaneous remission in a medical context refers to the disappearance or significant improvement of symptoms of a disease or condition without any specific treatment being administered. In other words, it's a situation where the disease resolves on its own, without any apparent cause. While spontaneous remission can occur in various conditions, it is relatively rare and not well understood. It's important to note that just because a remission occurs without treatment doesn't mean that medical care should be avoided, as many conditions can worsen or lead to complications if left untreated.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "gambling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Gambling is generally defined as the act of betting or wagering money or something of value on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the primary intent of winning money or material goods. It can become a problematic behavior leading to financial, emotional, and social consequences for some individuals. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help answer those!

Behavioral research is a branch of scientific study that focuses on observing and analyzing the behaviors of humans and animals in various situations. This type of research aims to understand the underlying factors that influence, shape, and motivate behavior, including cognitive processes, emotional responses, and environmental influences. In medical terms, behavioral research can be used to investigate how certain behaviors or lifestyle factors may contribute to the development, prevention, or management of health conditions. This may include studying patterns of substance use, dietary habits, physical activity levels, adherence to medical treatments, and other health-related behaviors. The goal of behavioral research in a medical context is often to develop interventions or strategies that can help promote positive health behaviors and improve overall health outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "human characteristics" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the typical traits, attributes, and features that define humans as a species, both physically and behaviorally. Physical human characteristics include bipedal locomotion, large brains, and fine motor skills, while behavioral characteristics can include complex language use, self-awareness, and sociality.

However, if you have any specific medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to help answer them to the best of my ability!

A delusion is a fixed, false belief that is firmly held despite evidence to the contrary and is not shared by others who hold similar cultural or religious beliefs. Delusions are a key symptom of certain psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder. They can also be seen in other medical conditions, such as dementia, brain injury, or substance abuse.

Delusions can take many forms, but some common types include:

* Persecutory delusions: the belief that one is being targeted or harmed by others
* Grandiose delusions: the belief that one has special powers, talents, or importance
* Erotomanic delusions: the belief that someone, often of higher social status, is in love with the individual
* Somatic delusions: the belief that one's body is abnormal or has been altered in some way
* Religious or spiritual delusions: the belief that one has a special relationship with a deity or religious figure

Delusions should not be confused with overvalued ideas, which are strongly held beliefs based on subjective interpretation of experiences or evidence. Overvalued ideas may be shared by others and can sometimes develop into delusions if they become fixed and firmly held despite contradictory evidence.

Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) is currently referred to as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). It's a complex dissociative disorder involving the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states that recurrently take control of an individual's behavior.

In DID, each identity, or 'alter', may have its own unique name, personal history, characteristics, and mannerisms. The switching between these identities is often triggered by stressful situations or traumatic memories.

This disorder typically develops as a coping mechanism in response to severe, prolonged trauma during early childhood, such as emotional, physical, or sexual abuse. It's important to note that this condition should be diagnosed and managed by mental health professionals with expertise in dissociative disorders.

Anger is a normal and adaptive human emotion, which can be defined as a negative emotional state that involves feelings of annoyance, irritation, hostility, and aggression towards someone or something that has caused harm, injury, or unfair treatment. It is a complex emotional response that can have physical, mental, and behavioral components.

Physiologically, anger triggers the release of stress hormones such as adrenaline, which prepares the body for a fight-or-flight response. This can result in symptoms such as increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and heightened sensory perception.

In terms of mental and behavioral components, anger can manifest as thoughts of revenge, verbal or physical aggression, or passive-aggressive behaviors. Chronic or uncontrolled anger can have negative impacts on one's health, relationships, and overall quality of life.

It is important to note that while anger is a normal emotion, it becomes a problem when it leads to harmful behaviors or interferes with daily functioning. In such cases, seeking professional help from a mental health provider may be necessary to learn healthy coping mechanisms and manage anger effectively.

Expressed Emotion (EE) is a term used in the field of psychiatry and psychology to describe the level of criticism, hostility, and emotional over-involvement expressed by family members or close relatives towards an individual with a mental illness. It is measured through a standardized interview called the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI). High levels of EE have been found to be associated with poorer outcomes in individuals with mental illness, particularly those with severe and persistent conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

A Psychiatric Department in a hospital is a specialized unit that provides diagnostic, treatment, and management services for patients with various mental disorders. This department is typically staffed by psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric nurses, social workers, and other mental health professionals who work together to evaluate, diagnose, and treat a wide range of mental health conditions such as:

* Mood disorders (e.g., depression, bipolar disorder)
* Anxiety disorders (e.g., panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder)
* Personality disorders (e.g., borderline personality disorder)
* Psychotic disorders (e.g., schizophrenia)
* Substance use disorders (e.g., drug addiction, alcoholism)
* Eating disorders (e.g., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa)
* Neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)

The Psychiatric Department may offer both inpatient and outpatient services, including individual and group therapy, medication management, psychoeducation, and crisis intervention. Inpatient units provide 24-hour care for patients who require intensive treatment and monitoring, while outpatient services allow patients to receive treatment while continuing to live in their communities.

The Psychiatric Department may also be involved in research, teaching, and community outreach programs aimed at promoting mental health awareness, reducing stigma, and improving access to mental health care.

Autistic Disorder, also known as Autism or Classic Autism, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. It is characterized by:

1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
* Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity;
* Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction;
* Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
* Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech;
* Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior;
* Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus;
* Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.
3. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities) and limit or impair everyday functioning.
4. Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or other psychotic disorders.

Autistic Disorder is part of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which also include Asperger's Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The current diagnostic term for this category of conditions, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), is Autism Spectrum Disorder.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Adoption is a legal process in which the rights and responsibilities of being a parent are transferred from one person or couple to another. It permanently gives adoptive parents custody of the child and makes them legally responsible for the child's care and well-being. The birth parents' legal rights and responsibilities are typically terminated as part of the adoption process, although in some cases they may retain certain rights or have ongoing contact with the child. Adoption can involve infants, older children, or siblings, and can be arranged through private agencies, foster care systems, or international channels.

"Patient dropouts" is a term used in clinical research and medical settings to refer to participants who withdraw or discontinue their participation in a treatment plan, clinical trial, or study before its completion. The reasons for patient dropouts can vary widely and may include factors such as adverse effects of the treatment, lack of efficacy, financial constraints, relocation, loss of interest, or personal reasons. High patient dropout rates can impact the validity and generalizability of research findings, making it challenging to assess the long-term safety and effectiveness of a particular intervention or treatment. Therefore, understanding and addressing the factors that contribute to patient dropouts is an important consideration in clinical research and practice.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Dangerous behavior is a term used to describe any action or inaction that has the potential to cause harm, injury, or damage to oneself or others. This can include a wide range of behaviors, such as:

* Physical violence or aggression towards others
* Substance abuse, including alcohol and drug use
* Risky sexual behavior, such as unprotected sex or multiple partners
* Self-harm, such as cutting or burning oneself
* Suicidal ideation or attempts
* Reckless driving or operating machinery while impaired
* Neglecting one's own health or the health of others

Dangerous behavior can be the result of a variety of factors, including mental illness, substance abuse, trauma, environmental factors, and personality traits. It is important to note that dangerous behavior can have serious consequences for both the individual engaging in the behavior and those around them. If you or someone you know is engaging in dangerous behavior, it is important to seek help from a qualified medical professional as soon as possible.

Self-mutilation, also known as self-injury or self-harm, refers to the deliberate infliction of pain or damage to one's own body without the intention of committing suicide. It can take many forms, including cutting, burning, scratching, hitting, or piercing the skin. The behavior is often used as a coping mechanism to deal with emotional distress, trauma, or other psychological issues. Self-mutilation can be a sign of serious mental health concerns and should be treated as such. It's important to seek professional help if you or someone you know is engaging in self-harm behaviors.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Croatia" is not a medical term or condition. It is a country located in Central and Southeastern Europe. If you have any questions about Croatian healthcare or medical practices, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you.

Sociometry is a method used in social science to measure the pattern of interpersonal relationships within a group. Sociometric techniques are thus the tools or methods employed to collect and analyze sociometric data, which typically involve individuals rating or choosing others in the group with whom they would prefer to work or interact. These techniques can be used to study various aspects of group dynamics, social structure, and individual social status within a group. Examples of sociometric techniques include surveys, questionnaires, interviews, and observation.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

Separation anxiety is a condition in which an individual experiences excessive and disproportionate fear or distress when separated from a person or place that they are attached to. This condition is commonly diagnosed in children, but it can also affect adults. The anxiety experienced during separation may manifest as excessive worrying, crying, clinginess, panic attacks, or physical symptoms such as nausea, headaches, or rapid heartbeat. In order for a diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder to be made, the symptoms must cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.

Psychotropic drugs, also known as psychoactive drugs, are a class of medications that affect the function of the central nervous system, leading to changes in consciousness, perception, mood, cognition, or behavior. These drugs work by altering the chemical neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, which are involved in regulating mood, thought, and behavior.

Psychotropic drugs can be classified into several categories based on their primary therapeutic effects, including:

1. Antipsychotic drugs: These medications are used to treat psychosis, schizophrenia, and other related disorders. They work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps reduce hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.
2. Antidepressant drugs: These medications are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and some chronic pain conditions. They work by increasing the availability of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine in the brain, which helps improve mood and reduce anxiety.
3. Mood stabilizers: These medications are used to treat bipolar disorder and other mood disorders. They help regulate the ups and downs of mood swings and can also be used as adjunctive treatment for depression and anxiety.
4. Anxiolytic drugs: Also known as anti-anxiety medications, these drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and insomnia. They work by reducing the activity of neurotransmitters such as GABA, which can help reduce anxiety and promote relaxation.
5. Stimulant drugs: These medications are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. They work by increasing the availability of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which helps improve focus, concentration, and alertness.

It is important to note that psychotropic drugs can have significant side effects and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "individuality" refers to the unique characteristics, traits, and needs that distinguish one person from another. This concept recognizes that each patient is a distinct individual with their own genetic makeup, lifestyle factors, personal history, and social circumstances, all of which can influence their health status and response to medical interventions.

Individuality in healthcare emphasizes the importance of tailoring medical treatments and care plans to meet the specific needs and preferences of each patient, rather than relying on a one-size-fits-all approach. This personalized approach can lead to better outcomes, improved patient satisfaction, and reduced healthcare costs.

Factors that contribute to an individual's medical individuality include their genetic makeup, epigenetic factors, environmental exposures, lifestyle choices (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), and social determinants of health (such as income, education, and access to care). All of these factors can interact in complex ways to influence a person's health status and risk for disease.

Recognizing and respecting individuality is essential for providing high-quality, patient-centered care. Healthcare providers who take the time to understand their patients' unique needs and preferences are better able to build trust, promote adherence to treatment plans, and achieve positive outcomes.

In a medical or physiological context, "arousal" refers to the state of being awake and responsive to stimuli. It involves the activation of the nervous system, particularly the autonomic nervous system, which prepares the body for action. Arousal levels can vary from low (such as during sleep) to high (such as during states of excitement or stress). In clinical settings, changes in arousal may be assessed to help diagnose conditions such as coma, brain injury, or sleep disorders. It is also used in the context of sexual response, where it refers to the level of physical and mental awareness and readiness for sexual activity.

