Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
A state in which attention is largely directed outward from the self.
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.
Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.
Disorder characterized by an emotionally constricted manner that is unduly conventional, serious, formal, and stingy, by preoccupation with trivial details, rules, order, organization, schedules, and lists, by stubborn insistence on having things one's own way without regard for the effects on others, by poor interpersonal relationships, and by indecisiveness due to fear of making mistakes.
In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.
A personality disorder characterized by the avoidance of accepting deserved blame and an unwarranted view of others as malevolent. The latter is expressed as suspiciousness, hypersensitivity, and mistrust.
Established behavior pattern characterized by excessive drive and ambition, impatience, competitiveness, sense of time urgency, and poorly contained aggression.
A personality inventory consisting of statements to be asserted or denied by the individual. The patterns of response are characteristic of certain personality attributes.
A state in which attention is largely directed inward upon one's self.
A personality disorder characterized by overly reactive and intensely expressed or overly dramatic behavior, proneness to exaggeration, emotional excitability, and disturbances in interpersonal relationships.
A psychoanalytic term meaning self-love.
Behavior pattern characterized by negative emotionality, an inability to express emotions, and social isolation, which has been linked to greater cardiovascular disease and increased mortality. (from International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008, p. 217)
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
A personality disorder manifested by a profound defect in the ability to form social relationships, no desire for social involvement, and an indifference to praise or criticism.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.
A personality disorder characterized by an indirect resistance to demands for adequate social and occupational performance; anger and opposition to authority and the expectations of others that is expressed covertly by obstructionism, procrastination, stubbornness, dawdling, forgetfulness, and intentional inefficiency. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.
Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Tendency to feel anger toward and to seek to inflict harm upon a person or group.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.
A person's view of himself.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.
A personality assessment technique in which the subject or observer indicates the degree to which a standardized set of descriptive statements actually describes the subject. The term reflects "sorting" procedures occasionally used with this technique.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
State of mind or behavior characterized by extreme skepticism and persistent opposition or resistance to outside suggestions or advice. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)
The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.
Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.
Behavior pattern characterized by a generally calm and even-tempered demeanor. Emotionally, such personality types show less frequent irritation, anger, hostility, and aggression than Type A individuals. (from International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008, p. 223)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The artificial language of schizophrenic patients - neologisms (words of the patient's own making with new meanings).
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
'Prisoners,' in a medical context, refer to individuals who are incarcerated and may face challenges in accessing adequate healthcare services due to various systemic and individual barriers, which can significantly impact their health status and outcomes.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.
Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.
Persistent, unwanted idea or impulse which is considered normal when it does not markedly interfere with mental processes or emotional adjustment.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Discomfort and partial inhibition of the usual forms of behavior when in the presence of others.
An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.
The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.
A view of the world and the individual's environment as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful, claiming that the way people view their life has a positive influence on their health.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A philosophy based upon spiritual intuition that is believed to transcend ordinary sensory experiences or understanding.
Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
The field concerned with the interrelationship between the brain, behavior and the immune system. Neuropsychologic, neuroanatomic and psychosocial studies have demonstrated their role in accentuating or diminishing immune/allergic responses.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

Factors influencing tackle injuries in rugby union football. (1/1373)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of selected aspects of lifestyle, personality, and other player related factors on injuries in the tackle. To describe the detailed circumstances in which these tackles occurred. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was undertaken in which the tackling and tackled players ("the cases") involved in a tackle injury were each matched with "control" players who held the same respective playing positions in the opposing teams. A total of 964 rugby matches involving 71 senior clubs drawn from all districts of the Scottish Rugby Union (SRU) were observed by nominated linkmen who administered self report questionnaires to the players identified as cases and controls. Information on lifestyle habits, match preparation, training, and coaching experience was obtained. A validated battery of psychological tests assessed players' trait anger and responses to anger and hostility. The circumstances of the tackles in which injury occurred were recorded by experienced SRU coaching staff in interviews with involved players after the match. RESULTS: A total of 71 tackle injury episodes with correct matching of cases and controls were studied. The following player related factors did not contribute significantly to tackle injuries: alcohol consumption before the match, feeling "below par" through minor illness, the extent of match preparation, previous coaching, or practising tackling. Injured and non-injured players in the tackle did not differ in their disposition toward, or expression of, anger or hostility. Some 85% of tackling players who were injured were three quarters, and 52% of injuries occurred when the tackle came in behind the tackled player or within his peripheral vision. Either the tackling or tackled player was sprinting or running in all of these injury episodes. One third of injuries occurred in differential speed tackles--that is, when one player was travelling much faster than the other at impact. The player with the lower momentum was injured in 80% of these cases. Forceful or crunching tackles resulting in injury mostly occurred head on or within the tackled player's side vision. CONCLUSIONS: Attention should be focused on high speed tackles going in behind the tackled player's line of vision. Comparative information on the circumstances of the vast majority of tackles in which no injury occurs is required before any changes are considered to reduce injuries in the tackle.  (+info)

Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits. (2/1373)

Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism-antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism.  (+info)

Functional neuropsychophysiological asymmetry in schizophrenia: a review and reorientation. (3/1373)

In reviewing the neuropsychophysiological evidence of functional asymmetry it is proposed that schizophrenia is characterized by a greater dispersion of leftward and rightward asymmetries. The two extremes are represented by active (left greater than right) and withdrawn (right greater than left) syndromes, as is the case with psychometric schizotypy. Syndrome-asymmetry relations extended beyond fronto-temporal systems to include posterior activity, infracortical motoneuron excitability, and individual differences in interhemispheric connectivity and directional biases. Central to these are lateral imbalances in thalamo-cortical and callosal arousal systems, while centrality to schizophrenia follows evidence of reversals in asymmetry with changes in symptom profile, clinical recovery, and neuroleptic treatment. Affinities are found in intact animals from challenge-induced turning tendencies representing coordinated activity of attentional, motor, and reinforcement systems. In both patients and animals, neuroleptics have reciprocal interhemispheric effects, with a bidirectionality that depends on syndrome or endogenous turning preference. Bidirectionality implicates nonspecific thalamic system (NSTS) and not limbic projections. It is proposed that the asymmetries arise from endogenous influences of genes, hormones, and early experience including stressors on NSTS asymmetry, and these underpin approach/withdrawal behavior that is manifested in temperament, personality, and clinical syndrome, and which precedes language development.  (+info)

Beyond "compliance" is "adherence". Improving the prospect of diabetes care. (4/1373)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate existing research in the area of patient "compliance," to endorse reconceptualizing "compliance" in terms of "adherence," and to discuss the benefits of such a change for medical practitioners. This study critically reviews existing medical, nursing, and social scientific research in the area of patient "compliance." We assert that the literature reviewed is flawed in its focus on patient behavior as the source of "noncompliance," and neglects the roles that practitioners, the American medical system, and patient-practitioner interaction play in medical definitions of "compliance." The term "compliance" suggests a restricted medical-centered model of behavior, while the alternative "adherence" implies that patients have more autonomy in defining and following their medical treatments. We suggest that while the change in terminology is minor, it reflects an important paradigmatic shift for thinking about the delivery of health care. By enabling practitioners to more accurately identify patients' social and economic constraints and to provide them with more efficient educational and financial resources, this type of change will improve patient care. In general, by moving to a more social paradigm for understanding patient behavior, practitioners can expand the types of explanations, and therefore the types of solutions, they have for therapeutic adherence.  (+info)

Level of chronic life stress predicts clinical outcome in irritable bowel syndrome. (5/1373)

BACKGROUND: Life stress contributes to symptom onset and exacerbation in the majority of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD); research evidence is conflicting, however, as to the strength of these effects. AIMS: To test prospectively the relation of chronic life stress threat to subsequent symptom intensity over time. PATIENTS: One hundred and seventeen consecutive outpatients satisfying the modified Rome criteria for IBS (66% with one or more concurrent FD syndromes) participated. METHODS: The life stress and symptom intensity measures were determined from interview data collected independently at entry, and at six and 16 months; these measures assessed the potency of chronic life stress threat during the prior six months or more, and the severity and frequency of IBS and FD symptoms during the following two weeks. RESULTS: Chronic life stress threat was a powerful predictor of subsequent symptom intensity, explaining 97% of the variance on this measure over 16 months. No patient exposed to even one chronic highly threatening stressor improved clinically (by 50%) over the 16 months; all patients who improved did so in the absence of such a stressor. CONCLUSION: The level of chronic life stress threat predicts the clinical outcome in most patients with IBS/FD.  (+info)

Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy. (6/1373)

Recent studies provide clear and convincing evidence that psychosocial factors contribute significantly to the pathogenesis and expression of coronary artery disease (CAD). This evidence is composed largely of data relating CAD risk to 5 specific psychosocial domains: (1) depression, (2) anxiety, (3) personality factors and character traits, (4) social isolation, and (5) chronic life stress. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between these entities and CAD can be divided into behavioral mechanisms, whereby psychosocial conditions contribute to a higher frequency of adverse health behaviors, such as poor diet and smoking, and direct pathophysiological mechanisms, such as neuroendocrine and platelet activation. An extensive body of evidence from animal models (especially the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis) reveals that chronic psychosocial stress can lead, probably via a mechanism involving excessive sympathetic nervous system activation, to exacerbation of coronary artery atherosclerosis as well as to transient endothelial dysfunction and even necrosis. Evidence from monkeys also indicates that psychosocial stress reliably induces ovarian dysfunction, hypercortisolemia, and excessive adrenergic activation in premenopausal females, leading to accelerated atherosclerosis. Also reviewed are data relating CAD to acute stress and individual differences in sympathetic nervous system responsivity. New technologies and research from animal models demonstrate that acute stress triggers myocardial ischemia, promotes arrhythmogenesis, stimulates platelet function, and increases blood viscosity through hemoconcentration. In the presence of underlying atherosclerosis (eg, in CAD patients), acute stress also causes coronary vasoconstriction. Recent data indicate that the foregoing effects result, at least in part, from the endothelial dysfunction and injury induced by acute stress. Hyperresponsivity of the sympathetic nervous system, manifested by exaggerated heart rate and blood pressure responses to psychological stimuli, is an intrinsic characteristic among some individuals. Current data link sympathetic nervous system hyperresponsivity to accelerated development of carotid atherosclerosis in human subjects and to exacerbated coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in monkeys. Thus far, intervention trials designed to reduce psychosocial stress have been limited in size and number. Specific suggestions to improve the assessment of behavioral interventions include more complete delineation of the physiological mechanisms by which such interventions might work; increased use of new, more convenient "alternative" end points for behavioral intervention trials; development of specifically targeted behavioral interventions (based on profiling of patient factors); and evaluation of previously developed models of predicting behavioral change. The importance of maximizing the efficacy of behavioral interventions is underscored by the recognition that psychosocial stresses tend to cluster together. When they do so, the resultant risk for cardiac events is often substantially elevated, equaling that associated with previously established risk factors for CAD, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.  (+info)

Delay or probability discounting in a model of impulsive behavior: effect of alcohol. (7/1373)

Little is known about the acute effects of drugs of abuse on impulsivity and self-control. In this study, impulsivity was assessed in humans using a computer task that measured delay and probability discounting. Discounting describes how much the value of a reward (or punisher) is decreased when its occurrence is either delayed or uncertain. Twenty-four healthy adult volunteers ingested a moderate dose of ethanol (0.5 or 0.8 g/kg ethanol: n = 12 at each dose) or placebo before completing the discounting task. In the task the participants were given a series of choices between a small, immediate, certain amount of money and $10 that was either delayed (0, 2, 30, 180, or 365 days) or probabilistic (i.e., certainty of receipt was 1.0, .9, .75, .5, or .25). The point at which each individual was indifferent between the smaller immediate or certain reward and the $10 delayed or probabilistic reward was identified using an adjusting-amount procedure. The results indicated that (a) delay and probability discounting were well described by a hyperbolic function; (b) delay and probability discounting were positively correlated within subjects; (c) delay and probability discounting were moderately correlated with personality measures of impulsivity; and (d) alcohol had no effect on discounting.  (+info)

Health consciousness of young people in relation to their personality. (8/1373)

Personality of targeted individuals can be assumed to influence behavior modification by health education. In this study the influence of personality on health consciousness was analyzed by a questionnaire for lifestyle, health consciousness, and the NEO-FFI personality test. Subjects were 942 new students in the Tokyo University of Agriculture who were surveyed in April, 1998. Separately performed health examination data were used to verify reliability of answers to the questionnaire. Among students, 83.2% of males and 90.4% of females felt themselves to be healthy, and more than 80% students desired to improve their health more. The rate of having no physical complaints, however, was only 31.7% in males and 20.4% in females. Distribution of NEO-FFI scores of neuroticism (N), extraversion (E), openness (O), agreeableness (A), and conscientiousness (C) corresponded well between males and females, except for significantly higher scores of O and A in females. Odds ratios (ORs) between high and low tertial points of NEO-FFI score for health consciousness were significantly elevated in the high scoring groups of E and C (OR = 6.26, 95% CI = 1.46-26.82, and OR = 6.04, 95% CI = 1.42-25.71, respectively) in males. On the contrary, high N and O groups had low health consciousness. Smoking habit was associated with high E scores (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.13-4.43). Dietary habits, regular eating time, and avoidance of salty foods were associated with high C scores in both males and females. The OR of regular eating time was 2.66 (95% CI = 1.42-1.98), and 2.20 (95% CI = 1.31-3.71) for males and females, respectively. The OR of avoidance of salty foods were 2.09 (95% CI = 1.11-3.91), 1.87 (95% CI = 1.11-3.16) for males and females, respectively. Significant associations between lifestyle and personality require further study for risk association analysis and for relationship to interventive practices for prevention of lifestyle associated diseases.  (+info)

In the context of medicine and psychology, personality is a complex concept that refers to the unique patterns of thoughts, behaviors, and emotions that define an individual and differentiate them from others. It is the set of characteristics that influence how we perceive the world, how we relate to other people, and how we cope with stress and challenges.

Personality is thought to be relatively stable over time, although it can also evolve and change in response to life experiences and maturation. It is shaped by a combination of genetic factors, environmental influences, and developmental experiences.

There are many different theories and models of personality, including the Five Factor Model (FFM), which identifies five broad domains of personality: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Other approaches to understanding personality include psychoanalytic theory, humanistic psychology, and trait theory.

It's important to note that while the term "personality" is often used in everyday language to describe someone's behavior or demeanor, in medical and psychological contexts it refers to a more complex and multifaceted construct.

