Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
A state in which attention is largely directed outward from the self.
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.
Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.
Disorder characterized by an emotionally constricted manner that is unduly conventional, serious, formal, and stingy, by preoccupation with trivial details, rules, order, organization, schedules, and lists, by stubborn insistence on having things one's own way without regard for the effects on others, by poor interpersonal relationships, and by indecisiveness due to fear of making mistakes.
In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.
A personality disorder characterized by the avoidance of accepting deserved blame and an unwarranted view of others as malevolent. The latter is expressed as suspiciousness, hypersensitivity, and mistrust.
Established behavior pattern characterized by excessive drive and ambition, impatience, competitiveness, sense of time urgency, and poorly contained aggression.
A personality inventory consisting of statements to be asserted or denied by the individual. The patterns of response are characteristic of certain personality attributes.
A state in which attention is largely directed inward upon one's self.
A personality disorder characterized by overly reactive and intensely expressed or overly dramatic behavior, proneness to exaggeration, emotional excitability, and disturbances in interpersonal relationships.
A psychoanalytic term meaning self-love.
Behavior pattern characterized by negative emotionality, an inability to express emotions, and social isolation, which has been linked to greater cardiovascular disease and increased mortality. (from International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008, p. 217)
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
A personality disorder manifested by a profound defect in the ability to form social relationships, no desire for social involvement, and an indifference to praise or criticism.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.
A personality disorder characterized by an indirect resistance to demands for adequate social and occupational performance; anger and opposition to authority and the expectations of others that is expressed covertly by obstructionism, procrastination, stubbornness, dawdling, forgetfulness, and intentional inefficiency. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.
Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Tendency to feel anger toward and to seek to inflict harm upon a person or group.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.
A person's view of himself.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.
A personality assessment technique in which the subject or observer indicates the degree to which a standardized set of descriptive statements actually describes the subject. The term reflects "sorting" procedures occasionally used with this technique.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
State of mind or behavior characterized by extreme skepticism and persistent opposition or resistance to outside suggestions or advice. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)
The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.
Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.
Behavior pattern characterized by a generally calm and even-tempered demeanor. Emotionally, such personality types show less frequent irritation, anger, hostility, and aggression than Type A individuals. (from International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008, p. 223)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The artificial language of schizophrenic patients - neologisms (words of the patient's own making with new meanings).
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.
Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.
Persistent, unwanted idea or impulse which is considered normal when it does not markedly interfere with mental processes or emotional adjustment.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Discomfort and partial inhibition of the usual forms of behavior when in the presence of others.
An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.
The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.
A view of the world and the individual's environment as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful, claiming that the way people view their life has a positive influence on their health.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A philosophy based upon spiritual intuition that is believed to transcend ordinary sensory experiences or understanding.
Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
The field concerned with the interrelationship between the brain, behavior and the immune system. Neuropsychologic, neuroanatomic and psychosocial studies have demonstrated their role in accentuating or diminishing immune/allergic responses.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

Factors influencing tackle injuries in rugby union football. (1/1373)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of selected aspects of lifestyle, personality, and other player related factors on injuries in the tackle. To describe the detailed circumstances in which these tackles occurred. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was undertaken in which the tackling and tackled players ("the cases") involved in a tackle injury were each matched with "control" players who held the same respective playing positions in the opposing teams. A total of 964 rugby matches involving 71 senior clubs drawn from all districts of the Scottish Rugby Union (SRU) were observed by nominated linkmen who administered self report questionnaires to the players identified as cases and controls. Information on lifestyle habits, match preparation, training, and coaching experience was obtained. A validated battery of psychological tests assessed players' trait anger and responses to anger and hostility. The circumstances of the tackles in which injury occurred were recorded by experienced SRU coaching staff in interviews with involved players after the match. RESULTS: A total of 71 tackle injury episodes with correct matching of cases and controls were studied. The following player related factors did not contribute significantly to tackle injuries: alcohol consumption before the match, feeling "below par" through minor illness, the extent of match preparation, previous coaching, or practising tackling. Injured and non-injured players in the tackle did not differ in their disposition toward, or expression of, anger or hostility. Some 85% of tackling players who were injured were three quarters, and 52% of injuries occurred when the tackle came in behind the tackled player or within his peripheral vision. Either the tackling or tackled player was sprinting or running in all of these injury episodes. One third of injuries occurred in differential speed tackles--that is, when one player was travelling much faster than the other at impact. The player with the lower momentum was injured in 80% of these cases. Forceful or crunching tackles resulting in injury mostly occurred head on or within the tackled player's side vision. CONCLUSIONS: Attention should be focused on high speed tackles going in behind the tackled player's line of vision. Comparative information on the circumstances of the vast majority of tackles in which no injury occurs is required before any changes are considered to reduce injuries in the tackle.  (+info)

Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits. (2/1373)

Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism-antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism.  (+info)

Functional neuropsychophysiological asymmetry in schizophrenia: a review and reorientation. (3/1373)

In reviewing the neuropsychophysiological evidence of functional asymmetry it is proposed that schizophrenia is characterized by a greater dispersion of leftward and rightward asymmetries. The two extremes are represented by active (left greater than right) and withdrawn (right greater than left) syndromes, as is the case with psychometric schizotypy. Syndrome-asymmetry relations extended beyond fronto-temporal systems to include posterior activity, infracortical motoneuron excitability, and individual differences in interhemispheric connectivity and directional biases. Central to these are lateral imbalances in thalamo-cortical and callosal arousal systems, while centrality to schizophrenia follows evidence of reversals in asymmetry with changes in symptom profile, clinical recovery, and neuroleptic treatment. Affinities are found in intact animals from challenge-induced turning tendencies representing coordinated activity of attentional, motor, and reinforcement systems. In both patients and animals, neuroleptics have reciprocal interhemispheric effects, with a bidirectionality that depends on syndrome or endogenous turning preference. Bidirectionality implicates nonspecific thalamic system (NSTS) and not limbic projections. It is proposed that the asymmetries arise from endogenous influences of genes, hormones, and early experience including stressors on NSTS asymmetry, and these underpin approach/withdrawal behavior that is manifested in temperament, personality, and clinical syndrome, and which precedes language development.  (+info)

Beyond "compliance" is "adherence". Improving the prospect of diabetes care. (4/1373)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate existing research in the area of patient "compliance," to endorse reconceptualizing "compliance" in terms of "adherence," and to discuss the benefits of such a change for medical practitioners. This study critically reviews existing medical, nursing, and social scientific research in the area of patient "compliance." We assert that the literature reviewed is flawed in its focus on patient behavior as the source of "noncompliance," and neglects the roles that practitioners, the American medical system, and patient-practitioner interaction play in medical definitions of "compliance." The term "compliance" suggests a restricted medical-centered model of behavior, while the alternative "adherence" implies that patients have more autonomy in defining and following their medical treatments. We suggest that while the change in terminology is minor, it reflects an important paradigmatic shift for thinking about the delivery of health care. By enabling practitioners to more accurately identify patients' social and economic constraints and to provide them with more efficient educational and financial resources, this type of change will improve patient care. In general, by moving to a more social paradigm for understanding patient behavior, practitioners can expand the types of explanations, and therefore the types of solutions, they have for therapeutic adherence.  (+info)

Level of chronic life stress predicts clinical outcome in irritable bowel syndrome. (5/1373)

BACKGROUND: Life stress contributes to symptom onset and exacerbation in the majority of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD); research evidence is conflicting, however, as to the strength of these effects. AIMS: To test prospectively the relation of chronic life stress threat to subsequent symptom intensity over time. PATIENTS: One hundred and seventeen consecutive outpatients satisfying the modified Rome criteria for IBS (66% with one or more concurrent FD syndromes) participated. METHODS: The life stress and symptom intensity measures were determined from interview data collected independently at entry, and at six and 16 months; these measures assessed the potency of chronic life stress threat during the prior six months or more, and the severity and frequency of IBS and FD symptoms during the following two weeks. RESULTS: Chronic life stress threat was a powerful predictor of subsequent symptom intensity, explaining 97% of the variance on this measure over 16 months. No patient exposed to even one chronic highly threatening stressor improved clinically (by 50%) over the 16 months; all patients who improved did so in the absence of such a stressor. CONCLUSION: The level of chronic life stress threat predicts the clinical outcome in most patients with IBS/FD.  (+info)

Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy. (6/1373)

Recent studies provide clear and convincing evidence that psychosocial factors contribute significantly to the pathogenesis and expression of coronary artery disease (CAD). This evidence is composed largely of data relating CAD risk to 5 specific psychosocial domains: (1) depression, (2) anxiety, (3) personality factors and character traits, (4) social isolation, and (5) chronic life stress. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between these entities and CAD can be divided into behavioral mechanisms, whereby psychosocial conditions contribute to a higher frequency of adverse health behaviors, such as poor diet and smoking, and direct pathophysiological mechanisms, such as neuroendocrine and platelet activation. An extensive body of evidence from animal models (especially the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis) reveals that chronic psychosocial stress can lead, probably via a mechanism involving excessive sympathetic nervous system activation, to exacerbation of coronary artery atherosclerosis as well as to transient endothelial dysfunction and even necrosis. Evidence from monkeys also indicates that psychosocial stress reliably induces ovarian dysfunction, hypercortisolemia, and excessive adrenergic activation in premenopausal females, leading to accelerated atherosclerosis. Also reviewed are data relating CAD to acute stress and individual differences in sympathetic nervous system responsivity. New technologies and research from animal models demonstrate that acute stress triggers myocardial ischemia, promotes arrhythmogenesis, stimulates platelet function, and increases blood viscosity through hemoconcentration. In the presence of underlying atherosclerosis (eg, in CAD patients), acute stress also causes coronary vasoconstriction. Recent data indicate that the foregoing effects result, at least in part, from the endothelial dysfunction and injury induced by acute stress. Hyperresponsivity of the sympathetic nervous system, manifested by exaggerated heart rate and blood pressure responses to psychological stimuli, is an intrinsic characteristic among some individuals. Current data link sympathetic nervous system hyperresponsivity to accelerated development of carotid atherosclerosis in human subjects and to exacerbated coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in monkeys. Thus far, intervention trials designed to reduce psychosocial stress have been limited in size and number. Specific suggestions to improve the assessment of behavioral interventions include more complete delineation of the physiological mechanisms by which such interventions might work; increased use of new, more convenient "alternative" end points for behavioral intervention trials; development of specifically targeted behavioral interventions (based on profiling of patient factors); and evaluation of previously developed models of predicting behavioral change. The importance of maximizing the efficacy of behavioral interventions is underscored by the recognition that psychosocial stresses tend to cluster together. When they do so, the resultant risk for cardiac events is often substantially elevated, equaling that associated with previously established risk factors for CAD, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.  (+info)

Delay or probability discounting in a model of impulsive behavior: effect of alcohol. (7/1373)

Little is known about the acute effects of drugs of abuse on impulsivity and self-control. In this study, impulsivity was assessed in humans using a computer task that measured delay and probability discounting. Discounting describes how much the value of a reward (or punisher) is decreased when its occurrence is either delayed or uncertain. Twenty-four healthy adult volunteers ingested a moderate dose of ethanol (0.5 or 0.8 g/kg ethanol: n = 12 at each dose) or placebo before completing the discounting task. In the task the participants were given a series of choices between a small, immediate, certain amount of money and $10 that was either delayed (0, 2, 30, 180, or 365 days) or probabilistic (i.e., certainty of receipt was 1.0, .9, .75, .5, or .25). The point at which each individual was indifferent between the smaller immediate or certain reward and the $10 delayed or probabilistic reward was identified using an adjusting-amount procedure. The results indicated that (a) delay and probability discounting were well described by a hyperbolic function; (b) delay and probability discounting were positively correlated within subjects; (c) delay and probability discounting were moderately correlated with personality measures of impulsivity; and (d) alcohol had no effect on discounting.  (+info)

Health consciousness of young people in relation to their personality. (8/1373)

Personality of targeted individuals can be assumed to influence behavior modification by health education. In this study the influence of personality on health consciousness was analyzed by a questionnaire for lifestyle, health consciousness, and the NEO-FFI personality test. Subjects were 942 new students in the Tokyo University of Agriculture who were surveyed in April, 1998. Separately performed health examination data were used to verify reliability of answers to the questionnaire. Among students, 83.2% of males and 90.4% of females felt themselves to be healthy, and more than 80% students desired to improve their health more. The rate of having no physical complaints, however, was only 31.7% in males and 20.4% in females. Distribution of NEO-FFI scores of neuroticism (N), extraversion (E), openness (O), agreeableness (A), and conscientiousness (C) corresponded well between males and females, except for significantly higher scores of O and A in females. Odds ratios (ORs) between high and low tertial points of NEO-FFI score for health consciousness were significantly elevated in the high scoring groups of E and C (OR = 6.26, 95% CI = 1.46-26.82, and OR = 6.04, 95% CI = 1.42-25.71, respectively) in males. On the contrary, high N and O groups had low health consciousness. Smoking habit was associated with high E scores (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.13-4.43). Dietary habits, regular eating time, and avoidance of salty foods were associated with high C scores in both males and females. The OR of regular eating time was 2.66 (95% CI = 1.42-1.98), and 2.20 (95% CI = 1.31-3.71) for males and females, respectively. The OR of avoidance of salty foods were 2.09 (95% CI = 1.11-3.91), 1.87 (95% CI = 1.11-3.16) for males and females, respectively. Significant associations between lifestyle and personality require further study for risk association analysis and for relationship to interventive practices for prevention of lifestyle associated diseases.  (+info)