Community Mental Health Services (CMHS) refer to mental health care services that are provided in community settings, as opposed to traditional hospital-based or institutional care. These services are designed to be accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated, with the goal of promoting recovery, resilience, and improved quality of life for individuals with mental illnesses.

CMHS may include a range of services such as:

1. Outpatient care: Including individual and group therapy, medication management, and case management services provided in community clinics or healthcare centers.
2. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT): A team-based approach to providing comprehensive mental health services to individuals with severe and persistent mental illnesses who may have difficulty engaging in traditional outpatient care.
3. Crisis intervention: Including mobile crisis teams, emergency psychiatric evaluations, and short-term residential crisis stabilization units.
4. Supported housing and employment: Services that help individuals with mental illnesses to live independently in the community and to obtain and maintain competitive employment.
5. Prevention and early intervention: Programs that aim to identify and address mental health issues before they become more severe, such as suicide prevention programs, bullying prevention, and early psychosis detection and treatment.
6. Peer support: Services provided by individuals who have personal experience with mental illness and can offer support, guidance, and advocacy to others who are struggling with similar issues.
7. Family education and support: Programs that provide information, resources, and support to family members of individuals with mental illnesses.

The goal of CMHS is to provide accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated care that meets the unique needs of each individual and helps them to achieve their recovery goals in the community setting.

The term "family" in a medical context often refers to a group of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who consider themselves to be a single household. This can include spouses, parents, children, siblings, grandparents, and other extended family members. In some cases, the term may also be used more broadly to refer to any close-knit group of people who provide emotional and social support for one another, regardless of their biological or legal relationship.

In healthcare settings, understanding a patient's family dynamics can be important for providing effective care. Family members may be involved in decision-making about medical treatments, providing care and support at home, and communicating with healthcare providers. Additionally, cultural beliefs and values within families can influence health behaviors and attitudes towards medical care, making it essential for healthcare professionals to take a culturally sensitive approach when working with patients and their families.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Norway" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in Northern Europe, known officially as the Kingdom of Norway. If you have any questions about medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help!

In the context of medicine and public health, "socialization" typically refers to the process by which individuals learn and internalize the norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors that are considered appropriate within their particular cultural, social, or community group. This process is critical for developing a sense of identity, fostering social connections, and promoting mental and emotional well-being.

Socialization can have important implications for health outcomes, as individuals who are able to effectively navigate social norms and relationships may be better equipped to access resources, seek support, and make healthy choices. On the other hand, inadequate socialization or social isolation can contribute to a range of negative health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and poor physical health.

Healthcare providers may play an important role in promoting socialization and addressing social isolation among their patients, for example by connecting them with community resources, support groups, or other opportunities for social engagement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Experimental Games" as it is not a term commonly used in the medical field. However, I can provide some context that might help you understand the possible relationship between experimental games and medicine.

Experimental games generally refer to games designed specifically to explore, test, or validate certain concepts, hypotheses, or theories. These games often involve novel mechanics, rules, or systems that are intended to create unique experiences, engage players in specific ways, or teach particular skills or knowledge.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, experimental games might be used for various purposes, such as:

1. Medical education and training: Experimental games can help medical professionals learn new skills, understand complex concepts, or practice decision-making in a safe, controlled environment. These games could simulate various medical scenarios, allowing players to develop their expertise and improve patient outcomes.
2. Therapeutic interventions: Experimental games might be used as a form of therapy for patients with physical, cognitive, or emotional challenges. By engaging patients in gameplay that targets specific areas of need, these games can help improve various aspects of health and well-being. For example, therapeutic gaming applications have been developed to assist with rehabilitation, pain management, stress reduction, and mental health conditions like anxiety and depression.
3. Research: Experimental games could be used in medical research to investigate various aspects of human behavior, cognition, or physiology. By observing how players interact with the game and its mechanics, researchers can gain insights into factors that influence health, decision-making, or treatment outcomes.

In summary, while "Experimental Games" is not a standard medical term, it generally refers to games designed to explore, test, or validate specific concepts, hypotheses, or theories. In the context of medicine and healthcare, experimental games might be used for medical education, therapeutic interventions, or research purposes.

Motivational interviewing is a patient-centered counseling style that aims to engage, support, and strengthen a person's own motivation for change. It is a collaborative conversation style that is evidence-based and widely used in healthcare settings to address problematic behaviors such as substance abuse, poor diet, physical inactivity, and non-adherence to medical treatment. The approach is characterized by the use of empathic listening, affirmations, reflective statements, and summaries to help patients explore and resolve ambivalence about behavior change. Motivational interviewing is grounded in the principles of motivational psychology and is designed to enhance a patient's intrinsic motivation for change rather than imposing it from outside. The goal is to create a supportive environment that empowers patients to make positive changes in their lives.

Day care, also known as adult day services, is a type of medical or social service provided for adults who need supervision and assistance during the day. These services are designed to help individuals who are unable to be left alone during the day due to physical or mental impairments, chronic illness, or disability. Day care centers typically provide a range of services including nursing care, personal care, meals, social activities, and recreational programs. They offer respite for caregivers who need a break from their caregiving responsibilities and can help individuals maintain their independence and quality of life while receiving the support they need.

The Wechsler Scales are a series of intelligence and neuropsychological tests used to assess various aspects of cognitive functioning in individuals across the lifespan. The scales include:

1. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI): Designed for children aged 2 years 6 months to 7 years 3 months, it measures verbal (e.g., vocabulary, comprehension) and performance (e.g., visual-motor integration, spatial reasoning) abilities.
2. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC): Developed for children aged 6 to 16 years, it evaluates verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed.
3. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): Created for adults aged 16 to 90 years, it assesses similar domains as the WISC but with more complex tasks.
4. Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS): Designed to measure various aspects of memory functioning in individuals aged 16 to 89 years, including visual and auditory immediate and delayed recall, working memory, and attention.
5. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI): A brief version of the WAIS used for quicker intelligence screening in individuals aged 6 to 89 years.

These scales are widely used in clinical, educational, and research settings to identify strengths and weaknesses in cognitive abilities, diagnose learning disabilities and other neurodevelopmental disorders, monitor treatment progress, and provide recommendations for interventions and accommodations.

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme found on the outer membrane of mitochondria in cells throughout the body, but primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and dietary amines by catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamines. This enzyme exists in two forms: MAO-A and MAO-B, each with distinct substrate preferences and tissue distributions.

MAO-A preferentially metabolizes serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, while MAO-B is mainly responsible for breaking down phenethylamines and benzylamines, as well as dopamine in some cases. Inhibition of these enzymes can lead to increased neurotransmitter levels in the synaptic cleft, which has implications for various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression and Parkinson's disease. However, MAO inhibitors must be used with caution due to their potential to cause serious adverse effects, including hypertensive crises, when combined with certain foods or medications containing dietary amines or sympathomimetic agents.

The gyrus cinguli, also known as the cingulate gyrus, is a structure located in the brain. It forms part of the limbic system and plays a role in various functions such as emotion, memory, and perception of pain. The gyrus cinguli is situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere, adjacent to the corpus callosum, and curves around the frontal portion of the corpus callosum, forming a C-shaped structure. It has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain syndromes.

A Therapeutic Community (TC) is a type of residential treatment model for various psychological, behavioral, and/or addiction disorders. It is based on the concept of a democratically managed community where residents and staff work together to create a healing environment. The primary goal is to help individuals learn new social and emotional skills, improve self-awareness, develop self-efficacy, and reintegrate into society as productive members.

TCs typically have several key components:

1. A hierarchical system of roles and responsibilities that evolves over time, allowing residents to gain privileges and responsibilities as they progress in their recovery.
2. A strong emphasis on mutual self-help, where residents support each other in their recovery process through group meetings, discussions, and activities.
3. A focus on the development of prosocial attitudes and behaviors, including communication skills, problem-solving, conflict resolution, and personal responsibility.
4. The use of community meetings, where members discuss and make decisions about rules, policies, and the overall functioning of the community.
5. A structured daily routine that includes both therapeutic activities (e.g., group therapy, individual counseling, psychoeducational workshops) and daily chores to promote a sense of belonging and responsibility.
6. A long-term commitment to treatment, with stays typically ranging from 6 months to 2 years, allowing residents to build meaningful relationships and fully engage in the therapeutic process.

TCs have been shown to be effective in treating various disorders, including substance use disorders, personality disorders, and mental health issues. The communal living environment and the emphasis on personal responsibility and self-help contribute to a sense of empowerment and self-efficacy that can lead to lasting changes in behavior and improved quality of life.

"Marijuana Abuse" is not a term that is typically used in the medical field. Instead, the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions, uses the term "Cannabis Use Disorder." This disorder is defined as a problematic pattern of cannabis use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, with symptoms including:

1. Taking larger amounts of cannabis over a longer period than intended.
2. A persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use.
3. Spending a lot of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of cannabis.
4. Craving or a strong desire to use cannabis.
5. Recurrent cannabis use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Continued cannabis use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of cannabis.
7. Giving up or reducing important activities because of cannabis use.
8. Recurrent cannabis use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Continued cannabis use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by cannabis.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either:
a) A need for markedly increased amounts of cannabis to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b) Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of cannabis.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either:
a) The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for cannabis.
b) Cannabis is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis of a mild, moderate, or severe Cannabis Use Disorder depends on the number of symptoms present.

Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of conditions that affect the development and functioning of the brain, leading to delays in many areas of development. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has replaced the term "pervasive developmental disorders" with "autism spectrum disorder" and "other neurodevelopmental disorders."

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The symptoms of ASD can range from mild to severe, and the condition affects approximately 1 in 54 children in the United States.

Other neurodevelopmental disorders that were previously classified as PDDs include:

1. Intellectual disability (ID): a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disorder used to be referred to as "mental retardation."
2. Communication disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's ability to communicate, including language disorders, speech sound disorders, and stuttering.
3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
4. Specific learning disorder: a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and use specific academic skills, such as reading, writing, or mathematics.
5. Motor disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's movement and coordination, including developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, and tic disorders.

The medical definition of 'Child Development Disorders, Pervasive' has been replaced with more specific diagnoses in the DSM-5 to better reflect the diverse nature of these conditions and improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment planning.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), alcohol-induced disorders are a category of mental disorders that are directly caused by substance/medication use. Specifically, alcohol-induced disorders refer to conditions where the primary cause is the use of alcohol or its withdrawal.

There are several types of alcohol-induced disorders, including:

1. Alcohol intoxication delirium: A state of confusion and disorientation that occurs due to excessive alcohol consumption.
2. Alcohol withdrawal delirium: A serious condition characterized by confusion, hallucinations, and tremors that can occur after a person stops drinking heavily and suddenly.
3. Alcohol-induced bipolar and related disorders: Mood disturbances that are directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
4. Alcohol-induced depressive disorder: Depressive symptoms that are directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
5. Alcohol-induced anxiety disorder: Anxiety symptoms that are directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
6. Alcohol-induced sleep disorder: Sleep disturbances that are directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
7. Alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction: Sexual problems that are directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
8. Alcohol-induced major neurocognitive disorder: A severe decline in cognitive abilities, such as memory and decision-making skills, that is directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.