Personality disorders are a class of mental health conditions characterized by deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that deviate significantly from the norms of their culture. These patterns often lead to distress for the individual and/or impairments in personal relationships, work, or social functioning.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), identifies ten specific personality disorders, which are grouped into three clusters based on descriptive similarities:

1. Cluster A (Odd or Eccentric) - characterized by odd, eccentric, or unusual behaviors:
* Paranoid Personality Disorder
* Schizoid Personality Disorder
* Schizotypal Personality Disorder
2. Cluster B (Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic) - marked by dramatic, emotional, or erratic behaviors:
* Antisocial Personality Disorder
* Borderline Personality Disorder
* Histrionic Personality Disorder
* Narcissistic Personality Disorder
3. Cluster C (Anxious or Fearful) - featuring anxious, fearful behaviors:
* Avoidant Personality Disorder
* Dependent Personality Disorder
* Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

It is important to note that personality disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat. They often require comprehensive assessments by mental health professionals, such as psychologists or psychiatrists, who specialize in personality disorders. Effective treatments typically involve long-term, specialized psychotherapies, with some cases potentially benefiting from medication management for co-occurring symptoms like anxiety or depression.

A Personality Inventory is a standardized test used in psychology to assess an individual's personality traits and characteristics. It typically consists of a series of multiple-choice questions or statements that the respondent must rate according to their level of agreement or disagreement. The inventory measures various aspects of an individual's behavior, attitudes, and temperament, providing a quantifiable score that can be compared to normative data to help diagnose personality disorders, assess personal strengths and weaknesses, or provide insights into an individual's likely responses to different situations. Examples of well-known personality inventories include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI).

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a mental health disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affect, and mood, as well as marked impulsivity that begins by early adulthood and is present in various contexts.

Individuals with BPD often experience intense and fluctuating emotions, ranging from profound sadness, anxiety, and anger to feelings of happiness or calm. They may have difficulty managing these emotions, leading to impulsive behavior, self-harm, or suicidal ideation.

People with BPD also tend to have an unstable sense of self, which can lead to rapid changes in their goals, values, and career choices. They often struggle with feelings of emptiness and boredom, and may engage in risky behaviors such as substance abuse, reckless driving, or binge eating to alleviate these feelings.

Interpersonal relationships are often strained due to the individual's fear of abandonment, intense emotional reactions, and difficulty regulating their emotions. They may experience idealization and devaluation of others, leading to rapid shifts in how they view and treat people close to them.

Diagnosis of BPD is typically made by a mental health professional using criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is published by the American Psychiatric Association. Treatment for BPD may include psychotherapy, medication, and support groups to help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Personality tests are psychological assessments used to measure an individual's personality traits, characteristics, and behaviors. These tests are designed to evaluate various aspects of an individual's personality, such as their temperament, interpersonal style, emotional stability, motivation, values, and preferences. The results of these tests can help healthcare professionals, researchers, and organizations better understand a person's behavior, predict their performance in different settings, and identify potential strengths and weaknesses.

There are several types of personality tests, including self-report measures, projective tests, and objective tests. Self-report measures, such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) or the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), ask individuals to rate themselves on a series of statements or questions about their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Projective tests, like the Rorschach Inkblot Test or the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), present ambiguous stimuli that respondents must interpret, revealing unconscious thoughts, feelings, and motivations. Objective tests, such as the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) or the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), use a standardized set of questions to assess specific personality traits and characteristics.

It is important to note that while personality tests can provide valuable insights into an individual's behavior, they should not be used as the sole basis for making important decisions about a person's life, such as employment or mental health treatment. Instead, these tests should be considered one piece of a comprehensive assessment that includes other sources of information, such as interviews, observations, and collateral reports.

A personality assessment is a systematic process used by healthcare professionals to evaluate and understand an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior. It typically involves the use of standardized measures, such as self-report questionnaires, interviews, and observational techniques, to gather information about an individual's personality traits, attitudes, values, and behaviors.

The goal of a personality assessment is to provide a comprehensive and integrated understanding of an individual's unique personality style, including their strengths, weaknesses, and potential vulnerabilities. This information can be useful in a variety of contexts, including clinical treatment planning, vocational counseling, and forensic evaluation.

It is important to note that personality assessments should always be conducted by qualified professionals with appropriate training and expertise in the use of these measures. Additionally, while personality assessments can provide valuable insights into an individual's personality style, they are not infallible and should always be considered alongside other sources of information when making important decisions about treatment or management.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder is defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships, as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. The disorder is often characterized by individuals having difficulty with expressing emotions and relating to others. They may also experience unusual perceptions, such as hearing voices or seeing things that aren't there, but these are not as severe as in Schizophrenia. It is important to note that this disorder can cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others, lack of empathy, and manipulative behaviors. It is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as follows:

A. A consistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms and rules, as indicated by the presence of at least three of the following:

1. Failure to conform to social norms and laws, indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.
2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.
3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; indication of this symptom may include promiscuity.
4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.
6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.
7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

B. The individual is at least 18 years of age.

C. There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before the age of 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

E. The individual's criminal behavior has not been better explained by a conduct disorder diagnosis or antisocial behavior that began before the age of 15 years.

It's important to note that ASPD can be challenging to diagnose, and it often requires a comprehensive evaluation from a mental health professional with experience in personality disorders.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), neurotic disorders are not a recognized category. However, the term "neurosis" has been used historically in psychiatry and psychology to refer to a group of mental disorders characterized by anxiety, obsessions, depressive moods, phobias, or hypochondriacal fears. These symptoms are often considered to be the result of internal conflicts, typically related to stress, frustration, or interpersonal difficulties.

The DSM-5 has replaced the category of neurotic disorders with several specific mental disorders that were previously classified under this heading. These include:

1. Anxiety Disorders (e.g., panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder)
2. Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder)
3. Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, adjustment disorders)
4. Mood Disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder)
5. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders (e.g., illness anxiety disorder, conversion disorder)

These specific disorders are defined by their own unique diagnostic criteria and should be evaluated based on those guidelines.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "personality development" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a concept that is more commonly found in psychology and personal growth contexts. In those fields, personality development refers to the process by which a person's character, behaviors, thoughts, and patterns of emotion are formed, structured, and changed throughout their life. This process can be influenced by genetic factors, environmental influences, and individual experiences. If you have any questions related to mental health or psychology, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

Compulsive Personality Disorder (CPD) is a mental health condition characterized by an obsessive need for order, control, and perfection, which can interfere with the individual's ability to function in daily life. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), classifies CPD as a type of personality disorder.

The following are some of the diagnostic criteria for Compulsive Personality Disorder:

1. Rigid adherence to rules, regulations, and schedules.
2. Overconscientiousness, preoccupation with details, and perfectionism that interferes with task completion.
3. Excessive devotion to work and productivity at the expense of leisure activities and friendships.
4. Unwillingness to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly the individual's way of doing things.
5. Rigidity and stubbornness.
6. Inability to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value.
7. Reluctance to take vacations or engage in leisure activities due to a fear of something unexpected happening that would disrupt the individual's routine.
8. Overly restrained and inhibited in expressing emotions and affection towards others.

Individuals with CPD may experience significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning due to their rigid and inflexible behavior. Treatment typically involves psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which can help individuals learn more adaptive ways of thinking and behaving. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to manage symptoms of anxiety or depression that often co-occur with CPD.

In medical terms, "character" is not a term that has a specific or technical definition. It is a common English word that can have various meanings depending on the context in which it is used. In general, "character" refers to the personality traits, behaviors, and qualities that define an individual. However, in a medical or clinical setting, healthcare professionals may use the term "character" to describe certain aspects of a patient's symptoms, such as the quality, intensity, or duration of a particular symptom. For example, a patient's pain might be described as sharp, stabbing, or dull in character.

It is important to note that while healthcare professionals may use the term "character" to describe certain aspects of a patient's symptoms or condition, it is not a medical diagnosis or a specific medical term with a standardized definition.

Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a persistent pattern of distrust and suspicion, such that others' intentions are interpreted as malevolent. This disorder is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions.

To be diagnosed with PPD, an individual must display at least four of the following symptoms:

1. Suspects, without sufficient reason, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving them.
2. Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates.
3. Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against them.
4. Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events.
5. Persistently bears grudges, i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights.
6. Perceives attacks on their character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack.
7. Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner.

These symptoms must be present for a significant period, typically at least one year, and must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Additionally, the symptoms cannot be better explained by another mental disorder, such as Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder with Psychotic Features, or Substance/Medication-Induced Psychotic Disorder.

While "Type A Personality" is commonly used in everyday language, it's important to note that it's not a term used in clinical medicine or psychology for official diagnosis. However, it does have a history in psychological research. The term was initially introduced by cardiologists Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman in the 1950s to describe a personality pattern associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease.

Type A Personality is often characterized by:

1. High level of competitiveness and ambition.
2. A sense of urgency and impatience, often feeling pressed for time.
3. Easily becoming frustrated or angry in traffic or in long lines.
4. Multitasking and doing many things at once.
5. Being highly organized and concerned with time management.

However, it's crucial to remember that these traits exist on a spectrum, and having some of these characteristics doesn't necessarily mean someone has a 'Type A Personality'. Also, the correlation between this personality pattern and coronary heart disease has been a subject of ongoing debate in recent years.

The MMPI, or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, is a psychological assessment tool that is widely used in clinical and research settings to help evaluate an individual's personality, emotional state, and behavior. It consists of a series of true-false questions that are designed to measure various aspects of an individual's psychological functioning, including their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

The MMPI was first developed in the 1930s and has undergone several revisions over the years. The current version, the MMPI-2, consists of 567 items and takes approximately 60-90 minutes to complete. The test is typically administered by a trained professional, such as a psychologist or counselor, who uses the results to help diagnose mental health conditions, develop treatment plans, and make recommendations about an individual's care.

It is important to note that while the MMPI can be a useful tool in assessing psychological functioning, it should not be used as the sole basis for making diagnostic or treatment decisions. It is typically used in conjunction with other assessment methods, such as clinical interviews and other tests, to provide a comprehensive picture of an individual's psychological state.

Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD) is a mental health condition, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association.

It's characterized by a pattern of excessive emotionality and attention-seeking behavior, beginning in early adulthood and present in various contexts. Individuals with HPD may exhibit rapidly shifting and exaggerated emotions, seductive or provocative behavior, and an excessive need for approval. They may also be uncomfortable when not the center of attention.

Please note that only a qualified healthcare professional can diagnose mental health conditions. If you or someone else has symptoms of Histrionic Personality Disorder, it's important to seek professional help.

Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, a lack of empathy for others, a need for excessive admiration, and feelings of entitlement. It's named after the Greek mythological figure Narcissus, who fell in love with his own reflection.

In clinical psychology, narcissism is often used to describe a personality disorder, known as Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), which is characterized by these traits in a pervasive and persistent manner that interferes significantly with an individual's social relationships and functioning. However, it's important to note that narcissism exists on a spectrum, and while some people may have traits of narcissism, they do not necessarily meet the criteria for NPD.

Remember, only a qualified mental health professional can diagnose a personality disorder.

Type D personality is not a medical diagnosis, but a personality type that has been linked to an increased risk of certain health problems. The "D" in Type D stands for "distressed," which refers to the negative emotionality component of this personality type. People with a Type D personality tend to experience negative emotions across time and situations, and they often have a difficult time expressing those feelings to others. They also tend to be socially inhibited, meaning they are less likely to form close relationships or seek social support even when they need it.

Research has suggested that people with Type D personalities may be at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, depression, and other health problems. However, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between this personality type and health outcomes. It's important to note that having a Type D personality doesn't mean that someone will definitely develop health problems, but it may be a risk factor to consider in overall health and well-being.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

In the context of medicine and psychology, "temperament" refers to a person's natural disposition or character, which is often thought to be inherited and relatively stable throughout their life. It is the foundation on which personality develops, and it influences how individuals react to their environment, handle emotions, and approach various situations.

Temperament is composed of several traits, including:

1. Activity level: The degree of physical and mental energy a person exhibits.
2. Emotional intensity: The depth or strength of emotional responses.
3. Regularity: The consistency in biological functions like sleep, hunger, and elimination.
4. Approach/withdrawal: The tendency to approach or avoid new situations or people.
5. Adaptability: The ease with which a person adapts to changes in their environment.
6. Mood: The general emotional tone or baseline mood of an individual.
7. Persistence: The ability to maintain focus and effort on a task despite challenges or distractions.
8. Distractibility: The susceptibility to being diverted from a task by external stimuli.
9. Sensitivity: The degree of responsiveness to sensory input, such as touch, taste, sound, and light.
10. Attention span: The length of time a person can concentrate on a single task or activity.

These traits combine to create an individual's unique temperamental profile, which can influence their mental and physical health, social relationships, and overall well-being. Understanding temperament can help healthcare professionals tailor interventions and treatments to meet the specific needs of each patient.

Schizoid Personality Disorder is defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) as a long-standing pattern of detachment from social relationships, a reduced capacity for emotional expression, and an unusual degree of introversion. This disorder is characterized by:

1. A lack of desire for close relationships,
2. Difficulty expressing emotions and finding enjoyment in most activities,
3. Limited range of emotional expression,
4. Inattention to social norms and conventions,
5. Preference for being alone,
6. Indifference to praise or criticism from others.

These symptoms must be stable and of long duration, typically present for at least a year. The individual's lifestyle, attitudes, and behavior are often seen as eccentric and distant by others. It is important to note that this disorder is different from Schizophrenia and does not include psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions.

Impulsive behavior can be defined medically as actions performed without proper thought or consideration of the consequences, driven by immediate needs, desires, or urges. It often involves risky or inappropriate behaviors that may lead to negative outcomes. In a clinical context, impulsivity is frequently associated with certain mental health conditions such as ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and some neurological conditions. It's important to note that everyone can exhibit impulsive behavior at times, but when it becomes a persistent pattern causing distress or functional impairment, it may indicate an underlying condition requiring professional assessment and treatment.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Psychological models are theoretical frameworks used in psychology to explain and predict mental processes and behaviors. They are simplified representations of complex phenomena, consisting of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses that describe how various factors interact to produce specific outcomes. These models can be quantitative (e.g., mathematical equations) or qualitative (e.g., conceptual diagrams) in nature and may draw upon empirical data, theoretical insights, or both.

Psychological models serve several purposes:

1. They provide a systematic and organized way to understand and describe psychological phenomena.
2. They generate hypotheses and predictions that can be tested through empirical research.
3. They integrate findings from different studies and help synthesize knowledge across various domains of psychology.
4. They inform the development of interventions and treatments for mental health disorders.