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Life goals, values, vocational interests, and personality traits are important factors that influence career and everyday life decision-making. This dissertation presents a framework for how personality traits, interests, and values relate to life goals. There were two studies conducted using structural equation modeling. Study 1 was a cross-sectional study investigating the domain-specific relationship among major life goals, personality traits, interests, and values. The results showed that personality traits are the most fundamental disposition and can predict vocational interests, values, and then goals. Moreover, in certain domains, interests serve as a mediator between personality traits and life goals; values serve as a mediator between personality traits and goals, and between interests and goals. Study 2 is a longitudinal study examining how relationships among major life goals, interests, and personality traits may change over time. The results indicated that personality, interests, ...
It has long been speculated that cues on the human face exist that allow observers to make reliable judgments of others personality traits. However, direct evidence of association between facial shapes and personality is missing from the current literature. This study assessed the personality attributes of 834 Han Chinese volunteers (405 males and 429 females), utilising the five-factor personality model (Big Five), and collected their neutral 3D facial images. Dense anatomical correspondence was established across the 3D facial images in order to allow high-dimensional quantitative analyses of the facial phenotypes. In this paper, we developed a Partial Least Squares (PLS) -based method. We used composite partial least squares component (CPSLC) to test association between the self-tested personality scores and the dense 3D facial image data, then used principal component analysis (PCA) for further validation. Among the five personality factors, agreeableness and conscientiousness in males and
The main purpose of this research is to study the impact of personality on job burnout among educators. Additionally the role of emotional labor on the relationship of personality and burnout is also investigated. In this model, job burnout (exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment) is a dependent variable; personality (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, openness to experience and conscientiousness) is an independent variable, while emotional labor (surface acting and deep acting) is a mediating variable. To investigate the relationship among above stated variables, correlation and multiple regression analysis were conducted. Questionnaires were used to collect the data from 199 secondary level teachers of private schools. The results of correlation and multiple regression showed the negative impact of personality on burnout, positive impact of personality on emotional labor, and the negative impact of emotional labor on job burnout. Discussion, suggestions,
On the basis of the theoretical principles of existential analysis, particularly logotherapy, an attempt has been made to analyze the relation of a meaningful existence, personality factors and subjectively perceived self-esteem. An investigation into mutual relations between personality factors, existential characteristics and subjectively perceived self-esteem, carried out on a sample of 60 male respondents (30 students of theology and 30 current respondents), revealed that the level of self-esteem negatively correlates with that of the personality factor Neuroticism, and positively with the level of Extraversion, Conscientiousness, the existential characteristics Personality, Existentiality and the overall ESK scores. Personality and Existentiality showed a statistically significant positive correlation with the factors Extraversion, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, similarly as also did the overall ESK scores which, in addition, showed a significant negative correlation with Neuroticism. ...
This thesis examines the associations between personality traits and sleep quantity and quality in young adults. Additionally the possible effects of birth status on these associations are examined. The data used in this thesis is part of a birth cohort study (Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults). The personality traits are based on the five-factor model of personality. The sleep quantity and quality are based on actigraphy assessments. Four hypothesis were made about the personality and sleep associations: (1) neuroticism is related to a lesser quality of sleep, (2) there will be more significant associations between personality traits and sleep quality than between personality traits and sleep quantity, (3) the Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) as well as, (4) the Small for Gestational Age (SGA) status will affect the associations. Linear regressions were used to study the associations between personality traits and sleep quality and quantity. Whenever an association was significant, it ...
This meta-analysis used 9 literature search strategies to examine 137 distinct personality constructs as correlates of subjective well-being (SWB). Personality was found to be equally predictive of life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect, but significantly less predictive of negative affect. The traits most closely associated with SWB were repressive-defensiveness, trust, emotional stability, locus of control-chance, desire for control, hardiness, positive affectivity, private collective self-esteem, and tension. When personality traits were grouped according to the Big Five factors, Neuroticism was the strongest predictor of life satisfaction, happiness, and negative affect. Positive affect was predicted equally well by Extraversion and Agreeableness. The relative importance of personality for predicting SWB, how personality might influence SWB, and limitations of the present review are discussed.
The following are two edited excerpts from Barbara J. King's new book Personalities on the Plate: The Lives & Minds of Animals We Eat.
Drug use is related to adverse health and social outcomes [1]. Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable disability and death in the U.S. and around the world [2], increasing the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, respiratory and other health problems [3, 4]. The use of other psychoactive substances, most of them illicit drugs, is also associated with massive social cost beyond the damage to the individual users, affecting health care, law enforcement, and legal systems [1, 5].. The high individual and social costs of drug use highlight the need to study factors related to such behaviors. Even if personality differences between drug users and non-users are generally small, these effects can have important clinical implications due to the large number of people involved. Research on the correlates of drug addiction provides insights for understanding etiology and inform prevention policies and cessation programs. For example, from a psychiatric perspective, a number of studies have ...
An addictive personality refers to a particular set of personality traits that make an individual predisposed to developing addictions. This hypothesis states that there may be common personality traits observable in people suffering from addiction. Alan R. Lang of Florida State University, author of an addiction study prepared for the United States National Academy of Sciences, said, If we can better identify the personality factors, they can help us devise better treatment and can open up new strategies to intervene and break the patterns of addiction. Experts[who?]describe the spectrum of behaviors designated as addictive in terms of five interrelated concepts: patterns, habits, compulsions, impulse control disorders, and physical addiction. Sensation-seeking has been studied[by whom?] as having a strong relationship with addictive personalities. Alan R Lang has done much research on personality traits that play into addiction. While his research found that there is no single set of traits ...
People are often categorised into personality types. The Greek physician Hippocrates (460-370 BC) systemised and developed temperament theory.. Cat breeds have distinct appearances otherwise they would not be a cat breed. And people in the cat fancy also like to differentiate between the cat breeds in terms of cat personality. The Ragdoll is relaxed and the Bengal is active and so on.. It is neither that straightforward nor so well packaged because individual cat personalities outweigh breed personality traits. And it is possible to place individual cats, whether they are wild, purebred, random bred or feral into a category of cat personality type.. There are several terms to describe cat personality. I am sure some scientists dont like to think of cats as having personalities - it is too unscientific. Accordingly, other terminology is proposed such as: coping style, temperament, behavioral tendency, strategy, syndrome etc. However, there is now greater recognition amongst scientists that the ...
This paper investigates how humans adapt next learning activity selection (in particular the knowledge it assumes and the knowledge it teaches) to learner personality and competence to inspire an adaptive learning activity selection algorithm. First, the paper describes the investigation to produce validated materials for the main study, namely the creation and validation of learner competence statements. Next, through an empirical study, we investigate the impact on learning activity selection of learners emotional stability and competence. Participants considered a fictional learner with a certain competence, emotional stability, recent and prior learning activities engaged in, and selected the next learning activity in terms of the knowledge it used and the knowledge it taught. Three algorithms were created to adapt the selection of learning activities knowledge complexity to learners personality and competence. Finally, we evaluated the algorithms through a study with teachers, resulting in an
The Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders as well as the upcoming IDC-11 have established a new focus on diagnosing personality disorders (PD): personality functioning. An impairment of self and interpersonal functioning in these models represents a general diagnostic criterion for a personality disorder. Little is known so far about the impairment of personality functioning in patients with other mental disorders than PD. This study aims to assess personality functioning in patients with anxiety disorders. Ninety-seven patients with the diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or phobia, and 16 healthy control persons were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and -II) and were assessed by means of the Structured Interview for Personality Organization (STIPO) to determine the level of personality functioning. While all three patient groups showed significant impairment in personality functioning compared to the control group, no ...
Love to breastfeed you little one? Check out your personality traits - are you an extrovert? Study confirms that mommies who are less anxious and possess an extrovert nature show more tendency of breast feeding their little ones for a longer time than the mothers who have an anxious and introverted disposition.. Breast feeding. Researchers Swansea University in the United Kingdom have concluded that new mothers showing personality traits like anxiety will decide whether the mother will breast feed her baby or give the child the milk bottle. The researchers further stated that women with these personality characteristics need extra education and additional support to feel self-assured, self-confident, and understand the values of breast feeding.. Feeding a child on mothers milk helps the baby build up defenses against medical conditions like skin allergies, respiratory troubles, obesity etc. Data shows that nearly two thirds of the mothers who have given birth to their young breast feed their ...
Personality is often broken into statistically-identified factors called the Big Five, which are openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (or emotional stability). These components are generally stable over time, and about half of the variance appears to be attributable to a persons genetics rather than the effects of ones environment.[6][7] Some research has investigated whether the relationship between happiness and extraversion seen in adults can also be seen in children. The implications of these findings can help identify children that are more likely to experience episodes of depression and develop types of treatment that such children are likely to respond to. In both children and adults, research shows that genetics, as opposed to environmental factors, exert a greater influence on happiness levels. Personality is not stable over the course of a lifetime, but it changes much more quickly during childhood, so personality constructs in ...
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Introduction. Personality and motivation In this assignment, I will be talking about the many different theories that attempt to explain where your personality comes from and how it can change you as a person. It will also link this with where motivation comes from. Personality is defined as a persons attributes made up of physical, mental, emotional and social characteristics. Motivation is described as an incentive to complete a task. There are some theories of personality that suggest that you develop your personality from birth, which stay with you through childhood and into adulthood, whereas others say that you develop your personality throughout your life through experiences you encounter. This is known as the nature vs nurture debate. The nature side of this debate argues that you are born with your own unique personality which doesnt change through your life, similar to your genes. One example of this is the trait theory. The trait theory suggests that your personality is made up of a ...
Strong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly discuss the importance of these findings for clinical research and practice. We measured psychological distress and depression using the MINI diagnostic interview, the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 questionnaires in the first 864 participants of The Maastricht Study, a large, population-based cohort study. Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral
This course is an introduction to the study of personality &38212; consistencies in peoples thoughts, feelings, and behavior over time and across situations. Topics will include personality assessment and development; biological and situational influences on personality; emotion and motivation; identity and the self; personality, gender, and culture; psychological adjustment; and clinical disorders of personality. The course will focus on current empirical research and modern theories of personality. Evaluation will be based on multiple-choice and short essay exams, brief written assignments, and participation in discussion sections.. ...
Men with neurotic personality traits are having fewer children compared to previous generations, according to a new study published in the European Journal of Personality. The study examined the effect of personality on how ...
In conclusion, we believe we made it clear that the true extent of sex differences in human personality has been consistently underestimated. While our current estimate represents a substantial improvement on the existing literature, we urge researchers to replicate this type of analysis with other datasets and different personality measures. An especially critical task will be to compare self-reported personality with observer ratings and other, more objective evaluation methods. Of course, the methodological guidelines presented in this paper can and should be applied to domains of individual differences other than personality, including vocational interests, cognitive abilities, creativity, and so forth. Moreover, the pattern of global sex differences in these domains may help elucidate the meaning and generality of the broad dimension of individual differences known as masculinity-femininity [11]. In this way, it will be possible to build a solid foundation for the scientific study of ...
The notion of online anonymity is based on the assumption that on the Internet the means of identification are limited to network and system identifiers, which do not directly relate to the identity of the user. Personality traits as a form of identity have recently been explored. A myriad of relationships between the Internet and human personality traits have been examined based on correlation and regression of media usage specific to selected media platforms, such as social networking sites. In these studies, the link between humans and the Internet based on interests and disposition was studied. However, the paradigm of the existence of a platform-independent digital fingerprint of personality trait is yet to be explored. This paradigm considers the Internet an extension of human daily communication that is capable of exhibiting a digital behavioural signature. Therefore, in this study, using client-server interaction as the fundamental unit of online communication, the probability of a digital
Potentiation of serotonergic transmission increases cognitive flexibility, but can in other circumstances increase sensitivity to stressful environmental cues. The personality trait Openness to Experience reflects and is also associated with an increased risk for mood disorders. We hypothesized that the personality trait has an association with a biomarker of serotonergic transmission, the plasma membrane serotonin transporter (5-HTT). In 50 healthy volunteers, we tested for correlations between scores on the NEO-PI-R scale Openness to Experience and its subscales, and cerebral binding of the 5-HTT selective PET radioligand [11C]DASB. Subjects were genotyped for the 5-HTT long/short polymorphism, and for a single nucleotide polymorphism in the long allele, designated LA/LG. Midbrain [11C]DASB binding correlated negatively with scores for Openness to Experience and its two subscales, Openness to Actions and Openness to Values. The latter subscore was negatively correlated with [11C]DASB binding in all
Platelet alpha-sub-2-adrenergic receptor binding to -3H-yohimbine and personality variations in normals ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Covariance structure of neuroticism and agreeableness. T2 - A twin and molecular genetic analysis of the role of the serotonin transporter gene. AU - Jang, Kerry L.. AU - Livesley, W. John. AU - Riemann, Rainer. AU - Vernon, Philip A.. AU - Hu, Stella. AU - Andou, Jyukou. AU - Ando, Juko. AU - Ono, Yutaka. AU - Hamer, Dean H.. PY - 2001/8. Y1 - 2001/8. N2 - The Revised NEO Personality Inventory domains of Neuroticism and Agreeableness are considered factorially distinct despite several intercorrelations between these domains. The genetic correlation, an index of the degree to which these intercorrelations are caused by genetic influences, was estimated using data from 913 monozygotic and 562 dizygotic volunteer twin pairs from Canada, Germany, and Japan. The serotonin transporter gene, 5-HTTLPR, was assayed in a sample of 388 nontwin sibling pairs from the United States to determine the contribution of the serotonin transporter locus to the covariation between the Neuroticism and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polymorphisms in ABLIM1 are associated with personality traits and alcohol dependence.. AU - Wang, Ke Sheng. AU - Liu, Xuefeng. AU - Aragam, Nagesh. AU - Mullersman, Jerald E.. AU - Jian, Xueqiu. AU - Pan, Yue. AU - Liu, Yali. PY - 2012/2. Y1 - 2012/2. N2 - Personality traits like novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence (RD) are known to be moderately heritable (30-60%). These personality traits and their comorbidities, such as alcohol dependence (AD), may share genetic components. We examined 11,120 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 292 nuclear families from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 14, a subset from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). A family-based association analysis was performed using the FBAT program. NS, HA, and RD were treated as quantitative traits and AD as a binary trait. Based on a multivariate association test of three quantitative traits in FBAT, we observed 20 SNPs with p , 10(-3). ...
