Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.United StatesAlzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Nerve Tissue ProteinsHippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Homeless Persons: Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Visually Impaired Persons: Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Mentally Disabled Persons: Persons diagnosed as having significantly lower than average intelligence and considerable problems in adapting to everyday life or lacking independence in regard to activities of daily living.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Inbred C57BLAnimals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Anatomy, Artistic: The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Choroid Plexus: A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
... of people in various countries have chronic pain. Chronic pain may originate in the body, or in the brain or spinal cord. It is ... Brain. 127 (4): 835-43. doi:10.1093/brain/awh098. Severeijns, R; van den Hout, MA; Vlaeyen, JW (June 2005). "The causal status ... People who score highly on measures of catastrophization are likely to rate a pain experience as more intense than those who ... Some people with chronic pain may benefit from opioid treatment while others are harmed. A trial of opioids is only recommended ...
Goldfarb, L.G.; Gajdusek, D.C. (1992). "Viliuisk Encephalomyelitis in the Iakut people of Siberia". Brain. 115: 961-78. doi: ... Ultimately, brain function depreciates rapidly resulting in death. Many patients who undergo the chronic form claim never to ... So far, no causative agent has been found in blood, spinal fluid, or brain tissue. Research has concluded that VE has been ... Not until after World War II did the Yakut people become aware of this mysterious killer. The locals and Northern Evenkis ...
doi:10.1093/brain/awp322. PMC 2858013 . PMID 20085927. Ram S, Lewis LA, Rice PA (2010). "Infections of people with complement ... as well as deletion of complement factor H-related 3 and complement factor H-related 1 also affect a person's risk of ...
... mood and global quality of life in persons with spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury". Spinal Cord. 36 (4): 252-261. ... In an analysis of over 300,000 people, the phrase "I have the opportunity to do what I do best" was highly correlated with work ... However, data does not show that people who earn more money are more gainfully employed than those who earn less. 4. A purpose ... Individuals with traumatic brain injuries demonstrate greater psychological well-being and perceived quality of life if ...
"The Power of In-Person Communication". Cisco. Retrieved 2014-03-15. Brain, Marshall. "How Stuff Works- How Telephones Work". ... For example, Person A sends an email to Person B --> Person B responds with their own email back to Person A. The cycle then ... As it relates to business, 75% of people believe in-person communication is critical. In-person interaction is useful for ... One person is the sender, which means they send a message to another person via face to face, email, telephone, etc. The other ...
Brain Connection. Retrieved 3 June 2014. BC: Who were your greatest mentors? RS: Of people I've actually dealt with, ... the ... "The Brain on the Stand," New York Times Magazine Sapolsky, RM (2004). "The frontal cortex and the criminal justice system". ... Hans Selye Walter Bradford Cannon Paul Radin Stress, the Aging Brain, and the Mechanisms of Neuron Death (MIT Press, 1992) ISBN ... main person is an anthropologist/physician named Melvin Konnor ... . He ... was my advisor in college and remains a major ...
The way you live, the people you choose to love and the way you love them, the way you vote, the words that come out of your ... was cited by Maria Popova's blog Brain Pickings as one of the greatest commencement addresses of all time. Fernández's speech ... She is the first Latina to serve on the Commission, and the second person of Latino heritage to serve on the CFA in its over ... Stringfield, Anne (April 2007). "People Are Talking About: Art. The Dazzle: Teresita Fernández makes art that is structurally ...
Klein, Joe (2006). Politics Lost: How American Democracy Was Trivialized by People Who Think You're Stupid. Random House. pp. ... Auletta, Ken (September 20, 2004). "Kerry's Brain". New Yorker. Retrieved 2015-10-16. ... Klein, Joe (2006). Politics Lost: How American Democracy Was Trivialized by People Who Think You're Stupid. Random House. pp. ... Klein, Joe (2006). Politics Lost: How American Democracy Was Trivialized by People Who Think You're Stupid. Random House. p. ...
These people's brains may have normal "body clocks", but the clocks do not receive input from the eyes about environmental ... "Capturing the circadian rhythms of free-running blind people with 0.5 mg melatonin". Brain Research. 918 (1-2): 96-100. doi: ... Sighted people with non-24 appear to be more rare than blind people with the disorder and the etiology of their circadian ... The majority of people with non-24 are totally blind, and the failure of entrainment is explained by an absence of photic input ...
brain and blood microscopic examination of chancre fluid, lymph node aspirates, blood, bone marrow 50,000 to 70,000 people; ... brain, skin culture worldwide via inhalation or skin lesion Babesiosis Babesia B. divergens, B. bigemina, B. equi, B. microfti ... brain soil-contaminated wounds Loa loa filariasis, Calabar swellings Loa loa filaria connective tissue, lungs, eye blood ( ... Intestines, liver, lungs, brain, eye rare: North America stool from raccoons Roundworm-lymphatic filariasis Brugia malayi, ...
People are given advice through a shack door by a Voodoo priest. Betsy is summoned inside, where she is shocked to find that ... Creature with the Atom Brain (1955). Screenplay. *Le Bal (1931). *F.P.1 antwortet nicht (1932) ...
The neocortex and thalamus are responsible for controlling the brain's imagination, along with many of the brain's other ... A person of vivid imagination often suffers acutely from the imagined perils besetting friends, relatives, or even strangers ... Since imagination involves many different brain functions, such as emotions, memory, thoughts, etc., portions of the brain ... Assessing pleasure and arousal in the brain's reward circuitry". Human Brain Mapping. 31 (9): 1446-1457. doi:10.1002/hbm.20948 ...