It's important to note that these disorders are distinct from alcohol use disorder (AUD), which refers to a pattern of problematic alcohol use that can lead to clinically significant impairment or distress. However, AUD can increase the risk of developing alcohol-induced disorders.

Defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological strategies that individuals use to cope with stressful, threatening, or uncomfortable situations. These mechanisms help protect the ego from being overwhelmed by anxiety, fear, or other negative emotions. They can also help individuals maintain a positive self-image and a sense of control in difficult circumstances.

There are many different types of defense mechanisms, including:

1. Repression: The unconscious forgetting or pushing aside of painful memories or thoughts.
2. Denial: Refusing to acknowledge the existence or reality of a threatening situation or feeling.
3. Projection: Attributing one's own unacceptable thoughts or emotions to someone else.
4. Displacement: Channeling unacceptable feelings toward a safer or less threatening target.
5. Rationalization: Creating logical explanations or excuses for unacceptable behavior or feelings.
6. Reaction formation: Converting unconscious impulses or desires into their opposite, conscious attitudes or behaviors.
7. Sublimation: Transforming unacceptable impulses or instincts into socially acceptable behaviors or activities.
8. Regression: Returning to an earlier stage of development in order to cope with stress or anxiety.
9. Suppression: Consciously pushing aside unwanted thoughts or feelings.
10. Identification: Adopting the characteristics, attitudes, or behaviors of another person as a way of coping with anxiety or fear.

Defense mechanisms can be adaptive or maladaptive, depending on the situation and how they are used. While they can help individuals cope with stress and maintain their emotional well-being in the short term, relying too heavily on defense mechanisms can lead to problems in relationships, work, and other areas of life. It is important for individuals to be aware of their defense mechanisms and work to develop healthier coping strategies over time.

Adolescent psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the study of adolescents, their behavior, thoughts, and emotions. This field examines the cognitive, social, and emotional development of adolescents, as well as any challenges or mental health issues they may face during this stage of life. It also involves the application of psychological theories and principles to promote positive adolescent development and address adolescent mental health concerns. Adolescent psychologists work in various settings, including schools, clinics, hospitals, and private practices, providing assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and counseling services to adolescents and their families.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "magic" is not a term that is recognized in medical terminology. It is commonly understood to refer to supernatural or illusory powers or events, which are not relevant to the field of medicine. If you have any questions related to medical conditions, treatments, or terminology, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a type of in-depth talk therapy that aims to help individuals gain insight into their unconscious processes and patterns of behavior. It is based on the theories of psychoanalysis developed by Sigmund Freud and subsequent psychoanalytic thinkers. The therapy focuses on exploring the full range of a patient's emotions, including those the patient may not be fully aware of or willing to acknowledge.

The goal of psychodynamic psychotherapy is to uncover unconscious patterns and dynamics that contribute to the patient's distress. This is achieved by analyzing the patient's thoughts, feelings, and experiences, as well as their relationships with others. The therapist helps the patient explore their past experiences, particularly those from early childhood, to understand how they have shaped their present behavior and emotional responses.

Through this process, patients can develop a better understanding of themselves, their motivations, and their conflicts. This increased self-awareness can help them make positive changes in their lives and improve their relationships with others. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is often used to treat a wide range of mental health issues, including depression, anxiety, personality disorders, and relational difficulties.

Ambulatory care is a type of health care service in which patients are treated on an outpatient basis, meaning they do not stay overnight at the medical facility. This can include a wide range of services such as diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care for various medical conditions. The goal of ambulatory care is to provide high-quality medical care that is convenient, accessible, and cost-effective for patients.

Examples of ambulatory care settings include physician offices, community health centers, urgent care centers, outpatient surgery centers, and diagnostic imaging facilities. Patients who receive ambulatory care may have a variety of medical needs, such as routine checkups, chronic disease management, minor procedures, or same-day surgeries.

Overall, ambulatory care is an essential component of modern healthcare systems, providing patients with timely and convenient access to medical services without the need for hospitalization.

Behavior therapy is a type of psychotherapy that focuses on modifying harmful or unhealthy behaviors, thoughts, and emotions by applying learning principles derived from behavioral psychology. The goal of behavior therapy is to reinforce positive behaviors and eliminate negative ones through various techniques such as systematic desensitization, aversion therapy, exposure therapy, and operant conditioning.

Systematic desensitization involves gradually exposing the individual to a feared situation or stimulus while teaching them relaxation techniques to reduce anxiety. Aversion therapy aims to associate an undesirable behavior with an unpleasant stimulus to discourage the behavior. Exposure therapy exposes the individual to a feared situation or object in a controlled and safe environment to help them overcome their fear. Operant conditioning uses reinforcement and punishment to encourage desirable behaviors and discourage undesirable ones.

Behavior therapy has been found to be effective in treating various mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders, phobias, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. It is often used in combination with other forms of therapy and medication to provide a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals seeking help for mental health concerns.

Brief psychotherapy is a focused, goal-oriented form of psychotherapy that typically takes place over a short period of time, ranging from a few sessions to several months. It is an evidence-based treatment approach that is designed to address specific psychological issues or symptoms and help individuals make meaningful changes in their lives. The focus is on helping the person identify and modify self-defeating patterns of thought and behavior that contribute to their problems.

Brief psychotherapy can take many forms, but it often involves a collaborative approach between the therapist and the individual, with an emphasis on active participation and self-reflection. The therapist helps the individual set specific goals for treatment and provides guidance, support, and feedback as they work towards achieving those goals.

The techniques used in brief psychotherapy may include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), solution-focused therapy, interpersonal therapy, or other evidence-based approaches. The goal is to help the individual develop new skills and strategies for managing their problems, improve their relationships, and enhance their overall well-being.

Overall, brief psychotherapy is a practical and effective treatment option for individuals who are seeking relief from specific psychological issues or symptoms and are willing to commit to a focused and time-limited course of therapy.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

Neurobehavioral manifestations refer to the observable behaviors and symptoms that result from an underlying neurological disorder or injury. These manifestations can include cognitive, emotional, and motor impairments, such as difficulties with attention, memory, mood regulation, communication, and coordination. The specific neurobehavioral manifestations exhibited can vary widely depending on the location and extent of the neurological damage or dysfunction. They are often assessed and diagnosed by healthcare professionals trained in neuropsychology, neurology, or related fields.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Psychophysiologic Disorders, also known as psychosomatic disorders, refer to a category of mental health conditions where psychological stress and emotional factors play a significant role in causing physical symptoms. These disorders are characterized by the presence of bodily complaints for which no physiological explanation can be found, or where the severity of the symptoms is far greater than what would be expected from any underlying medical condition.

Examples of psychophysiologic disorders include:

* Conversion disorder: where physical symptoms such as blindness, paralysis, or difficulty swallowing occur in the absence of a clear medical explanation.
* Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): where abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits are thought to be caused or worsened by stress and emotional factors.
* Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES): where episodes that resemble epileptic seizures occur without any electrical activity in the brain.
* Chronic pain syndromes: where pain persists for months or years beyond the expected healing time, often accompanied by depression and anxiety.

The diagnosis of psychophysiologic disorders typically involves a thorough medical evaluation to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment usually includes a combination of psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), relaxation techniques, stress management, and sometimes medication for co-occurring mental health conditions.

Residential treatment, also known as inpatient treatment, refers to a type of healthcare service in which patients receive 24-hour medical and psychological care in a residential setting. This type of treatment is typically provided for individuals who require a higher level of care than what can be provided on an outpatient basis. Residential treatment programs may include a variety of services such as medical and psychiatric evaluations, medication management, individual and group therapy, psychoeducation, and recreational activities. These programs are often used to treat various mental health conditions including substance use disorders, depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and other serious mental illnesses. The goal of residential treatment is to provide a safe and structured environment where patients can focus on their recovery and develop the skills they need to manage their condition and improve their overall quality of life.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. It involves the emotional, psychological, and social aspects of an individual's health. Mental health is not just the absence of mental illness, it also includes positive characteristics such as resilience, happiness, and having a sense of purpose in life.

It is important to note that mental health can change over time, and it is possible for an individual to experience periods of good mental health as well as periods of poor mental health. Factors such as genetics, trauma, stress, and physical illness can all contribute to the development of mental health problems. Additionally, cultural and societal factors, such as discrimination and poverty, can also impact an individual's mental health.

Mental Health professionals like psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and other mental health counselors use different tools and techniques to evaluate, diagnose and treat mental health conditions. These include therapy or counseling, medication, and self-help strategies.

Antipsychotic agents are a class of medications used to manage and treat psychosis, which includes symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, disordered thought processes, and agitated behavior. These drugs work by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is believed to play a role in the development of psychotic symptoms. Antipsychotics can be broadly divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (also known as typical antipsychotics) and second-generation antipsychotics (also known as atypical antipsychotics).

First-generation antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and fluphenazine, were developed in the 1950s and have been widely used for several decades. They are generally effective in reducing positive symptoms of psychosis (such as hallucinations and delusions) but can cause significant side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as rigidity, tremors, and involuntary movements, as well as weight gain, sedation, and orthostatic hypotension.

Second-generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole, were developed more recently and are considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antipsychotics. They are generally effective in reducing both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis (such as apathy, anhedonia, and social withdrawal) and cause fewer EPS. However, they can still cause significant weight gain, metabolic disturbances, and sedation.

Antipsychotic agents are used to treat various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, delusional disorder, and other conditions that involve psychosis or agitation. They can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or via long-acting injectable formulations. The choice of antipsychotic agent depends on the individual patient's needs, preferences, and response to treatment, as well as the potential for side effects. Regular monitoring of patients taking antipsychotics is essential to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Serotonin uptake inhibitors (also known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs) are a class of medications primarily used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. They work by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep, among other functions.

SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, allowing more serotonin to be available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) for binding to postsynaptic receptors. This results in increased serotonergic neurotransmission and improved mood regulation.

Examples of SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro). These medications are generally well-tolerated, with side effects that may include nausea, headache, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and increased anxiety or agitation. However, they can have serious interactions with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an SSRI.

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a standardized system for classifying and coding mortality and morbidity data, established by the World Health Organization (WHO). It provides a common language and framework for health professionals, researchers, and policymakers to share and compare health-related information across countries and regions.

The ICD codes are used to identify diseases, injuries, causes of death, and other health conditions. The classification includes categories for various body systems, mental disorders, external causes of injury and poisoning, and factors influencing health status. It also includes a section for symptoms, signs, and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings.

The ICD is regularly updated to incorporate new scientific knowledge and changing health needs. The most recent version, ICD-11, was adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 2019 and will come into effect on January 1, 2022. It includes significant revisions and expansions in several areas, such as mental, behavioral, neurological disorders, and conditions related to sexual health.

In summary, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a globally recognized system for classifying and coding diseases, injuries, causes of death, and other health-related information, enabling standardized data collection, comparison, and analysis across countries and regions.