Describe how Jungs psychodynamic theories affect individual personalities. Please also examine how psychodynamic theories influence interpersonal.
Weisberg, J.N., Paul, C. & Twyner, C. Personality and Personality Disorders in Chronic Pain. In Incayawar, M., Clark, M. & Maldonado-Bouchard, S. (Eds.). Overlapping Pain and Psychiatric Syndromes-Global Perspectives. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Chronic pain is a significant health care issue at epidemic proportions in the United States1 and there is a high incidence of both clinical psychiatric disorders2,3 and personality disorders (PD) in the chronic pain population.4 This article will briefly summarize some of the important points pertaining to the prevalence and interplay between personality disorders and chronic pain.. Personality and Pain. The relationship between personality and pain can easily be traced to ancient Greece. More recently, in the late 19th century psychodynamic theorists discussed the connection between emotional factors and the experience of chronic pain.5 George Engel maintained that, while physical pain may result from underlying pathophysiology, the ...
One of the major contributions of recent personality psychology is the finding that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy. To date, however, researchers have yet to investigate this hierarchy in nonhuman primates. Such investigations are critical in confirming the cross-species nature of trait personality helping to illuminate personality as neurobiologically-based and evolutionarily-derived dimensions of primate disposition. Investigations of potential genetic polymorphisms associated with hierarchical models of personality among nonhuman primates represent a critical first step. The current study examined the hierarchical structure of chimpanzee personality as well as sex-specific associations with a polymorphism in the promoter region of the vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A), a gene associated with dispositional traits, among 174 chimpanzees. Results confirmed a hierarchical structure of personality across species and, despite differences in early rearing experiences,
The Definition And Determinants Of Personality Psychology Essay Better operation of organizations associate with different individuals, how they work and performance can influence the running of organization. Because different individuals have their own knowledge, experience, perception, skill and characteristic that just as the important resources to the organization. There are many notions of personality from different literatures; however there is no specific one to define it. According to IAN BROOKS, personality refers to specific attributes include hidden or open factor and which may also determine either general or differences in behavior in organizations (IAN, 2009).. Determinants of personality. There are many factors determine the personality which from external and internal aspects. Nonetheless the determinants of personality can consist of four types, this show in the below chart:. Biological factors include three points: heredity, brain and physical features. First one is heredity, ...
Big Five personality traits and alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, and gambling disorder comorbidity In summary. In a recent study published by the American Psychological Association researchers determined that addictive disorders, like cannabis use disorder, are associated with neuroticism, low agreeableness, and low conscientiousness. Neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are some of the Big Five personality traits, which was the taxonomy chosen by the researchers to examine possible personality underpinnings of addictive behavior and comorbidity. As all three of the traits were equally associated with substance use disorders they may explain the co-occurrence of addictive behaviors but these traits also may more broadly associate the propensity to develop any psychiatric disorder. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the relationship between neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness for substance use disorders as the research may lead to the development of better ...
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The Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire assesses respondents for Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience in counseling, research and business settings.
This paper explores the power of personality traits both as predictors and as causes of academic and economic success, health, and criminal activity. Measured personality is interpreted as a construct derived from an economic model of preferences, constraints, and information. Evidence is reviewed about the situational specificity of personality traits and preferences. An extreme version of the situationist view claims that there are no stable personality traits or preference parameters that persons carry across different situations. Those who hold this view claim that personality psychology has little relevance for economics. The biological and evolutionary origins of personality traits are explored. Personality measurement systems and relationships among the measures used by psychologi ...
In Personality Plus, Florence Littauer gives you valuable insight for appreciating your one-of-a-kind, God-given personality. She includes a Personality Profile test that reveals how your unique blend of traits affects your emotions, work performance, and relationships. Through humorous anecdotes and straightforward counsel, Personality Plus guides you to improve upon your strengths and correct your weaknesses. Personality Plus / Revised - eBook (9781441200075) by Florence Littauer
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sensory processing sensitivity, personality dimensions and mental health. In a sample of University of Mohaghegh Ardabili students. One hundred and eighty students were included in this study. All participants were asked to complete the highly sensitive person scale, NEO-five factor inventory and general health…
Downloadable! This paper uses data from the German Socio-economic Panel Study to examine the relationship between psychological traits, in particular personality, and the formation and dissolution of marital and cohabiting partnerships. Changing patterns of selection into and out of relationships indicate that the determinants of marital surplus have altered between older cohorts who were born in the years after World War II and younger cohorts born in the 1960s. For younger cohorts, relationships between personality traits and the probability of marriage are identical for men and women, which is consistent with returns to marriage that are based on joint consumption. Tastes for marital public goods are negatively related to openness to experience (a desire for change and variety) and positively related to conscientiousness for both men and women. Selection into marriage is associated with distinctly different personality profiles for older men and older women, suggesting that gender-specialized
The survey asked people about their happiness and satisfaction with aspects of their life. It also asked about their physical and mental health and about their personalities, among other things. Rosenman and his colleagues analyzed the data to see how personality and gender affected the way people coped with becoming ill. The researchers found that women with one of two distinct personality types are less affected by mental illness than all other personality types. The first personality type, high levels of agreeableness, experience high quality relationships in their lives. The second type, women with low levels of conscientiousness, have little need for achievement, order or persistence. Rosenman said women with high agreeableness likely have better social networks and therefore more support for coping with mental illness. Women with low levels of conscientiousness are more apt to feel out of control on a daily basis, so they likely dont see any impact from a mental illness, he said. They ...
This paper integrates two contradictory predictions from the schema incongruity theory: a linear versus an inverted-U relationship between brand-extension incongruity and evaluation. It suggests two personality variables, namely, need for cognition and need for change that moderate the relationship. The major proposition that the relationship would be linear for individuals low in both personality dimensions and inverted-U for those high on both was supported by the data obtained through a questionnaire study. The highest evaluation was obtained for the moderately incongruent extension compared to the congruent and extremely incongruent brand extensions of an established brand for individuals high on both personality dimensions. Four innovative behaviour types identified on the basis of a combination of high and low categories of participants on the two personality dimensions also provided similar results. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings, limitations of the present study, ...
Depression treatment is often initially sought from primary care physicians. To explore the influence of physician personality on depression assessments. Secondary analysis of data collected in a rand
The role of childrens personality traits in the consumption of potentially obesogenic foods was investigated in a sample of Norwegian children aged 6-12 years (N=327, 170 boys, 157 girls). Mothers rated their childs personality on the traits of the Five Factor Model (i.e., extraversion, benevolenc …
Arousal and effective valence are also important components to motivation. There is a delicate balance between too much, too little, and just the right amount of arousal in a situation, known as the zone of optimal functioning. Too much or too little arousal can negatively impact your performance on a task. Psychological properties of motivation, such as drives, needs, and awareness, play an important role in motivation as well. One important aspect of this section is the need to achieve versus motive to avoid failure. Those who have a high need to achieve engage in task-oriented behaviors while those with a motive to avoid failure are inhibited from attempting achievement tasks. Your personality traits also determine your motivation. The five-factor model of personality has several personality dimensions which as openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. These personality dimensions explain why people are motivated by different incentives, situations, and ...
Previous evidence shows a reliable association between psychosis-prone (especially schizotypal) personality traits and performance on dopamine (DA)-sensitive tasks (e.g., prepulse inhibition and antisaccade). Here, we used blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI and an established procedural learning (PL) task to examine the dopaminergic basis of two aspects of psychosis-proneness (specific schizotypy and general psychoticism). Thirty healthy participants (final N = 26) underwent fMRI during a blocked, periodic sequence-learning task which, in previous studies, has been shown to reveal impaired performance in schizophrenia patients given drugs blocking the DA D2 receptor subtype (DRD2), and to correspond with manipulation of DA activity and elicit fronto-striatal-cerebellar activity in healthy people. Psychosis-proneness was indexed by the Psychoticism (P) scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R; 1991) and the Schizotypal Personality Scale (STA; 1984). EPQ-R Extraversion ...
Coons, who joined the radio station in October 2000, left in 2006 to become executive director of the Southwestern Auglaize County Chamber of Commerce and then returned in 2009. He has no plans to retire at the age of 64. Instead, he has taken a one-year leave to focus on recovery ...
It sounds crazy, but Michael Jacksons Coca-Cola addiction may become a building block in Dr. Conrad Murrays legal strategy.TMZ broke the story that Dr.…
The research examines a cohort of 364 16-17 year old students entering a sixth form college. The focus of the research is an examination of the relationship between academic self-concept, attainment and personality. Issues of gender and ethnicity were also examined. Data was obtained by the use of personality measures, students self-estimates of success, examination results and information obtained from application forms, academic reports and Record of Achievement profiles. The students completed two personality measures on entry. The Student Self-Perception Scale was devised specifically for this research and was piloted on students from two sixth form colleges prior to use with the research sample. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale was also used as a validity measure. Basic statistics were obtained using a Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis and a frequency and cross-tabulation programme. A specific residual was generated using multiple linear regression analysis and used ...
Personality changes can be one of the most difficult symptoms for both brain injury sufferers and their loved ones to accept and manage. Brain injuries are associated with problems such as aggression, agitation, non-compliance, and depression, which are all enough on their own to greatly hamper ones life.. These issues can be improved and easier handled with the help of counseling, but it still takes time and patience to come to terms with these changes and to learn to control them. To make matters worse, we understand very little about what causes these changes in personality after brain injuries.. However, researchers are hard at work exploring potential causes and explanations for brain injury-related personality changes, and a new report from Harvey E. Jacobs, PhD, claims to offer some previously unknown insight into this life-altering issue.. ...
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-derived psychopathology subtypes among former prisoners of war (POWs): replication and ...
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was designed to help identify personal, social, and behavioral problems in psychiatric patients.
Why is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI]) significant and how does it impact the development of psychological testing in the 21st.
personality tests, such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), might be more sensitive to reflectsubclinical personality and be more state-dependent in an individuals lifetime, so they are good scales to predict thepsychological distress regarding certain states. The aim of this study was to identify the specific pattern between body mass index(BMI) and psychological distress using the objective personality test. We investigated BMI and the Korean Military MultiphasicPersonality Inventory (MPI). A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted with 19-yr-old examinees who were admittedto the Military Manpower Administration in Korea from February 2007 to January 2010. Of 1,088,107 examinees, we enrolled771,408 subjects who were psychologically apparent healthy possible-military-service groups. Afterwards, we reviewed andanalyzed directly measured BMI and MPI results. In terms of the validity scales, the faking-good subscale showed an invertedU-shaped association, and ...
The present study was an attempt to examine the relationship between personality variables and neuropsychological deficits in chronic schizophrenic subjects. The groups were composed of 73 chronic schizophrenic subjects with measureable cortical atrophy on CAT-Scan and 118 chronic schizophrenic subjects without identifiable brain damage. The relationship between neuropsychological deficit and personality variables was tested by means of discriminant analysis. As hypothesized, the brain-damaged group was found to have a stronger relationship between the neuropsychological deficits and the personality variables than the nonbrain-damaged group. Canonical correlation was used to demonstrate the underlying neuropsychological pattern which was found related to the personality profile of the MMPI for the entire sample of chronic schizophrenics. A frontal and anterior temporal lobe neuropsychological profile was found related to a particular personality profile.
The co-morbidity of mental illness with personality disorder is a controversial topic, made difficult by disagreement over diagnosis and the fundamentals of personality structure. However, there would appear to be four possible points of view:. 1Personality disorder and mental illness cannot exist simultaneously. This position perhaps provides the weakest argument, with little empirical evidence. However, the process of medical diagnosis perhaps implies that each is mutually exclusive.. 2 All mentally ill people have a personality disorder. This may have some validity, as there is increasing evidence that those people with a mental illness may have a biological vulnerability, which may include some personal characteristics. However, the evidence for this position seems to suggest that those personality differences are not of a severity to enable a diagnosis of personality disorder.. 3 Some personality disordered people will develop mental illness but that each can occur separately. This view is ...
It is possible that a norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene polymorphism is involved in the reward dependence-related personality trait. Although all previous research findings are based on Cloningers model, it is thought necessary to examine the relationship between NET gene polymorphisms and the personality dimension of reward dependence, as assessed by not only Cloningers model but also various other personality assessments, such as the five-factor model. In this study, we examined the relationship between three NET gene polymorphisms (1287G/A, -182T/C, and -3081A/T) and NEO-FFI, which is one of the self-report questionnaires based on the five-factor model of personality. The genotype and allele frequencies of the NET gene polymorphisms observed in this study were consistent with the genotype [1287G/A: χ2 (2)=0.695, p=0.707; -182T/C: χ2 (2)=2.274, p=0.321] and allele [1287 G/A: χ2 (1)=0.061, p=0.805; -182T/C: χ2 (1)=1.029, p=0.310] frequencies observed in the HapMap ...
Women undergo physiological and psychological changes during pregnancy, labor and lactation. The psychological adaptations can be affective, cognitive and behavioral and can be measured by dimensional personality instruments. This study aims to compare (1) the personality profile in mothers after birth with a normative group of non-lactating women and to examine (2) whether the personality profile differs 2 days, 2 months and 6 months after birth between mothers who have been exposed to epidural anesthesia, oxytocin administration or neither. Sixty-nine primiparae were assigned to four groups: mothers having received oxytocin infusion during labor (OT iv group, n=9), mothers having received epidural analgesia with/without oxytocin infusion (EDA group, n=23), mothers having received 10 iU oxytocin intramuscularly after birth (OT im group, n=15) and mothers having received none of these treatments (unmedicated group, n=22). At 2 days and 2 and 6 months postpartum mothers completed the Karolinska ...