The Readers Brain. How Neuroscience can make you a Better Writer, Cambridge 2015. "The Pleasures of Immersion and Engagement: ... Douglas's goal was to use the fragmentations of hypertext to explore both causality and the enormous gulfs that separate people ... Schemas, Scripts, and the Fifth Business." In First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game. Noah Wardrip-Fruin and ...
"People , Psychological & Brain Sciences , UC Santa Barbara". Retrieved 2013-11-20. "People , Psychological & ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) "People , Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology , UC Santa Barbara , UC Santa Barbara". ... Brain Sciences , UC Santa Barbara". Retrieved 2013-11-20. ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) ...
His most significant results relate to visual and auditory perception in Savant and non savant autism, investigated by brain ... "Enhanced pure-tone pitch discrimination among persons with autism but not Asperger syndrome". Neuropsychologia. 48 (9): 2465-75 ... Human Brain Mapping. 33 (7): 1553-81. doi:10.1002/hbm.21307. PMID 21465627. Bonnel A, McAdams S, Smith B, Berthiaume C, Bertone ... and genetic variability in autism with alterations of brain plasticity: The Trigger-Threshold-Target model". Neuroscience and ...
Third edition". Retrieved 2013-11-25. "Person Page 32648". Retrieved 2013-11-25. John ... J. B. Cavanagh (2013-11-11). "The Pathology Of Minamata Disease". Retrieved 2013-11-25. Works by or ...
"the People's Paths home page!". "The History of Jerky: The incomplete but interesting history of jerky". The JerkyFAQ. "Acorn ... Aside from the meat, it was not uncommon for them to eat organ meats such as liver, brains, and intestines. This tradition ... "Bird brain stew". NativeTech: Native American Technology & Art. "Buffalo Stew (Tanka-me-a-lo)". NativeTech: Native American ... Acorn bread Acorn mush, from the Miwok people Akutaq, also called "Eskimo ice cream", made from caribou or moose tallow and ...
"The Highly Sensitive Person at p. 146), neuroendocrine physiology, brain structure and function ("Cortical sensory processing ... A human with a particularly high measure of SPS is considered to be a highly sensitive person (HSP).[2][3] The terms SPS and ... Elaine Aron's book The Highly Sensitive Person was published in 1996.[12] In 1997 Elaine and Arthur Aron formally identified[13 ... People with high SPS report having a heightened response to stimuli such as pain, caffeine, hunger, and loud noises.[5] ...
Soul's brain/person's mind". Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. 33 (4): 381-403. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6696( ... a brain scan might be used to rule out other medical illnesses, but at this time relying on brain scans alone cannot accurately ... "Brain Injury Medicine". American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. Retrieved 2017-08-20.. ... Alternatively, a person may be referred by hospital medical staff, by court order, involuntary commitment, or, in the UK and ...
Over his last ten years there, he created a program in its distribution centers to integrate large numbers of people with ... Brain & Behavior Research Foundation. Gopez, Nancy (February 27, 2010). "A Special Evening with the Pointer Sisters Benefiting ... Brain & Behavior Research Foundation (then NARSAD) first Productive Lives Award - 2009 Milton P. Levy, Jr. Outstanding ... When he took over in 1996, Walgreens began to contract outside agencies that employed people with disabilities in its ...
"RoIO CD: Keep Smiling People". Retrieved 16 September 2012. Brain ... "Keep Smiling People", would develop into a major part of the band's live shows up until 1973. The song was gradually extended ... " "Keep Smiling People" (a prototype version of "Careful with That Axe, Eugene") Other songs[citation needed] "Remember a Day ...
Therefore, a person's body is no longer that person's body after it dies. Another approach to resolving the problem relies on a ... "Soul, Mind, and Brain." The Waning of Materialism. Ed. Robert C. Koons and George Bealer. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2010. 395-417. ... Because the five-year-old body and the seventy-year-old body share a soul-that is, the person's life-we can identify them both ... A five-year-old body consists of different matter than does the same person's seventy-year-old body. If the five-year-old body ...
Heine, Steven J.; Henrich, Joseph; Norenzayan, Ara (2010). "The weirdest people in the world?". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. ...
Henrich, J.; Heine, S. J.; Norenzayan, A. (2010). "The weirdest people in the world?". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 33: 61- ... While this may be minimal in comparison to other people's oppression, it will still help with realizing that other people have ... Despite the overwhelming acceptance that people affect culture and culture affects people, societal systems tend to minimize ... knowledge regarding other people's cultures (specific) experiences regarding other people's cultures and: inability to bridge ...
"Toward a second-person neuroscience". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 36 (4): 393-414. doi:10.1017/S0140525X12000660. Hanne De ... As described by Mark Rowlands, mental processes are: Embodied involving more than the brain, including a more general ... Recent developments of enactivism in the area of social neuroscience involve the proposal of The Interactive Brain Hypothesis ... Ezequiel Di Paolo; Hanne De Jaegher (June 2012). "The Interactive Brain Hypothesis". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 7 (6). ...
The brain seems to be able to discriminate and adapt particularly well in certain contexts. For instance, human beings seem to ... The early historical roots of the field can be traced to the work of people such as Louis Lapicque, Hodgkin & Huxley, Hubel & ... Michael A. Arbib; Shun-ichi Amari; Prudence H. Arbib (2002). The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Cambridge, ... Blue Brain, a project founded by Henry Markram from the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, aims to construct a ...