Examples of psychological models include:

1. The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, which posits that individual differences in personality can be described along five broad dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
2. The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model, which suggests that maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected and can be changed through targeted interventions.
3. The Dual Process Theory of Attitudes, which proposes that attitudes are formed and influenced by two distinct processes: a rapid, intuitive process (heuristic) and a slower, deliberative process (systematic).
4. The Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations in shaping behavior.
5. The Attachment Theory, which describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans, particularly the parent-child relationship.

It is important to note that psychological models are provisional and subject to revision or replacement as new evidence emerges. They should be considered as useful tools for understanding and explaining psychological phenomena rather than definitive truths.

Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) is a mental health condition in which an individual has an extreme fear of being abandoned or rejected, leading them to rely excessively on others for support and decision-making. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), to be diagnosed with DPD, an individual must exhibit at least five of the following symptoms:

1. Difficulty making everyday decisions without excessive advice and reassurance from others.
2. Need for others to assume responsibility for most major areas of their life.
3. Has difficulty expressing disagreement with others due to fear of loss of support or approval.
4. Has difficulty initiating projects or doing things on their own due to a lack of self-confidence in judgment or abilities.
5. Goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others, including volunteering to do things that are not enjoyable.
6. Feels uncomfortable or helpless when alone because of exaggerated fears of being unable to care for themselves.
7. Urgently seeks another relationship as a source of care and support when a close relationship ends.
8. Is unrealistically preoccupied with fears of being left to take care of themselves.

These symptoms must be present for an extended period, typically lasting for at least two years or more, and cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. Additionally, the symptoms cannot be better explained by another mental health condition, such as bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder.

It is important to note that seeking help from a mental health professional is essential for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan if you suspect you may have DPD.

Conscience is not a medical term, but it is a concept that is often discussed in the context of ethics, psychology, and philosophy. In general, conscience refers to an individual's sense of right and wrong, which guides their behavior and decision-making. It is sometimes described as an inner voice or a moral compass that helps people distinguish between right and wrong actions.

While conscience is not a medical term, there are medical conditions that can affect a person's ability to distinguish between right and wrong or to make ethical decisions. For example, certain neurological conditions, such as frontotemporal dementia, can impair a person's moral judgment and decision-making abilities. Similarly, some mental health disorders, such as psychopathy, may be associated with reduced moral reasoning and empathy, which can affect a person's conscience.

It is worth noting that the concept of conscience is complex and multifaceted, and there is ongoing debate among philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists about its nature and origins. Some theories suggest that conscience is a product of socialization and cultural influences, while others propose that it has a more fundamental basis in human biology and evolution.

A psychological interview is a clinical assessment tool used by mental health professionals to gather information about a person's cognitive, emotional, and behavioral status. It is a structured or unstructured conversation between the clinician and the client aimed at understanding the client's symptoms, concerns, personal history, current life situation, and any other relevant factors that contribute to their psychological state.

The interview may cover various topics such as the individual's mental health history, family background, social relationships, education, occupation, coping mechanisms, and substance use. The clinician will also assess the person's cognitive abilities, emotional expression, thought processes, and behavior during the interview to help form a diagnosis or treatment plan.

The psychological interview is an essential component of a comprehensive mental health evaluation, as it provides valuable insights into the individual's subjective experiences and helps establish a therapeutic relationship between the clinician and the client. It can be conducted in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, or community centers.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

Ecological and environmental phenomena refer to the processes, conditions, and interactions between living organisms and their physical surroundings in a given ecosystem or environment. These phenomena can include various natural and human-induced factors that affect the health, distribution, abundance, and diversity of species and populations within an ecosystem, as well as the overall function and stability of the ecosystem itself.

Examples of ecological and environmental phenomena include:

1. Biogeochemical cycles (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) that regulate the flow of nutrients and energy through an ecosystem.
2. Climate change and global warming, which can alter temperature, precipitation patterns, and other abiotic factors that impact species' distributions and survival.
3. Habitat fragmentation and loss due to human activities such as land use changes, urbanization, and deforestation, which can lead to declines in biodiversity and ecosystem health.
4. Pollution from various sources (e.g., air, water, soil) that can harm living organisms and disrupt ecological processes.
5. Invasive species introductions, which can outcompete native species for resources and alter community structure and function.
6. Natural disasters such as wildfires, hurricanes, and floods that can impact ecosystems and their inhabitants in various ways.
7. Human-induced disturbances such as hunting, fishing, and logging that can affect population dynamics and community structure.

Understanding ecological and environmental phenomena is crucial for developing effective strategies to conserve biodiversity, mitigate climate change, and promote sustainable development.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder is not listed as a separate disorder. Instead, its criteria have been incorporated into a new category called "Emotional Dysregulation Disorder" in the upcoming ICD-11.

However, in previous versions of the DSM (DSM-IV-TR), Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder was defined as:

A pervasive pattern of negativistic attitudes and passive resistance to demands for performance at work, home, or in other contexts, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. The individual's passivity and apparent lack of motivation may mask underlying anger and resentment, which are expressed indirectly through such methods as stubbornness, procrastination, sullenness, or intentional inefficiency.

This disorder is characterized by at least five of the following:

1. Passively resists fulfilling routine social, occupational, or domestic responsibilities.
2. Complains of being misunderstood and unappreciated by others.
3. Is sullen and argumentative.
4. Unreasonably criticizes and scorns authority, openly and privately.
5. Expresses resentments indirectly rather than confronting others directly.
6. Neurotically calm and compliant on the surface, but covertly angry and rebellious.
7. Frequently becomes sulky or stubborn in response to minor slights or frustrations.

Please note that this definition is based on the DSM-IV-TR and may not be applicable in current clinical settings. Always consult with a mental health professional for accurate information.

Aggression is defined in medical terms as behavior that is intended to cause harm or damage to another individual or their property. It can take the form of verbal or physical actions and can be a symptom of various mental health disorders, such as intermittent explosive disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and dementia. Aggression can also be a side effect of certain medications or a result of substance abuse. It is important to note that aggression can have serious consequences, including physical injury, emotional trauma, and legal repercussions. If you or someone you know is experiencing problems with aggression, it is recommended to seek help from a mental health professional.

Behavioral research is a branch of scientific study that focuses on observing and analyzing the behaviors of humans and animals in various situations. This type of research aims to understand the underlying factors that influence, shape, and motivate behavior, including cognitive processes, emotional responses, and environmental influences. In medical terms, behavioral research can be used to investigate how certain behaviors or lifestyle factors may contribute to the development, prevention, or management of health conditions. This may include studying patterns of substance use, dietary habits, physical activity levels, adherence to medical treatments, and other health-related behaviors. The goal of behavioral research in a medical context is often to develop interventions or strategies that can help promote positive health behaviors and improve overall health outcomes.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

In psychology, the term "ego" is used to describe a part of the personality that deals with the conscious mind and includes the senses of self and reality. It is one of the three components of Freud's structural model of the psyche, along with the id and the superego. The ego serves as the mediator between the unconscious desires of the id and the demands of the real world, helping to shape behavior that is socially acceptable and adaptive.

It's important to note that this definition of "ego" is specific to the field of psychology and should not be confused with other uses of the term in different contexts, such as its use in popular culture to refer to an inflated sense of self-importance or self-centeredness.

A criminal is an individual who has been found guilty of committing a crime or offense, as defined by law. Crimes can range from minor infractions to serious felonies and can include acts such as theft, fraud, assault, homicide, and many others. The legal system determines whether someone is a criminal through a formal process that includes investigation, arrest, charging, trial, and sentencing. It's important to note that being accused of a crime does not automatically make someone a criminal; they are only considered a criminal after they have been found guilty in a court of law.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "individuality" refers to the unique characteristics, traits, and needs that distinguish one person from another. This concept recognizes that each patient is a distinct individual with their own genetic makeup, lifestyle factors, personal history, and social circumstances, all of which can influence their health status and response to medical interventions.

Individuality in healthcare emphasizes the importance of tailoring medical treatments and care plans to meet the specific needs and preferences of each patient, rather than relying on a one-size-fits-all approach. This personalized approach can lead to better outcomes, improved patient satisfaction, and reduced healthcare costs.

Factors that contribute to an individual's medical individuality include their genetic makeup, epigenetic factors, environmental exposures, lifestyle choices (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), and social determinants of health (such as income, education, and access to care). All of these factors can interact in complex ways to influence a person's health status and risk for disease.

Recognizing and respecting individuality is essential for providing high-quality, patient-centered care. Healthcare providers who take the time to understand their patients' unique needs and preferences are better able to build trust, promote adherence to treatment plans, and achieve positive outcomes.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

Exploratory behavior refers to the actions taken by an individual to investigate and gather information about their environment. This type of behavior is often driven by curiosity and a desire to understand new or unfamiliar situations, objects, or concepts. In a medical context, exploratory behavior may refer to a patient's willingness to learn more about their health condition, try new treatments, or engage in self-care activities. It can also refer to the behaviors exhibited by young children as they explore their world and develop their cognitive and motor skills. Exploratory behavior is an important aspect of learning and development, and it can have a positive impact on overall health and well-being.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

Psychopathology is a branch of psychology and medicine that involves the study and classification of mental disorders, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. It is an interdisciplinary field that draws on various methods and perspectives from psychology, neuroscience, genetics, sociology, and other related disciplines to understand and explain abnormal behavior and mental processes.

The term "psychopathology" can also refer specifically to the presence of a mental disorder or to the symptoms and features of a particular mental disorder. For example, one might say that someone has a psychopathology or that they exhibit certain psychopathological symptoms.

Psychopathology is often contrasted with normal psychology, which focuses on understanding and explaining typical behavior and mental processes. However, it is important to note that the boundary between normal and abnormal behavior is not always clear-cut, and many psychological phenomena exist on a continuum rather than falling neatly into one category or the other.

Social behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to the ways in which individuals interact and engage with others within their social environment. It involves various actions, communications, and responses that are influenced by cultural norms, personal values, emotional states, and cognitive processes. These behaviors can include but are not limited to communication, cooperation, competition, empathy, altruism, aggression, and conformity.

Abnormalities in social behavior may indicate underlying mental health conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, or personality disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing social behavior is an essential aspect of diagnosing and treating various psychological and psychiatric conditions.

Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) are a group of psychiatric conditions characterized by the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to oneself or others. This leads to negative consequences such as distress, anxiety, or disruption in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) recognizes several specific ICDs, including:

1. Kleptomania - the recurrent failure to resist impulses to steal items, even though they are not needed for personal use or financial gain.
2. Pyromania - the deliberate and purposeful fire-setting on more than one occasion.
3. Intermittent Explosive Disorder - recurrent behavioral outbursts representing a failure to control aggressive impulses, resulting in serious assaultive acts or destruction of property.
4. Pathological Gambling - persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior that disrupts personal, family, or vocational pursuits.
5. Internet Gaming Disorder - the excessive and prolonged use of the internet for gaming, which leads to clinically significant impairment or distress.

These disorders are typically associated with a range of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms that can vary depending on the specific disorder and individual presentation. Treatment often involves a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and self-help strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall functioning.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) refers to the intentional, direct injuring of one's own body without suicidal intentions. It is often repetitive and can take various forms such as cutting, burning, scratching, hitting, or bruising the skin. In some cases, individuals may also ingest harmful substances or objects.

SIB is not a mental disorder itself, but it is often associated with various psychiatric conditions, including borderline personality disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and eating disorders. It is also common in individuals with developmental disabilities, such as autism spectrum disorder.

The function of SIB can vary widely among individuals, but it often serves as a coping mechanism to deal with emotional distress, negative feelings, or traumatic experiences. It's essential to approach individuals who engage in SIB with compassion and understanding, focusing on treating the underlying causes rather than solely addressing the behavior itself. Professional mental health treatment and therapy can help individuals develop healthier coping strategies and improve their quality of life.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

Affective symptoms refer to emotional or mood-related disturbances that can occur in various medical and psychological conditions. These symptoms may include:

1. Depression: feelings of sadness, hopelessness, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide.
2. Anxiety: excessive worry, fear, or nervousness, often accompanied by physical symptoms such as a rapid heartbeat, sweating, and trembling.
3. Irritability: easily annoyed or agitated, often leading to outbursts of anger or frustration.
4. Mania or hypomania: abnormally elevated mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive or risky behavior.
5. Apathy: lack of interest, motivation, or emotion, often leading to social withdrawal and decreased activity levels.
6. Mood lability: rapid and unpredictable shifts in mood, ranging from extreme happiness to sadness, anger, or anxiety.

Affective symptoms can significantly impact a person's quality of life and ability to function in daily activities. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, stress, trauma, and medical conditions. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing affective symptoms and improving overall well-being.

In medical and psychological terms, "affect" refers to a person's emotional or expressive state, mood, or dispositions that are outwardly manifested in their behavior, facial expressions, demeanor, or speech. Affect can be described as being congruent or incongruent with an individual's thoughts and experiences.

There are different types of affect, including:

1. Neutral affect: When a person shows no apparent emotion or displays minimal emotional expressiveness.
2. Positive affect: When a person exhibits positive emotions such as happiness, excitement, or enthusiasm.
3. Negative affect: When a person experiences and displays negative emotions like sadness, anger, or fear.
4. Blunted affect: When a person's emotional response is noticeably reduced or diminished, often observed in individuals with certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia.
5. Flat affect: When a person has an almost complete absence of emotional expressiveness, which can be indicative of severe depression or other mental health disorders.
6. Labile affect: When a person's emotional state fluctuates rapidly and frequently between positive and negative emotions, often observed in individuals with certain neurological conditions or mood disorders.

Clinicians may assess a patient's affect during an interview or examination to help diagnose mental health conditions, evaluate treatment progress, or monitor overall well-being.

In a medical or psychological context, hostility typically refers to a negative and antagonistic attitude or behavior towards others. It can manifest as overt actions such as aggression, verbal abuse, or anger, or as covert attitudes such as cynicism, mistrust, or resentment. Hostility is often considered a component of certain mental health conditions, such as personality disorders or mood disorders, and has been linked to negative health outcomes like cardiovascular disease. However, it's important to note that hostility can also be a normal and adaptive response to certain situations, depending on the context.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Factor analysis is a statistical technique used to identify patterns or structures in a dataset by explaining the correlations between variables. It is a method of simplifying complex data by reducing it to a smaller set of underlying factors that can explain most of the variation in the data. In other words, factor analysis is a way to uncover hidden relationships between multiple variables and group them into meaningful categories or factors.