Background: Type D personality has been proposed as a prognostic indicator for mortality in cardiovascular disease. Most research examining this construct originates from one research group, and it is critical that the predictive value of Type D personality for adverse outcomes is independently cross-validated. This study examined its prognostic value in heart failure, relative to B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and depressive symptoms. Methods: We studied 706 patients with complete BNP, depressive symptom, and Type D personality and mortality data from 958 patients with heart failure enrolled after hospitalization for a multisite study of a disease management program. Multivariable models were adjusted for BNP and depression. Results: At 18 months, there were 192 deaths (27.2%). No evidence was found for a prognostic value of Type D personality in the unadjusted model (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.893, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.582-1.370). In contrast, BNP was significantly predictive of ...
All wolves have individual personalities just like people do and no two are alike. Personalities develop through an individuals unique emotions and thoughts resulting in different behaviors and are influenced by both ones genetic make-up and the type of things one is exposed to in the living environment. Genetically, different personalities have evolved and persist because, given various environmental conditions, some traits are more advantageous than others at any given time - traits that could help ensure ones particular survival. We can make some generalities when it comes to describing the wolf personality just like one could do for the entire human species, such as imaginative, intelligent etc. After that, we must take into account the individual differences. Lets talk about both - the generalities and some documented individual personalities of the wolf.. In The Wolf: The Ecology and Behavior of an Endangered Species, by David Mech, it is written that the strongest impression wolves ...
All wolves have individual personalities just like people do and no two are alike. Personalities develop through an individuals unique emotions and thoughts resulting in different behaviors and are influenced by both ones genetic make-up and the type of things one is exposed to in the living environment. Genetically, different personalities have evolved and persist because, given various environmental conditions, some traits are more advantageous than others at any given time - traits that could help ensure ones particular survival. We can make some generalities when it comes to describing the wolf personality just like one could do for the entire human species, such as imaginative, intelligent etc. After that, we must take into account the individual differences. Lets talk about both - the generalities and some documented individual personalities of the wolf.. In The Wolf: The Ecology and Behavior of an Endangered Species, by David Mech, it is written that the strongest impression wolves ...
This study investigated relationships between hostility, Zuckermans sensation seeking, and Eysenck and Eysencks personality scales within a prison population, to explore whether they could be conceptualized in terms of two socialized and unsocialized sensation seeking factors. Participants included 79 incarcerated adult male offenders (age range = 18- 62). Findings support the distinction between socialized and unsocialized sensation seeking and suggest that these factors represent more overarching personality factors. Psychoticism was a clear marker of the more broad impulsive, unsocialized sensation seeking factor, rather than representing a supertrait in its own right. This factor was also represented by lie, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility scales. Findings relating to hostility also supported such a reformulation, as unsocialized scales did cluster together to predict the unsocialized hostility factor, whereas unsocialized scales did not. The results demonstrate the need for a ...
There havent been many studies conducted into the intersection of musical preference and personality, as most research in the field has focused on how music (particularly heavy metal and rap) may influence behaviour (see the Heavy Metal and Rap Music pages for more information on this). However, there has been some fascinating research conducted in recent years linking musical tastes to certain personality traits, which Ive summarized below. These are, of course, only tendencies. Although the average fan of a particular genre may be more or less likely to have certain traits, there will always be plenty of individuals who dont fit the prototype.. The Link Between Music Preference and Personality. An ongoing study undertaken by Adrian North of Heriot-Watt University (2008), the largest and most comprehensive of its kind, has generated a number of interesting findings regarding personality traits and musical preferences. The following table indicates which traits have been associated with ...
article{4415776, abstract = {Research on the applicability of the five factor model (FFM) to capture personality pathology coincided with the development of a FFM personality disorder (PD) count technique, which has been validated in adolescent, young, and middle-aged samples. This study extends the literature by validating this technique in an older sample. Five alternative FFM PD counts based upon the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) are computed and evaluated in terms of both convergent and divergent validity with the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders Questionnaire (shortly ADP-IV; DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth edition). For the best working count for each PD normative data are presented, from which cut-off scores are derived. The validity of these cut-offs and their usefulness as a screening tool is tested against both a categorical (i.e., the DSM-IV - Text Revision), and a dimensional (i.e., the Dimensional Assessment of ...
INTRODUCTION: Research has suggested an association between personality factors and awareness in patients with dementia, yet valid measurement of premorbid personality is problematic. The present study aimed to better reveal the relationship between premorbid personality and awareness by using improved methodology. Moreover, the study aims to contrast the strength of the relationship of premorbid personality and awareness with that of cognitive factors. METHODS: Awareness of illness, symptoms, mnemonic and behavioural impairments, and treatment compliance were measured in 27 patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimers disease (AD) diagnosed by standard criteria for probable AD. Participant premorbid personality was measured using average retrospective Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Inventory (NEO-FFI) scores from two informants. Correlations were performed to investigate the relationship between awareness and personality dimensions, as well as measures of cognitive style, neuropsychological function,
Among-individual behavioral differences (i.e. animal personality) are commonly observed across taxa, although the underlying, causal mechanisms of such differences are poorly understood. Animal personality has been correlated with physiological functions as well as fitness-related traits. Variation in many aspects of monoamine systems, such as metabolite levels and gene polymorphisms, has been linked to behavioral variation. Therefore, here we experimentally investigated the potential role of monoamines in explaining individual variation in personality, using two common pharmaceuticals that respectively alter the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain: fluoxetine and ropinirole. We exposed three-spined sticklebacks, a species that shows animal personality, to either chemical alone or to a combination of the two chemicals, for 18 days. During the experiment, fish were assayed at four time points for the following personality traits: exploration, boldness, aggression and sociability. To ...
[Exploring human personality focused mainly on trait and state markers of behaviour so far. Nevertheless, the concept of the universal, culture-independent model of personality carries more disturbing difficulties: hardly understandable inter-cultural conflicts, culture-related mental disorders and scientific experiences with unexpected outcomes. It can be hypothesized, that beside personality concept represented by the Euro-Atlantic civilisation and mainstream psychology there is an alternative concept of personality. Opposed to the independent, autonomous ego concept of individualistic cultures, collectivistic (primarily far-eastern) cultures are providing an interdependent model. According to this model, the core element of personality are determined rather by social embedding instead of the persons own characteristics, which are secondary to the personal traits and characteristics. This study attempts to briefly outline the concept of interdependent personality, with some illustrative clinical
Personality traits and anxiety disorder symptoms often overlap with each other. This is probably why many people are shocked when they come to know that their personality traits are actually symptoms of an anxiety disorder. It isnt that all the personality traits that are connected to the anxiety disorder are bad or negative. For instance, […]
The Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (SCID-5-AMPD) meets a timely need. The Alternative Model for Personality Disorders in DSM-5 has ushered in a consensus and an upswing in research that has shifted from a categorical diagnosis of personality disorders toward a dimensional approach. Before now, no interview-based procedure has been available for applying the Alternative Model. Expertly designed, the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (SCID-5-AMPD) is a semistructured diagnostic interview that guides clear assessment of the defining components of personality pathology as presented in the DSM-5 Alternative Model. The modular format of the SCID-5-AMPD allows the researcher or clinician to focus on those aspects of the Alternative Model of most interest. Module I: Structured Clinical Interview for the Level of Personality Functioning Scale is devoted to the linchpin of dimensional ...
The Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (SCID-5-AMPD) meets a timely need. The Alternative Model for Personality Disorders in DSM-5 has ushered in a consensus and an upswing in research that has shifted from a categorical diagnosis of personality disorders toward a dimensional approach. Before now, no interview-based procedure has been available for applying the Alternative Model. Expertly designed, the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (SCID-5-AMPD) is a semistructured diagnostic interview that guides clear assessment of the defining components of personality pathology as presented in the DSM-5 Alternative Model. The modular format of the SCID-5-AMPD allows the researcher or clinician to focus on those aspects of the Alternative Model of most interest. Module I: Structured Clinical Interview for the Level of Personality Functioning Scale is devoted to the linchpin of dimensional ...
The books introduction provides the theoretical basis for the examination of gendered personalities-masculine and feminine traits-and political attitudes and behavior. It takes the reader through the psychological and political science literature related to this topic, providing a foundation for the books overall theory that gendered personalities affect individuals politics in multiple ways. Masculine personalities are aggressive, individualistic, and dominant, while feminine personalities are warm, compassionate, and gentle. These personalities translate directly into US politics. Among other things, our political parties are gendered in both their issues and images-Democrats are the feminine party and Republicans are the masculine one. This books intuitive argument is that individuals masculine and feminine personality traits should affect their political attitudes and party preferences similarly to the gendered nature of our political world-for example, masculinity should contribute to a
This study systematically reviewed the evidence for personality as a correlate of body image. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched in May 2016 for studies reporting an association between at least one dimension of personality and at least one component of negative body image. Twenty-six studies (33 discrete samples) met inclusion criteria. Sixteen samples were coded as medium-high quality. The results indicated that negative body image was associated with higher levels of Neuroticism and lower levels of Extraversion. Agreeableness was not related to body image, and findings for Conscientiousness and Openness were indeterminate. After taking study quality into account, negative body image was also associated with lower levels of Conscientiousness. Neuroticism was associated with negative body image in both women and men. Sex moderation effects for Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness were indeterminate. Large-sample, prospective studies of personality and body image are
Benefits of using personality ratings. A good personality assessment can help managers understand what interpersonal skills and behavioral interrogation questions should pay attention to during the interview.. Get an insight into the candidates: Employees and candidates have a wide range of skills, abilities and work styles. These differences are not always apparent in curriculum vitae or in an interview, so personality evaluations can provide another tool to understand what the candidate is offering and how they will be integrated into their work culture.. Development and Recognition Tools: Personality Assessments help you understand the values, motivations and preferences of your employees and help you know what they need from you as an employer to remain committed.. Enhance Culture: Personality test for employment can be used to enhance the organizations culture by understanding the communication styles, leadership styles, learning styles, and the level of introvert or extroversion of each ...
Curriculum Design and Instruction to Teach Human Personality: The Public Personality: Frustration And Danger: Author: Charles Hayes.
A report in the October issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry suggests that people who are more conscientious are less likely to develop Alzheimers disease. Conscientiousness refers to a persons tendency to control their impulses, be goal-directed and be reliable. Over a 12-year period researchers from Rush University Medical School studied 997 older Catholic nuns, priests and monks none of whom had Alzheimers at the start of the study. Their conscientiousness was assessed by a questionnaire and those who were most conscientous had an 89% lower risk of developing Alzheimers than those who were least conscientious. However, conscientiousness did not affect the tangles and plaques in the brain associated with the condition. The researchers thought that conscientiousness might be linked to educational or occupational success, both of which reduce the incidence of Alzheimers, and that conscientiousness improved peoples resilience and ability to cope with difficulties. Conscientiousness ...
Personality Disorders and the Five-factor Model of Personality 2E - Paul T. Costa - American Psychiatric Association APA - 9781557988263 - Kitap
This investigation explored the contribution of extracurricular sport and screen time viewing (television viewing and electronic gaming) to personality trait stability and change during childhood. Two independent samples of 3,956 young children (age 6) and 3,862 older children (age 10) were taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parent-reported child sport participation, screen time, and personality traits were measured at baseline and again 24 months later. Young children who were more active recorded more of a decrease in introversion, less of a decrease in persistence, and less of an increase in reactivity, than those who were less active. Older children who were more active recorded less of an increase in introversion and more of an increase in persistence than those who were less active. In addition, young children who continued participation in extracurricular sport had greater intra-individual stability of personality for introversion. These finding suggest that an active
Canadian scientists say they have completed a study that links personality, survival and reproductive success in male bighorn sheep.. The researchers, led by University of Quebec at Montreal Professor Denis Reale, said their findings not only advance the knowledge of bighorn sheep, but also offer insight into personality differences in animals and humans from an evolutionary perspective.. Since 1969, several teams of researchers have been studying a population of bighorn sheep in Alberta, Canada. Reale and his colleagues focused on data concerning the animals personality. Initially, the team identified the rams in terms of boldness and docility. They then conducted paternity tests to determine which rams were reproducing.. The study showed, as expected, young males that manage to reproduce are the boldest and most combative. However, in exchange for sexual precocity and risk-taking, the study showed those rams often die younger than their more docile peers. The latter, instead, invest in the ...
Personality Assessor features free personality tests and relationship quizzes with instant, accurate results and feedback on your personality. Every assessment on Personality Assessor is designed by real social-personality psychologists at major universities!
A personality disorder is a condition related to an individuals personality. Until recently, an altered or unbalanced personality was not considered a mental health issue or considered treatable. However, personality disorders are now recognised as lying within the spectrum of mental health disorders and are amenable to treatment.
Playback tests were conducted between 09.00 and 15.00. Loudspeakers were placed near the centre of a males home range as determined by the radio-tracking data. Each playback session had two phases: a lure phase and an interactive phase. Songs were broadcast by Yamaha NX-U10 loudspeakers connected to a digital player (Creative Zen), allowing an interactive playback mode by playing songs stored as wav files separately. Songs were broadcast at a sound pressure level of 85 dB SPL at 1 m (Voltcraft digital sound-level meter 322). Each loudspeaker was fixed at a height of 1.5-2 m on the branches of a tree. The lure loudspeaker was placed at 18.4 ± 0.7 m (mean ± s.e.) from the interactive loudspeaker as measured with an infrared device (Leica Rangemaster CRF 800). One loudspeaker was used for the lure playback and the other loudspeaker was used for the interactive playback. We used two loudspeakers to standardize the distance between the subject and the interactive playback speaker. A lure song and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Additive and nonadditive genetic variation in avian personality traits. AU - Van Oers, K.. AU - Drent, P.J.. AU - de Jong, G.. AU - Van Noordwijk, A.J.. N1 - Reporting year: 2004 Metis note: 3219; CTE; PVD ; AnE; file:///L:/Endnotedatabases/NIOOPUB/pdfs/Pdfs2004/VanOers_ea_3219.pdf. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - Individuals of all vertebrate species differ consistently in their reactions to mildly stressful challenges. These typical reactions, described as personalities or coping strategies, have a clear genetic basis, but the structure of their inheritance in natural populations is almost unknown. We carried out a quantitative genetic analysis of two personality traits (exploration and boldness) and the combination of these two traits (early exploratory behaviour). This study was carried out on the lines resulting from a two-directional artificial selection experiment on early exploratory behaviour (EEB) of great tits (Parus major) originating from a wild population. In analyses ...