The study involved 23 people who had deep brain stimulators, 21 people with Parkinsons disease who did not have stimulators ... Deep brain stimulation may have a beneficial effect on driving ability for people with Parkinsons disease, according to a new ... Deep Brain Stimulation May Help With Driving For People With Parkinsons Disease. by editor ... Deep brain stimulation uses a surgical implant similar to a pacemaker to send electrical impulses to the brain. ...
Sportsmen are increasingly using brain training techniques to improve focus and screen out distractions. What can you learn ... Can you train your brain to make you a better person?. Sportsmen are increasingly using brain training techniques to improve ... Roy says, "We take a map to see how the brain is functioning [called a QEEG neurometric brain map], and identify what areas may ... For more advice on how to train your brain for sports performance and be cool under pressure, visit www.brainworksneurotherapy. ...
Persons with brain Injury, of any age, who are at risk of nursing facility placement due to functional limitations resulting ... Persons who have medical services through a Medicaid managed care organization may contact their care coordinator about the ... For those persons receiving Medical services through a managed care organization, see contact information and links below ... If requesting a referral directly from DHS-DRS, please tell the DHS-DRS Local Office person about your managed care, give them ...
Canadian researchers say the tracked brain data could be used to recreate memories from witnesses of crimes. ...
Scientists stimulated volunteers brains with mild electric current while they learned new arithmetic operations based on made- ... Those who received this brain stimulation learned quicker -- and retained a performance edge six months later. ... Studying and practicing math is so difficult and boring that very few people do it. A new study suggest there may be an easier ... People who received brain stimulation during training sessions on five consecutive days learned two to five times faster than ...
But what, exactly, is a person? Thats exactly what sociologist Christian Smith examines in What Is a Person?: Rethinking ... many people today stand uncertain about the meaning or lucidity of the very notion of a coherent self or person, unclear about ... What Is a Person? is thus as much a compelling case for cross-disciplinary curiosity as it is a testament to the power of the ... What Is a Person?. What remix culture and philosophy have to do with personhood in the age of synthetic biology.. By Maria ...
Researchers say that connectivity between different brain regions may hold the answer. ... Are the brains of people with high IQs wired differently? ... How do the brains of intelligent people work?. Published Sunday ... Underdeveloped brain network after 30 may impact mental health People who are underdeveloped in the brain region that is linked ... People with a higher-than-average intelligence level have brains that are "wired" in a different way, researchers say. A new ...
... but people born without a corpus callosum still transfer information across the brain. ... Scientists have long believed the corpus callosum was the main connector between brain hemispheres, ...
Ordinal numbers, on the other hand, represent an order; 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. With this in mind, heres todays Brain Game. And a ... Heres todays "Throwback" Think Thursday Brain Game, from about four years ago:. Cardinal numbers are counting ...
... and the brain area that mediates their negative emotions is under better control ... was more active in elderly people when they saw fearful faces than in younger people. This region has been shown to inhibit ... Elderly people may be better at perceiving happiness and worse at perceiving fear, a new study suggests. The finding supports ... "I think all these structural changes in the [human] brain are an impact of these hormones over time," says Jason Radley at the ...
Toward a second-person neuroscience 1 - Volume 36 Issue 4 - Leonhard Schilbach, Bert Timmermans, Vasudevi Reddy, Alan Costall, ... Hasson, U., Ghazanfar, A. A., Galantucci, B., Garrod, S., Keysers, C. (2012) Brain-to-brain coupling: A mechanism for creating ... Reddy, V. (1996) Omitting the second-person in social understanding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19(1):140-41. Available at: ... Hari, R. & Kujala, M. V. (2009) Brain basis of human social interaction: From concepts to brain imaging. Physiological Reviews ...
... a rare brain-eating amoeba that enters the body through the nose and travels up to the brain and spinal cord, usually causing ... death, has infected a person in the US. ... Rare brain-eating amoeba Naegleria fowleri infects person in ... Only four people out of the 143 people in the US known to have been infected between 1962 and 2016 have survived. ... the amoeba enters the body through the nose and travels up to the brain and the spinal cord where it destroys brain tissue, ...
... Combining drugs and rehabilitation programs are more successful in ... After suffering traumatic brain injuries, people often experience difficulties in their working and episodic memory, the speed ... Such a combined approach may even improve their brain functioning months and years after the initial trauma of a blow to the ... how to compensate for memory and attention problems offers new hope for people who suffer the consequences of traumatic brain ...
... via the blood and could provide a permanent way of recording signals used to direct an exoskeleton that helps paralysed people ... Thats the aim of a device that could help people control robotic limbs using thought alone - without the need for brain ... The device will be trialled in people with paralysis next year.. Several groups are developing brain-machine interfaces that ... Usually, brain signals are detected via electrodes attached to the scalp or implanted directly in the brain. Placing them on ...
Startup company was founded to help the human race keep up with advanced artificial intelligence.Elon Musk Says People Will ... Eventually Consume Music Through Brain Chip Lake Schatz ... neuralink brain chip implant Elon Musk Says People Will ... The post Elon Musk Says People Will Eventually Consume Music Through Brain Chip appeared first on Consequence of Sound. ... Elon Musk Says People Will Eventually Consume Music Through Brain Chip. Lake Schatz ...
Greater activity in this area of the brain signals that a person is a novice, and therefore must work harder, at an activity. ... Language Areas in The Brain. The mechanism of how human brain processes the language to express and comprehend the verbal, ... The system uses functional near-infrared spectroscopy, or fNIRS, to measure a persons brain activity. ... Parkinsons Disease Parkinsons Disease Surgical Treatment Brain Brain Facts Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Ataxia Language ...