The temporal lobe is one of the four main lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain, located on each side of the head roughly level with the ears. It plays a major role in auditory processing, memory, and emotion. The temporal lobe contains several key structures including the primary auditory cortex, which is responsible for analyzing sounds, and the hippocampus, which is crucial for forming new memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms such as hearing loss, memory impairment, and changes in emotional behavior.

"History, 19th Century" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the historical events, developments, and figures related to the 1800s in various fields, including politics, culture, science, and technology. However, if you are looking for medical advancements during the 19th century, here's a brief overview:

The 19th century was a period of significant progress in medicine, with numerous discoveries and innovations that shaped modern medical practices. Some notable developments include:

1. Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine (1796): Although not strictly within the 19th century, Jenner's discovery laid the foundation for vaccination as a preventive measure against infectious diseases.
2. Germ theory of disease: The work of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and others established that many diseases were caused by microorganisms, leading to the development of antiseptic practices and vaccines.
3. Anesthesia: In 1842, Crawford Long first used ether as an anesthetic during surgery, followed by the introduction of chloroform in 1847 by James Simpson.
4. Antisepsis and asepsis: Joseph Lister introduced antiseptic practices in surgery, significantly reducing postoperative infections. Later, the concept of asepsis (sterilization) was developed to prevent contamination during surgical procedures.
5. Microbiology: The development of techniques for culturing and staining bacteria allowed for better understanding and identification of pathogens.
6. Physiology: Claude Bernard's work on the regulation of internal body functions, or homeostasis, contributed significantly to our understanding of human physiology.
7. Neurology: Jean-Martin Charcot made significant contributions to the study of neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
8. Psychiatry: Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, a new approach to understanding mental illnesses.
9. Public health: The 19th century saw the establishment of public health organizations and initiatives aimed at improving sanitation, water quality, and vaccination programs.
10. Medical education reforms: The Flexner Report in 1910 led to significant improvements in medical education standards and practices.

Tobacco Use Disorder is a clinical diagnosis described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), used by healthcare professionals to diagnose mental health conditions. It is defined as a problematic pattern of tobacco use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:

1. Tobacco is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended.
2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control tobacco use.
3. A great deal of time is spent on activities necessary to obtain or use tobacco, or recover from its effects.
4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use tobacco, occurs.
5. Recurrent tobacco use results in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of tobacco use.
7. Tobacco use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by tobacco.
8. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
a. A need for markedly increased amounts of tobacco to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b. Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of tobacco.
9. Characteristic withdrawal syndrome for tobacco, or tobacco is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis excludes nicotine withdrawal that is a normal response to the cessation of tobacco use, intoxication, or substance/medication-induced disorders. Tobacco Use Disorder can be further specified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the number of criteria met.

I must clarify that I cannot provide a "medical definition" of intelligence, as intelligence is not a concept that is typically defined within the field of medicine. Intelligence is a term used to describe the ability to learn, understand, and make judgments or decisions based on reason, experience, and information. It is often measured through various cognitive abilities such as problem-solving, critical thinking, creativity, and knowledge acquisition.

The concept of intelligence is studied in many fields, including psychology, neuroscience, and education. In medicine, healthcare professionals may assess a person's cognitive abilities to better understand their health status or develop treatment plans. However, there is no specific "medical definition" for intelligence. Instead, it is a multifaceted concept that can be influenced by various genetic, environmental, and experiential factors.

Social perception, in the context of psychology and social sciences, refers to the ability to interpret and understand other people's behavior, emotions, and intentions. It is the process by which we make sense of the social world around us, by observing and interpreting cues such as facial expressions, body language, tone of voice, and situational context.

In medical terminology, social perception is not a specific diagnosis or condition, but rather a cognitive skill that can be affected in various mental and neurological disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and dementia. For example, individuals with autism may have difficulty interpreting social cues and understanding other people's emotions and intentions, while those with schizophrenia may have distorted perceptions of social situations and interactions.

Healthcare professionals who work with patients with cognitive or neurological disorders may assess their social perception skills as part of a comprehensive evaluation, in order to develop appropriate interventions and support strategies.

A learning disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to acquire, process, and use information in one or more academic areas despite normal intelligence and adequate instruction. It can manifest as difficulties with reading (dyslexia), writing (dysgraphia), mathematics (dyscalculia), or other academic skills. Learning disorders are not the result of low intelligence, lack of motivation, or environmental factors alone, but rather reflect a significant discrepancy between an individual's cognitive abilities and their academic achievement. They can significantly impact a person's ability to perform in school, at work, and in daily life, making it important to diagnose and manage these disorders effectively.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Substance abuse treatment centers are healthcare facilities that provide a range of services for individuals struggling with substance use disorders (SUDs), including addiction to alcohol, illicit drugs, prescription medications, and other substances. These centers offer comprehensive, evidence-based assessments, interventions, and treatments aimed at helping patients achieve and maintain sobriety, improve their overall health and well-being, and reintegrate into society as productive members.

The medical definition of 'Substance Abuse Treatment Centers' encompasses various levels and types of care, such as:

1. **Medical Detoxification:** This is the first step in treating substance abuse, where patients are closely monitored and managed for withdrawal symptoms as their bodies clear the harmful substances. Medical detox often involves the use of medications to alleviate discomfort and ensure safety during the process.
2. **Inpatient/Residential Treatment:** This level of care provides 24-hour structured, intensive treatment in a controlled environment. Patients live at the facility and receive various therapeutic interventions, such as individual therapy, group counseling, family therapy, and psychoeducation, to address the underlying causes of their addiction and develop coping strategies for long-term recovery.
3. **Partial Hospitalization Programs (PHP):** Also known as day treatment, PHPs offer structured, intensive care for several hours a day while allowing patients to return home or to a sober living environment during non-treatment hours. This level of care typically includes individual and group therapy, skill-building activities, and case management services.
4. **Intensive Outpatient Programs (IOP):** IOPs provide flexible, less intensive treatment than PHPs, with patients attending sessions for a few hours per day, several days a week. These programs focus on relapse prevention, recovery skills, and addressing any co-occurring mental health conditions.
5. **Outpatient Treatment:** This is the least restrictive level of care, where patients attend individual or group therapy sessions on a regular basis while living at home or in a sober living environment. Outpatient treatment often serves as step-down care after completing higher levels of treatment or as an initial intervention for those with milder SUDs.
6. **Aftercare/Continuing Care:** Aftercare or continuing care services help patients maintain their recovery and prevent relapse by providing ongoing support, such as 12-step meetings, alumni groups, individual therapy, and case management.

Each treatment modality has its unique benefits and is tailored to meet the specific needs of individuals at various stages of addiction and recovery. It's essential to consult with a healthcare professional or an addiction specialist to determine the most appropriate level of care for each person's situation.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and utilizing information. These processes include perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive functions allow us to interact with our environment, understand and respond to stimuli, learn new skills, and remember experiences.

In a medical context, cognitive function is often assessed as part of a neurological or psychiatric evaluation. Impairments in cognition can be caused by various factors, such as brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), infections, toxins, and mental health conditions. Assessing cognitive function helps healthcare professionals diagnose conditions, monitor disease progression, and develop treatment plans.

Marital therapy, also known as couples therapy, is a type of psychotherapy aimed at helping married or cohabitating partners understand and resolve their conflicts. It is a form of treatment that addresses the specific communication and relationship issues between two people who are in a committed relationship. The goal of marital therapy is to help couples develop skills and strategies to improve their relationship and better handle any future conflicts.

Marital therapy can be beneficial for couples facing a range of issues, including communication problems, financial stress, sexual difficulties, infidelity, addiction, and major life transitions. It is typically provided by licensed mental health professionals, such as psychologists, social workers, or marriage and family therapists. The therapy may involve individual sessions with each partner, as well as joint sessions with both partners together.

The specific approach used in marital therapy will depend on the training and preferences of the therapist, as well as the needs and goals of the couple. Some common approaches include cognitive-behavioral therapy, emotion-focused therapy, and the Gottman method. These approaches may involve exercises such as communication skills training, conflict resolution techniques, and trust-building activities. Ultimately, the goal of marital therapy is to help couples build a stronger, more fulfilling relationship.