In factor analysis, each variable is represented as a linear combination of underlying factors, where the factors are unobserved variables that cannot be directly measured but can only be inferred from the observed data. The goal is to identify these underlying factors and determine their relationships with the observed variables. This technique is commonly used in various fields such as psychology, social sciences, marketing, and biomedical research to explore complex datasets and gain insights into the underlying structure of the data.

There are two main types of factor analysis: exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). EFA is used when there is no prior knowledge about the underlying factors, and the goal is to discover the potential structure in the data. CFA, on the other hand, is used when there is a theoretical framework or hypothesis about the underlying factors, and the goal is to test whether the observed data support this framework or hypothesis.

In summary, factor analysis is a statistical method for reducing complex datasets into simpler components called factors, which can help researchers identify patterns, structures, and relationships in the data.

Defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological strategies that individuals use to cope with stressful, threatening, or uncomfortable situations. These mechanisms help protect the ego from being overwhelmed by anxiety, fear, or other negative emotions. They can also help individuals maintain a positive self-image and a sense of control in difficult circumstances.

There are many different types of defense mechanisms, including:

1. Repression: The unconscious forgetting or pushing aside of painful memories or thoughts.
2. Denial: Refusing to acknowledge the existence or reality of a threatening situation or feeling.
3. Projection: Attributing one's own unacceptable thoughts or emotions to someone else.
4. Displacement: Channeling unacceptable feelings toward a safer or less threatening target.
5. Rationalization: Creating logical explanations or excuses for unacceptable behavior or feelings.
6. Reaction formation: Converting unconscious impulses or desires into their opposite, conscious attitudes or behaviors.
7. Sublimation: Transforming unacceptable impulses or instincts into socially acceptable behaviors or activities.
8. Regression: Returning to an earlier stage of development in order to cope with stress or anxiety.
9. Suppression: Consciously pushing aside unwanted thoughts or feelings.
10. Identification: Adopting the characteristics, attitudes, or behaviors of another person as a way of coping with anxiety or fear.

Defense mechanisms can be adaptive or maladaptive, depending on the situation and how they are used. While they can help individuals cope with stress and maintain their emotional well-being in the short term, relying too heavily on defense mechanisms can lead to problems in relationships, work, and other areas of life. It is important for individuals to be aware of their defense mechanisms and work to develop healthier coping strategies over time.

I am not a medical doctor, but I can provide you with some information on this topic. Self-concept is more commonly discussed in psychology than in medicine, but it still has relevance to understanding individual experiences and behaviors in health and illness.

Self-concept refers to an individual's perception, beliefs, and attitudes about themselves, encompassing various dimensions such as:

1. Physical self (how one perceives their physical appearance, abilities, and health)
2. Social self (how one perceives their relationships with others, social roles, and status)
3. Psychological or personal self (how one perceives their personality traits, values, and beliefs)

Self-concept can influence how people view their own health, cope with illness, and engage in health behaviors. For example, a positive self-concept may contribute to better adherence to treatment plans and healthier lifestyle choices, while negative self-concepts might lead to poorer health outcomes due to decreased motivation or self-efficacy.

Understanding an individual's self-concept can help healthcare professionals tailor their communication style, recommendations, and interventions to better meet the patient's needs and preferences.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Psychotherapy is a type of treatment used primarily to treat mental health disorders and other emotional or behavioral issues. It involves a therapeutic relationship between a trained psychotherapist and a patient, where they work together to understand the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, identify patterns that may be causing distress, and develop strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall well-being.

There are many different approaches to psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and others. The specific approach used will depend on the individual patient's needs and preferences, as well as the training and expertise of the therapist.

Psychotherapy can be conducted in individual, group, or family sessions, and may be provided in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, or online platforms. The goal of psychotherapy is to help patients understand themselves better, develop coping skills, improve their relationships, and enhance their overall quality of life.

Forensic psychiatry is a subspecialty of psychiatry that intersects with the law. It involves providing psychiatric expertise to legal systems and institutions. Forensic psychiatrists conduct evaluations, provide treatment, and offer expert testimony in criminal, civil, and legislative matters. They assess issues such as competency to stand trial, insanity, risk assessment, and testamentary capacity. Additionally, they may be involved in the treatment of offenders in correctional settings and providing consultation on mental health policies and laws. Forensic psychiatry requires a thorough understanding of both psychiatric and legal principles, as well as the ability to communicate complex psychiatric concepts to legal professionals and laypersons alike.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

Social adjustment, in the context of mental health and psychology, refers to an individual's ability to adapt and function effectively within their social environment. It involves developing and maintaining positive relationships with others, fulfilling various social roles (such as being a family member, friend, or employee), and meeting the expectations and demands of one's social group.

Social adjustment can be affected by various factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, mental and physical health status, and life experiences. Poor social adjustment can lead to feelings of isolation, loneliness, and dissatisfaction with life, as well as increased risk for mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.

Assessing social adjustment is an important aspect of mental health care, as it can provide valuable insights into an individual's overall functioning and quality of life. Treatments such as psychotherapy and social skills training may be used to help improve social adjustment in individuals who are struggling in this area.

Psychoanalytic therapy, also known as psychoanalysis, is a type of in-depth talk therapy that aims to bring unconscious motivations and internal conflicts into conscious awareness. It was developed by Sigmund Freud and is based on the theory that people's behavior and feelings are strongly affected by unconscious motives.

The therapy involves regular, often frequent, sessions with a psychoanalyst. The patient is encouraged to talk freely about whatever comes to mind, including dreams, fantasies, and free associations. The analyst listens carefully and interprets the underlying meanings and patterns in the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.

The goal of psychoanalytic therapy is to help the patient understand and resolve their internal conflicts, which are often rooted in early childhood experiences. This can lead to improved mental health, better relationships, and increased self-awareness. It's important to note that this type of therapy requires a significant time commitment and can be emotionally challenging.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Q-Sort" is not a medical term or concept. It is a research method used primarily in the social sciences, particularly in psychology and sociology. Q-sort involves sorting a set of statements or items into categories that represent varying degrees of agreement or importance. The goal is to understand people's subjective views and attitudes towards certain topics or concepts.

If you have any medical questions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you!

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Negativism is a medical term that is used to describe a condition in which an individual resists or opposes the suggestions, commands, or actions of others, even if they are not harmful or difficult to perform. This behavior can be seen in some mental health disorders such as catatonic schizophrenia, severe depression, or dementia.

In a broader sense, negativism can also refer to a general attitude of opposition, resistance, or pessimism, but this is not the medical definition.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "An attempted suicide is a non-fatal self-directed, potentially injurious behavior with intent to die as a result of the behavior. It's a clear expression of intention to die."

It's important to note that anyone who has attempted suicide requires immediate professional medical attention and support. They should be assessed for their level of suicidal ideation and any underlying mental health conditions, and provided with appropriate care and treatment. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of suicide, please reach out to a healthcare provider or a trusted mental health professional immediately.

A "self-report" in a medical context refers to the information or data provided by an individual about their own symptoms, experiences, behaviors, or health status. This can be collected through various methods such as questionnaires, surveys, interviews, or diaries. Self-reports are commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess various aspects of health, including physical and mental health symptoms, quality of life, treatment adherence, and substance use.

While self-reports can be a valuable source of information, they may also be subject to biases such as recall bias, social desirability bias, or response distortion. Therefore, it is important to consider the potential limitations and validity of self-reported data in interpreting the results. In some cases, self-reports may be supplemented with other sources of information, such as medical records, physiological measures, or observer ratings.

Personal Construct Theory (PCT) is not a medical term per se, but rather a psychological theory developed by George Kelly in the 1950s. It is a theory of personality and psychotherapy that emphasizes an individual's unique way of construing or making sense of their experiences. According to PCT, people are active scientists who constantly test their assumptions about the world through their personal construct systems.

In medical settings, PCT may be used as a framework for understanding patients' perspectives and beliefs about their illnesses and treatments. This can help healthcare professionals tailor interventions to individual patients' needs and improve communication and collaboration between patients and healthcare providers. However, it is important to note that PCT is not a widely recognized or established medical concept, but rather a psychological theory that has been applied in various fields, including healthcare.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

In the field of medicine, twins are defined as two offspring produced by the same pregnancy. They can be either monozygotic (identical) or dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins develop from a single fertilized egg that splits into two separate embryos, resulting in individuals who share identical genetic material. Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, result from the fertilization of two separate eggs by two different sperm cells, leading to siblings who share about 50% of their genetic material, similar to non-twin siblings.

Psychological tests are standardized procedures or measures used to assess various aspects of an individual's cognitive functioning, personality traits, emotional status, and behavior. These tests are designed to be reliable and valid tools for evaluating specific psychological constructs such as intelligence, memory, attention, achievement, aptitude, interests, and values. They can be in the form of questionnaires, interviews, observational scales, or performance-based tasks. The results obtained from these tests help mental health professionals make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment planning, and educational or vocational guidance for their clients. It is important to note that psychological tests should only be administered, scored, and interpreted by trained and qualified professionals to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

Psychophysiologic Disorders, also known as psychosomatic disorders, refer to a category of mental health conditions where psychological stress and emotional factors play a significant role in causing physical symptoms. These disorders are characterized by the presence of bodily complaints for which no physiological explanation can be found, or where the severity of the symptoms is far greater than what would be expected from any underlying medical condition.

Examples of psychophysiologic disorders include:

* Conversion disorder: where physical symptoms such as blindness, paralysis, or difficulty swallowing occur in the absence of a clear medical explanation.
* Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): where abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits are thought to be caused or worsened by stress and emotional factors.
* Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES): where episodes that resemble epileptic seizures occur without any electrical activity in the brain.
* Chronic pain syndromes: where pain persists for months or years beyond the expected healing time, often accompanied by depression and anxiety.

The diagnosis of psychophysiologic disorders typically involves a thorough medical evaluation to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment usually includes a combination of psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), relaxation techniques, stress management, and sometimes medication for co-occurring mental health conditions.

I am not aware of a medical definition for "Internal-External Control." However, the term "locus of control" is commonly used in psychology and medicine to describe an individual's belief about the degree to which they have control over events and outcomes in their life.

Locus of control can be categorized as either internal or external:

* Internal locus of control refers to the belief that one has control over their own life outcomes, and that these outcomes are determined by their own efforts, abilities, and choices.
* External locus of control, on the other hand, refers to the belief that events and outcomes in one's life are controlled by external factors such as luck, chance, or powerful others.

Both internal and external locus of control can have implications for health behaviors and medical outcomes. For example, individuals with an internal locus of control may be more likely to engage in healthy behaviors such as exercise and healthy eating, while those with an external locus of control may be more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as smoking or substance abuse. Similarly, a strong internal locus of control has been associated with better medical outcomes, including improved mental health and reduced symptoms of chronic illness.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Dysthymic disorder, also known as persistent depressive disorder, is a chronic type of depression where a person's moods are regularly low. It is characterized by depressed mood that occurs for most of the day, for at least two years, and is accompanied by at least two other symptoms such as appetite or sleep changes, low energy, low self-esteem, difficulty making decisions, or feelings of hopelessness.

To meet the diagnostic criteria, the symptoms cannot be explained by substance abuse or a medical condition, and they must cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Dysthymic disorder typically has a chronic course, but it may respond to treatment, including psychotherapy and medication.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

A psychological theory is a proposed explanation or framework that aims to describe, explain, and predict psychological phenomena. It is based on established scientific principles and methods, and it integrates various observations, facts, and findings to provide a coherent understanding of psychological processes and behaviors. Psychological theories can encompass a wide range of topics, including cognition, emotion, motivation, perception, personality, learning, memory, development, and psychopathology. They are used to guide research, inform clinical practice, and advance our knowledge of the human mind and behavior.

Paranoid disorders are a category of mental disorders characterized by the presence of paranoia, which is defined as a persistent and unfounded distrust or suspicion of others. This can include beliefs that others are trying to harm you, deceive you, or are plotting against you. These beliefs are not based in reality and are firmly held despite evidence to the contrary.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions, includes two paranoid disorders: Delusional Disorder and Paranoid Personality Disorder.

Delusional disorder is characterized by the presence of one or more delusions for a month or longer, with no significant hallucinations, disorganized speech, or grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. The individual's functioning is not markedly impaired and behavior is not obviously odd or bizarre.

Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent, beginning in early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. The individual may appear cold and aloof or may be explosively angry if they feel threatened.

It's important to note that these disorders can cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of a paranoid disorder, it's important to seek help from a qualified mental health professional.

'Diseases in Twins' is a field of study that focuses on the similarities and differences in the occurrence, development, and outcomes of diseases among twins. This research can provide valuable insights into the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to various medical conditions.

Twins can be classified into two types: monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins share 100% of their genes, while dizygotic twins share about 50%, similar to non-twin siblings. By comparing the concordance rates (the likelihood of both twins having the same disease) between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, researchers can estimate the heritability of a particular disease.

Studying diseases in twins also helps understand the role of environmental factors. When both twins develop the same disease, but they are discordant for certain risk factors (e.g., one twin smokes and the other does not), it suggests that the disease may have a stronger genetic component. On the other hand, when both twins share similar risk factors and develop the disease, it implies that environmental factors play a significant role.

Diseases in Twins research has contributed to our understanding of various medical conditions, including infectious diseases, cancer, mental health disorders, and developmental disorders. This knowledge can lead to better prevention strategies, early detection methods, and more targeted treatments for these diseases.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Life change events refer to significant changes or transitions in an individual's personal circumstances that may have an impact on their health and well-being. These events can include things like:

* Marriage or divorce
* Birth of a child or loss of a loved one
* Job loss or retirement
* Moving to a new home or city
* Changes in financial status
* Health diagnoses or serious illnesses
* Starting or ending of a significant relationship

Research has shown that life change events can have a profound effect on an individual's stress levels, mental health, and physical health. Some life change events may be positive and exciting, while others may be challenging and difficult to cope with. In either case, it is important for individuals to take care of themselves during times of transition and seek support as needed.