The Effects of Heroin on a Persons Brain Heroin is an illegal, highly addictive drug. It is both the most abused and the most ... More about Effects Of Heroin On A Person s Brain. *. Drugs And Its Effects On The Brain. 1586 Words , 7 Pages ... The Effects of Heroin on a Persons Brain Heroin is an illegal, highly addictive drug. It is both the most abused and the most ... narcotic drugs impair a person for life? The human brain is the most complex part of the human body, it controls it ...
Read full story of Smart persons secret? A well-connected brain at Special Features Section, ... are smart peoples brains wired differently to those of less intelligent persons? According to a recent study, this could be ... Home » News » Special Features » Smart persons secret? A well-connected brain Smart persons secret? A well-connected brain. * ... Washington D.C. [USA], Nov 23 : So, are smart peoples brains wired differently to those of less intelligent persons? According ...
... imaging to compare neural circuits-specifically those between the right temporal and frontal lobes-in the brains of people who ... Tone-deaf people-those who cant hold a tune-appear to be missing a specific neural circuit, according to research published ... Brain Defect Found in Tone-Deaf People. A missing brain circuit may explain why some people cant keep a tune. ... Tone-deaf people-those who cant hold a tune-appear to be missing a specific neural circuit, according to research published ...
... researchers using MRI have identified structural abnormalities in the brains of people with one of the most common genetic ... MRI reveals striking brain differences in people with genetic autism. Published Thursday 10 August 2017 Published Thu 10 Aug ... "MRI reveals striking brain differences in people with genetic autism." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 10 Aug. 2017. ... "People with deletions tend to have brain overgrowth, developmental delays and a higher risk of obesity," said study author ...
People who are highly creative have better connectivity between the left and right brain hemispheres, according to a new study ... Highly Creative People Have Well-Connected Brain Hemispheres. Creative people have more white matter and better-connected ... The corpus callosum of Albert Einsteins brain: another clue to his high intelligence? Brain, 2013; DOI: 10.1093/brain/awt252 ... And there was no way he could reverse the juggernaut of people associating the right brain of the cerebral cortex with ...
... multi-center study led by the UC Davis School of Medicine for the first time has shown that people as young as their 40s have ... "Vascular brain injury is evident in people in their 40s ." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 29 Mar. 2016. Web.. 17 Nov. ... Why a low-carb diet can help you lose weight and keep it off New research suggests that a diet low in carbs may help people ... decreasing blood flow to vital organs including the brain and promoting brain atrophy. ...
Electrically stimulating the brain can make people comply with social rules more or less, depending on whether they could be ... Zapping the Brain Makes People Obey Social Norms. By Tanya Lewis 2013-10-03T18:05:47Z. Human Nature ... Electrically stimulating the brain can make people comply with social rules more or less, depending on whether they could be ... Scientists have now shown that a zap of electricity to the brain can influence whether people choose to comply with these norms ...
"The brain of the listener becomes similar to the brain of the speaker," Hasson says. And the more aligned the brains were, the ... that eye contact prepares the social brain to empathize by activating the same areas of each persons brain simultaneously: the ... "Hyperscans" Show How Brains Sync as People Interact. Social neuroscientists ask what happens at the level of neurons when you ... Just one example: no one has yet captured the rich complexity of two peoples brain activity as they talk together. "We spend ...
Structural brain abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, providing insight into how the condition may develop and respond ... We then identified brain regions that differentiated patients from controls and ranked them according to their effect sizes." ... The next step in this research is to compare the effects across disorders, to identify which brain region is the most affected ... Newswise - ATLANTA-Structural brain abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, providing insight into how the condition may ...
  • As TechCrunch further explains, the idea is to "implant gossamer-thin wires" - supposedly thinner than human hair - into a person's brain. (
  • The system uses functional near-infrared spectroscopy, or fNIRS, to measure a person's brain activity. (
  • The Effects of Heroin on a Person's Brain Heroin is an illegal, highly addictive drug. (
  • What's scientifically wrong with a person's brain when they are mentally challenged?I want to. (
  • It was unclear if brain size affected anything other than a person's IQ, but now we can show it relates to how we perceive food and drink. (
  • While we can't use neuroscience to identify the best images for every person's brain, we could identify types of images that tend to modulate the right sorts of value signals -- those that predict future purchases for a market segment. (
  • The ability to send thoughts directly to another person's brain is the stuff of science fiction. (
  • One 2018 report by the Boston-based nonprofit Health Effects Institute warned that up to 95 percent of the people on Earth were breathing unsafe air. (
  • From 1999 to 2018, death rates for unintentional TBI among persons aged ≤24 years declined across all age groups. (
  • In 2010, scientists reported that people can learn a new set of numbers based on arbitrary symbols more quickly when a mild current is applied to the right parietal lobe of the brain, a region implicated in previous number-comprehension studies. (
  • Scientists have now shown that a zap of electricity to the brain can influence whether people choose to comply with these norms or not. (
  • Scientists are working on a brain implant with the ability to more reliably detect and forestall epileptic seizures. (
  • The research is important because scientists still need to better understand how the brain learns, he said. (
  • A team of Canadian scientists has found a way to break the barrier of the human body that keeps the nervous and circulatory systems apart, and inject the drugs directly into the brain using "carrier" antibodies. (
  • Scientists from the Canadian National Research Council have been battling for years to find a way to trick it and get the drugs to where they are most needed - to the human brain. (
  • Scientists add that it could become a significant step towards slowing the spread of brain diseases like Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's. (
  • This has been true ever since a sensationalist newspaper coined the unfortunate term 'brain drain' in 1963, referring to British scientists emigrating from the UK. (
  • Scientists find people with ADHD have smaller brain regions-including the amygdala, which is responsible for regulating emotions. (