... is a bimonthly peer-reviewed psychology journal covering the study of personality disorders. ... "Journal of Personality Disorders". 2016 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate Analytics. 2017. ... in 1986 and is published by Guilford Press on behalf of the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders, of ... Personality journals, Guilford Press academic journals, Academic journals established in 1986, English-language journals, ...
"Toward a dimensional model for the personality disorders.". Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality (2 ... The personality domains can also be extended to describe the personality of non-personality disorder patients. Diagnosis of ... In personality pathology, dimensional models of personality disorders (also known as the dimensional approach to personality ... The Personality and Personality Disorder Work Group proposed a combination categorical-dimensional model of personality ...
Unspecified personality disorder - general criteria for a personality disorder are met but the personality disorder is not ... Depressive Personality Disorder, SDPD - Self-Defeating Personality Disorder, SaPD - Sadistic Personality Disorder, and n/a - ... Avoidant Personality Disorder, DPD - Dependent Personality Disorder, OCPD - Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder, PAPD - ... Avoidant Personality Disorder, DPD - Dependent Personality Disorder, OCPD - Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder, PAPD - ...
... is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American ... "Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment". American Psychological Association. October 24, 2012. Retrieved 2012- ... "Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment". 2021 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Social Sciences ed.). ... It was established in 2009 and covers research in personality psychology. The current editor-in-chief is Joshua D. Miller, PhD ...
The World Health Organization's ICD-10 lists dependent personality disorder as F60.7 Dependent personality disorder: It is ... Dependent personality disorder is a cluster C personality disorder, which is characterized by excessive fear and anxiety. It ... "Dependent Personality Disorder". Interpersonal Diagnosis and Treatment of Personality Disorders. Guilford Press. pp. 221-239. ... "A strategy for the pharmacotherapy of personality disorders". In Adler, David A. (ed.). Treating Personality Disorders. San ...
... disorder Bipolar disorder Borderline personality disorder Histrionic personality disorder Narcissistic personality disorder ... Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD or APD) is a personality disorder characterized by a limited capacity for empathy and a ... Anxiety disorders Depressive disorder Impulse control disorders Substance-related disorder Somatization disorder Attention ... Howard, Richard (2015). "Personality disorders and violence: What is the link?". Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion ...
... was a type of personality disorder diagnosis largely used in German-, Russian- and French- ... "other specific personality disorders", and in DSM-III under "other personality disorders", but the term was not described or ... "Asthenic Personality Disorder" or "Dependent Personality Disorder". "Psychopathy". Soviet Law and Government. 8 (2-4): 393-413 ... higher than any other personality disorder. Haltlose and Histrionic were the most common personality disorders found in female ...
... (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a personality ... and other personality disorders, can be misdiagnosed as mood disorders, substance use disorders, or other disorders. BPD is ... including panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) other personality disorders, ... Borderline personality disorder remains the most commonly associated personality disorder with suicide. After a patient with ...
Antisocial personality disorder Bipolar disorder Borderline personality disorder Dysthymia Narcissistic personality disorder ... personality disorders) Paranoid personality disorder Schizoid personality disorder Schizotypy Dissociative Identity Disorder ... disorder Major depressive disorder Paranoid personality disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder Schizoid personality disorder ... Schizotypal personality disorder (StPD or SPD), also known as schizotypal disorder, is a cluster A personality disorder. The ...
... (OPD) or secondary personality change, is a condition described in the ICD-10 and ICD-11 ... In the ICD-10, it is described as a mental disorder and not included in the classification group of personality disorders. In ... The OPD is included in a group of personality and behavioural disorders - in the ICD-10 this is "Personality and behavioural ... personality disorders, impulse control disorder, and addictive behavior syndrome. For differential diagnosis in the ICD-10, ...
Major depressive disorder Panic disorder[citation needed] Paranoid personality disorder Social anxiety disorder[citation needed ... SzPD is distinguished from other personality disorders in that it is "the personality disorder that lacks a personality." He ... Schizoid Personality Disorder and Substance Use Disorders". Integrated Treatment for Co-Occurring Disorders: Personality ... Schizoid personality disorder (/ˈskɪtsɔɪd, ˈskɪdzɔɪd, ˈskɪzɔɪd/, often abbreviated as SzPD or ScPD) is a personality disorder ...
... of personality. Antisocial personality disorder, a personality disorder characterized by a long term pattern of disregard for, ... masochistic personality disorder) Sexual sadism disorder Zoosadism Sociopathy Hucker, Stephen J. Sadistic Personality Disorder ... Sadistic personality disorder is a personality disorder defined by a pervasive pattern of sadistic and cruel behavior. People ... Sadistic personality disorder was considered more common in men than women. Sadistic personality disorder was thought to have ...
... social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance-related disorders. Criteria for other personality disorder ... National Personality Disorder website for England Articles about Personality Disorders in Web4health web site (Webarchive ... Paranoid Personality Disorder. In: J. W. Livesley (Ed.). The DSM-IV Personality Disorders. (pp. 45-57). New York: Guilford. ... Personality disorders in modern life. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-23734-1. "Internet Mental Health-paranoid personality disorder". ...
Groopman LC, Cooper AM (2006). "Narcissistic Personality Disorder". Personality Disorders - Narcissistic Personality Disorder. ... borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, or paranoid personality disorder. NPD should also be ... Specific Personality Disorders Paris J (April 2014). "Modernity and narcissistic personality disorder". Personality Disorders. ... "Personality and Personality Disorders" proposed the elimination of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) as a distinct entry ...
... of all personality disorder diagnoses. While borderline personality disorder is the most common personality disorder among ... Other Personality Disorder should be used when the clinician judges that a specific Personality Disorder not included in this ... Immature personality disorder was a type of personality disorder diagnosis. It is characterized by lack of emotional ... or Immature Personality Disorder. In such instances the clinician should record the specific Other personality Disorder, using ...
... The DSM IV Personality Disorders, 173-192. Nickert, J. (n.d.) Histrionic Personality Disorder ... and narcissistic personality disorders, as well as depression, anxiety disorders, panic disorder, somatoform disorders, ... Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is defined by the American Psychiatric Association as a personality disorder ... Widiger, T. (1998). "Sex biases in the diagnosis of personality disorders". Journal of Personality Disorders. 12 (2): 95-118. ...
... borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder and narcissistic personality disorder. Cluster C : Disorders ... This includes paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder. Cluster B : ... Cluster C includes avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder ... Personality development disorder is considered to be a childhood risk factor or early stage of a later personality disorder in ...
... (AvPD) or Anxious personality disorder is a Cluster C personality disorder characterized by ... personality disorder tends to be a blend of a major personality disorder type with one or more secondary personality disorder ... a personality disorder with a combination of features from borderline personality disorder and avoidant personality disorder, ... Being a personality disorder, which is usually chronic and has long-lasting mental conditions, an avoidant personality disorder ...
... (also known as melancholic personality disorder) is a psychiatric diagnosis that denotes a ... Disorder and Unspecified Personality Disorder can be used to classify an equivalent of depressive personality disorder. In the ... "impairments in personality functioning". While depressive personality disorder shares some similarities with mood disorders ... this set of subtypes is associated with melancholic personality disorders. All depression spectrum personality disorders are ...
... (also known as masochistic personality disorder) was a proposed personality disorder. As a ... Since the DSM-5, the diagnoses other specified personality disorder and unspecified personality disorder have mostly replaced ... or Immature Personality Disorder. In such instances the clinician should record the specific Other Personality Disorder, using ... "Self-Defeating Personality Disorder: An Empirical Study". Journal of Personality Disorders. 1 (2): 168-173. doi:10.1521/pedi. ...
Schizoid personality disorder. Schizoid personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder may both display ... eating disorders, anxiety, mood disorders, and substance use disorders. The disorder is the most common personality disorder in ... Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is a cluster C personality disorder marked by a spectrum of obsessions with ... Narcissistic personality disorder. Individuals with a narcissistic personality disorder usually believe that they have achieved ...
xvi-xvii, 5. "Disorders of adult personality and behaviour (F60-F69). F60 Specific personality disorders" (PDF). The ICD-10 ... "Disorders of adult personality and behaviour (F60-F69). F60.8 Other specified personality disorders" (PDF). The ICD-10 ... Passive-aggressive personality disorder, also called negativistic personality disorder, is characterized by procrastination, ... Millon, Theordore (March 1993). "Negativistic (Passive-Aggressive) Personality Disorder". Journal of Personality Disorders. 7 ( ...
Celebrating the 25th Anniversary of the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders". Journal of Personality ... "Millon's Contributions to the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD)". Journal of Personality ... It was established in 1988 at the 1st International Congress on the Study of Personality Disorders. This event, held in ... Since 1989, its official journal has been the Journal of Personality Disorders, which is published on its behalf by Guilford ...
"Borderline Personality Disorder Medications - Learn More About Borderline Personality Disorder Medications". Bpd.about.com. ... "The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Results from the Borderline Personality ... DBT can be based on a biosocial theory of personality functioning in which BPD is seen as a biological disorder of emotional ... Nordahl H.M.; Nysaeter T.E. (2005). "Schema therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder: a single case series". J ...
The four excluded personality disorders are: Sadistic personality disorder Self-defeating personality disorder Depressive ... Other Specified Personality Disorder and Unspecified Personality Disorder. They share the general criteria for personality ... In terms of severity patients with PD-NOS fall between a formal personality disorder diagnosis and no personality disorder. ... However, the DSM-5 other specified personality disorder and unspecified personality disorder are substantially comparable to PD ...
The Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale (MBPD) is a measure of borderline personality disorder traits. The scale ... v t e (All stub articles, Psychiatry stubs, Personality tests, Borderline personality disorder). ... "Development and validation of the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder scale." Assessment 18.2 (2011): 234-252. Rojas, ... so that such past studies can be reanalyzed to study borderline personality disorder. Bornovalova, Marina A., et al. " ...
... The Scotsman. 9 March 2009. Al Murray's Multiple Personality Disorder. Daily Mirror ... Al Murray reveals new characters Al Murray's Multiple Personality Disorder at IMDb Al Murray's Multiple Personality Disorder at ... Al Murray's Multiple Personality Disorder is a British sketch show starring comedian Al Murray. The multi character aspect of ... Al Murray's Multiple Personality Disorder provoked considerable controversy, receiving very sharp criticism from some quarters ...
... and borderline personality disorder: A latent class analysis in a multiply traumatized sample". Personality Disorders: Theory, ... "Borderline personality disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and narcissistic ... Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a psychological disorder characterized by chronic instability of relationships, self- ... Paris, Joel; Black, Donald W. (2015). "Borderline Personality Disorder and Bipolar Disorder". The Journal of Nervous and Mental ...
For example, alcohol- and substance-related disorders and antisocial personality disorder are adult externalizing disorders. ... oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), pyromania, kleptomania, ... "Personality Disorders". Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. DSM Library. American Psychiatric Association. ... Externalizing disorders (or externalising disorders) are mental disorders characterized by externalizing behaviors, maladaptive ...
Evidence of conduct disorder during childhood is one of the criteria for an adult diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder ... oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety disorders, and childhood bipolar disorder. DMDD first appeared as a disorder in ... "Personality Disorders". Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Association. 2022 ... however adults with a continued diagnosis of conduct disorder do not necessarily have antisocial personality disorder. Youth ...
Journal of Personality Disorders is a bimonthly peer-reviewed psychology journal covering the study of personality disorders. ... "Journal of Personality Disorders". 2016 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate Analytics. 2017. ... in 1986 and is published by Guilford Press on behalf of the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders, of ... Personality journals, Guilford Press academic journals, Academic journals established in 1986, English-language journals, ...
There are many types of personality disorders. Read more. ... People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with ... What are personality disorders?. Personality disorders are a group of mental disorders. They involve long-term patterns of ... What are the symptoms of personality disorders?. The symptoms of each personality disorder are different. But each disorder ... Paranoid personality disorder (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Personality disorders (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ...
Treatment for dependent personality disorder can include cognitive behavioral therapy, psychotherapy, and, potentially, ... Borderline personality disorder and substance use disorder: What is the connection?. Borderline personality disorder is a ... Comorbidity of personality disorders explained. It is common for personality disorders to occur alongside other personality ... www.merckmanuals.com/professional/psychiatric-disorders/personality-disorders/dependent-personality-disorder-dpd. ...
A personality disorder, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, Fourth ... encoded search term (Personality Disorders) and Personality Disorders What to Read Next on Medscape ... and medical disorders (eg, head injury, seizure disorders), can make the diagnosis of personality disorders more difficult ... Comorbidity of personality disorders in anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis of 30 years of research. J Affect Disord. 2012 Sep ...