"Social desirability bias" is not a medical term per se, but rather a concept that's relevant in the fields of psychology, social sciences, and research methodology. It refers to the tendency of individuals to provide responses that they believe are socially acceptable or desirable, rather than their true feelings, thoughts, or behaviors, during surveys, interviews, or other forms of assessment. This bias can lead to inaccurate or skewed data, as it may not reflect the actual experiences or attitudes of the respondents. It's important for researchers to be aware of and control for social desirability bias to ensure the validity and reliability of their findings.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

A "social environment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, but it is often used in the context of public health and social sciences to refer to the physical and social conditions, relationships, and organized institutions that influence the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

The social environment includes factors such as:

* Social support networks (family, friends, community)
* Cultural norms and values
* Socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation)
* Housing and neighborhood conditions
* Access to resources (food, healthcare, transportation)
* Exposure to discrimination, violence, and other stressors

These factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes, as they can influence behaviors related to health (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), as well as exposure to disease and access to healthcare. Understanding the social environment is essential for developing effective public health interventions and policies that promote health equity and reduce health disparities.

Psychopharmacology is a branch of psychopharmacology that deals with the study of the effects of drugs on mood, thinking, and behavior. It involves researching how various substances interact with the brain and nervous system to produce changes in perception, cognition, consciousness, and emotion. This field also includes the development and testing of medications used to treat mental disorders, as well as the study of the potential misuse and abuse of drugs. Psychopharmacologists may work in academia, research institutions, or the pharmaceutical industry, and they often collaborate with other healthcare professionals, such as psychiatrists and neurologists, to develop and implement treatment plans for patients.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Type B Personality" is not a medical term or diagnosis. It is a term that originated from the work of Dr. Meyer Friedman and Dr. Ray Rosenman, who described it as a personality pattern characterized by a relatively passive and easygoing nature, in contrast to the more driven and competitive "Type A" personality.

However, it's important to note that this concept has been largely criticized and is not widely accepted in the medical or psychological communities. It's not included in any official diagnostic manuals, and there's little scientific evidence to support the idea that these personality types are linked to specific health outcomes.

If you have any questions about medical conditions or diagnoses, please provide those, and I'd be happy to help!

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

'Schizophrenic language' is not a formal medical term, but the concept refers to the unusual and often disturbed patterns of speech that can be observed in individuals with schizophrenia. These language abnormalities are considered one of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and can include:

1. **Word Salad (Incoherent Speech)**: This is when a person's speech becomes disorganized, fragmented, and lacks logical or understandable connections between words, phrases, or sentences. It may seem like the individual is randomly stringing together words without any clear meaning.

2. **Neologisms (Made-Up Words)**: These are new words or phrases that have been invented by the individual. They may be understandable only to the person using them.

3. **Tangentiality (Straying Off Topic)**: This is when a person's responses are indirect and unrelated to the topic being discussed, although they may start off on topic. The speaker may stray further and further from the original point until they are no longer discussing it at all.

4. **Perseveration (Persistent Repetition)**: This is when a person repeats certain words, phrases, or ideas over and over again, even when they are not relevant to the conversation.

5. **Illogical Thinking/Conclusions**: A person's thoughts may not follow a logical sequence, leading to illogical conclusions or statements that do not make sense in the context of the conversation.

6. **Thought Disorder**: This is a broader term that includes various disturbances in thinking and thought processes, which can then manifest as abnormalities in speech.

It's important to note that these symptoms can vary widely from person to person, and not everyone with schizophrenia will experience all of them. Furthermore, these symptoms should be evaluated and diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "human characteristics" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the typical traits, attributes, and features that define humans as a species, both physically and behaviorally. Physical human characteristics include bipedal locomotion, large brains, and fine motor skills, while behavioral characteristics can include complex language use, self-awareness, and sociality.

However, if you have any specific medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to help answer them to the best of my ability!

I apologize for any confusion, but "prisoners" is not a medical term. It generally refers to individuals who are deprived of their personal freedom and are being held in a prison or jail as a result of being convicted of a crime or while awaiting trial. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I would be happy to help!

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, serious accident, war combat, rape, or violent personal assault. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), PTSD is characterized by the following symptoms, which must last for more than one month:

1. Intrusion symptoms: These include distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress or reactivity to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
2. Avoidance symptoms: Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, including thoughts, feelings, conversations, activities, places, or people.
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world; distorted blame of self or others for causing the trauma; persistent negative emotional state; decreased interest in significant activities; and feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity: This includes irritable behavior and angry outbursts, reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems with concentration, and sleep disturbance.
5. Duration of symptoms: The symptoms must last for more than one month.
6. Functional significance: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is essential to note that PTSD can occur at any age and can be accompanied by various physical and mental health problems, such as depression, substance abuse, memory problems, and other difficulties in cognition. Appropriate treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, can significantly improve the symptoms and overall quality of life for individuals with PTSD.

Psychoanalytic theory is a psychological framework developed primarily by Sigmund Freud and his followers, which seeks to explain psychic phenomena in terms of unconscious mental processes and early childhood experiences. It posits that the human mind is composed of three elements: the id (primitive instincts), ego (rational thought), and superego (moral standards). The theory emphasizes the importance of resolving unconscious conflicts, making the unconscious conscious, and analyzing defense mechanisms in order to alleviate psychological distress and promote mental health. It also includes various concepts such as the Oedipus complex, psychosexual development stages, and transference/countertransference phenomena.

Child abuse is a broad term that refers to any form of physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment or neglect that causes harm to a child's health, development, or dignity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), child abuse includes:

1. Physical abuse: Non-accidental injuries caused by hitting, kicking, shaking, burning, or otherwise harming a child's body.
2. Sexual abuse: Any sexual activity involving a child, such as touching or non-touching behaviors, exploitation, or exposure to pornographic material.
3. Emotional abuse: Behaviors that harm a child's emotional well-being and self-esteem, such as constant criticism, humiliation, threats, or rejection.
4. Neglect: Failure to provide for a child's basic needs, including food, clothing, shelter, medical care, education, and emotional support.

Child abuse can have serious short-term and long-term consequences for the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of children. It is a violation of their fundamental human rights and a public health concern that requires prevention, early detection, and intervention.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "object attachment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the way that a term like "myocardial infarction" (heart attack) or "major depressive disorder" does. It may be used in various ways in different contexts, such as in psychology or psychiatry to describe a phenomenon where an individual becomes excessively attached to an object or items, but it is not a widely recognized or standardized term in medical terminology. If you are referring to a specific concept or diagnosis and could provide more context, I would be happy to help further!

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "crime" is typically not used in a medical context. A crime is a violation of laws or regulations established by a government and enforced by its authorities. It's a legal concept, not a medical one. However, there are some overlaps between criminal behavior and mental health, as certain mental health conditions may increase the risk of criminal behavior. But it's essential to understand that having a mental health condition does not automatically make someone a criminal.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental health disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are intrusive, unwanted, and often distressing. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rigid rules, and which are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation. These obsessions and/or compulsions cause significant distress, take up a lot of time (an hour or more a day), and interfere with the individual's daily life, including social activities, relationships, and work or school performance. OCD is considered a type of anxiety disorder and can also co-occur with other mental health conditions.

I must clarify that there is no such thing as "Schizophrenic Psychology." The term schizophrenia is used to describe a specific and serious mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It's important not to use the term casually or inaccurately, as it can perpetuate stigma and misunderstanding about the condition.

Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren't there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based on reality), disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. These symptoms can impair a person's ability to function in daily life, maintain relationships, and experience emotions appropriately.

If you have any questions related to mental health conditions or psychology, I would be happy to provide accurate information and definitions.

Anger is a normal and adaptive human emotion, which can be defined as a negative emotional state that involves feelings of annoyance, irritation, hostility, and aggression towards someone or something that has caused harm, injury, or unfair treatment. It is a complex emotional response that can have physical, mental, and behavioral components.

Physiologically, anger triggers the release of stress hormones such as adrenaline, which prepares the body for a fight-or-flight response. This can result in symptoms such as increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and heightened sensory perception.

In terms of mental and behavioral components, anger can manifest as thoughts of revenge, verbal or physical aggression, or passive-aggressive behaviors. Chronic or uncontrolled anger can have negative impacts on one's health, relationships, and overall quality of life.

It is important to note that while anger is a normal emotion, it becomes a problem when it leads to harmful behaviors or interferes with daily functioning. In such cases, seeking professional help from a mental health provider may be necessary to learn healthy coping mechanisms and manage anger effectively.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

Eating disorders are mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in eating behaviors and associated distressing thoughts and emotions. They include several types of disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED). These disorders can have serious medical and psychological consequences if left untreated.

Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrictive eating, low body weight, and an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat. Individuals with anorexia may also have a distorted body image and deny the severity of their low body weight.

Bulimia nervosa involves recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as purging (e.g., self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics), fasting, or excessive exercise to prevent weight gain.

Binge eating disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating large amounts of food in a short period of time, often to the point of discomfort, accompanied by feelings of loss of control and distress. Unlike bulimia nervosa, individuals with binge eating disorder do not engage in compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain.

Other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED) include atypical anorexia nervosa, subthreshold bulimia nervosa, and subthreshold binge eating disorder, which may have similar symptoms to the above disorders but do not meet all the diagnostic criteria.

Eating disorders can affect people of any age, gender, race, or ethnicity, and they are often associated with other mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychological therapy, nutrition counseling, and medical management to address both the physical and psychological aspects of the disorder.

Obsessive behavior is defined in the medical context as repetitive, persistent, and intrusive thoughts, images, or urges that cause distress or anxiety. These obsessions are not simply excessive worries about real-life problems, but rather they are irrational and uncontrollable. Often, individuals with obsessive behavior attempt to ignore or suppress their obsessions, which can lead to increased distress and anxiety. In some cases, the obsessions may become so overwhelming that they interfere with a person's daily life and ability to function.

Obsessive behavior is a key feature of several mental health conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and hoarding disorder. In these conditions, the obsessions are often accompanied by compulsive behaviors that are performed in an attempt to alleviate the anxiety or distress caused by the obsessions.

It is important to note that everyone experiences unwanted thoughts or urges from time to time. However, when these thoughts become so frequent and distressing that they interfere with a person's daily life, it may be indicative of an underlying mental health condition. In such cases, it is recommended to seek professional help from a qualified mental health provider.

In the context of medical terminology, "attitude" generally refers to the position or posture of a patient's body or a part of it. It can also refer to the mental set or disposition that a person has towards their health, illness, or healthcare providers. However, it is not a term that has a specific medical definition like other medical terminologies do.

For example, in orthopedics, "attitude" may be used to describe the position of a limb or joint during an examination or surgical procedure. In psychology, "attitude" may refer to a person's feelings, beliefs, and behaviors towards a particular object, issue, or idea related to their health.

Therefore, the meaning of "attitude" in medical terminology can vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Shyness is not typically defined in medical terms, but it can be considered as a social anxiety or fear of social judgment and negative evaluation. It's characterized by feelings of discomfort, self-consciousness, and apprehension in social situations, which can lead to avoidance behaviors. While shyness itself is not a mental health disorder, extreme shyness can sometimes be a symptom of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), which is a recognized medical condition. It's always recommended to seek professional help if shyness is causing significant distress or interfering with daily life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "gambling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Gambling is generally defined as the act of betting or wagering money or something of value on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the primary intent of winning money or material goods. It can become a problematic behavior leading to financial, emotional, and social consequences for some individuals. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help answer those!

Criminal psychology is a subfield of psychology that focuses on the study of the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals who commit crimes. It involves understanding the motives, emotions, and cognitive processes underlying criminal behavior in order to help explain why some people engage in illegal activities. Criminal psychologists may also apply their knowledge to assist in the investigation and prevention of crime, such as by providing profiles of unknown offenders or consulting on jail and prison management.

Criminal psychology is a multidisciplinary field that draws upon various areas of psychology, including developmental, social, cognitive, and forensic psychology, as well as other disciplines such as criminology and sociology. It involves the use of scientific methods to study criminal behavior, including observational studies, surveys, experiments, and case studies.

Criminal psychologists may work in a variety of settings, including law enforcement agencies, forensic hospitals, prisons, and academic institutions. They may also provide expert testimony in court cases or consult with attorneys on legal issues related to criminal behavior.

The "Sense of Coherence" (SOC) is a theoretical concept in the field of medical and psychological science, which refers to an individual's global orientation towards their own life and the stimuli they encounter in it. It is not a medical diagnosis or a specific symptom, but rather a measure of an individual's resilience and ability to cope with stressors and adversity.

The SOC is typically measured using a questionnaire developed by Aaron Antonovsky, and it consists of three components: comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness. Comprehensibility refers to the extent to which one perceives their environment and experiences as making cognitive sense, or being predictable and explicable. Manageability refers to the belief that resources are available to meet the demands posed by these experiences. Meaningfulness refers to the motivation to invest energy in dealing with the challenges of life, and the belief that such efforts are worthwhile.

A strong SOC has been associated with better health outcomes, including lower levels of depression and anxiety, better quality of life, and improved coping skills. It is thought to act as a buffer against stress and adversity, helping individuals to maintain their physical and mental well-being in the face of challenging circumstances.

Statistics, as a topic in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the scientific discipline that involves the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of numerical data or quantifiable data in a meaningful and organized manner. It employs mathematical theories and models to draw conclusions, make predictions, and support evidence-based decision-making in various areas of medical research and practice.

Some key concepts and methods in medical statistics include:

1. Descriptive Statistics: Summarizing and visualizing data through measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and dispersion (range, variance, standard deviation).
2. Inferential Statistics: Drawing conclusions about a population based on a sample using hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and statistical modeling.
3. Probability Theory: Quantifying the likelihood of events or outcomes in medical scenarios, such as diagnostic tests' sensitivity and specificity.
4. Study Designs: Planning and implementing various research study designs, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional surveys.
5. Sampling Methods: Selecting a representative sample from a population to ensure the validity and generalizability of research findings.
6. Multivariate Analysis: Examining the relationships between multiple variables simultaneously using techniques like regression analysis, factor analysis, or cluster analysis.
7. Survival Analysis: Analyzing time-to-event data, such as survival rates in clinical trials or disease progression.
8. Meta-Analysis: Systematically synthesizing and summarizing the results of multiple studies to provide a comprehensive understanding of a research question.
9. Biostatistics: A subfield of statistics that focuses on applying statistical methods to biological data, including medical research.
10. Epidemiology: The study of disease patterns in populations, which often relies on statistical methods for data analysis and interpretation.

Medical statistics is essential for evidence-based medicine, clinical decision-making, public health policy, and healthcare management. It helps researchers and practitioners evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medical interventions, assess risk factors and outcomes associated with diseases or treatments, and monitor trends in population health.

"Social dominance" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is a concept that is often used in the social sciences, including sociology, psychology, and anthropology. It refers to the degree of control, influence, or power that an individual or group has over others within a particular social context or hierarchy.