  • Scientists previously suspected that there was 'dis-connectivity,' or weaker long-range connections, between brain areas in those with autism. (
  • Led by Kullervo Hynynen and Sandra Black of the Sunnybrook Research Center in Toronto, the scientists propose that this strategy might allow drugs to cross into the brain. (
  • In intelligent persons, certain brain regions are more strongly involved in the flow of information between brain regions, while other brain regions are less engaged.Understanding the foundations of human thought is fascinating for scientists and laypersons alike. (
  • Scientists will use a combination of methods to try to reactivate the brains. (
  • Doctors may be missing signs of serious and potentially fatal brain disorders triggered by coronavirus, as they emerge in mildly affected or recovering patients, scientists have warned. (
  • Tone-deaf people-those who can't hold a tune-appear to be missing a specific neural circuit, according to research published today in the Journal of Neuroscience . (
  • Instead of focusing on a specific brain region (such as the "right brain") being autonomous from other regions, connectomics uses advanced imaging techniques to identify and map the intricate web of white matter (communication lines) that link gray matter ( neural brain volume). (
  • This method can create three-dimensional maps that are then converted into neural connectivity diagrams of the brain. (
  • Further investigation into the workings of eye contact may reveal the specific functional roles of neural synchronization between people. (
  • After four visits to the MRI scanner, patients were able to reduce neural activity in the speech sensitive region of the brain and were able to control their brain activity without the visual feedback from the space rocket. (
  • The University of Montana neuropathologist had been studying the brains as part of her research on environmental effects on neural development, and this particular set of samples came from autopsy examinations carried out on people who had died suddenly in Mexico City, where she used to work as a researcher and physician. (
  • In other words, the brain may be trying to compensate for the injury by developing and enhancing other neural connections. (
  • Whole brain analyses revealed that higher dispositional mindfulness during painful heat was associated with greater deactivation of a brain region called the posterior cingulate cortex, a central neural node of the default mode network. (
  • As soon as you start performing a task, the connection between these two brain regions in the default mode network disengages and the brain allocates information and processes to other neural areas," he said. (
  • Topics include how people obtain, store, and recall information, neural processes essential to learning, brain development, how understanding can be maximized through best practice instruction. (
  • People who have synesthesia show an unusual structural and functional neural connectivity, although its molecular basis is unknown. (
  • The different topological embedding of these regions into the brain network could make it easier for smarter persons to differentiate between important and irrelevant information - which would be advantageous for many cognitive challenges," suggests Basten. (
  • The latter includes programs that focus on the remediation and retraining of certain cognitive functions or compensatory training that teaches a patient to adapt to the loss of specific brain functions. (
  • They all struggled with persistent cognitive difficulties after suffering a traumatic brain injury at least four months before. (
  • fNIRS is a way to measure oxygenation levels in the prefrontal cortex -- the part of the brain responsible for complex behaviors like decision making, cognitive expression and personality development. (
  • It is possible that due to their biological predispositions, some individuals develop brain networks that favor intelligent behaviors or more challenging cognitive tasks. (
  • The vast majority of neuroscientific studies contain three elements: a person, a cognitive task and a high-tech machine capable of seeing inside the brain. (
  • Even when TBIs are called "mild," they can still lead to persistent physical, psychiatric and cognitive problems that result in lasting impairments and disability, especially when people go untreated. (
  • Epidemiologists, psychologists, and neuroscientists are now working to fill in the gaps in knowledge of how air pollution might contribute to these less visible effects on human health, both by documenting the cognitive changes occurring in human populations exposed to air pollution, and by looking inside human and animal brains to try to decipher the underlying mechanisms. (
  • It's one of these 'rules of thumb' that people learn when they start doing neuroscience, that including left-handed individuals is bad," said Emma Karlsson, a postdoctoral researcher in psychology and cognitive neuroscience at Bangor University in Wales. (
  • It is a priority for CBC to create a website that is accessible to all Canadians including people with visual, hearing, motor and cognitive challenges. (
  • People who received brain stimulation during training sessions on five consecutive days learned two to five times faster than those who received sham stimulation, and they retained a 30 to 40 percent performance edge six months later. (
  • The brain stimulation had very different effects depending on whether students were voluntarily following the norm as opposed to when they were threatened with punishment. (
  • When the threat of punishment was present, brain-boosting stimulation caused students to give away more money, while brain-reducing stimulation made them give away less money. (
  • In contrast, when giving was voluntary, boosting and reducing brain stimulation had the opposite effects, making the students give away less money or more money, respectively. (
  • Deep brain stimulation uses a surgical implant similar to a pacemaker to send electrical impulses to the brain. (
  • When looking at the tests of people with stimulators when they were turned on or off and off with levodopa, the driving was more accurate with stimulation on than with levodopa, with a total of 13 errors during the test on levodopa, compared to 11 with stimulation and 14 with neither treatment. (
  • Utilizing repetitive rules, the person with brain injury related deficits can enjoy neuronal stimulation without excessive stress. (
  • The technique, called non-invasive electrical brain stimulation, involves applying an electrical current to the surface of a patient's head to stimulate brain cells, altering the patient's brain activity. (
  • According to the team, the findings, published in the journal Brain, could help to personalise the non-invasive electrical brain stimulation, targeting the treatment to patients who are most likely to gain clinical benefits. (
  • With all the current buzz around brain stimulation for altering brain activity, it's important to understand who will benefit most from this technique in the clinic. (
  • They were unable to tell whether they were receiving brain stimulation or not. (