Schizoid personality disorder is a type of eccentric personality disorder. A person with this disorder may not even realize ... Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is part of a larger group of psychological disorders called "Cluster B" personality ... Are Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD) and Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) the Same Thing?. ... Personality disorders. (n.d.). http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/mental_health_disorders/personality_ ...
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Those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have an underlying fear of abandonment and often misinterpret interpersonal ... Those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have an underlying fear of abandonment and often misinterpret interpersonal ... She specializes in the treatment of personality disorders from the Psychoanalytic International Masterson Institute in New York ... She specializes in the treatment of personality disorders from the Psychoanalytic International Masterson Institute in New York ...
While it may be difficult to treat for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), there are ways to learn to manage its symptoms. ... Causes of Antisocial Personality Disorder. Antisocial personality disorder causes may be complex, but research indicates there ... Antisocial personality disorder is often characterized by a disregard for others and right or wrong, but theres so much more ... Antisocial personality disorder symptoms can include lack of remorse or regard for the rights of others. Learn more about what ...
The prevalence and debilitating nature of some of the personality disorders has impeded the study of psychopharmacology in ... Borderline personality disorder. By far the most studied personality disorder, borderline personality disorder (BPD), is also ... Schizotypal personality disorder. As with schizophrenia, functional impairment in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) may be ... Antisocial personality disorder. Randomized studies in antisocial personality disorder have generally focused on forensic ...
Text adapted from: "The adult patient with a personality disorder," in Psychiatry in primary care. by Michael Rosenbluth, ... The practical point for primary care practitioners is that all patients with a personality disorder should be screened for ... is debate over whether this indicates that treating the personality disorder decreases rates of co-occurring Axis I disorders ... If you confirm that there is longstanding personality pathology, it should not be a reason to avoid robust psychotherapy or ...
Read about famous people with borderline personality disorder and celebrities with borderline personality disorder. ... In Borderline Personality Disorder. In Borderline Personality Disorder+-. * What is Borderline Personality Disorder ... www.healthyplace.com/personality-disorders/borderline-personality-disorder/famous-people-with-borderline-personality-disorder ... Eating disorder. There might be many more celebrities with borderline personality disorder and other mental health issues. One ...
People with Schizoid personality disorder are indifferent to society. They tend to be lifelong loners who come across as ... Although schizoid personality disordered people share some negative symptoms in common with some people who have schizophrenia ... People with Schizoid personality disorder are indifferent to society. They tend to be lifelong loners who come across as ... The following diagnostic criteria must be met before a diagnosis of Schizoid Personality Disorder is warranted, according to ...
Personality Disorders: Borderline Personality Disorder, Schizoid Personality Disorder, Psychopathy *Schizoid Personality ... Schizoid Personality Disorder schizoid personality disorder from Internet Mental Health. schizoid personality disorder ... The Difference Between Personality Disorders The differences between the schizoid personality disorder and other personality ... Disorders Index *Back Home We subscribe to the HONcode principles.. 6. Schizoid Personality Disorder schizoid personality ...
Shop Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents, 2nd Edition - by Blaise Aguirre (Paperback) at Target. Choose from Same ... Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents is a comprehensive guide to BPD, offering an overview of the disorder, its ... chronic disorder." - Perry D. Hoffman, Ph.D., President, National Education Alliance for Borderline Personality Disorder ... "Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents is a long overdue book that eloquently and expertly addresses the wide-ranging ...
Are the best, most successful strippers and escorts the ones who score highest in these cluster B personality disorders? ... People with these disorders can be very dangerous. They can be manipulative, and violent. When I take this into account some of ... veteran users on here once commented that strippers and escorts have a higher prevalence of cluster B personality disorders ... but I guarantee that shes more interested in the contents of your wallet than your witty banter and sparkling personality. ...
"Borderline Personality Disorder AND interventional studies"), and the WHO meta-register ICTRP ("borderline personality disorder ... "borderline personality disorder", the ISRCTN registry (studies with inclusion criterion "borderline personality disorder"), ... Fitzmaurice GM Treatment rates for patients with borderline personality disorder and other personality disorders: a 16-year ... Pharmacotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: an Update of Published, Unpublished and Ongoing Studies. *Personality ...
Just a couple of days ago Lim Kit Siangs other personality has kicked in and now he is talking reconciliation with Hadi Awang. ... So here we have one of Lim Kit Siangs many personalities believing that PAS president Hadi Awang on one hand would be in ... actions towards PAS president Hadi Awang continue to run from bizarre to showing signs of full blown multi-personality disorder ... The following is a short list of some of Lim Kit Siangs multiple personalities. ...
Language matters when talking about Borderline Personality Disorder. ... Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is one of the least understood mental health diagnoses. The National Alliance on Mental ... Journal of personality disorders, 27(6), 735-745.. DeVylder, J. E (2010). Dialectical behavior therapy for the treatment of ... Hypothetical therapist treating someone with Borderline Personality Disorder. When Sean, one of the co-authors, wrote about the ...
BPD is a mental health disorder that affects peoples thoughts, emotions and behaviours. BPD can cause distress and sometimes ... All about Borderline Personality Disorder. BPD is a mental health disorder that affects peoples thoughts, emotions and ... they say its more of a trauma disorder than a personality disorder. ... You dont have to cope with Borderline Personality Disorder on your own. ...
... personality disorders can disrupt a persons life, as well as the lives of friends and family. Learn more here! ... dependent and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.. Avoidant personality disorder: This disorder can be crippling, as it ... Personality disorders arent simply a matter of having a bad day. There are 10 personality disorders and each one has several ... Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: A person with this disorder is consumed with a rigid sense of propriety and ...
... personality disorder. People with this disorder are able to function in everyday life, but will not develop meaningful ... Odd/Eccentric/Suspicious Personality. Differential Diagnosis Some disorders have similar or even the same symptom. The ... People with schizoid personality disorder do not have schizophrenia; but it is thought that many of the same risk factors in ... Schizoid Personality Disorder A pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression ...
The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for statistical purposes. The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for anonymous statistical purposes. Without a subpoena, voluntary compliance on the part of your Internet Service Provider, or additional records from a third party, information stored or retrieved for this purpose alone cannot usually be used to identify you. ...
Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-5® Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (SCID-5-AMPD) Module II Personality ... Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders SCID-5-AMPD Donna S. Bender, Ph.D., ... Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders SCID-5-AMPD Michael B. First, M.D., ... Expertly designed, the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (SCID-5-AMPD) is ...
Are you up on the latest research into antisocial personality disorder? Find out whats new with a quick quiz. ... This Rapid Review Quiz was excerpted and adapted from the Medscape articles Personality Disorders, Aggression, Choosing Our ... and Optimal Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Identified? ...
Background The Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS) is an instrument designed to assess endophenotypes related to ... Personality Is the Subject Area "Personality" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
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A study published in Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation suggests that borderline symptoms are associated ... Can personality disorders affect ones sense of a humor? ... Can personality disorders affect ones sense of a humor? A ... Borderline Personality Disorder Borderline personality disorder not linked to abnormal neural processing of facial expressions ... Borderline personality disorder is a mental health condition characterized by a pattern of unstable relationships, intense ...
Find calm, confidence, and reassurance as you build the skills to navigate borderline personality disorder. Did you know that ... Her Borderline Personality Disorder Workbook is easy to read and a perfect introduction to DBT for those searching for relief ... Borderline Personality Disorder Workbook: DBT Strategies and Exercises to Manage Symptoms and Improve Well-Being (Paperback). ... Her Borderline Personality Disorder Workbook is easy to read and a perfect introduction to DBT for those searching for relief ...
Causes of Borderline Personality Disorder. *Co-occurring Disorders. *Borderline Personality Disorder In Children and ... Causes of Borderline Personality Disorder. *Co-occurring Disorders. *Borderline Personality Disorder In Children and ...
Q&A Is It Wrong to Ask My Husband to Understand the Affair Partners Personality Disorder? Submitted by Leslie_Hardie Wed, 11/ ... What I am struggling with that I also know that his affair partner struggles with histrionic personality disorder. Her ... I spent countless hours researching this disorder in an attempt to bring clarity in my head from things she did, said, and how ...
  • Borderline personality disorder, in which a person has lots of trouble managing their emotions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Borderline personality disorder: toward integration. (medscape.com)
  • Goodman G, Edwards K, Chung H. Interaction structures formed in the psychodynamic therapy of five patients with borderline personality disorder in crisis. (medscape.com)
  • A practical approach to the treatment of patients with borderline personality disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have an underlying fear of abandonment and often misinterpret interpersonal situations where they end up feeling worthless or mistreated. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Few recent personality disorder drug studies have included, for example, the intermittently unsafe borderline patients often seen in clinical practice. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • This means that there are virtually no randomized clinical trials of increasingly popular agents like topiramate, lamotrigine, or the atypical antipsychotic in borderline or other personality disordered patients who are or recently have been actively suicidal. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • By far the most studied personality disorder, borderline personality disorder (BPD), is also the only one to be the subject of an American Psychiatric Association practice guideline. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • One brave football superstar, Brandon Marshall , publicly announced that he has borderline personality disorder back in 2011. (healthyplace.com)
  • While it's impossible to actually diagnose famous people with borderline personality disorder from our living room sofas, the behavior of certain celebrities definitely shows they have symptoms of borderline personality disorder and may be dealing with BPD . (healthyplace.com)
  • There might be many more celebrities with borderline personality disorder and other mental health issues. (healthyplace.com)
  • One can only hope that some of them will follow Brandon Marshall's lead and come forward, offering hope and encouragement to others who suffer in silence and who want to seek borderline personality disorder treatment . (healthyplace.com)
  • This second edition of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents offers parents, caregivers, and adolescents themselves a complete understanding of this complex and tough-to-treat disorder. (target.com)
  • Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents is a comprehensive guide to BPD, offering an overview of the disorder, its treatment options, and advice on how to live with it day-to-day. (target.com)
  • Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents is a long overdue book that eloquently and expertly addresses the wide-ranging issues surrounding borderline personality disorder in adolescents. (target.com)
  • This compassionate book is a must for parents with children suffering from borderline personality disorder, as well as clinicians, educators, pediatricians, and clergy trying to understand and help adolescents with this serious, chronic disorder. (target.com)
  • Considering the numbers of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) testing drug treatments for borderline personality disorder (BPD), it becomes clear that throughout the last 5 years, this topic seems to be paid less attention to (Fig. 1 ). (springer.com)
  • We focused on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of drug treatments for people with borderline personality disorder that reported clinical outcomes. (springer.com)
  • Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is one of the least understood mental health diagnoses. (socialworker.com)
  • What is borderline personality disorder (BPD)? (kidshelpline.com.au)
  • Narcissistic, histrionic, antisocial and borderline personality disorders are considered highly emotional and dramatic, while at the same time being extremely unpredictable. (casapalmera.com)
  • Borderline personality disorder: This disorder is characterized by instability in mood and behavior. (casapalmera.com)
  • Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a common mental illness which is associated with a significant degree of distress and impairment. (sa.gov.au)
  • Do Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder in Primary Care Gain Access to Mental Health Services? (psychiatrist.com)
  • Borderline personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability, which makes borderline personality disorder patients frequent users of mental health resources. (psychiatrist.com)
  • 1 The prevalence of borderline personality disorder in primary care is high. (psychiatrist.com)
  • 2 In our study, we expected to discover high prevalences of patients at high risk of suffering from borderline personality disorder among this population. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Secondly, we predicted that, among them, those at high risk of borderline personality disorder would report greater health care utilization than the others. (psychiatrist.com)
  • The prevalence of patients at high risk of suffering from borderline personality disorder was 21.7% (n = 13). (psychiatrist.com)