In some cases, social dominance may be associated with certain medical conditions or situations. For example, individuals with antisocial personality disorder or other psychiatric disorders may exhibit dominant behaviors as part of their symptoms. Similarly, social dominance can be a factor in the development and maintenance of certain types of relationships, such as those seen in abusive or coercive relationships.

However, it's important to note that social dominance is not a medical diagnosis or condition in and of itself. Rather, it is a social phenomenon that can intersect with various medical and psychological issues.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Mysticism is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. It is a concept that is more commonly found in theology, philosophy, and religious studies. Mysticism generally refers to direct, personal experience of the divine or transcendent reality, often through intuitive or emotional means rather than rational or logical ones.

However, in some contexts, mystical experiences may be discussed in the field of psychology and psychiatry. For example, a person might have a mystical experience as part of a spiritual practice or during a period of intense personal growth, which could be described as a "mystical state of consciousness." In such cases, these experiences might be studied from a medical or psychological perspective to better understand their underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic uses.

Overall, while mysticism is not a medical term per se, it can intersect with the fields of psychology and psychiatry in certain contexts.

The term "hysteria" is an outdated and discredited concept in medicine, particularly in psychiatry and psychology. Originally, it was used to describe a condition characterized by dramatic, excessive emotional reactions and physical symptoms that couldn't be explained by a medical condition. These symptoms often included things like paralysis, blindness, or fits, which would sometimes be "hysterical" in nature - that is, they seemed to have no physical cause.

However, the concept of hysteria has been largely abandoned due to its lack of scientific basis and its use as a catch-all diagnosis for symptoms that doctors couldn't explain. Today, many of the symptoms once attributed to hysteria are now understood as manifestations of other medical or psychological conditions, such as conversion disorder, panic attacks, or malingering. It's important to note that using outdated and stigmatizing terms like "hysteria" can be harmful and misleading, so it's best to avoid them in favor of more precise and respectful language.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

"Social alienation" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the same way that a term like "hypertension" or "diabetes" does. However, it is often used in a psychological or sociological context to describe a state of feeling disconnected or isolated from society, including feelings of loneliness, estrangement, and rejection.

In some cases, social alienation may be associated with mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, or schizophrenia. For example, a person with social anxiety disorder may experience social alienation due to their fear of social interactions and avoidance of social situations. Similarly, a person with schizophrenia may experience social alienation due to the stigma associated with their condition and difficulties with communication and social cues.

However, it's important to note that social alienation can also occur in people without any underlying mental health conditions. Factors such as discrimination, poverty, migration, and social upheaval can all contribute to feelings of social alienation.

Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. It is a form of talk therapy where the therapist and the patient work together to identify and change negative or distorted thinking patterns and beliefs, with the goal of improving emotional response and behavior.

Cognitive Therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interconnected, and that negative or inaccurate thoughts can contribute to problems like anxiety and depression. By identifying and challenging these thoughts, patients can learn to think more realistically and positively, which can lead to improvements in their mood and behavior.

In cognitive therapy sessions, the therapist will help the patient identify negative thought patterns and replace them with healthier, more accurate ways of thinking. The therapist may also assign homework or exercises for the patient to practice between sessions, such as keeping a thought record or challenging negative thoughts.

Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a wide range of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is often used in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication, and can be delivered individually or in group settings.

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a multidisciplinary field that studies the complex interactions between psychological processes, the nervous system, and the immune system. It explores how emotional, cognitive, and behavioral factors can affect physiological responses and immunity, as well as how immune system changes can influence mood, pain, and behavior. The goal of PNI research is to better understand these interactions to develop more effective treatments for various medical and psychological conditions, including stress-related disorders, chronic pain, depression, anxiety, and autoimmune diseases.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