  • They also found that brain stimulation could partially reverse some of the abnormalities in brain activity caused by TBI. (
  • The team cautions that while more work is needed to confirm the findings, it could mean brain stimulation might prove a useful treatment approach for other neurological conditions with abnormal brain activity as a feature, such as dementia. (
  • We found that people with stronger white matter connections in their brain had better improvement with stimulation,' Dr Li explained. (
  • This might be an important reason why previous studies have found that some people benefit from stimulation, whilst others don't and means we can start using brain stimulation in a more personalized way. (
  • Prior to the experiments, the amount of stimulation to deliver to each individual was carefully tested to achieve a level that person considered unpleasant but tolerable. (
  • Hillis' team at Hopkins is testing to see whether a a kind of brain stimulation that sends electrical signals through the skull can increase the effects of the standard PPA treatment of language therapy, which has patients match pictures to the correct word. (
  • Restoration of reaching and grasping movements through brain-controlled muscle stimulation in a person with tetraplegia: a proof-of-concept demonst. (
  • They will inject the brain with stem cells as well as a cocktail of peptides, and use lasers and nerve stimulation techniques that have been successful at bringing patients out of comas. (
  • These tools include electroencephalograms (EEGs) that record electrical activity in the brain and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which can transmit information into the brain. (
  • There has been a lot of interest lately in the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS), and it is not hard to see why the surgical treatment has been getting so much attention. (
  • Publishing in the European Journal of Neuroscience, Murray and the team recruited 41 male volunteers who had their brains scanned by MRI scanners and were also asked to fill out a questionnaire to find out about aspects of their personality. (
  • Among the three nfvPPA patients, PET imaging correlated with subtle differences, such as the tracer bound predominantly on the left side of the brain for the two right-handed volunteers, while the lefty had a more even distribution between the two hemispheres of the brain. (
  • Intrigued by these findings, Hilger and colleagues went further, setting out to explore how patterns of activation and integration in the brain correlate with a higher level of intelligence. (
  • The findings, detailed today (Oct. 3) in the journal Science, suggest that the rLPFC does not simply function as a switch that makes people comply with social norms. (
  • The findings may fundamentally refocus dementia research on sleep-wake centers in the brain stem. (
  • The findings support the hypothesis that reduced communications between parts of the brain result in the extreme anxiety felt by people with GAD, said lead author Jack Nitschke, Ph.D., associate professor of psychiatry. (
  • Although her findings are observational, and the pathology of proteins such as amyloid-ß is not fully understood, Calderón-Garcidueñas argues that air pollution is the most likely culprit behind the development of the abnormalities she saw in her postmortem samples-plus many other detrimental changes to the brains of Mexico City's residents. (
  • But a new paper in the peer-reviewed journal Neurobiology of Learning & Memory 's July issue offers the first scientific findings about nearly a dozen people with this uncanny ability. (
  • The findings are published today in the online edition of Brain Imaging and Behavior. (
  • Our findings suggest that white matter integrity plays a critical role in reading fluency and that defects in white matter serve as the structural basis for the type of dyslexia we see in this brain malformation," said the study's lead author Bernard S. Chang, MD, with Harvard Medical School in Boston, and member of the American Academy of Neurology. (
  • Aluminum particularly accumulates in these iron-dependent cells to toxic levels, dysregulating iron homeostasis and causing microtubule depletion, eventually producing changes that result in disconnection of neuronal afferents and efferents, loss of function and regional atrophy consistent with MRI findings in AD [Alzheimer's disease] brains. (
  • After suffering traumatic brain injuries, people often experience difficulties in their working and episodic memory, the speed by which they process information and aspects of their attention and executive functioning. (
  • The current results provide support for the use of such multimodality treatment approaches even months to years after someone has suffered traumatic brain injuries," says McDonald, who notes that further research is still needed. (
  • While patients with moderate to severe brain injuries are almost always admitted to a hospital or intensive care unit, there's less consensus about the best way to manage people with milder injuries. (
  • The Brain Basics program is intended to help front-line caregivers provide the best possible care for people living with brain injuries. (
  • The Newfoundland and Labrador Brain Injury Association is hoping to bring a new program to the province aimed at helping caregivers of people with brain injuries. (
  • The Brain Basics program was originally developed by the Ontario Brain Injury Association and is used to educate caregivers about how to improve the quality of life for people affected by brain injuries. (
  • Brain injuries need complex care. (
  • Lush says that caregivers unfamiliar with brain injuries are at a loss when it comes to finding resources on how to best provide care at home. (
  • Brain injuriesCould amino acids improve the state after brain injuries? (
  • Though one might not imagine the brain could take such abuse and survive - and the extent of recovery of 16-year-old Yasser Lopez is still to be determined - there are remarkable stories of those who survive horrendous injuries like these. (
  • The precise injuries a person sustains - to personality, vision, ability to walk, etc. - depends on which part of the brain has been damaged, not surprisingly. (
  • Most people do die from such terrible injuries. (
  • Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) from participation in sports and recreation activities have received increased public awareness, with many states and the federal government considering or implementing laws directing the response to suspected brain injury ( 1,2 ). (
  • Persons with sports and recreation--related injuries were classified as having a TBI if the primary body part injured was the head and the principal diagnosis was either concussion or internal organ injury. (
  • Few traumatic brain injuries are the same and the outcomes of two similar injuries can be different in different people. (
  • Injuries can affect the way people think, feel, behave and relate to everyday situations. (
  • Parts of the brain known as the frontal and temporal lobes are most susceptible to both of these types of injuries. (
  • In 2015, this team published an article showing that the frontal and parietal regions of the brain are more strongly activated in people with a high IQ. (