Previous evidence shows a reliable association between psychosis-prone (especially schizotypal) personality traits and performance on dopamine (DA)-sensitive tasks (e.g., prepulse inhibition and antisaccade). Here, we used blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI and an established procedural learning (PL) task to examine the dopaminergic basis of two aspects of psychosis-proneness (specific schizotypy and general psychoticism). Thirty healthy participants (final N = 26) underwent fMRI during a blocked, periodic sequence-learning task which, in previous studies, has been shown to reveal impaired performance in schizophrenia patients given drugs blocking the DA D2 receptor subtype (DRD2), and to correspond with manipulation of DA activity and elicit fronto-striatal-cerebellar activity in healthy people. Psychosis-proneness was indexed by the Psychoticism (P) scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R; 1991) and the Schizotypal Personality Scale (STA; 1984). EPQ-R Extraversion ...
This scale determines varying levels of introversion and extraversion. Along with introversion and extraversion the inventory also measures openness, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and neuroticism. The mini-marker asks participants to rate themselves according to 40 different measures (e.g. creative, extraverted, philosophical, and sloppy) using a Likert scale from 1 to 9, with 1 being extremely inaccurate and 9being extremely accurate. Although the mini-marker is a shortened version (about half the personality measures) of the NEO-5 factor, Saucier (1994) determined that it was representative of the full 100 trait NEO-5 factor inventory. The mini-marker was developed on behalf of many people who appreciated the fact that it was shorter and more efficient; however, Saucier (1994) stresses that because of the smaller version it may create lower reliabilities ...
Rates of depression and anxiety among young people in America have been increasing steadily for the past 50 to 70 years. Today, by at least some estimates, five to eight times as many high school and college students meet the criteria for diagnosis of major depression and/or anxiety disorder as was true half a century or more ago. This increased psychopathology is not the result of changed diagnostic criteria; it holds even when the measures and criteria are constant. article continues after advertisement The most recent evidence for the sharp generational rise in young peoples depression, anxiety, and other mental disorders comes from a just-released study headed by Jean Twenge at San Diego State University.[1] Twenge and her colleagues took advantage of the fact that the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), a questionnaire used to assess a variety of mental disorders, has been given to large samples of college students throughout the United States going as far back as 1938, and ...
Article discusses the role of MMPI-2 in assessment of chronic pain. Includes discussion of how the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) data are best viewed as one of multiple sources of patient information, including history, social support networks, coping ability, job, and life satisfaction/success, etc.
The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), is a self-report personality test developed over several decades of empirical research by Raymond B. Cattell, Maurice Tatsuoka and Herbert Eber. The 16PF provides a measure of normal personality and can also be used by psychologists, and other mental health professionals, as a clinical instrument to help diagnose psychiatric disorders, as well as help with prognosis and therapy planning. The 16PF instrument provides clinicians with a normal-range measurement of anxiety, adjustment, emotional stability and behavioral problems. It can also be used within other areas of psychology, such as career and occupational selection.. Beginning in the 1940s, Cattell used the new statistical technique of common factor analysis which takes as its starting point the matrix of inter-correlations between all the variables (see correlation coefficient) in an attempt to elucidate the underlying source traits of human personality. The 16PF measures 16 primary ...
The present study was concerned with certain individual differences that relate to a subjects ability to increase his heart rate on command when given appropriate external feedback. The main purpose was to extend to the operant conditioning paradigm Eysencks theory that introverts classically condition more readily than extraverts. A second purpose was to determine which personality factors-extraversion, anxiety, and ability to perceive autonomic responses-contribute to heart rate control in operant conditioning. The Eysenck Personality Inventory and the Autonomic Perception Questionnaire were administered to 46 undergraduate males who attempted to accelerate their heart rates, with visual proportional feedback provided, during 20, 30-sec trials. Results indicated that heart rate acceleration did not correlate with any of the variables examined. The findings are discussed in light of previous related studies and suggestions for future research are provided.
Background: Personality is associated with various health behaviors as it contributes in some way to decisions about lifestyle behaviors, e. g. personality traits (PT) are related to alcohol consumption (AC). Our aim was to evaluate the association between PT and AC. This study is a part of a large-scale validation study of Latvian Clinical Personality Inventory (LCPI-v3). Methods: In total 389 adults (M = 31.80, SD = 13.72 years; 48 % males) filed in demographic questionnaire, indicated information about their alcohol consumption and completed LCPI. Stepwise regression analysis was employed six times (namely, using as predictors (1) domain-level traits (2) facet-level traits first for entire sample, and then for males and females separately). Findings: Stepwise regression analysis revealed that in total 23% of the variance in AC for the entire sample was accounted for two domain-level traits such as Disinhibition and Compulsivity, and 34 % of the variance was accounted for three facet-level ...
Cult Experience: Psychological Abuse, Distress, Personality Characteristics, and Changes in Personal Relationships: Cultic Studies Journal Abstract
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"Personality". Affenpinscher Club of America. Archived from the original on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2014. Dog ... The affenpinscher has a terrier-like personality. Affenpinschers are somewhat territorial when it comes to their toys and food ...
... and relation to the five factor model of personality". Journal of Personality. 68 (1): 153-97. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.t01-1- ... Emmons argued that spiritual strivings foster personality integration because they exist at a higher level of the personality. ... "Religion and the five factors of personality: A meta-analytic review". Personality and Individual Differences. 32: 15-25. doi: ... Burger, Jerry (2007). Personality. Stamford, CT, US: Cengage Learning. pp. 122-123. ISBN 978-0-495-09786-0. Retrieved 10 ...
Personality. Volodymyr Troshkin: shuttle run (ЛИЧНОСТЬ: Владимир ТРОШКИН: ЧЕЛНОЧНАЯ РАБОТА). Sport-Ekspress. Profile (in ...
Personality. Oxford, GB: Blackwell, 1976. Harré, H. Rom, ed. Life sentences. Chichester, UK: Wylie, 1976. Harré, H. Rom, ed. ... 1991). Social Selves: Theories of the Social Formation of Personality. London: SAGE Publications, 55, 65-66 Hall, D., "The ... Blackwell Dictionary of Social and Personality Psychology. Blackwell, 1986. Harré, H. Rom, ed. The physical sciences since ...
Personality magazine said the album "alternates between sheer poetic brilliance and intellectual nonsense." "Plan for Peace" 03 ... "You cannot judge an album by its cover". Weekly Mail (1-7 December 1989). Nel, Michelle (4 June 1990). Personality. Missing or ...
"Personality". Kashmir Life. 25 March 2013. "Miss Sakina Itoo (JKNC):Constituency- Noorabad (Kulgam) - Affidavit Information of ...
Personality. ISBN 978-1-112-31066-9. Plutarch (1892) [c.100]. Jevons, Frank Byron (ed.). Plutarch's Romane Questions. based on ...
"Personality:; 'New Kid' to Lead Manufacturers Hanover", The New York Times, July 5, 1970. Accessed January 8, 2009. Dash, Eric ...
"Personality , Monk on a mission". Retrieved 22 August 2015.[1] Harrison, Anne-Marie (17 December 2014 ...
"Correspondent , Writer , Personality". Sydney Sadick. Retrieved 2019-04-30. Barton, Jonathan (2018-12-02). "Press Feature: ...
Burger, Jerry (2007). Personality. Stamford, CT, United States: Cengage Learning. pp. 122-123. ISBN 0-495-09786-1. Retrieved 10 ...
Personality; Snap Judgment; He Said, She Said (with then-husband Greg Mullavey); Tattletales (also with Mullavey); Hollywood ...
Personality. Views. Conditions of Activity"). Neither has been translated but both have been reprinted and are still available ...
Personality. One study found no consequential associations between personality and fertility, with tested traits including ...
She attended UCLA.[citation needed] Asner is known as a long-time E! personality. During her peak with the network she hosted ... television personality and model. Asner was born Julie Ann White in Tempe, Arizona. Aged 16, she was discovered at a modeling ...
Personality and Individual Differences. 27 (1): 155-170. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00229-3. Carthy, T; Horesh N; Apter A; Edge ... Personality. 71 (6): 1171-1196. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.7106011. PMID 14633062. Reid, Sophie C.; Salmon, Karen; Peter F. Lovibond ...
"Personality". Theatricalia. Archived from the original on 8 February 2008. Retrieved 14 April 2007. Mellor, Roger. "London Town ...
"Personality . . ". Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate. New South Wales, Australia. 30 December 1949. p. 2. Retrieved ...
Personality magazine said the album "alternates between sheer poetic brilliance and intellectual nonsense." The first three ... "You cannot judge an album by its cover". Weekly Mail (1-7 December 1989). Nel, Michelle (4 June 1990). Personality. Missing or ...
Personality. History. St Petersburg : Russian Institute of Art History, 2014, P. 260-74. 120. Benjamin Britten in the left ... 4. P. 200-1. High tragedy of personality and being. In: Muzykal'naya akademiya. 2005. No. 3. P. 51-4. From the history of IMS. ... In: Feinberg Evgeny Lvovich: Personality through the prism of memory / under total. ed. by V. L. Ginzburg. Moscow: FIZMATLIT, ...
Personality). - Index . - Bibliography .: p. 360-381 .- ISBN 978-5-903354-85-6. My life in the USSR (Russian: "Время совка") / ...
It was attended by notable personalities from both Africa and the Diaspora including Lord Paul Boateng of Akyem and Wembley, ... "Aburi Girls' Senior High School , Personality". Retrieved 2016-04-26. "Fidelity Bank , Board of Directors". ...
Reviving his 1951 personality theory, McClelland and his colleagues at McBer and Company intensified competency research on ... Smith, C.P., with Atkinson, J.W., McClelland, D.C., and Veroff, J. (eds.) (1992). Motivation and Personality: Handbook of ... McClelland, D.C. (1984). Motives, Personality, and Society: Selected Papers. New York: Praeger. McClelland, D.C. (1987). Human ... McClelland, D.C. (1951). Personality. New York: William Sloane Associates. McClelland, David C. (1978). "Managing motivation to ...
"Personality". 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2016. Kumar, Krishna (March 2011). "I have been able to find a balance ...
... including different epistemological approaches to the study of personality. The hypostatic model describes personality and self ... Personality is viewed as both an agency and a relatively stable construction, as the model is accompanied with specific methods ... Codrin Ștefan Țapu (born 17 December 1973) is a Romanian author and psychologist who wrote on the hypostases of personality. ... "Theorien über die Persönlichkeit 2 (Theories of personality 2)". Auf der Suche nach der Persönlichkeit: Eine Reise durch den " ...
Appearance and personality[edit]. Despite having never been bred towards a written breed standard until recent times, most ...
Personality disorders[edit]. Main article: Personality disorder. Depending on the diagnosis, severity and individual, and the ... Ettner, S.L. (2011). Personality disorders and Work. In Schultz & Rogers (Eds.), Work accommodation and retention in mental ... However, personality disorders can also bring about above-average work abilities by increasing competitive drive or causing the ... 1975). Relationships of cessation of smoking with job stress, personality, and social support. Journal of Applied Psychology, ...
Personality[edit]. Humans are accustomed to respond to certain vibrations more than other. These customs develop into one's ... Psychicisation is a turn inward, so that one realises the psychic being, the psychic personality or Divine Soul, in the core of ... Humans are stuck between matter and Spirit,[62] due to the habits of personality and partial awareness, which arise from ... This is normally believed to be "self". The appearance of stable personality is given by constant repetition and recurrence of ...
Personality disorders[edit]. One study found personality disorders as described by the DSM overall to correlate modestly with I ... Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment: Vol. 1 - Personality Theories and Models. Los Angeles, CA: Sage ... projective personality assessment[edit]. The MBTI takes what is called a "structured" approach to personality assessment. The ... Krauskopf, Charles J. and Saunders, David R. (1994) Personality and Ability: The Personality Assessment System. Maryland: ...
Personality and spiritual life[edit]. Ramanujan has been described as a person of a somewhat shy and quiet disposition, a ... Hardy and Ramanujan had highly contrasting personalities. Their collaboration was a clash of different cultures, beliefs, and ...
Due to the fact that personality is a complex idea, the dimensions of personality and scales of personality tests vary and ... Personality computing. References[edit]. *^ a b Corr, Philip J.; Matthews, Gerald (2009). The Cambridge handbook of personality ... a b Church, A.T. (2000). "Culture and personality: Toward an integrated cultural trait psychology". Journal of Personality, 68( ... Look up personality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. *Cult of personality, political institution in which a leader uses ...
... falls on Axis II and the Cluster B of the DSM IV personality disorders. As mentioned, the DSM ... Must satisfy the set of general personality disorder criterion.. To put in a laymans terms, Narcissistic Personality Disorder ... What is Narcissistic Personality Disorder?. Just about everyone knows someone that they can classify as a narcissist, but very ... Key Characteristics of the Narcissistic Personality. The NPD is one that is continuously aware of what others think of them, or ...
Melissa Ford Thornton struggled with Borderline Personality Disorder. She describes living with BPD and how she used inpatient ... Borderline Personality Disorder Conference. Wednesday, August 26, 1998. Bob M is Bob McMillan, editor of our online magazine ... the Borderline Personality Disorder". We are talking about her experiences with Borderline Personality Disorder and later her ... Melissa Ford Thornton: has Borderline Personality Disorder and is author of the book: Eclipses: Behind the Borderline ...
Geographically varying associations between personality and life satisfaction in the London metropolitan area *From the Cover ...
... * 1. Republic of the Philippines Southern Luzon State University GRADUATE SCHOOL Lucban, Quezon Survey ... QuestionnairePart I. PERSONALITY INVENTORY Below are listed eleven different situations and areas which confront all of us ...
personality. personality, in psychology, the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways ... Psychologists may use psychological tests to determine personality. Well-known personality tests include the Rorschach test, in ... See W. Wright, Born That Way: Genes, Behavior, Personality (1998). The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © ... Raymond Cattell used a group of obvious, surface personality traits to derive a small group of source traits, which he argued ...
personality (countable and uncountable, plural personalities). *A set of qualities that make a person (or thing) distinct from ... Sharp personalities were exchanged.. *1905, O. Henry, Telemachus, Friend Perceiving that personalities were not out of order, I ... 1959, Lloyd Price, "Personality": But over and over / I´ll be a fool for you / cause you got personality.. ... Personality is individuality existing in itself, but with a nature as a ground.. ...
"Antisocial personality disorder". NHS. Retrieved 11 May 2016.. *^ a b c "Antisocial personality disorder: prevention and ... "Antisocial Personality Disorder , Psychology Today". Psychology Today. Retrieved 2018-02-18.. *^ a b c d Berger FK (29 July ... McCallum D (2001). Personality and Dangerousness: Genealogies of Antisocial Personality Disorder. New York: Cambridge Univ. ... David., McCallum, (2001). Personality and dangerousness : genealogies of antisocial personality disorder. Cambridge: Cambridge ...
There are many types of personality disorders. Read more. ... People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with ... Paranoid personality disorder (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Personality disorders (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... Antisocial personality disorder (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Avoidant personality disorder (Medical Encyclopedia) ... Borderline personality disorder (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Dependent personality disorder (Medical Encyclopedia) ...
Matt Ruff reviews A Life in Pieces: the Harrowing True Story of a Woman with Multiple Personality Disorder by Richard Baer ... Karen presents the doctor with a list of her alternate personalities, including capsule descriptions of the function each one ... Which brings us to Karens multiple personality disorder. This condition, now known formally as dissociative identity disorder ... Baer concludes that abuse has caused her personality to fragment. Though he admits he has no experience in treating MPD, he ...
The behavior of an individual with a personality disorder can impact their relationships with others. Narcissism and antisocial ... Histrionic personality disorder can resemble narcissistic personality disorder. Narcissistic personality disorder. Narcissistic ... Having a personality disorder can make it difficult to sustain relationships. Ryckman defines personality as a "Dynamic and ... Types of personality disorder. Personality disorders are grouped into three broad clusters, A, B, and C, according to the DSM-5 ...