... a scientific journal published bi-monthly by Elsevier Personality computing Personality crisis Personality disorder Personality ... Look up personality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Personality in animals Association for Research in Personality, an ... Personality can be determined through a variety of tests. Due to the fact that personality is a complex idea, the dimensions of ... Personality is not stable over the course of a lifetime, but it changes much more quickly during childhood, so personality ...
Flexibility is a personality trait that describes the extent to which a person can cope with changes in circumstances and think ... Flexible personality should not be confused with cognitive flexibility, which is the ability to switch between two concepts, ... Personality trait Psychological resilience - Ability to mentally or emotionally cope with a crisis or to return to pre-crisis ... Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 80 (5): 814-833. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.80.5.814. PMID 11374752. Rochefort, ...
... (band), a Canadian punk rock group Personality Crisis, an album by The Bear Quartet "Personality Crisis" ( ... Personality crisis may refer to one or more personality problems: Existential crisis Identity crisis, undeveloped or confused ... self titled debut album This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Personality crisis. If an internal ...
As a Usenet personality, Nicoll is known for writing a widely quoted epigram on the English language, as well as for his ... A Usenet personality was a particular kind of Internet celebrity, being an individual who gained a certain level of notoriety ... He has claimed in his posts that television personalities are often talking about him in code and are part of the MI5 ...
2017). "Integrating Personality Structure, Personality Process, and Personality Development" (PDF). European Journal of ... The personality developing in college students based on the Big Five personality trait domains and facets within those domains ... The development of personality is supported and attempted to be explained by theories of personality. The Psychoanalytic Theory ... Personality development is also dimensional in description and subjective in nature. That is, personality development can be ...
In contrast to personality traits, the existence of personality types remains extremely controversial. Effective personality ... General overview Personality Personality psychology Personality tests Psychological typologies Trait theory Trait leadership ... Closing the door on personality types? European Journal of Personality, 20, 29-44. "Bates, K. L. (2006). Type A personality not ... One example of personality types is Type A and Type B personality theory. According to this theory, impatient, achievement- ...
... may refer to Dissociative identity disorder, previously known as multiple personality disorder ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Multiple personality. If an internal link led you here, you ... Multiplicity (subculture), a subculture of people who identify with having multiple personalities. ...
The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was developed in September 2012 by the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders ... A personality test is a method of assessing human personality constructs. Most personality assessment instruments (despite ... The International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) is a public domain set of more than 2000 personality items which can be used to ... The HEXACO Personality Inventory - Revised (HEXACO PI-R) is based on the HEXACO model of personality structure, which consists ...
When personalities clash' 'Workplace conflict' (Personality, Organizational conflict). ... A personality clash occurs when two (or more) people find themselves in conflict not over a particular issue or incident, but ... The personality clash between Henry Tizard and Frederick Lindemann had adverse effects on the Allied conduct of World War Two. ... A personality clash may occur in work-related, school-related, family-related, or social situations. Carl Jung saw the polarity ...
In debate, a personality is a reference to a particular person. Personality may also refer to: Personality (film), 1930 ... "Personality" (Lloyd Price song), 1959 R&B pop hit Personality (Nina Badrić album), by Croatian singer Nina Badrić Personality ( ... 1970 American Horse of the Year Radio personality Television personality Personality Comics, an American comic book publisher ... "Personality" idents, used by BBC Two TV station between 2001 and 2007 Personality (magazine), South African weekly magazine ( ...
Such personalities may also be related to studies in preschool children of personality and political views as reported by ... That the authoritarian personality and the conservative personality share two, core traits: (i) resistance to change (social, ... The authoritarian personality is a personality type characterized by a disposition to treat authority figures with ... The personality construct for the authoritarian personality proposed that the social environment influenced the expression of ...
Big Five personality traits Blood type personality theory Clinical psychology Enneagram of Personality Epigenetics in ... genetic influence on personality. The human genome is known to play a role in the development of personality. Previously, ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that examines personality and its variation among individuals. It aims to show ... The word personality originates from the Latin persona, which means "mask". Personality also pertains to the pattern of ...
Unspecified personality disorder - general criteria for a personality disorder are met but the personality disorder is not ... DSM-I Personality Trait disturbance subsection.: 16 DSM-I Sociopathic personality disturbance subsection.: 16 Personality ... Abbreviations used: PPD - Paranoid Personality Disorder, SzPD - Schizoid Personality Disorder, StPD - Schizotypal Personality ... Abbreviations used: PPD - Paranoid Personality Disorder, SzPD - Schizoid Personality Disorder, StPD - Schizotypal Personality ...
... is an Australian game show series aired on Network Ten in 1967 until 1969 and revived in 1981. It was ... Celebrity Squares "Personality Squares". Nostalgia Central. Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019 ...
Personality (1967-1990) was an American Thoroughbred racehorse who was voted 1970 Horse of the Year honors. Personality was ... Personality was raced in the salmon pink-and-green silks of Hirsch Jacobs' wife, Ethel. However, the Hall of Fame trainer died ... Personality returned to racing on July 25, 1970, when he ran second in a field of older horses at Aqueduct Racetrack. On August ... However, Personality developed a fever, and his handlers chose not to run him in the Belmont Stakes. Stablemate High Echelon ...
... is a personality type which lacks firmness and own identity. The want of a kernel of personality prevents ... Disorders of Personality) The concept originates from Henrik Sjöbring's personality model, developed in Personality Structure ... and Development: A Model and its Application, (Copenhagen 1973). Millon, Theodore (2011). Disorders of Personality. p. 15. ISBN ...
... was a bay gelding foaled on 13 August 1977 by Bold Aussie (USA) from Miss Personality by Vibrant (GB). He was ... Bold Personality, poorly disguised as Fine Cotton, won the race by a small margin after being backed from 33/1 into odds of 7/2 ... Bold Personality was an Australian Thoroughbred racehorse who gained notability by being substituted for the inferior horse ... The Age Retrieved on 2009-726 ASB - Bold Personality Retrieved on 2009-7-26 Ashforth, David (2004). Ringers & Rascals: The True ...
... have developed out of common law concepts of property, trespass and intentional tort. Thus personality ... "Personality Rights under Korean Law". 21 February 2014. kdramastars.com (15 January 2014). "'Personality Rights' Song Seung Hun ... In German.) Legal resource for personality rights cases in the U.S. Archived 2021-01-25 at the Wayback Machine "Personality ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Commons:Personality rights. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Personality rights ...
The Atlas personality, named after the story of the Titan Atlas from Greek mythology who is forced to hold up the sky, is ... While Atlas personalities may appear to function adequately as adults, they may be pervaded with a sense of emptiness and be ... The Atlas personality is typically found in a person who felt obliged during childhood to take on responsibilities such as ... The result in adult life can be a personality devoid of fun, and feeling the weight of the world on their shoulders. Depression ...
The salary of a local radio personality will differ from a national radio personality. National personality pay can be in the ... The radio personality may broadcast live or use voice-tracking techniques. Increasingly in the 2010s, radio personalities are ... Over time a radio personality could be paid to do voice-overs for commercials, television shows, and movies. Radio personality ... A radio personality who hosts a radio show is also known as a radio host, and in India and Pakistan as a radio jockey. Radio ...
... is a concept in Christian theology that was articulated by H. Wheeler Robinson. As originally formulated ... David Noel Freedman; Allen C. Myers; Astrid B. Beck (2000). "Corporate Personality". Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm. B. ... The notion of Old Testament corporate personality encompasses four things: identification Individuals are never considered to ... In Pauline theology, the notion of corporate personality is largely restricted to its representational aspect. Paul's ...
An addictive personality refers to a hypothesized set of personality traits that make an individual predisposed to developing ... It has been claimed that characteristics of personality attributed to addictive personality do not predict addiction, but ... The assumption that personality might be to blame for an addicted person, who is in need of rehabilitation due to drug and ... It is the personality traits of individuals that combine to create either a risk-taker or risk-averse person. Another important ...
Personality at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Use mdy dates from ... Personality is a 1930 American comedy film directed by Victor Heerman and starring Sally Starr, Johnny Arthur and Blanche ...
The Big Five personality traits are often used to measure change in personality. There is a mean-level change in the Big Five ... The Big Five personality traits can also be broken down into facets. Different facets of each personality trait are often ... Personality change refers to the different forms of change in various aspects of personality. These changes include how we ... Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic thinking, feeling, and behavior patterns. Our personality is ...
... is a contribution to the psychology of personality and to psychotherapy summarized by Jeffrey J. ... Hypostatic model of personality Cognitive-affective personality system Systems psychology Systemic therapy Magnavita, Jeffrey J ... The model falls into the category of complex, biopsychosocial approaches to personality. The term personality systematics was ... Personality can be conceptualized as an emergent phenomena of the convergent forces and their expressions which can be compared ...
... begun around 2005 with few pioneering research works in personality recognition showing that personality ... Personality computing addresses three main problems involving personality: automatic personality recognition, perception and ... de? Inferring personality from e-mail addresses." Journal of Research in Personality 42.4 (2008): 1116-1122. Lugmayr, Artur; ... Automatic personality recognition is the inference of personality type of target individuals from their digital footprint, ...
Journal of Personality, 63, 495-524. (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Personality ... Personality disorders Personality psychology Psychopathology American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and ... Personality pathology refers to enduring patterns of cognition, emotion, and behavior that negatively affect a person's ... Millon, T. (1981). Disorders of personality. DSM-III: Axis II. New York, NY: John Wiley. Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (1995). A ...
... at IMDb Personality Kid at TCMDB v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ... Personality Kid is a 1946 American adventure drama film directed by George Sherman and starring Anita Louise, Michael Duane and ... Partridge "Personality Kid". Monthly Film Bulletin. London. 13 (145): 153. 1 January 1946. ProQuest 1305817209. ...
Look up split personality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Split Personality or Split Personalities may refer to: ... 2004 Split Personality (All-4-One album), a 2004 album released by the R&B group All-4-One Split Personality, a 2006 album by ... "Split Personality", a song by UTFO from the 1986 album Skeezer Pleezer "Split Personality", a song by Pink from the 2000 album ... a 1959 American game show hosted by Tom Poston Split Personalities (video game), 1986 "Split Personality", an episode of ...
Personality as one of the top ten skanky reality television series. Mr. Personality premiered to over 12 million viewers; at ... The series was hosted by American media personality Monica Lewinsky. Mr. Personality was a part of Fox's intent to capitalize ... Personality. Set on an estate in Malibu, California, the series depicted a competition among a group of 20 men who attempted to ... Personality was filmed in Malibu, California, over the course of three weeks in March and April 2003. Fox searched for men ...
... a scientific journal published bi-monthly by Elsevier Personality computing Personality crisis Personality disorder Personality ... Look up personality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Personality in animals Association for Research in Personality, an ... Personality can be determined through a variety of tests. Due to the fact that personality is a complex idea, the dimensions of ... Personality is not stable over the course of a lifetime, but it changes much more quickly during childhood, so personality ...
Flexibility is a personality trait that describes the extent to which a person can cope with changes in circumstances and think ... Flexible personality should not be confused with cognitive flexibility, which is the ability to switch between two concepts, ... Personality trait Psychological resilience - Ability to mentally or emotionally cope with a crisis or to return to pre-crisis ... Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 80 (5): 814-833. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.80.5.814. PMID 11374752. Rochefort, ...
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Treatment for dependent personality disorder can include cognitive behavioral therapy, psychotherapy, and, potentially, ... Comorbidity of personality disorders explained. It is common for personality disorders to occur alongside other personality ... A personality disorder affects an individual and how they see themselves and others. A personality disorder is a mental health ... Borderline personality disorder and substance use disorder: What is the connection?. Borderline personality disorder is a ...
Personality assessments can play a helpful, objective role in the hiring process, but there are a few things every employer ... Lastly, use personality assessment in conjunction with other tools.. Ill close by stressing that personality assessments - ... Can personality predict job success?. Personality is made up of psychological preferences, temperaments and predispositions. ... And being satisfied in your career is also influenced by personality.. People find the ability to express their personality ...
"Our finding, that personality traits are contagious among children, flies in the face of common assumptions that personality ... The study, published online in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, suggests personality is shaped by environment ... Personality traits contagious among children. Date:. February 3, 2017. Source:. Michigan State University. Summary:. When ... Your Spending Data May Reveal Aspects of Your Personality. July 17, 2019 How you spend your money can signal aspects of your ...
There are many types of personality disorders. Read more. ... People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with ... Once you become an adult, your personality usually doesnt change much.. What are personality disorders?. Personality disorders ... Paranoid personality disorder (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Personality disorders (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... Antisocial personality disorder (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Avoidant personality disorder (Medical Encyclopedia) ...
Research suggests that personality may not be as fixed as you think. ... Personality Can You Change Your Personality? Research suggests that personality may not be as fixed as you think. Posted ... Personality defines us and how we interact with the world. Though there are different theories about what personality really is ... According to the most widely accepted model of personality, there are five basic personality dimensions that can define us as ...
... this data-science game analyzes your actions to estimate your personality. ... Games can really show someones personality, dont you think? By way of a simple exploration-based adventure, ... Title: Refind Self: The Personality Test Game. Genre: Adventure, Casual, Indie. Developer: Lizardry ... And the third time test will show all your personalities, where the end of the story is also not far away.. Story. You are an ...
Which COVID-19 personality are you? New research identifies 16 different COVID-19 personality types and the lessons we can ... Study: These personality traits predict early career success A new study found that personality growth in young adults ... Your voice might reveal personality traits The way you speak might reveal a lot about you, such as your willingness to engage ...
Heres the kind of personality which may make a person fat. New research shows impulsive personality increases BMI and here are ... IQ, not personality, key to success: study. People might naturally presume that people who are nice, conscientious and generous ... Heres what the food people eat can tell us about their personality. Those who like the bitter food have higher chances of ... Psychedelic drugs like LSD can have long term effects on peoples personality. The study also offers insight into whether ...
Schizoid personality disorder is a type of eccentric personality disorder. A person with this disorder may not even realize ... Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is part of a larger group of psychological disorders called "Cluster B" personality ... Are Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD) and Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) the Same Thing?. ... Personality disorders are a group of mental health conditions that are characterized by inflexible and atypical patterns of ...
Personality tests make you feel seen. Personality tests are a useful way for people to better understand themselves, especially ... There are more personality types than that, Derringer says. Plus, the tool frames personalities around positivity-omitting more ... Which personality tests are best?. Free online tests that tell you what wild animal or cake you are might be fun, but thats ... Personality tests arent new-an early version of the Myers-Briggs test was copyrighted in 1943-but interest in them has endured ...
The Response Screening personality in Fit Model enables you to study tests of multiple responses against linear model effects. ... Response Screening Personality. The Response Screening personality in Fit Model enables you to study tests of multiple ...
Ireland Theories of Personality study abroad course, Spring 1 2024. Experience the best study abroad programs in Galway, ...
6. Recognise the content of different kinds of ability and personality tests and to be familiar with the practical and ethical ... All summative exercise are submitted on-line and cover topics within the course: psychometrics; personality; intelligence; ... 1. Understand the psychometric debate relating to different theories of personality and intelligence. 2. Understand how ... PSYCHOL 3022 - Individual Differences, Personality & Assessment. North Terrace Campus - Semester 1 - 2022. ...
While it may be difficult to treat for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), there are ways to learn to manage its symptoms. ... Causes of Antisocial Personality Disorder. Antisocial personality disorder causes may be complex, but research indicates there ... Antisocial personality disorder is often characterized by a disregard for others and right or wrong, but theres so much more ... Antisocial personality disorder symptoms can include lack of remorse or regard for the rights of others. Learn more about what ...
Personality & Individual Diff. Personality and Individual Differences 2023-24. JXH-3077. 2023-24. School of Psychology & Sport ... exercises that will help us cover a broad array of theories of personality, including: Theories of personality such as ... Critically discuss different theoretical approaches to personality. *Demonstrate a critical understanding of research findings ... Demonstrate a critical understanding of the relationship between personality, individual differences, and behaviour/performance ...
Sports reporter George Vecsey talks about the life and career of baseball great Stan Musial. Debbie Nathan looks at the ...
Females choose mates for their personalities, study shows. University of Exeter. Journal. Ethology. Keywords. * /Social ... This is the first study to show that the non-sexual behaviour or personalities of both mates influences partner choice in non- ... We have the first evidence that it is important for partners to have compatible personalities in the mating game. This is ... Previous studies have shown that there is a link between a pairs personalities and their reproductive success in a range of ...
A personality disorder, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, Fourth ... encoded search term (Personality Disorders) and Personality Disorders What to Read Next on Medscape ... The Validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale for Assessing Pathological ... Personality Disorders Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Nov 22, 2021 * Author: David Bienenfeld, MD; Chief Editor: David ...
Finally, we use panel data to show that the relationship between SES and personality is fairly stable over time at age 7 to 10 ... The facets of personality we investigate encompass time preferences, risk preferences, and altruism, as well as crystallized ... We also discuss potential pathways through which SES could affect the formation of a childs personality by documenting that ... Personality profiles that vary systematically with SES might offer an explanation for social immobility. ...
Different styles of coffee reportedly explain different things about our personalities. So the question is: what does your ... Uh oh - personality traits belonging to cappuccino drinkers revealed some definite signs of wanting control. If cappuccino is ... A recent study examined one thousand coffee drinkers and associated personality traits and types with their coffee preferences ...
... you can discover which of your personality traits make you seem awkward to others, all by looking at an optical illusion. ... This personality test might answer the question youve been asking your whole life: How weird are you?. It might not be ... What you see first in this optical illusion-based personality test reveals what secretly makes you weird.. 1. If you saw the ... We like to think of ourselves as being gifted with all kinds of socially charming personality traits and characteristics, ...
Which essential oil blend best fits your personality? Take this quiz to find out! ... Quiz: Which essential oil blend matches your personality?. Are you a peacemaker or do you stir the pot? Is your middle name " ... find out which essential oil blend best matches your personality in this quiz. ...
Read about famous people with borderline personality disorder and celebrities with borderline personality disorder. ... In Borderline Personality Disorder. In Borderline Personality Disorder+-. * What is Borderline Personality Disorder ... www.healthyplace.com/personality-disorders/borderline-personality-disorder/famous-people-with-borderline-personality-disorder ... Celebrities with borderline personality disorder, based on behavioral observations and without an official diagnosis, include: ...
Take this money personality quiz from Discover to find out how your beliefs and subconscious beliefs affect your budget. ... Money personality quiz: Learn how your beliefs affect your budget Take this money personality quiz to learn how your ... Try this money personality quiz. A desire to understand how money shapes peoples beliefs and actions has informed the last 25 ... Whats your money personality? Uncover how your own beliefs are shaping your financial behaviors by taking this money ...
... Tag: Sorting Hat. *3 Comments. If you have ever wondered what would your Hogwarts House ... develop both students intellectual abilities and personalities. *. admit only brave, ambitious and goodhearted people. *. ...
  • Trait-based personality theories, such as those defined by Raymond Cattell, define personality as traits that predict an individual's behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our finding, that personality traits are 'contagious' among children, flies in the face of common assumptions that personality is ingrained and can't be changed," said Jennifer Watling Neal, associate professor of psychology and co-investigator on the study. (sciencedaily.com)
  • This is important because some personality traits can help children succeed in life, while others can hold them back. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The researchers studied two preschool classes for an entire school year, analyzing personality traits and social networks for one class of 3-year-olds and one class of 4-year-olds. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The study is the first to examine these personality traits in young children over time. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Though there are different theories about what personality really is and how our basic personality traits are first formed, the general consensus is that personality is shaped by early life experiences and tend to stay stable over time. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The personality traits we have as adults tend to grow out of the kind of temperament we had as infants and toddlers . (psychologytoday.com)
  • While we tend to admire people who are more extraverted or conscientious than we are, how many of us are really willing to put in the effort to make the kind of long-term changes that can alter personality traits? (psychologytoday.com)
  • As for whether people really can alter their personality traits, the evidence is a little more controversial. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Study demonstrates that nodding primarily increased likeability attributable to personality traits. (asianage.com)
  • Take the Myers-Briggs: It distills a person's traits into 16 different personality types, such as ESFJ (extrovert, loyal) or ENTP (extrovert, imaginative). (yahoo.com)
  • Plus, the tool frames personalities around positivity-omitting more negative traits, like neuroticism or not being conscientious. (yahoo.com)
  • The research team assessed male and female birds separately for personality traits through a series of behavioural tests. (eurekalert.org)
  • A recent study examined one thousand coffee drinkers and associated personality traits and types with their coffee preferences. (lifehack.org)
  • Uh oh - personality traits belonging to cappuccino drinkers revealed some definite signs of wanting control. (lifehack.org)
  • We like to think of ourselves as being gifted with all kinds of socially charming personality traits and characteristics, especially when it comes to things like dating, relationships, and falling in love. (yourtango.com)