  • When someone masters a skill, the processing of information moves toward the back regions of the brain. (
  • Until recently, however, it was not possible to examine how such 'intelligence regions' in the human brain are functionally interconnected. (
  • Our brain is functionally organized in a very similar way: There are sub-networks of brain regions - modules - that are more strongly interconnected among themselves while they have weaker connections to brain regions from other modules. (
  • On the other hand, the research team also identified brain regions that are more strongly 'de-coupled' from the rest of the network in more intelligent people. (
  • We then identified brain regions that differentiated patients from controls and ranked them according to their effect sizes. (
  • Brains are the same way: Brain regions are organized into communities with lots of connections between regions in the community and fewer connections to regions outside of the community. (
  • one represented high modularity -- brains that can be divided into communities of brain regions whose members only communicate with each other. (
  • Three small regions of the hypothalamus and brain stem, all of which usually contain nerve cells that keep people awake during the day, were packed with tau, the team found. (
  • These connections went through the uncinate fasciculus - a "white matter" path that connects these brain regions. (
  • So says Ryota Kanai and his colleagues at University College London, who found larger than average volumes of grey matter in certain brain regions in those whose attention is readily diverted. (
  • For the first time, new research shows people with schizophrenia can train themselves to control brain regions linked to verbal hallucinations, using an MRI scanner and a computerised rocket game. (
  • In people with OCD, inflammation was 32 per cent higher on average in these regions. (
  • Certain regions of the brain in Rett's patients essentially remain at an infantile stage of development. (
  • somehow an unsight-ed per-son-'s brain rewires itself to con-nect audi-to-ry regions of the brain to the visu-al cor-tex. (
  • These con-nec-tions between visu-al and audi-to-ry regions of the brain become strength-ened after los-ing sight. (
  • Of the seven brain regions they studied, five-including the amygdala, which is responsible for regulating emotions-were found to be smaller in those with ADHD compared with those in a control group. (
  • In addition, they only stimulated one region of the brain, so they don't know whether the effects are specific to this region, or whether other regions can be stimulated. (
  • Studies have shown that when people with IBS are either told to expect or are actually undergoing a painful rectal stimulus, brain regions involved in pain processing and threat appraisal are much more active than they are in people without IBS. (
  • At the same time, it is suspected that brain regions involved in emotional arousal contribute to symptom hypervigilance and visceral hypersensitivity in people with IBS. (
  • Compared to healthy people, however, people with IBS showed greater activity in brain regions involved in threat appraisal, emotional arousal, and self-consciousness during the "uncued" condition versus the "cued safe" condition. (
  • These two brain regions continuously feed information back and forth. (
  • These individuals had visible disruptions in their white matter, the part of the brain that consists mostly of fiber tracts, or wiring, that connect together other brain regions. (
  • Differences in intelligence have so far mostly been attributed to differences in specific brain regions. (
  • The salience network is a collection of brain regions that determine which stimuli are deserving of our attention, while the dorsal attention network plays an important role in focus and attentiveness. (
  • It is still unclear exactly what the relationship is between the clinical manifestations of MDD and SAD and cortical thickening in brain regions like the anterior cingulate cortex, a part of the brain associated with emotion, Dr. Zhao said. (
  • As for cortical thinning, Dr. Zhao said that other research provides convincing evidence to support the theory that reduced cortical layer thickness in some brain regions may result in the decreased thickness of the frontal lobe, a large part of the brain that is involved in variety of functions, including emotion. (
  • Professional musicians, golfers or chess players, for example, have particular characteristics in the regions of the brain that they use the most for their skilled activity. (
  • These genes are also at their most active in sensory brain regions, which are developed in early childhood. (
  • During imitation, the patients had less activation than healthy individuals in brain regions involved in detecting biological movement - the special way in which living things move - and also in regions involved in transforming this visual information into a plan for movement. (
  • The network of brain regions that significantly correlated with the left precuneus seed (red) and the left hippocampal/parahippocampal seed (blue) are shown. (
  • Only 42 percent of patients reported receiving educational materials from the hospital at discharge detailing what to expect after a mild brain injury, and only 27 percent received a call from the hospital to check up on them within two weeks. (
  • He suggests that a greater volume of grey matter may indicate a less mature brain, perhaps reflecting a mild developmental malfunction. (
  • In persons with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease, volume reductions compared with healthy elderly persons are between 25 percent and 40 percent, suggesting that atrophy rates accelerate in patients with Alzheimer disease. (
  • Treating a brain injury early is the best indicator for recovery so be sure to recognize the signs of even mild injury, such as slurred speech, memory lapse, extreme fatigue, dizziness and confusion. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that more than one million Americans sustain a concussion (also known as mild traumatic brain injury, or mTBI) each year. (
  • The paper is titled "Robust Detection of Traumatic Axonal Injury in Individual Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: Intersubject Variation, Change Over Time and Bidirectional Changes in Anisotropy. (
  • How long someone loses consciousness initially and how long they're confused for (known as post-traumatic amnesia) are used to classify traumatic brain injury as mild, moderate or severe. (
  • The next step in this research is to compare the effects across disorders, to identify which brain region is the most affected in which disorder, and to determine the effects of age, medication, environment and symptom profiles across these disorders. (
  • The brains of people with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have weaker connections between a brain region in charge of emotional response and the amygdala. (
  • About one to two per cent of adolescents and adults have OCD, an anxiety disorder in which people have intrusive or worrisome thoughts that recur and can be hard to ignore. (