Personality disorders are deeply ingrained, rigid ways of thinking and behaving that result in impaired relationships with ... Managing and Treating Personality Disorders Personality disorders present unique treatment challenges. Most personality ... Multiple personality disorder, also known as multiple personality syndrome, is not a personality disorder, nor is it a ... Understanding Personality Disorders Signs of a personality disorder usually appear by late adolescence or early adulthood. ...
... if milder degrees of personality difficulty are taken into account this is much higher.1 People carry the label of personality ... Diagnosis of personality disorder along a single dimension of severity is a major change from traditional categorical ... Most non-psychiatrists are aware of the diagnosis of personality disorder but rarely make it with confidence. In the past, this ... GPs also carry the clinical responsibility for their patients with personality disorder, and this can be challenging over the ...
Schizoid personality disorder is a personality disorder that is associated with social detachment, emotional aloofness, and ... Schizoid personality disorder is a personality disorder that is associated with social detachment, emotional aloofness, and ... Weissman, M. M. (1993). The epidemiology of personality disorders: A 1990 update. Journal of Personality Disorders, 7(1), 44-62 ... Treibwasser, J., Chemerinski, E., Roussous, P., & Siever, L. J. (2012). Schizoid personality disorder. Journal of Personality ...
It found that counselors considered personal and college counseling their most important duties (that split personality again ... an approach that missed many students in the middle and set up a split personality in school counseling that persists to this ...
... a mother of four who was diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. ... She was recently diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, but she has struggled her entire life. "I think I kept up the ...
Antisocial personality disorder Definition Antisocial behavior [1] is that which is verbally or physically harmful to other ... Personality disorders What Is Antisocial Personality Disorder?. Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is one of the ten ... and Personality Disorders Resources. Organizations. The Personality Disorders Foundation has a website that provides ... Like other personality disorders, APD refers to a personality style that consists of troubled ways of thinking, feeling, and ...
Personality Assessment Environmental Perception Personality Research Personality Scale Personality Psychology These keywords ... Craik, K. H. (1986a). Personality research methods: An historical perspective. Journal of Personality, 54, 18-51.CrossRefGoogle ... Jaccard, J. J. (1974). Predicting social behavior from personality traits. Journal of Research in Personality, 7, 358-367. ... Buss, D. M., & Craik, K. H. (1987a). Act criteria for the diagnosis of personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders ...
Personality disorders are a group of mental conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern of behaviors, emotions, and ... Personality and personality disorders. In: Stern TA, Fava M, Wilens TE, Rosenbaum JF, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital ... Symptoms vary widely, depending on the type of personality disorder.. In general, personality disorders involve feelings, ... Personality disorders are a group of mental conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern of behaviors, emotions, and ...
Google offered our camera crew exclusive access to meet the comedians and writers behind Assistants personality, and to sit in ... The timeline of personality. By some metrics, Assistant seems to be doing its job. "If we look at the logs, we see that over a ... The Google Assistant Personality team gathers to hammer out a new feature.. What is Assistant?. "The concept of a voice ... Fortunately for the Personality team, a principle they call "Fun in, fun out" is at play here. If you prefer an assistant ...
Throughout history, these and other great minds sought to answer questions not only about what personality is and how best to ... countless theories and concepts for understanding personality have been proposed. ... describe it, but also what causes personality differences, including those that make people more or less functional and ... Narrative Identity: Personality as a Story While traits are widely accepted as fundamental to personality, theorists often ...
He shocked the sports world when he announced he is suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder. ... He shocked the sports world when he announced he is suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder. (Joe Cavaretta) ... He shocked the sports world when he announced he is suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder. ... He shocked the sports world when he announced he is suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder. ...
Personality disorders can cause a range of distressing symptoms and patterns of abnormal behaviour. ... More in Borderline personality disorder * Overview - Borderline personality disorder * Symptoms - Borderline personality ... Its the most commonly recognised personality disorder.. In general, someone with a personality disorder will differ ... another personality disorder, such as antisocial personality disorder. BPD can be a serious condition, and many people with the ...
Psychology Library Editions: Personality. 16 Volume Set, 1st Edition. By Various. The study of personality has a long history ... Personality Assessment in America. A Retrospective on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Society for Personality ... Drugs, Daydreaming, and Personality. A Study of College Youth, 1st Edition. By Bernard Segal, George J. Huba, Jerome L. Singer ... Ideas on Personality and Intelligence, 1st Edition. By Alex Forsythe. Key Thinkers in Individual Differences introduces the ...
... the role of personality differences in sleep, and the role of sleep in personality and social development. Researchers in ... Personality, and Social Behavior comprehensively examines the role of sleep in emotion and motivation, the impact of sleep on ... Contributors identify key gaps in scientific knowledge about sleep and its import for personality-social processes, aiming to ... as well as individual differences in personality (i.e., chronic patterns of emotion, thought, and behavior). ...
And the Personalities columns Personality of the Year: Princess Diana. No one else was even close . . . ... 1985: It was a year like any other year, filled with unforgettable and eminently forgettable personalities and moments . . . ...
... feature of Stalinism was its cult of personality. Whereas Lenin had claimed that the workers suffered from false consciousness ... Other articles where Cult of personality is discussed: communism: Stalinism: … ... His cult of personality, like Stalins, portrayed him as larger than life and endowed with unrivaled wisdom-as found, for ... Maos own personality cult, encouraged so as to provide momentum to the movement, assumed religious proportions. The resulting ...
Why employers love personality tests more than ever, and what you need to know before you pick up a pencil. ... Personality Tests: Back With a Vengeance. Are you an INTJ or an ESFP? Why employers love personality tests more than ever, and ... Personality tests are not used solely as a hiring or promotion screen but also have value as a learning and team-building tool ... "There are 16 personality types and none are better or worse than any other," says Linda V. Berens, founder of TRI, a ...
Schizoid personality disorder is one of a group of conditions called eccentric personality disorders. Learn more from WebMD ... Can Schizoid Personality Disorder Be Prevented? What Are Personality Disorders?. People with personality disorders have long- ... What Is Schizoid Personality Disorder?. Schizoid personality disorder is one of a group of conditions called "Cluster A " or ... How Is Schizoid Personality Disorder Diagnosed?. If symptoms of this personality disorder are present, the doctor will begin an ...
Learn about borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms, causes, and diagnosis. Treatment involves medication and ... Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). *Borderline personality disorder facts. *What is borderline personality disorder (BPD)? ... and other personality disorders including narcissistic personality disorder, dependent personality disorder or histrionic ... What are borderline personality disorder symptoms and signs?. *How do health care professionals diagnose borderline personality ...
  • [2] Trait-based personality theories, such as those defined by Raymond Cattell define personality as the traits that predict a person's behavior. (
  • [8] Whereas McCrae and Costa's Big Five model assesses personality traits in adults, the EAS (emotionality, activity, and sociability) model is used to assess temperament in children. (
  • Contemporary research suggests that most personality traits are based on the joint influence of genetics and environment. (
  • Raymond Cattell used a group of obvious, surface personality traits to derive a small group of source traits, which he argued were central to personality. (
  • Paul Costa has postulated five basic dimensions of personality-introverson-extroversion, friendly compliance-hostile noncompliance, will, neuroticism, and openness to experience-and has developed a test to measure these traits. (
  • A personality disorder is one of a range of personality traits and behaviors that describe individuals who face challenges when dealing with other people. (
  • While personality disorders are commonly described in terms of distinct categories, research suggests that, for the most part, they reflect various combinations of multiple underlying personality traits, including extreme levels of traits that all people have. (
  • Using the Big Five traits (or five-factor model) as a foundation, Five-Factor Theory proposes that the development of common personality traits is largely determined by biological factors, especially genetics. (
  • The theory's creators distinguish enduring personality traits from "characteristic adaptations," such as attitudes or strivings, that are shaped by one's innate disposition as well as external forces. (
  • Though they have similar names, the model (which is embraced by many researchers) is a way of describing how personality traits are organized-that is, into the Big Five personality dimensions. (
  • The theory is a way of explaining how personality traits develop and change. (
  • While personality traits are clearly related to genetics, one's inheritance does not account for all personality differences. (
  • Interpersonal or familial roles, such as being in a new relationship, may also affect personality traits. (
  • A new test from researchers at the University of California at Davis claims to identify if you have a "healthy personality" by using 30 facets of the Big Five model of personality traits , which organizes traits into five broad dimensions: extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness. (
  • We married these ideas with one of the most common evidence-based models of personality traits in contemporary research: the five-factor model. (
  • What traits make a healthy personality? (
  • As far as whether personality type can affect overall health, she says a lot of existing research shows that personality traits are strong predictors of important life outcomes, including mental and physical health, well-being, and even longevity. (
  • Research shows that personality traits are strong predictors of important life outcomes, including mental and physical health, well-being, and even longevity. (
  • By analyzing the test taker's patterns of response to the test items, the examiner is able to draw some tentative conclusions about the client's level of adaptation, behavioral characteristics, and personality traits. (
  • Associations between patterns of answers to test items and particular traits or behaviors have been discovered through personality research conducted with the MMPI-2. (
  • We all have our own ways of getting through, and that depends greatly on our dominant personality traits. (
  • These personality traits may help you overcome losing a job and become motivated to find a new and better one. (
  • But if you cope with stress in a similar way every time, and these traits are causing ongoing problems in your life, a mental health professional may reach the diagnosis of a personality disorder. (
  • In other words, most people might recognize in themselves a few traits from a personality disorder. (
  • Not all personality disorders have the same symptoms and dominant traits. (
  • Personality disorders may arise due to several factors ranging from genetic traits that dictate certain personality features, through to life experiences that determine attitudes towards life and the way people interact with others. (
  • These traits describe people with "Type A" personalities. (
  • The biological factors in personality disorders consist of temperamental (inborn or heritable) characteristics that present in adulthood as stable personality traits: patterns of thought, affect and behaviour that characterize individuals and are stable over time. (
  • This paper uses data from the German Socio-economic Panel Study to examine the relationship between psychological traits, in particular personality, and the formation and dissolution of marital and cohabiting partnerships. (
  • For younger cohorts, relationships between personality traits and the probability of marriage are identical for men and women, which is consistent with returns to marriage that are based on joint consumption. (
  • In 1966, psychologists at the University of Michigan asked 84 undergraduates who had never met before to rate each other on five personality traits, based entirely on appearance, as they sat for 15 minutes in silence ( Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , vol 4, p 44 ). (
  • For three traits - extroversion, conscientiousness and openness - the observers' rapid judgements matched real personality scores significantly more often than chance. (
  • The reproductive success of both men and women is influenced by our personality traits, according to new research from the University of Sheffield. (
  • The study also found evidence of a link between maternal personality traits and offspringà ´s physical condition, as women with higher neuroticism levels were more likely to have children with a decreased body mass index (BMI), reflecting malnutrition. (
  • Personality traits are increasingly being studied to understand individual-level determinants of fertility patterns, and how differences in personality can be maintained by natural selection. (
  • They then investigated the effects of personality for both partners on the number and health of their offspring using the Big Five personality dimensions which psychologists consider to be the five fundamental personality traits present in all humans. (
  • The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is an expansion of Carl Jung's ideas about personality types, expressed in one of 16 four-letter acronyms that express your dominant traits. (
  • When it comes to proper diagnosis of BPD, other characteristics such as personality traits and society s view on certain behaviors need to be addressed. (
  • Personality traits help an individual respond to new situations, but for a lot of individuals responding to new situations can cause a problem. (
  • People with narcissism or narcissistic personality disorder display traits similar to those of Narcissus. (
  • Even when they do, they may not readily admit to narcissistic symptoms or personality traits. (
  • A personality dominated by one or more harmful traits. (
  • Our topic is the inheritance of personality traits. (
  • This Board is hosted by Donna Hobgood, M.D. (moderator) and A.M. Benis, Sc.D., M.D. The board focuses on NPA personality theory , by which the three major heritable character traits are Sanguinity (narcissism), Perfectionism and Aggression, but you need not subscribe to any particular theory to post on this Board. (
  • This test accurately measures the preclear's estimation of ten different personality traits. (
  • An important use of this profile is to inprove specific personality traits with Expanded Dianetics procedures. (
  • Psychologists classify conscientiousness is one of the 'Big 5' personality traits, with the others being agreeableness, extroversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience. (
  • The study, conducted by OnePoll on behalf of Leesa Sleep , examined the sleeping positions and personality traits of 2,000 Americans and found nearly half of Americans polled prefer to sleep on their sides. (
  • All babies are hardwired with certain personality traits, and the ones your child was born with will help dictate whether he laughs or cries in the face of change, keeps going when frustrated, and maybe even how soon he tries to walk. (
  • Researchers believe that each child starts life with an inherited set of nine personality traits. (
  • It has long been speculated that cues on the human face exist that allow observers to make reliable judgments of others' personality traits. (
  • In fact, genetic studies revealed relatively high heritability (42~57%) of the five personality traits 22 , suggesting that the BF traits reflect more constitutional characteristics rather than transient emotional changes. (
  • Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)-which is distinct from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-appears to be the most common personality disorder in Western countries, with a recent review estimating its prevalence at more than 4 percent. (
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder , Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder , Obsessive Compulsive Disorder , Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder , rejection sensitivity (along with dysthymia ), Panic Disorder , and Cyclothymia are some of the many that are made in conjunction with BPD. (
  • The study of the psychology of personality, called personality psychology , attempts to explain the tendencies that underlie differences in behavior. (
  • From Dr. Richard Corelli's website: A person with a borderline personality disorder often experiences a repetitive pattern of disorganization and instability in self-image, mood, behavior and close personal relationships. (
  • personality, in psychology, the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations. (
  • are not especially helpful in characterizing personality and behavior. (
  • In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the American Psychiatric Association (APA) describes a personality disorder as: "An enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it. (
  • Cluster A personality disorders include people whose behavior is seen as abnormal and somewhat eccentric. (
  • A personality disorder is a long-term set of tendencies in one's thinking and behavior that impair the person's functioning in the world. (
  • A minority of children with conduct disorder whose behavior does not improve as they mature will go on to develop adult antisocial personality disorder. (
  • A small percentage of antisocial children (about 3% of males and 1% of females) grow up to become adults with antisocial personality disorder, and a greater proportion suffer from the social, academic, and occupational failures resulting from their antisocial behavior. (
  • In one theory, the cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS), "cognitive-affective mediating units" are thought to interact with each other and with the characteristics of different situations to produce the patterns of behavior that distinguish individuals. (