  • It's when your personality traits cause significant problems in your life or keep you from relating normally to others. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A genetic contribution to paranoid traits and a possible genetic link between this personality disorder and schizophrenia exist. (medscape.com)
  • The researches reviewed in this study confirm that personality disorders and pathological personality traits are common in certain types of epilepsy and they affect many areas of patients ' lives. (bvsalud.org)
  • Considering the high frequency of epilepsy -related pathological personality traits that can have a great impact on the therapeutic cooperation and on the patients ' quality of life , it important that the neurologist recognizes early the signs of the patient 's psychological impairment. (bvsalud.org)
  • Personality disorders may be challenging to treat because such disorders affect every aspect of a person's interactions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Read more about the different types of personality disorders here. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Psychodynamic psychotherapy is another popular and potentially effective technique for treating personality disorders. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It can offer significant insight into personality disorders and may help a person understand their feelings of dependency. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What are personality disorders? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Personality disorders are a group of mental disorders . (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are the types of personality disorders? (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are 10 types of personality disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cluster A personality disorders involve unusual and odd thoughts and behaviors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cluster B personality disorders involve dramatic and emotional thoughts and behaviors that can keep changing. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cluster C personality disorders involve anxious and fearful thoughts and behaviors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Personality disorders usually begin when someone is in their teens or early adult years. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with personality disorders may have trouble realizing that they have a problem. (medlineplus.gov)
  • How are personality disorders diagnosed? (medlineplus.gov)
  • A mental health care provider can diagnose personality disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It can also lead to their developing dysfunctional personality patterns that can develop into full-blown personality disorders later in life. (psychologytoday.com)
  • With this in mind, many different treatment methods aimed at dealing with personality disorders such as antisocial or histrionic personality disorder usually involve teaching patients how to alter destructive personality patterns. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is part of a larger group of psychological disorders called "Cluster B" personality disorders. (healthline.com)
  • The diagnosis of personality disorders in patients who have comorbid axis I disorders, including mood, substance abuse, and medical disorders (eg, head injury, seizure disorders), can make the diagnosis of personality disorders more difficult because of overlapping features. (medscape.com)
  • Comorbidity of personality disorders in anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis of 30 years of research. (medscape.com)
  • Samuels J. Personality disorders: epidemiology and public health issues. (medscape.com)
  • Beck AT, Freeman A. Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Marital violence is a public health problem that has many issues associated with its occurrence, among them personality disorders. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although the most common etiologies for personality disorders are multifactorial, these conditions may also be secondary to biologic, developmental, or genetic abnormalities. (medscape.com)
  • Indeed, personality disorders are aggravated by stressors, external or self-induced. (medscape.com)
  • The model has been used to describe the different accepted types of personality disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Most current research suggests that personality disorders may be differentiated by their interactions among the 5 dimensions rather than differences on any single dimension. (medscape.com)
  • Personality disorders are also seen with diminished monoamine oxidase (MAO) and serotonin levels. (medscape.com)
  • However, the relationships of anatomy, receptors, and neurotransmitters to personality disorders are purely speculative at this point. (medscape.com)
  • The origin of personality disorders is a matter of considerable controversy. (medscape.com)
  • Importance of personality disorders in epilepsy]. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although several studies can be found on the psychiatric diseases associated with epilepsy , only a few researches focus on the occurrence of personality disorders accompanying the latter. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of this review is to help clinicians to recognize the signs of personality disorders and to investigate their connection and interaction with epilepsy in the light of current experiences. (bvsalud.org)
  • Histrionic personality disorder, in which a person is dramatic, has strong emotions, and always wants attention from others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The exact cause of histrionic personality disorder is unknown. (healthline.com)
  • Antisocial personality disorder, in which a person has a long-term pattern of manipulating, exploiting, or violating the rights of others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Raine A, Lencz T, Bihrle S, LaCasse L, Colletti P. Reduced prefrontal gray matter volume and reduced autonomic activity in antisocial personality disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment for antisocial personality disorder can be challenging, but there are ways to manage the condition and its associated symptoms. (psychcentral.com)
  • Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) can affect the way a person thinks, behaves, and how they relate to others. (psychcentral.com)
  • Rapid Review Quiz: Antisocial Personality Disorder - Medscape - Sep 25, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • Dependent personality disorder (DPD) is a pattern of behaving passively and being excessively dependent on others in a way that may undermine a person's well-being or life. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dependent personality disorder treatment can help with symptoms and support a person in maintaining healthy relationships. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People with dependent personality disorder, though, can become excessively dependent, working to maintain relationships that may be harmful or one-sided. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The main dependent personality disorder treatments are usually psychotherapy or psychodynamic therapy, often cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • No specific medication has been developed to treat dependent personality disorder, and research on the effectiveness of medication has not been thorough or conclusive. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People with dependent personality disorder have a higher risk of substance misuse, so doctors should avoid prescribing potentially addictive drugs, such as benzodiazepines . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Paranoid personality disorder, in which a person has paranoia (an extreme fear and distrust of others). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Schizoid personality disorder, in which a person prefers to be alone and is not interested in having relationships with others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Schizotypal personality disorder, in which a person has unusual thoughts and ways of behaving and speaking. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Borderline personality disorder, in which a person has lots of trouble managing their emotions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Narcissistic personality disorder, in which a person lacks empathy and wants to be admired by others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Avoidant personality disorder, in which a person is very shy and feels that they are not as good as others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dependent personality disorder, in which a person depends too much on others and feels that they need to be taken care of. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, in which a person needs control and order. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The symptoms of each personality disorder are different. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Socioeconomic-Status and Mental Health in a Personality Disorder Sample: The Importance of Neighborhood Factors. (medscape.com)
  • Borderline personality disorder: toward integration. (medscape.com)
  • Suicide attempts and personality disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Shedler J, Westen D. Refining personality disorder diagnosis: integrating science and practice. (medscape.com)
  • The Validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale for Assessing Pathological Grandiosity. (medscape.com)
  • Goodman G, Edwards K, Chung H. Interaction structures formed in the psychodynamic therapy of five patients with borderline personality disorder in crisis. (medscape.com)
  • A practical approach to the treatment of patients with borderline personality disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Individuals with this Cluster B Personality Disorder in their actions regularly disregard and violate the rights of others. (behavenet.com)
  • Not many celebrities or otherwise famous folks come right out and admit to having a personality disorder or other mental illness. (healthyplace.com)
  • One brave football superstar, Brandon Marshall , publicly announced that he has borderline personality disorder back in 2011. (healthyplace.com)
  • While it's impossible to actually diagnose famous people with borderline personality disorder from our living room sofas, the behavior of certain celebrities definitely shows they have symptoms of borderline personality disorder and may be dealing with BPD . (healthyplace.com)
  • There might be many more celebrities with borderline personality disorder and other mental health issues. (healthyplace.com)
  • One can only hope that some of them will follow Brandon Marshall's lead and come forward, offering hope and encouragement to others who suffer in silence and who want to seek borderline personality disorder treatment . (healthyplace.com)
  • How do doctors treat dependent personality disorder? (msdmanuals.com)
  • A personality disorder, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that differs markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment. (medscape.com)
  • Stressful situations may often result in decompensation, revealing a previously unrecognized personality disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Individuals may have more than 1 personality disorder. (medscape.com)
  • In patients with personality disorder, abnormalities may be seen in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. (medscape.com)
  • Perhaps similar personalities mean good compatibility? (steampowered.com)
  • Adventurous females choose mates with similar personalities, regardless of the male's appearance and other assets, according to research led by the University of Exeter. (eurekalert.org)
  • There's one major difference between waterfall personalities and people's personalities. (forrester.com)
  • They may feel integral to a person's personality, so a person is unlikely to see their behavior as problematic. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most would intuitively guess the different industries are filled by people with very different personality characteristics. (forbes.com)
  • I'm a Myers-Briggs INTP, and one of the characteristics of my personality type is that I like to analyze and find patterns in data. (forrester.com)
  • For the first time, the proposed study will identify modifiable personality-informed risk factors, resilience characteristics, and mechanisms for maintenance of comorbid conditions, as well as propose, and test, using a proof-of-concept randomized control trial, a system of personality-informed interventions to improve care of vulnerable individuals. (cdc.gov)
  • Implications: These results suggest that gender differences in overall CWB are rather small, with men engaging in more than women only when they have certain personality characteristics or perceive high levels of job stressors. (cdc.gov)
  • While there is no generally agreed-upon definition of personality, most theories focus on motivation and psychological interactions with the environment one is surrounded by. (wikipedia.org)
  • Personality is made up of psychological preferences, temperaments and predispositions. (forbes.com)
  • Imagine two candidates with equal cognitive ability, education and experience, and how they might differ along the scales identified by the California Psychological Inventory personality model (Disclosure: My company publishes the CPI assessment). (forbes.com)
  • The study also offers insight into whether personality is a constant and stable psychological trait. (asianage.com)
  • Psychological assessment for type-D personality may be helpful in developing health care plans. (who.int)
  • And while many factors influence us (including social and cultural pressures), personality is a major force behind our habits, behaviors and attitudes. (forbes.com)
  • So it's not surprising that some personality assessments can be a strong predictor of job performance. (forbes.com)
  • We show that socio-economic status (SES) is a powerful predictor of many facets of a child's personality. (repec.org)
  • In other words, personality was still an important predictor although less so than when the evaluative factor was not accounted for in the statistical model. (lu.se)
  • The study of the psychology of personality, called personality psychology, attempts to explain the tendencies that underlie differences in behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study, published online in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , suggests personality is shaped by environment and not just genes. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Their study, which was recently published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , involved two experiments using adults recruited from an introductory psychology class. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Personality tests are a useful way for people to better understand themselves, especially when they're young, says Brent Roberts, a professor of psychology at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign who studies personality development and assessment. (yahoo.com)
  • Tests like the Myers-Briggs and Enneagram "aren't able to describe the richness of human diversity," says Jaime Lane Derringer, a scientist at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign who works at the intersection of personality psychology and molecular genetics. (yahoo.com)
  • Examining the relationship between personality and positive psychology can when using a standard measure of personality produce spurious correlations, due to socially desirable responding (aka the evaluative factor). (lu.se)
  • In this study Big Five measures of personality were related to the five most common measures of positive psychology. (lu.se)
  • These findings indicate that part of what would normally be considered Big Five factor variance in a standard Big Five personality measure is in fact not and helps further our understanding of how personality is related to positive psychology. (lu.se)
  • Module 3: Personality psychology (7.5 credits). (lu.se)
  • The module deals with development during adulthood and the ageing process based on theories of developmental, personality and social psychology. (lu.se)
  • Psychologists have taken many different approaches to the study of personality, including biological, cognitive, learning, and trait-based theories, as well as psychodynamic, and humanistic approaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a recent research study by psychologists at the University of Illinois, most people are dissatisfied with their own personality and wished to change in a more positive direction. (psychologytoday.com)
  • This model is termed the 5-factor model, and it has developed a significant amount of acceptance among personality psychologists. (medscape.com)
  • Personality and Individual Differences , 11 , Article 111605. (lu.se)
  • The purpose of this study was to correlate the pathological functioning of personality with the dimensions of intimate partner violence in a sample of 139 married couples in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, Brazil. (bvsalud.org)
  • We observed the existence of possible patterns in the pathological functioning of the personalities of spouses, whether by similarity or complementarity, something that future research can confirm. (bvsalud.org)
  • Years ago, when I started a new job as a VP of marketing, my new company provided me with Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality profiles for my entire team. (forrester.com)
  • The four-by-two structure immediately reminded me of Myers-Briggs personality tests. (forrester.com)
  • Personality tests aren't new-an early version of the Myers-Briggs test was copyrighted in 1943 -but interest in them has endured. (yahoo.com)
  • People find the ability to express their personality intrinsically rewarding , and therefore enjoy work environments that allow them to be themselves. (forbes.com)
  • With two options for each attributes, all people on Earth can be characterized as one of 16 different personality types. (forrester.com)
  • While people have the same basic personality pattern for life, Demand Waterfall personalities can change. (forrester.com)
  • People who have experienced severe emotional trauma or life-changing events can experience significant personality changes as well. (psychologytoday.com)
  • These personality patterns are often extremely difficult to change, but it may depend on how motivated people are to try. (psychologytoday.com)
  • But do most people really want to change their personalities? (psychologytoday.com)
  • Though many people try to change their personalities, either through counseling or by developing their own self-improvement program (e.g., taking public speaking courses to become more social and outgoing), it's still debatable how effective these approaches are in the long run. (psychologytoday.com)
  • But why do people like personality tests so much, and which are the most accurate? (yahoo.com)
  • The present study examined the association of type-D personality (and its components) with quality of life in cardiac patients compared with healthy people. (who.int)
  • A sample of 80 patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and 70 healthy people aged 45-60 years completed the WHO quality of life brief questionnaire and the 14-item type-D personality scale. (who.int)
  • Your personality is your unique way of thinking, understanding, reacting, and relating to people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Many people might seem to have an unusual personality. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The profiles identify personality patterns based on four key attributes. (forrester.com)
  • A Man With Hypertension and Recent Personality Changes - Medscape - Oct 30, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • According to the most widely accepted model of personality, there are five basic personality dimensions that can define us as individuals. (psychologytoday.com)
  • This can result in children having life experiences that can reinforce early differences in temperament and lay down the kind of personality they have as adults. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The various approaches used to study personality today reflect the influence of the first theorists in the field, a group that includes Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Gordon Allport, Hans Eysenck, Abraham Maslow, and Carl Rogers. (wikipedia.org)
  • When preschoolers spend time around one another, they tend to take on each others' personalities, indicates a new study. (sciencedaily.com)
  • With this in mind, Nathan Hudson and R. Chris Fraley of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign conducted a study to see whether research subjects could change measurable aspects of their personality. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In the first experiment, one hundred and thirty-five participants were told that they were part of a "personality study" that took six weeks to complete. (psychologytoday.com)
  • A new study found that personality growth in young adults predicted career benefits such as income, degree attainment, and job satisfaction. (bigthink.com)
  • The Response Screening personality in Fit Model enables you to study tests of multiple responses against linear model effects. (jmp.com)
  • This is the first study to show that the non-sexual behaviour or personalities of both mates influences partner choice in non-humans. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using both an evaluative and an evaluatively neutralised measure of personality the study aimed to separate the evaluative factor from personality and show that predicting variance with the evaluative factor separately produces results that better fit the data. (lu.se)
  • Flexible personality should not be confused with cognitive flexibility, which is the ability to switch between two concepts, and to simultaneously think about multiple concepts. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, while cognitive ability tests have produced an adverse impact on certain demographic groups, personality assessments generally don't discriminate against members of protected groups. (forbes.com)
  • Measures of personality, anxiety and depression might moderate the effects of writing on falling asleep. (asianage.com)
  • Team leader, Dr Sasha Dall of the University of Exeter said: "This is strong evidence that females care about the apparent personality of their male independently of his appearance. (eurekalert.org)
  • We have the first evidence that it is important for partners to have compatible personalities in the mating game. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, this is the first evidence that the personality of both partners plays a role in mate choice. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nevertheless, most theories view personality as relatively stable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Personality is not stable over the course of a lifetime, but it changes much more quickly during childhood, so personality constructs in children are referred to as temperament. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, we use panel data to show that the relationship between SES and personality is fairly stable over time at age 7 to 10. (repec.org)
  • Once you become an adult, your personality usually doesn't change much. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Much like the Big Five adult personality factors, there are also different kinds of temperament that seem to arise out of the interaction between our genetics and the upbringing we receive as children. (psychologytoday.com)
  • A 72-year-old man has had personality changes for approximately 3 weeks, according to his adult son. (medscape.com)
  • Personality assessments can play a helpful, objective role in the hiring process, provided that 1) the proper assessment is used, 2) insights are applied correctly and 3) it's not the only way you're determining who to hire. (forbes.com)
  • Done right, personality assessment in hiring can reduce discrimination based on gender, ethnicity and other factors. (forbes.com)
  • It reviews major theories, research methods and findings and how these translate into practices in the fields of intelligence and personality, including assessment. (edu.au)
  • Flexibility is a personality trait that describes the extent to which a person can cope with changes in circumstances and think about problems and tasks in novel, creative ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • We explored gender mean differences, and the moderating effect of gender on the relationship of personality (agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, trait anger, and hostile attribution bias) and stressors (interpersonal conflict and organizational constraints) with three forms of CWB (directed toward organizations, directed toward persons, and relational aggression which are acts that damage relationships with other employees). (cdc.gov)
  • The moderating role of gender in relationships of stressors and personality with counterproductive work behavior. (cdc.gov)
  • Gender was found to moderate the relationship of job stressors and personality with CWB. (cdc.gov)
  • New research identifies 16 different COVID-19 personality types and the lessons we can learn from this global pandemic. (bigthink.com)
  • There are more personality types than that, Derringer says. (yahoo.com)
  • Examples of such tests are the: Big Five Inventory (BFI), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), Rorschach Inkblot test, Neurotic Personality Questionnaire KON-2006, or Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R). All of these tests are beneficial because they have both reliability and validity, two factors that make a test accurate. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, more behaviorally-based approaches define personality through learning and habits. (wikipedia.org)
  • And if so, could I define a Waterfall Personality Test? (forrester.com)
  • So if, for example, your Demand Waterfall is suffering from a severe case of teleprospecting qualified lead neglect, you can often fix this "personality flaw" by collaborating to better define lead definitions and implementing SLAs among marketing, teleprospecting and sales. (forrester.com)
  • Personality exists on a spectrum, and no single test can capture all the nuances that define a person. (yahoo.com)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Personality development. (who.int)
  • Schooling, occupational motivation, and personality as related to success in paramedical training. (cdc.gov)
  • Quiz: Which essential oil blend matches your personality? (youngliving.com)
  • Whoever you are, find out which essential oil blend best matches your personality in this quiz. (youngliving.com)
  • Due to the fact that personality is a complex idea, the dimensions of personality and scales of such tests vary and often are poorly defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • The instruments used were the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (DCPI) and the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). (bvsalud.org)
  • We also discuss potential pathways through which SES could affect the formation of a child's personality by documenting that many dimensions of a child's environment differ systematically by SES: parenting style, quantity and quality of time parents spend with their children, the mother's IQ and economic preferences, a child's initial conditions at birth, and family structure. (repec.org)
  • Personality profiles that vary systematically with SES might offer an explanation for social immobility. (repec.org)
  • July 17, 2019 How you spend your money can signal aspects of your personality, according to new research. (sciencedaily.com)
  • New research shows impulsive personality increases BMI and here are ways to change that. (asianage.com)
  • That said, personality changes can still occur depending on new life experiences. (psychologytoday.com)
  • This personality test might answer the question you've been asking your whole life: How weird are you? (yourtango.com)
  • Regression analysis showed that higher scores on type-D personality had a negative impact on quality of life in MI patients and that the social inhibition component had a greater impact than negative affectivity. (who.int)

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