  • Although Rett's disorder was previously thought to result from degeneration or deterioration of brain tissue, the discovery of the Rett's gene provides evidence that the disorder may be due to a failure of normal brain development. (
  • Our research has shown that the connections between muscular strength and brain functioning also exist in people experiencing schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder - all of which can interfere with regular brain functioning. (
  • Differences were most prominent in the brains of children with ADHD and less obvious in the brains of adults with the disorder. (
  • Autism is a complex, lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that affects more than one in 100 people - so understanding these brain networks has potential to show how autism develops over time, and to identify new approaches to treatment. (
  • I have, however, spent the last 15 years doing research and applying it, both in my work and also because I have a serious brain disorder, and my brain knowledge could be a matter of life and death. (
  • People with this disorder have difficulty developing and maintaining social and romantic relationships. (
  • However, it is equally as likely that the frequent use of the brain for cognitively challenging tasks may positively influence the development of brain networks. (
  • The brain is organized into different subnetworks, or "modules," that support distinct functions for different tasks, such as speaking, memorizing and expressing emotion. (
  • While people can train themselves to be better at specific tasks, skills don't always translate to other tasks, he said. (
  • Left-handed people may not even have radically different brains for certain tasks. (
  • Highly creative people have significantly more white matter connections (shown in green) between the right and left hemispheres of the brain, according to a new analysis. (
  • Alzheimer's disease destroys command centers in the brain that keep people awake. (
  • That destruction could be part of the reason people with Alzheimer's disease often feel tired during the day, even if they slept the night before. (
  • PhD students at the BHRC are investigating a wide variety of topics, from computer modeling of synaptic plasticity in the brain, to looking for biomarkers in blood that could predict the onset of Alzheimer's disease. (
  • By the end of the project, she'd identified accumulations of the Alzheimer's disease-associated proteins amyloid-ß and hyperphosphorylated tau in almost all of the 203 brains she studied. (
  • A neurologist is a doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system such as Alzheimer's disease, stroke, migraine, multiple sclerosis, brain injury, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. (
  • If you look at a group of seniors, some will look older than their peers and some will look younger," said co-author Asa Abeliovich, professor of pathology and neurology in the Taub Institute for Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain at Columbia University Medical Center. (
  • Lemere told Alzforum that a few years ago, the idea of opening the blood-brain barrier in people with AD, who tend to have vascular problems on top of Aβ deposits, sounded risky and counterintuitive. (
  • Among brain tumour patients, those over the age of 70 are less likely than younger patients to survive a year after diagnosis, partly because they tend to have more aggressive forms of brain tumours or are frailer. (
  • Neuralink, a startup recently co-founded by Musk, has been developing "computer-brain interfaces" with the intention of "helping humans keep pace with advanced artificial intelligence. (
  • Eating energy-rich sweet foods and sex are vital for survival while social interactions are not necessarily so, but it could be that emotions like sentimentality and affection in humans evolved from structures in the brain that make animals seek out and satisfy these more basic needs. (
  • Our results raise the possibility of future brain-to-brain interfaces that enable cooperative problem-solving by humans using a 'social network' of connected brains," they say. (
  • Have functional limitations directly resulting from an acquired brain injury as documented by a physician or neurologist. (
  • As people with schizophrenia commonly have major social problems, understanding their origin, both neurobiological and behavioral, is critically important," Philip D. Harvey , professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, stated in a commentary that accompanies the paper. (
  • The gene generally starts to affect people around 65, particularly in the frontal cortex, which is responsible for higher mental processes like concentration, planning, judgment and creativity. (
  • People who have two 'bad' copies of this gene have a frontal cortex that, by various biological measures, appears 12 years older that those who have two normal copies. (
  • During the programme, athletes train intensively with head sensors which monitor the peaks and troughs of brain impulses in stressful situations. (
  • But before technologies like Google Glass become a part of daily life, engineers need a way to monitor exactly how they affect the brain in everyday situations. (
  • Ambiguous situations generally lead the brain to engage in developing predictive responses, especially in those with anxiety, which occurs commonly in people with IBS. (
  • But in those situations--where we choose to be with people who we do not want to mirror--we have to be extremely careful! (
  • However, with age high blood pressure causes the arteries to stiffen, further increasing blood pressure as well as increasing calcium and collagen deposits, which promotes atrophy, inflammation and further stiffening, decreasing blood flow to vital organs including the brain and promoting brain atrophy. (
  • Although government officials in Mexico have worked to improve air quality since the 1990s, the last couple of years have seen thick smog descend over buildings, forcing periodic school and office closures to stop people from venturing into the toxic air. (
  • Q. I try to avoid aluminum as much as possible after reading that it was toxic to the brain. (
  • Inflammation was greater in some people with OCD as compared to others, which could reflect variability in the biology of the illness. (
  • Medications developed to target brain inflammation in other disorders could be useful in treating OCD," says Dr. Meyer. (
  • Work needs to be done to uncover the specific factors that contribute to brain inflammation, but finding a way to reduce inflammation's harmful effects and increase its helpful effects could enable us to develop a new treatment much more quickly. (
  • Neurologists are on Wednesday publishing details of more than 40 UK Covid-19 patients whose complications ranged from brain inflammation and delirium to nerve damage and stroke. (
  • A dozen patients had inflammation of the central nervous system, 10 had brain disease with delirium or psychosis, eight had strokes and a further eight had peripheral nerve problems, mostly diagnosed as Guillain-Barré syndrome, an immune reaction that attacks the nerves and causes paralysis. (