  • People with this personality disorder rarely seek treatment, because their thoughts and behavior generally do not cause them distress. (
  • Antisocial behavior in adults, substance-abuse problems in men, eating disorders in women, and anxious and odd personality disorders in adolescents tend to co-occur with BPD. (
  • That risk is further increased when the individual with BPD also is suffering from antisocial personality disorder , has a previous history of violent behavior, frequently uses sedative medications, or experiences several changes in their psychiatric medications. (
  • A personality disorder is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates from the norm of the individual's culture. (
  • Dependent personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive fear that leads to "clinging behavior" and usually manifests itself by early adulthood. (
  • Because personality disorders describe long-standing and enduring patterns of behavior, they are most often diagnosed in adulthood. (
  • Divalproex sodium for impulsive aggressive behavior in patients with personality disorder. (
  • The most important thing you can do is recognize that the behavior that someone with OCPD exhibits is part of their personality, which is an enduring characteristic of the psychological makeup of that person. (
  • In general, the behavior of spiders became more "unpredictable" and individuals behaved less according to their personality type once they were exposed to insecticide, possibly because some individuals are much more sensitive to the insecticide than others. (
  • BELLEFONTE, Pennsylvania (Reuters) - A psychologist called by the defense in the Jerry Sandusky child sexual abuse trial testified on Tuesday that the former Penn State assistant football coach suffers from a personality disorder that is characterized by a deep need for attention and may lead to inappropriate, sexually seductive behavior. (
  • Atkins told jurors that histrionic personality disorder is characterized by excessive emotionality and attention seeking, and symptoms include inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior. (
  • People with cluster A personality disorder have odd or eccentric behavior. (
  • People with schizotypal personality disorder have odd or eccentric behavior of dressing, thinking, or speaking. (
  • People with cluster B personality disorder have impulsive, dramatic, or erratic behavior. (
  • People with cluster C personality disorder have anxious fearful behavior and might appear aloof. (
  • People with dependent personality disorder lack self-confidence, require excessive reassurance, exhibit submissive or clingy behavior, rarely do things independently, and depend on others for their emotional and physical needs. (
  • Even though many HR professionals say that personality tests can be good predictors for job-related behavior, most organizations are choosing not to use the tests when hiring and promoting employees, according to a recent poll conducted by the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM). (
  • Nearly three-quarters (71 percent) of poll respondents indicated that personality tests can be useful in predicting job-related behavior and organizational fit. (
  • Antisocial personality disorder is a mental illness involving violent behavior and disregard for others. (
  • Exponents of behaviorism , such as B. F. Skinner , suggest that an individual's personality is developed through external stimuli. (
  • An individual's personality will define how they perceive the world around them. (
  • A personality disorder is a condition related to an individual's personality. (
  • As psychologist Alexander Todorov of Princeton University points out, the fact that different people come to remarkably similar conclusions about a particular face is very different from saying there is a correspondence between a face and something real in an individual's personality. (
  • Personality psychology is divided among the first theorists, with a few influential theories being posited by Sigmund Freud , Alfred Adler , Gordon Allport , Hans Eysenck , Abraham Maslow , and Carl Rogers . (
  • Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals . (
  • The study of personality has a broad and varied history in psychology, with an abundance of theoretical traditions. (
  • In psychological education and training, the study of the nature of personality and its psychological development is usually reviewed as a prerequisite to courses in abnormal psychology or clinical psychology . (
  • In A. Burton (Ed.), Case histories in clinical and abnormal psychology , Volume II: Clinical studies of personality (pp. 768-808). (
  • Advancing the psychology of personality: Paradigmatic shift or improving the quality of research? (
  • Personality at the crossroads: Current issues in interactional psychology (pp. 37-63). (
  • Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 51 , 372-381. (
  • A look at some major ideas in personality psychology, both historical and recent, offers a sense of the many ways to think and talk about this complex subject. (
  • The study of personality has a long history and many different theoretical viewpoints within psychology. (
  • Psychology Library Editions: Personality (16 Volume set) presents titles, originally published between 1950 and 1997, covering many of these traditions and theories. (
  • Philosophers and psychologists have speculated on healthy personality functioning for generations," Wiebke Bleidorn, PhD, associate professor of psychology at UC Davis and lead author of the study , told Healthline. (
  • A psychology student was to help a professor in conducting a personality test. (
  • This paper reviews the problems and potential benefits of integrating personality psychology into economics. (
  • Economists have much to learn from and contribute to personality psychology. (
  • Integrating Personality Psychology into Economics ," NBER Working Papers 17378, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (
  • Integrating Personality Psychology into Economics ," IZA Discussion Papers 5950, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (
  • Personality is defined as the characteristic set of behaviors , cognitions , and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors. (
  • Originally published in 1980, this book presents a detailed account of a series of investigations that examined the patterns of resort to drugs and alcohol use in college youth, and how such substance uses are linked to personality characteristics and daydreaming patterns. (
  • People with personality disorders have long-standing patterns of thinking and acting that differ from what society considers usual or normal. (
  • The features of a person's personality that may be altered in the case of a personality disorder include behavioural patterns, social interaction, mood and degree of impulsiveness. (
  • Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual. (
  • Earlier people thought that environment and early experiences that prevents the advancement and development of adaptive patterns in a person resulted in personality disorders. (
  • Personality patterns are considered to be a disorder when they impair a person's functioning and cause significant distress. (
  • Take that a step further and we discover that same personality looks good surrounded by intricate patterns such as paisley and plaid. (
  • We define personality as a person's characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting. (
  • Among the five personality factors, agreeableness and conscientiousness in males and extraversion in females were significantly associated with specific facial patterns. (
  • The personality-related facial patterns were extracted and their effects were extrapolated on simulated 3D facial models. (
  • Just about everyone knows someone that they can classify as a narcissist, but very few of these people will actually be clinically identified as someone with narcissistic personality disorder. (
  • The disorder involving the narcissistic personality includes these types of individuals that present in a clinically extreme manner in what is commonly and colloquially referred to as a God complex. (
  • In order to sustain their relationships, the narcissistic personality will be controlling, manipulative, and blame others in their primary relationships frequently for petty problems. (
  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder falls on Axis II and the Cluster B of the DSM IV personality disorders. (
  • To put in a layman's terms, Narcissistic Personality Disorder is an extreme version of thinking very highly of one's self. (
  • The Validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale for Assessing Pathological Grandiosity. (
  • People with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) have personalities characterized by intense self-involvement and chronic disregard for others. (
  • People with narcissistic personality disorder have an inflated sense of self-importance. (
  • Any information or support group for Narcissistic personality Disorder? (
  • Personality" is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences their environment, cognition , emotions , motivations , and behaviors in various situations. (
  • Personality also refers to the pattern of thoughts , feelings , social adjustments , and behaviors consistently exhibited over time that strongly influences one's expectations, self-perceptions , values , and attitudes . (
  • The person with a personality disorder may believe that their behaviors and interpretations of situations are normal. (
  • Ryckman defines personality as a "Dynamic and organized set of characteristics that each person possesses, which uniquely influences their behaviors, motivations and cognitions in varying situations. (
  • People who exhibit symptoms of a personality disorder may be unaware that they do so because they perceive their own distorted thought processes, emotional responses, and behaviors as normal. (
  • Personality disorders are a group of mental conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern of behaviors, emotions, and thoughts that is very different from his or her culture's expectations. (
  • In general, personality disorders involve feelings, thoughts, and behaviors that don't adapt well to a wide range of settings. (
  • This unique character - which comes from a combination of external factors, behaviors, thoughts, and emotions - makes up your personality. (
  • A person may be diagnosed with ' personality disorder', when pervasive pattern of behaviors and thoughts cause problems at work and in relationships. (
  • Most individuals have an individual signature in their behaviors, what scientist call "personality types" says Royauté. (
  • Parenting behaviors associated with risk for offspring personality disorder during adulthood. (
  • This type of disorder includes paranoid personality disorder, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorder. (
  • A person with schizoid personality disorder may appear aloof, detached, and cold, a "loner. (
  • People with schizoid personality disorder may feel uncomfortable when they have to relate to others. (
  • Schizoid personality disorder is a personality disorder that is associated with social detachment, emotional aloofness, and significant clinical impairment. (
  • Schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) is a mental disorder characterized by social detachment and affective flatness. (
  • Taxometric analyses of paranoid and schizoid personality disorders. (
  • Peer-professional first person account: Before psychosis - Schizoid personality from the inside. (
  • Cluster A personality disorders: Schizotypal, schizoid, and paranoid personality disorders in childhood and adolescence. (
  • Poor validity of the DSM-IV schizoid personality disorder construct as a diagnostic category. (
  • Assessing interpersonal aspects of schizoid personality disorder: Preliminary validation studies. (
  • Schizoid personality disorder is one of a group of conditions called "Cluster 'A' " or eccentric personality disorders. (
  • People with schizoid personality disorder also tend to be distant, detached, and indifferent to social relationships . (
  • Although their names sound alike and they might have some similar symptoms, schizoid personality disorder is not the same thing as schizophrenia . (
  • Many people with schizoid personality disorder are able to function fairly well, although they tend to choose jobs that allow them to work alone, such as night security officers, library, or lab workers. (
  • What Are the Symptoms of Schizoid Personality Disorder? (
  • People with schizoid personality disorder often are reclusive, organizing their lives to avoid contact with other people. (
  • How Common Is Schizoid Personality Disorder? (
  • It is difficult to accurately assess the prevalence of this disorder, because people with schizoid personality disorder rarely seek treatment. (
  • Schizoid personality disorder usually begins in late adolescence or early adulthood. (
  • Little is known about the cause of schizoid personality disorder, but both genetics and environment are suspected to play a role. (
  • The higher risk for schizoid personality disorder in families of schizophrenics suggests that a genetic susceptibility for the disorder might be inherited. (
  • How Is Schizoid Personality Disorder Diagnosed? (
  • According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR), 1 these conditions are defined by maladaptive personality characteristics beginning early in life that have consistent and serious effects on functioning. (
  • This group of mental disorders is defined by maladaptive personality characteristics that have a consistent and serious effect on work and interpersonal relationships. (
  • [1] While there is no generally agreed upon definition of personality, most theories focus on motivation and psychological interactions with one's environment. (
  • Psychologists may use psychological tests to determine personality. (
  • Personality disorders are diagnosed based on a psychological evaluation. (
  • The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, known as the MMPI, and its revised second edition (MMPI-2) are psychological assessment instruments completed by the person being evaluated, and scored and interpreted by the examiner. (
  • Later some researches showed that psychological, biological and genetic factors were involved with personality disorder. (
  • People with personality disorders possess numerous distinctive psychological features with a rigid, ongoing pattern. (
  • According to the American Psychological Association (APA) , PAPD is "a personality disorder of long standing in which ambivalence toward the self and others" is expressed by passive expressions of underlying negativism. (
  • Personality disorders are some of the most complex psychological issues in which the subjects require intensive therapy and tremendous support from family and loved ones. (
  • The personalities in a multiple have a strong psychological separation from one another. (
  • Many approaches have been taken on to study personality, including biological, cognitive, learning and trait based theories, as well as psychodynamic, and humanistic approaches. (
  • Trait theories have arisen in recent years, with the object of determining aspects of personality that compel an individual to respond in a certain way to a given situation. (
  • Despite such objections, trait theories have been popular models for quantifying personality. (
  • At a theoretical level, it integrates humanistic and trait theories about personality that have long been seen as competitors. (
  • Everybody in this world has a personality trait. (
  • The only major personality trait that consistently leads to success is conscientiousness. (
  • Flexibility is a personality trait that describes the extent to which a person can cope with changes in circumstances and think about problems and tasks in novel, creative ways. (
  • In new roles, people are exposed to costs and benefits of behaving in certain ways, potentially shifting a person's way of being over time-even given that the person's personality is influenced by genetics. (
  • It is now believed that a combination of environmental and scientific factors lead to problems in a person's personality. (
  • This view was inspired in part by research indicating that ratings on measures of personality are influenced by one's genes and that other, non-genetic developmental factors (such as adoptive parents) seem to play a surprisingly small role. (
  • Personalities take shape from a combination of one's childhood experience, upbringing and heredity. (
  • Articles on Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) which is also called Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) or Split Personality. (
  • Multiple personality disorder, now known as dissociative identity disorder is a mental disorder where the affected individual seems to have at least two or more distinct and separate personalities existing in one body. (
  • Naltrexone in the treatment of dissociative symptoms in patients with borderline personality disorder: an open-label trial. (
  • She was diagnosed with Multiple Personality Disorder , which is now called Dissociative Identity Disorder . (
  • Big Five Inventory (BFI), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), Rorschach Inkblot test , Neurotic Personality Questionnaire KON-2006 , [3] Enneagram test, or Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R). All of these tests are beneficial because they have both reliability and validity , two factors that make a test accurate. (
  • Well-known personality tests include the Rorschach test, in which an individual is asked to look at ink blots and tell what they bring to mind the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, which uses a true-false questionnaire to delineate normal personality types from variants and the Thematic Apperception Test, which employs cards featuring provocative but ambiguous scenes, asking the viewer their meaning. (
  • [5] The Big Five Inventory is the most used measuring tool because it has criterion that expands across different factors in personality, allowing psychologists to have the most accurate information they can garner. (
  • Psychiatrists and psychologists use specially designed interview and assessment tools to evaluate a person for a personality disorder. (
  • The extent to which personality develops over a life time is a highly discussed and debated topic throughout personality psychologists. (
  • Many psychologists now accept the idea that when it comes to personality, people's subjective experiences have more weight than objective reality. (
  • While the signs of a personality disorder-characteristics like lack of empathy and remorse, or consistently chaotic relationships with others-may be evident to many people in someone's life, only a clinical professional, such as a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist, can make an official determination that the person meets the criteria for a personality disorder. (
  • The most effective conflict managers tend to have a balance of characteristics from each of the four personality types, Wiedefeld said. (
  • Scientists have begun to see how these characteristics are reflected in the brains of people with borderline personality disorder. (
  • I was shown a graph which purported to represent my I.Q. and ten personality characteristics. (
  • When stressed, people with borderline personality disorder may develop psychotic-like symptoms. (
  • People with borderline personality disorder have a deep fear of abandonment. (