  • Findings reveal that 46.2% of patients (n = 6) at high risk of borderline personality disorder had been previously engaged in psychotherapy, 53.8% (n = 7) had been prescribed psychoactive medication (mainly benzodiazepines), and 15.4% (n = 2) had been admitted at least once to a psychiatric unit. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Among patients with a high risk of personality disorder, we found no differences regarding previous use of mental health services between patients reporting a high risk of borderline personality disorder and those at high risk of personality disorders other than borderline personality disorder. (psychiatrist.com)
  • The elevated rates of patients at high risk of suffering from borderline personality disorder are in agreement with previous research. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Our findings highlight the fact that patients at high risk of borderline personality disorder do not make use of mental health care services any more frequently than other primary care patients. (psychiatrist.com)
  • It has been suggested that borderline personality disorder patients in primary care and psychiatric settings are more similar than not. (psychiatrist.com)
  • 4 However, in our sample, the patients suffering from borderline personality disorder encountered in primary care settings benefited from only partial access to psychiatric services. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Eligible patients were those aged 13-17 years who were admitted to the psychiatric facility, who had at least one emergency visit or admission during the 6 months before admission, and had prominent features of instability and self-harm, corresponding to at least three of the nine criteria for borderline personality disorder as per the DSM-5 as assessed by a paediatric psychiatrist during the admission. (lu.se)
  • FINDINGS: Of the 928 patients admitted to the psychiatric facility between April 1, 2018, and April 30, 2021, 60 were excluded, and a further 801 did not meet the inclusion criteria for age, previous emergency visits, or having at least three of the nine criteria of borderline personality disorder. (lu.se)
  • Narcissistic personality disorder, in which a person lacks empathy and wants to be admired by others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Examples may include dependent or avoidant features in major depression or obsessive-compulsive disorder, antisocial behaviors in substance abuse, or histrionic or narcissistic features in mania. (medscape.com)
  • The Validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale for Assessing Pathological Grandiosity. (medscape.com)
  • Britton R. Narcissistic disorders in clinical practice. (medscape.com)
  • Narcissistic personality disorder: The disorder deludes sufferers into thinking they are powerful, special and above everyone else. (casapalmera.com)
  • Although schizoid personality disordered people share some negative symptoms in common with some people who have schizophrenia, they do not go on to exhibit truly psychotic behavior. (mentalhelp.net)
  • B) Does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a Pervasive Developmental Disorder and is not due to the direct physiological effects of a general medical condition. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Kalus (1995, p. 58) believes that the schizoid personality disorder is distinguished by the predominance of negative symptoms associated with the schizophrenia spectrum disorders, i.e., social, interpersonal, and affective deficits without psychotic-like cognitive/perceptual distortions. (geometry.net)
  • Site provides American and European descriptions of the disorder along with brief outline of treatment Category Health Mental Health Schizophrenia Schizoid Personality. (geometry.net)
  • criteria are met prior to the onset of Schizophrenia, add "Premorbid " e.g., "schizoid personality disorder (Premorbid). (geometry.net)
  • but it is thought that many of the same risk factors in schizophrenia may be factors causing schizoid personality disorder. (energyenhancement.org)
  • Controversially, there is some evidence to indicate that schizoid personality disorder may be the beginning of schizophrenia, or even a very mild form of it. (energyenhancement.org)
  • A genetic contribution to paranoid traits and a possible genetic link between this personality disorder and schizophrenia exist. (medscape.com)
  • This disorder is genetically linked with schizophrenia. (medscape.com)
  • Four other mental disorders figure in the top 10 causes of disability in the world, namely alcohol abuse, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder. (who.int)
  • The majority of victims had chronic mental disorders, mainly schizophrenia, depression and substance abuse. (who.int)
  • They consist of extreme, maladaptive levels of certain personality characteristics (these characteristics are commonly described as facets within broader personality factors or traits). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 10 personality disorders and each one has several traits that are common to it that don't go away or change under different circumstances. (casapalmera.com)
  • To be considered as having a personality disorder, a person must exhibit a certain number of those traits consistently over a period of time-and those behaviors must be so pervasive that the person is prevented from carrying out normal activities or suffers great affliction because of them. (casapalmera.com)
  • Because certain disorders share similar traits with others, and because some disorders even co-occur, they have been put into groups together. (casapalmera.com)
  • Module II: Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Traits focuses on the dimensional assessment of the five pathological personality trait domains in the Alternative Model and their corresponding 25 trait facets. (appi.org)
  • It's when your personality traits cause significant problems in your life or keep you from relating normally to others. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The researches reviewed in this study confirm that personality disorders and pathological personality traits are common in certain types of epilepsy and they affect many areas of patients ' lives. (bvsalud.org)
  • Considering the high frequency of epilepsy -related pathological personality traits that can have a great impact on the therapeutic cooperation and on the patients ' quality of life , it important that the neurologist recognizes early the signs of the patient 's psychological impairment. (bvsalud.org)
  • Individual factors such as personality traits are known to interact with these work-related factors to reconcile or aggravate the body's biomechanical response, yet the interacting effect of these factors on muscular loading is not clearly understood. (cdc.gov)
  • Schizotypal personality disorder, in which a person has unusual thoughts and ways of behaving and speaking. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dahmer also had schizoid personality disorder features and schizotypal pathology, expert says. (geometry.net)
  • Cluster A is made up of paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders. (casapalmera.com)
  • Schizotypal personality disorder: Distorted thought is also a hallmark of this disorder, but generally more intense. (casapalmera.com)
  • Although some of the symptoms are similar, this is not the same thing as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The symptoms of each personality disorder are different. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The "checklist" of symptoms that is currently used is often criticized for a lack of empirical support and its inability to recognize personality-related issues that do not fit within the current personality disorder constructs or DSM criteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dependent personality disorder treatment can help with symptoms and support a person in maintaining healthy relationships. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It can be difficult to accurately diagnose an axis II disorder in the context of acute and severe axis I symptoms unless the clinician is very familiar with the patient's long-term history. (medscape.com)
  • For example, signs and symptoms of individuals with major depression, mania, panic attacks, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or substance abuse may resolve with successful treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment for antisocial personality disorder can be challenging, but there are ways to manage the condition and its associated symptoms. (psychcentral.com)
  • Symptoms and treatment of schizoid personality disorder combined with substance abuse. (geometry.net)
  • A study of almost 600 male college students, averaging almost 30 years of age and who were not drawn from a clinical sample, examined the relationship between childhood experiences of sexual and physical abuse and presently reported personality disorder symptoms. (solarnavigator.net)
  • Schizoid personality disorder, in which a person prefers to be alone and is not interested in having relationships with others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with Schizoid personality disorder are indifferent to society. (mentalhelp.net)
  • The Schizoid Personality Disorder (SPD) Essential Feature According to the DSM-IV (1994, p. 638), the essential feature of the schizoid personality disorder "e;is a pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings. (geometry.net)
  • The ICD-10 (1994, p. 225) describes the schizoid personality disorder as "e;characterized by withdrawal from affectional, social and other contacts, with a preference for fantasy, solitary activities and introspection. (geometry.net)
  • Schizoid personality disorder: Someone with this disorder is likely to isolate socially, finding little happiness in developing close relationships, or even in normal life in general. (casapalmera.com)
  • Group therapy in people with schizoid personality disorder is another potentially effective form of treatment. (energyenhancement.org)
  • Medications are not usually recommended as treatment for schizoid personality disorder. (energyenhancement.org)
  • Psychotherapy Individual therapy that successfully attains a long-term trust level can be useful in some cases of schizoid personality disorder by providing an outlet for patients to transform their false perceptions of friendships into a genuine relationship. (energyenhancement.org)
  • Histrionic personality disorder, in which a person is dramatic, has strong emotions, and always wants attention from others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is part of a larger group of psychological disorders called "Cluster B" personality disorders. (healthline.com)
  • The exact cause of histrionic personality disorder is unknown. (healthline.com)
  • Histrionic personality disorder: As the name of this disorder implies, excessive emotion is the defining characteristic. (casapalmera.com)
  • Paranoid personality disorder, in which a person has paranoia (an extreme fear and distrust of others). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Paranoid personality disorder: This disorder makes someone suspicious of other people, and that mistrust can affect social relationships. (casapalmera.com)
  • What are the types of personality disorders? (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are 10 types of personality disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Read more about the different types of personality disorders here. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The model has been used to describe the different accepted types of personality disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Does your boy suffer from Anti Social Personality Disorder (ASPD), which is defined (by the American Psychiatric Association) as "a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others? (teenchallengeranch.com)
  • In personality pathology, dimensional models of personality disorders (also known as the dimensional approach to personality disorders, dimensional classification, and dimensional assessments) conceptualize personality disorders as quantitatively rather than qualitatively different from normal personality. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6 Although the strong correlation between negative life experiences and personality disorders has become a cornerstone of our understanding of some Axis II pathology, it should be remembered that heredity also appears to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of personality disorders. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • If you confirm that there is longstanding personality pathology, it should not be a reason to avoid robust psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. (camh.ca)
  • The strongest support that personality pathology predicts poor outcome comes from the weakest studies, which did not carefully define personality, who was treated, how the treatment was conducted or how outcome was defined. (camh.ca)
  • Expertly designed, the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (SCID-5-AMPD) is a semistructured diagnostic interview that guides clear assessment of the defining components of personality pathology as presented in the DSM-5 Alternative Model. (appi.org)
  • Influence of psychosocial stress and personality type on the biomechanical loading of neck and shoulder muscles. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of individual personality on the biomechanical response of neck and shoulder muscles to physical and psychosocial demands. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent advances in neurosciences, genetics, psychosocial therapy, pharmacotherapy, and sociocultural disciplines have led to the elaboration of effective interventions for a wide range of mental health problems, offering an opportunity for people with mental and behavioural disorders and their families to lead full and productive lives. (who.int)
  • psychosocial risk factors among youth gave physical and mental disorders (presence and more attention to stressful events. (who.int)
  • The purpose of this study was to correlate the pathological functioning of personality with the dimensions of intimate partner violence in a sample of 139 married couples in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, Brazil. (bvsalud.org)
  • We observed the existence of possible patterns in the pathological functioning of the personalities of spouses, whether by similarity or complementarity, something that future research can confirm. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cluster A personality disorders involve unusual and odd thoughts and behaviors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cluster B personality disorders involve dramatic and emotional thoughts and behaviors that can keep changing. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cluster C personality disorders involve anxious and fearful thoughts and behaviors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Individuals with this Cluster B Personality Disorder in their actions regularly disregard and violate the rights of others. (behavenet.com)
  • One of the famous veteran users on here once commented that strippers and escorts have a higher prevalence of cluster B personality disorders because their desire for money and power is strong enough they're willing to manipulate, let random men grope them or have sex with them, and even straight up steal or scam money. (tuscl.net)
  • Are the best, most successful strippers and escorts the ones who score highest in these cluster B personality disorders? (tuscl.net)
  • Cluster personality disorders are organized into three categories: Cluster A, Cluster B and Cluster C. (casapalmera.com)
  • Cluster B personality disorders are on the other end of the spectrum from Cluster A's limited emotional expression. (casapalmera.com)
  • The aggregate yearly cost of mental disorders in 1990 for the United States of America was estimated at US$ 148 000 million. (who.int)
  • 1990. Environmentally related disorders of the nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • The diagnosis of personality disorders in patients who have comorbid axis I disorders, including mood, substance abuse, and medical disorders (eg, head injury, seizure disorders), can make the diagnosis of personality disorders more difficult because of overlapping features. (medscape.com)
  • 1 Few, if any, trials have compared in size and scope to the large government- or industry-funded studies of the major mood and psychotic disorders. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Globally, less than 40% of people experiencing a mood, anxiety or substance use disorder seek assistance in the first year of its onset. (who.int)
  • The suicide had significant psychiatric problems form collected information on the follow- including mood disorders such as schizo- ing: demographic data (age, sex, education phrenia, substance abuse or dependence level, marital status, occupation and living and personality disorder. (who.int)
  • Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) can affect the way a person thinks, behaves, and how they relate to others. (psychcentral.com)
  • Others with ASPD seek treatment for a co-occurring condition, such as depression or substance use disorder . (psychcentral.com)
  • Since substance use disorder frequently accompanies ASPD, this may be a worthwhile treatment to investigate. (psychcentral.com)
  • While an extremely complicated disorder to treat, your boy will enduring treatment for ASPD, as well as for any related conditions, such as depression, substance abuse and anxiety. (teenchallengeranch.com)
  • Dependent personality disorder (DPD) is a pattern of behaving passively and being excessively dependent on others in a way that may undermine a person's well-being or life. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Personality disorders may be challenging to treat because such disorders affect every aspect of a person's interactions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They may feel integral to a person's personality, so a person is unlikely to see their behavior as problematic. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Self-defeating personality disorder is characterised by behaviour that consequently undermines the person's pleasure and goals. (solarnavigator.net)
  • Generally influenced by a combination of genetics, environment and brain chemistry, personality disorders can disrupt a person's life, as well as the lives of friends and family. (casapalmera.com)
  • Antisocial personality disorder: An antisocial person will completely dismiss and disregard another person's thoughts and feelings, often on a level that can be aggressive and hostile. (casapalmera.com)
  • The Marine Resiliency Study (MRS) is a prospective study of factors predictive of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among approximately 2,600 Marines in 4 battalions deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic psychiatric illness such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major public health problem among current and former military service members, especially those who have served in combat. (cdc.gov)
  • Assessment and diagnosis of personality disorders : the ICD-10 international personality disorder examination (IPDE) / edited by Armand W. Loranger, Aleksandar Janca and Norman Sartorius. (who.int)
  • Avoidant personality disorder, in which a person is very shy and feels that they are not as good as others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The prevalence of chronic physical and mental disorders is increasing among children and adolescents in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, we investigated the association between mental health disorders and chronic physical conditions among children, and we assessed whether having mental disorders is associated with increased health care costs for children with chronic physical conditions, using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 2008 through 2013. (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic physical conditions and mental disorders were identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes. (cdc.gov)
  • We used logistic regression to assess the relationship between mental disorders and chronic physical conditions, and we used generalized linear models with gamma distribution and log link to estimate direct medical costs. (cdc.gov)
  • Groups at higher risk of developing mental disorders include people with serious or chronic physical illnesses, children and adolescents, whose upbringing has been disrupted, people living in poverty or in difficult conditions, the unemployed, female victims of violence and abuse, and neglected elderly persons. (who.int)
  • Many of these veterans have met screening or diagnostic criteria for PTSD (20%-39%), often co-occurring with depression, anxiety, substance use disorders, and chronic pain (7,8). (cdc.gov)
  • The dimensional approach is included in Section III ("Emerging Measures and Models") of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), where it is described as an "Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following from these claims, the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) incorporates a combined categorical-dimensional approach to diagnosing personality disorders based on the degree to which a person shows elevated levels of particular personality characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Personality disorders are noted on Axis II of the diagnostic manual of the American Psychiatric Association, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, or DSM-IV-TR as it is currently in its fourth edition with a text revision). (solarnavigator.net)
  • The clinician, therefore, in his diagnostic attempt has to differentiate against the following disorders which he needs to rule out to establish a precise diagnosis. (energyenhancement.org)
  • The research involved their asking all their patients to fill in a self-report questionnaire assessing the presence of personality disorder via the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised, 3 as well as providing information regarding previous use of mental health services. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised: a replication in an outpatient sample. (psychiatrist.com)
  • A personality disorder, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that differs markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment. (medscape.com)
  • It will restructure diagnostic groups to bring disorders that are similar in underlying vulnerabilities and symptom characteristics under the same headings. (medscape.com)
  • Yet, less than half those patients whose condition meets diagnostic criteria for mental and neurological disorders are identified by doctors. (who.int)
  • Comorbidity of personality disorders in anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis of 30 years of research. (medscape.com)
  • The main dependent personality disorder treatments are usually psychotherapy or psychodynamic therapy, often cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dependent personality disorder, in which a person depends too much on others and feels that they need to be taken care of. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with dependent personality disorder, though, can become excessively dependent, working to maintain relationships that may be harmful or one-sided. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • No specific medication has been developed to treat dependent personality disorder, and research on the effectiveness of medication has not been thorough or conclusive. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People with dependent personality disorder have a higher risk of substance misuse, so doctors should avoid prescribing potentially addictive drugs, such as benzodiazepines . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • How do doctors treat dependent personality disorder? (msdmanuals.com)
  • Dimensional modals are intended to reflect what constitutes personality disorder symptomology according to a spectrum, rather than in a dichotomous way. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapid Review Quiz: Antisocial Personality Disorder - Medscape - Sep 25, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • But each disorder involves problems and uncertainty with how people see themselves. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The disorders also cause problems in relationships with other people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with personality disorders may have trouble realizing that they have a problem. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People under 18 years old who fit the criteria of a personality disorder are usually not diagnosed with such a disorder, although they may be diagnosed with a related disorder. (solarnavigator.net)
  • People with these disorders can be very dangerous. (tuscl.net)
  • Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of drug treatments in people with personality disorders. (springer.com)
  • Many people have suggested that the name is also a problem - they say it's more of a trauma disorder than a personality disorder. (kidshelpline.com.au)
  • Someone with this disorder may start to believe their thoughts are either all-powerful and can affect people, or the thoughts can be held captive by others. (casapalmera.com)
  • People with this disorder are able to function in everyday life, but will not develop meaningful relationships with others. (energyenhancement.org)
  • People with this disorder rarely seek treatment. (energyenhancement.org)
  • The logic behind their leadership in delivery of these services is that consumers are thought to be capable of engaging others with mental disorders, serving as role models, and increasing the sensitivity of service systems to the needs of people with mental disorders. (energyenhancement.org)
  • Your personality is your unique way of thinking, understanding, reacting, and relating to people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Many people might seem to have an unusual personality. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, this kind of behavior can become a disorder if people let others rule their lives or even abuse them, or if people can't function in the workplace. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The number of people with mental and neurological disorders will grow - with the burden rising to 15% of DALYs lost by the year 2020. (who.int)
  • E. The enduring pattern is not better accounted for as a manifestation or consequence of another mental disorder. (solarnavigator.net)
  • The stud- types of physical and mental disorder, treat- ies mostly lacked a comparison group [ 7 ]. (who.int)
  • Among all the mental and neurological disorders, depression accounts for the largest proportion of the burden. (who.int)
  • A Norwegian twin study suggested that personality disorders are more strongly determined by genetics than are almost all the Axis I disorders. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Psychodynamic psychotherapy is another popular and potentially effective technique for treating personality disorders. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder and Depressive personality disorder were placed in an appendix of DSM-IV for research purposes. (solarnavigator.net)
  • New substances and even substance classes have been suggested, especially if specific comorbidities like depressive disorders are present. (springer.com)
  • Bourke and Greyner (2013) asked therapists open ended questions to describe their therapeutic relationships with clients with BPD and then compared those descriptions to those of clients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). (socialworker.com)
  • Trained clinicians with a basic knowledge of the concepts of personality and personality psychopathology will benefit from the myriad applications and insights offered by the SCID-5-AMPD. (appi.org)
  • Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder is a pattern of negative attitudes and passive resistance in interpersonal situations. (solarnavigator.net)
  • Module I dimensionally assesses self and interpersonal functioning using the Level of Personality Functioning Scale. (appi.org)
  • firstly to try to generate more accurate clinical diagnoses, secondly to develop more effective treatments and thirdly to determine the underlying etiology of disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been criticized for leading to diagnoses that are not stable over time, have poor cross-rater agreement and high comorbidity suggesting that they do not reflect distinct disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The practical point for primary care practitioners is that all patients with a personality disorder should be screened for comorbid Axis I diagnoses, and that these diagnoses should be treated robustly. (camh.ca)
  • Most promising are major discoveries relating to neurobiologic abnormalities and neurobiologic changes in response to provocation or treatment that have helped elucidate the constitutional factors that underlie personality disturbance. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • It's important to address a personality disorder and seek treatment. (casapalmera.com)
  • However, they are sometimes used for short-term treatment of extreme anxiety states associated with the disorder. (energyenhancement.org)
  • There is not a universally agreed upon successful treatment for this disorder but there might be success in ones that show the high cost of illegal and inappropriate behavior. (teenchallengeranch.com)
  • These disorders can lead to dysfunction in daily life, as well as self-harming behaviors such as substance abuse that are used as an unhealthy way to cope. (casapalmera.com)
  • The aim of this review is to help clinicians to recognize the signs of personality disorders and to investigate their connection and interaction with epilepsy in the light of current experiences. (bvsalud.org)
  • The prevalence and debilitating nature of some of the personality disorders has impeded the study of psychopharmacology in these conditions. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • There are not many peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials, given the prevalence and debilitating nature of some of the personality disorders. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • It has been argued to be especially useful in explaining comorbidity which is often high for patients diagnosed with a personality disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to dimensional models personality disorders are classified according to which characteristics are expressed at which levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8 It should not, therefore, be surprising that many patients with personality disorders exhibit structural and functional brain abnormalities, or that certain medications may be beneficial in these disorders. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Although the most common etiologies for personality disorders are multifactorial, these conditions may also be secondary to biologic, developmental, or genetic abnormalities. (medscape.com)
  • In patients with personality disorder, abnormalities may be seen in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. (medscape.com)
  • If psychopharmacology sometimes feels like walking a fine line between undertreatment and overtreatment or between letting patients suffer and turning to medications as an 'easy fix,' then the psychopharmacology of personality disorders can feel like walking a tightrope without a net. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Most patients with BPD improve with time ( Biskin, 2015 ), but there is debate over whether this indicates that treating the personality disorder decreases rates of co-occurring Axis I disorders or vice versa. (camh.ca)
  • John M. Oldham, M.D., M.S. , is Professor of Psychiatry and Barbara and Corbin Robertson Jr. Endowed Chair for Personality Disorders at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. (appi.org)
  • Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders . (bvsalud.org)
  • These studies draw attention to the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to this neurological disorder and to provide suggestions about the available help options. (bvsalud.org)
  • Neurological Disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • To be diagnosed as a personality disorder, a behavioral pattern must cause significant distress or impairment in personal, social, and/or occupational situations. (solarnavigator.net)
  • Marital violence is a public health problem that has many issues associated with its occurrence, among them personality disorders. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although several studies can be found on the psychiatric diseases associated with epilepsy , only a few researches focus on the occurrence of personality disorders accompanying the latter. (bvsalud.org)
  • Personality disorders are seen by the American Psychiatric Association as an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it. (solarnavigator.net)
  • p.761-781 The decision to retain the old DSM-IV categorical model of personality disorders in DSM-5 was controversial, and efforts continue to persuade the American Psychiatric Association to replace it with the dimensional model in DSM 5.1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frequently, a history of psychiatric disorders is present. (medscape.com)

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