  • Brain regions involved in managing fear and controlling aggressive responses function differently in people with borderline personality disorder when compared to people without the disorder. (
  • It is quite common for people with borderline personality disorder to also have a mood disorder, eating disorder or substance abuse problem. (
  • People with borderline personality disorder have unstable interpersonal relationships, mood swings , fragile self-image, episodes of stress -related paranoia , unpredictable self-destructive actions, and frequent displays of anger. (
  • Research shows us that 70 percent of people with Borderline Personality Disorder drop out of treatment. (
  • She was recently diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, but she has struggled her entire life. (
  • Three times as many women as men are diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. (
  • Individuals with so-called healthy personalities are seen to deal with normal stress in a natural way, and they form functional relationships with family members and peers. (
  • People with personality disorders have difficulties dealing and coping with everyday stress compared to people with normal or healthy personalities. (
  • [1] X Research source It may be possible to recognize many of the symptoms of avoidant personality disorder, but in order to be diagnosed, an individual must be seen by a qualified mental health professional. (
  • One of the most recognizable symptoms of avoidant personality disorder is an intense feeling of discomfort in social situations, beyond what might be considered "normal" shyness. (
  • People with avoidant personality disorder often do not have any close friends or romantic relationships. (
  • When they do get involved in romantic relationships, people with avoidant personality disorder are likely to still display extreme restraint due to an intense fear of rejection. (
  • Although they have a difficult time forging close relationships with others, most people with avoidant personality disorder want close relationships and may have detailed fantasies about what it would be like to have them. (
  • People who have avoidant personality disorder tend to avoid situations that would involve interactions with other people. (
  • What is the prevalence of avoidant personality disorder? (
  • A twin study of young adults found an avoidant personality disorder rate of 1.4% in men and 2.5% in women. (
  • Avoidant personality disorder is estimated to be equally common in males and females. (
  • Weinbrecht A, Schulze L, Boettcher J, Renneberg B. Avoidant Personality Disorder: a Current Review. (
  • Childhood antecedents of avoidant personality disorder: a retrospective study. (
  • Avoidant personality disorder, generalized social phobia, and shyness: putting the personality back into personality disorders. (
  • Cox BJ, Pagura J, Stein MB, Sareen J. The relationship between generalized social phobia and avoidant personality disorder in a national mental health survey. (
  • Comparison of brief dynamic and cognitive-behavioural therapies in avoidant personality disorder. (
  • Although avoidant personality disorder is often considered to be a chronic condition, significant improvement can occur with many individuals, especially with treatment. (
  • Examinations of adults with avoidant personality disorder indicate that childhood lack of involvement with peers and failure to engage in structured activities may persist through adolescence and adulthood. (
  • Conversely, adults who have had positive achievements and interpersonal relationships during childhood and adolescence were more likely to remit from avoidant personality disorder as adults. (
  • A person with paranoid personality disorder is suspicious and distrustful. (
  • Cluster A personality disorders generally describe conditions where individuals live in a fantasy world and are out of touch with reality, such as paranoid personality disorder. (
  • People with paranoid personality disorder are suspicious, untrusting, and unforgiving. (
  • Based on my evaluation of Mr. Sandusky, I have diagnosed a histrionic personality disorder," Atkins said. (
  • People with histrionic personality disorder constantly seek attention by being overly dramatic and emotional. (
  • People with schizotypal personality disorder are also detached from social relationships, and they may have cognitive and perceptual distortions, poor social skills, and delusional thoughts. (
  • Someone with this disorder will have at least 2 separate personalities that take control of the body at different times. (
  • Dimensional representations of DSM-IV cluster A personality disorders in a population-based sample of Norwegian twins: A multivariate study. (
  • Genetic and environmental influences on dimensional representations of DSM-IV cluster C personality disorders: a population-based multivariate twin study. (
  • Journal of Personality Assessment, 90 (20), 185-196. (
  • To that end, Wiedefeld walked attendees through a self-assessment to identify their primary personality type. (
  • According to the Journal of Personality Assessment , between 2 and 7 percent of the population has OCPD, making it the most prevalent personality disorder. (
  • As personality assessment tools continue to grow in popularity both in the workforce and the general population [in particular online users and magazine readers], one must question the validity of these personality assessment tools in which people appear to putting their full-hearted faith into. (
  • Nevertheless, the comprehensiveness, applicability, and cultural utility are also worth analyzing in helping to assess the validity of these personality assessment tools. (
  • Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of three types or mediums of assessment tools (Myers-Briggs, Rorschach, and those found in popular magazines) used to determine personality(-y,+ies). (
  • The Rorschach technique, sometimes known as the Rorschach test or the inkblot test, is a projective personality assessment based on the test taker's reactions to a series of 10 inkblot pictures. (
  • My research has focused on structured personality assessment. (
  • Personality is not stable over the course of a lifetime, but it changes much more quickly during childhood, so personality constructs in children are referred to as temperament. (
  • Psychoanalysis emphasizes unconscious motivations and the conflicts between primal urges and learned social mores, stressing the importance of early childhood experiences in determining mature personality. (
  • Multiple personality disorder is a perplexing phenomenon to outside observers, believed to be brought on by persistent childhood abuse. (
  • Chronic physical illness or separation anxiety disorder in childhood or adolescence may predispose an individual to the development of dependent personality disorder. (
  • It is uncommon for them to be diagnosed in childhood or adolescence, because a child or teen is under constant development, personality changes, and maturation. (
  • Some believe it to be a true personality disorder caused by childhood trauma, however current research is showing that it is may be a highly genetic, physical brain disorder. (
  • Personality development concerns the origins of personality and the degree to which it is stable or changeable from childhood through old age (Funder, 2007). (
  • Positive childhood experiences: resilience and recovery from personality disorder in early adulthood. (
  • Typically the antisocial personality shows up in childhood. (
  • See your health care provider or mental health professional if you or someone you know has symptoms of a personality disorder. (
  • The symptoms of a personality disorder may range from mild to severe and usually emerge in adolescence, persisting into adulthood. (
  • Thus, personality psychopathology, most notably BPD, should be assessed in patients with major depressive disorder and should be considered as part of prognosis and treatment. (
  • Social-learning theorists, notably Albert Bandura, also emphasized environmental influences but pointed out that these work in conjunction with forces such as memory and feelings to determine personality. (
  • Chronic feelings of emptiness, impulsivity, self-mutilation, short-lived psychotic episodes, and manipulative suicide attempts help distinguish BPD from other personality disorders. (
  • People with antisocial personality disorder are impulsive, irresponsible, and insensitive to others' feelings or needs. (
  • In Rogers's view, the self-concept is the most important feature of personality, and it includes all the thoughts, feelings, and beliefs people have about themselves. (
  • In response to complaints about validity, scoring methods were devised that to provide greater objectivity by clearly specifying certain personality variables and relating them to clinical diagnoses. (
  • Personality diagnoses in adolescence: DSM-IV axis II diagnoses and an empirically derived alternative. (
  • Signs of a personality disorder usually appear by late adolescence or early adulthood. (
  • That meant a focus on two sets of students, the college-bound and the troubled--an approach that missed many students in the middle and set up a split personality in school counseling that persists to this day. (
  • It found that counselors considered personal and college counseling their most important duties (that split personality again), yet they carried larger-than-recommended student caseloads and only spent about half their time in direct contact with students. (
  • The knowledge of the symptoms of a split personality disorder can help you identify that you may be living with someone who suffers from this condition. (
  • Besides the detailed analysis of the symptoms, the person is also subjected to specially designed tests as a part of split personality disorder diagnosis. (
  • Ryan Germick is principal designer for both Personality and the famous Google Doodles (the graphic "Google" cartoons that sometimes appear on the Google search page). (
  • 1 People carry the label of personality disorder with them, and this can influence their care when they come into contact with services, including mental health providers. (
  • But almost 20 years after the designation of borderline personality disorder as a recognized mental health condition, some understanding and hope have surfaced for people with the condition and their families. (
  • When this happens for a long time - and repeatedly - mental health professionals call it a personality disorder. (
  • Personality disorders are mental health conditions. (
  • Until recently, an altered or unbalanced personality was not considered a mental health issue or considered treatable. (
  • However, personality disorders are now recognised as lying within the spectrum of mental health disorders and are amenable to treatment. (
  • Personality disorders such as dependent personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. (
  • Socioeconomic-Status and Mental Health in a Personality Disorder Sample: The Importance of Neighborhood Factors. (
  • Since there is often an overlap with mood disorder or substance abuse, these possibilities should be considered by the mental health professional in anyone who has the symptoms of borderline personality disorder. (
  • People who exhibit type A personalities tend to be very well on top of things, but having this sort of personality actually raises your risk of cardiovascular (heart) disease later in life, as proven by research done a few years ago. (
  • Individuals with dependent personality disorder are often characterized by pessimism and self-doubt, tend to belittle their abilities and assets, and may constantly refer to themselves as "stupid. (
  • Shedler J, Westen D. Refining personality disorder diagnosis: integrating science and practice. (
  • 2 Characterized by emotional turmoil and chronic suicidality (suicide ideation and attempts), this type of personality disorder presents some of the most difficult and troubling problems in all of psychiatry. (
  • 8 Also, family history studies have found that impulsive disorders such as antisocial personality and substance abuse are particularly common among first-degree relatives of patients with BPD. (
  • Histrionic personality (HPD) is an emotional/impulsive personality disorder . (
  • 1. Republic of the Philippines Southern Luzon State University GRADUATE SCHOOL Lucban, Quezon Survey QuestionnairePart I. PERSONALITY INVENTORY Below are listed eleven different situations and areas which confront all of us atone time or another. (
  • Many of the ideas developed by historical and modern personality theorists stem from the basic philosophical assumptions they hold. (
  • Some personality theorists have sought to weave situational factors into how personality is conceived. (
  • One view, sometimes called Social Investment Theory, proposes that individuals' personal investment in new social roles, such as by becoming a spouse or starting a job, helps explain personality development and change over time. (
  • In stressing the importance of dealing with personality in dentistry, Goldstein, who serves as a consultant for the department of postgraduate dentistry at UC San Francisco, said that Type A individuals are more likely to suffer from TMJ, which includes symptoms such as headache, dizziness and tightness in the back of the neck and face. (
  • The symptoms of dependent personality disorder primarily include a long-standing need for the person to be taken care of and a fear of being abandoned or separated from important individuals in his or her life. (
  • The study, the researchers said, demonstrates personality has a direct influence on an individuals' lifestyle. (
  • Many people believe that facial cues exist towards the hidden personality of unknown individuals 16 . (
  • Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers supported a humanistic approach to personality, pointing out that other approaches do not factor in people's basic goodness and the motivational factors that push them toward higher levels of functioning. (
  • Premorbid personality in schizophrenia spectrum: A prospective study. (
  • Based on people's features, signs, and symptoms, personality disorders are grouped into three main types called clusters: cluster A, cluster B, and cluster C. Each cluster is further divided into more subtypes. (
  • Antisocial personality disorder in adults is also referred to as sociopathy or psychopathy. (
  • The elements of a moderate to severely antisocial personality are established as early as kindergarten. (
  • Raine A, Lencz T, Bihrle S, LaCasse L, Colletti P. Reduced prefrontal gray matter volume and reduced autonomic activity in antisocial personality disorder. (
  • People with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) can be witty, charming, and fun to be around -- but they also lie and exploit others. (
  • Antisocial personality disorder affects more men than women. (
  • The FDA has not approved any medications specifically for antisocial personality disorder. (
  • Nevertheless, most theories view personality as relatively stable. (
  • Optimistic versus pessimistic - Personality theories differ with regard to whether humans are integral in the changing of their own personalities. (
  • A number of theories have attempted to explain human personality. (
  • From Aristotle to Sigmund Freud and Abraham Maslow, countless theories and concepts for understanding personality have been proposed. (
  • Such research relies on longitudinal evaluations of consistency in people s performance based on theories from, Costa and McCrae s (1987) Big Five Personality Theory. (
  • Someone with a personality disorder may also have other forms of mental disorders, such as a substance use disorder or depression . (
  • The diagnosis of personality disorders in patients who have comorbid axis I disorders, including mood, substance abuse, and medical disorders (eg, head injury, seizure disorders), can make the diagnosis of personality disorders more difficult because of overlapping features. (
  • There may be personalities which have not merely transcended substance, but are rid of it altogether: in all ages the theologian and the mystic have told of such "disembodied spirits," postulated by the one, felt by the other, and now the psychical investigator with his automatic writing and his cross-correspondences is seeking to give us rigorous demonstration of them. (
  • NPD is one of the more difficult personality disorders to treat, but treatment can be effective with cognitive behavioral methods, and in some cases, pharmaceutical support. (
  • Some mild-to-moderate personality disorders are treatable with psychotherapies such as cognitive behavioural therapy or with counselling. (
  • Beck AT, Freeman A. Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders. (
  • Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a chronic psychiatric, emotional, and cognitive illness known for it prevalence and diagnosis in adolescents typically among the age of 18. (
  • Flexible personality should not be confused with cognitive flexibility, which is the ability to switch between two concepts, as well as simultaneously think about multiple concepts. (
  • This is a remarkable display of self-awareness, which Baer accepts at face value: "I now know there are at least 11 distinct alternate personalities. (
  • It is possible that this person has Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD). (
  • Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is a personality disorder that's characterized by extreme perfectionism, order, and neatness. (
  • Symptoms vary widely, depending on the type of personality disorder. (
  • Most non-psychiatrists are aware of the diagnosis of personality disorder but rarely make it with confidence. (
  • A diagnosis of personality disorder is made only if these altered features are having a significant effect on a person's work, personal or social life. (
  • GPs also carry the clinical responsibility for their patients with personality disorder, and this can be challenging over the long term. (
  • Karen presents the doctor with a list of her alternate personalities, including capsule descriptions of the function each one serves. (
  • And how does a sufferer function, with so many alternate personalities-or "alters"-some of them adults and some children? (
  • NEWSWEEK: When an alternate personality would emerge, your own consciousness receded. (
  • Experts say that alternate personalities are formed to shield MPD sufferers from pain and memories of abuse. (
  • Unfortunately, the ophthalmologist could not see the man for an hour, and because the man was in severe pain, Howland decided to try an alternate personality. (
  • Borderline personality disorder is a personality disorder of emotional dysregulation that is characterized by the sufferer consistently exhibiting abnormal self-image, ways of feeling and interacting, leading to difficulties with interpersonal relationships. (
  • BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by marked impulsivity, instability of mood and interpersonal relationships, and suicidal behaviour that can complicate medical care. (
  • The guidelines to diagnose a personality disorder typically come from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) , published by the American Psychiatric Association. (
  • Diagnosing personality disorders remains a challenge and the condition is often diagnosed while diagnosing other co-morbid psychiatric or mood disorders such as anxiety, depression or eating disorders. (
  • Dependent personality disorder is diagnosed in 0.5 to 0.6 percent of the general population, according to the American Psychiatric Association (2013). (
  • Zimmerman M, Rothschild L, Chelminski I. The prevalence of DSM-IV personality disorders in psychiatric outpatients. (