Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
Failing to prevent death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy by the withdrawal or withholding of life-prolonging treatment.
Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.
Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
An assertion that an action apparently unobjectionable in itself would set in motion a train of events leading ultimately to an undesirable outcome. (From Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)

Clinical studies on diffuse axonal injury in patients with severe closed head injury. (1/137)

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the clinical criteria for diagnosing diffuse axonal injury (DAI). METHODS: Clinical and computed tomographic features of 117 patients with severe closed head injury were analyzed. The authors preliminarily put forward CT diagnostic criteria of DAI, that is, 1) single or multiple small intraparenchymal hemorrhages in the cerebral hemispheres (< 2 cm in diameter); 2) intraventricular hemorrhage; 3) hemorrhage in the corpus callosum; 4) small focal areas of hemorrhage adjacent to the third ventricle (< 2 cm in diameter); and 5) brain stem hemorrhage. All patients were divided into two groups, DAI and non-DAI group, according to the criteria. There were 42 patients in the DAI group and 75 patients in the non-DAI group. The injury causes, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores on admission, coexisting injuries and outcomes were compared between the two groups. The relationship between DAI and the outcomes in the patients with severe head injury was analyzed. RESULTS: Traffic accident was the main injury cause in the cases of DAI. GCS scores on admission in patients with DAI were significantly lower than those in patients without DAI. The incidence of diffuse brain swelling (DBS) in the DAI group was significantly higher than that in the non-DAI group, whereas the incidences of both skull fracture and epidural hematoma (EDH) in the DAI group were significantly lower than those in non-DAI group. There was no significant difference between the incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and subdural hematoma (SDH) in the two groups. The incidence of poor outcome in the DAI group was significantly higher than that in the non-DAI group, although there was no significant difference between the mortalities in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Because DAI is a very important factor worsening the outcome of patients with head injury, it is essential to make a diagnosis as soon as possible. The clinical manifestations of DAI, however, are not specific and DAI does not show directly on CT scans, so it is difficult to make a definite diagnosis. The CT diagnostic criteria of DAI put forward in this article are practicable, though they are by no means perfect.  (+info)

Fatal familial insomnia: clinical features and molecular genetics. (2/137)

Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is an autosomal dominant prion disease clinically characterized by inattention, sleep loss, dysautonomia, and motor signs and pathologically characterized by a preferential thalamic degeneration. FFI is linked to a missense mutation at codon 178 of the prion protein gene, PRNP, coupled with the presence of the codon methionine at position 129, the locus of a methionine-valine polymorphism. Homozygotes at codon 129, expressing methionine also in the nonmutated allele, have a shorter disease course (often less than 1 year), prominent sleep and autonomic disturbances at disease onset, and pathology restricted to the thalamus. Heterozygotes at codon 129, expressing valine in the nonmutated allele, have a longer disease course (often longer than 1 year), ataxia and dysarthria at disease onset, and lesions widespread to cerebral cortex. Both in the thalamus and in the cortex, the limbic structures are those most consistently and severely involved: the anterior ventral and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei, the cingulate gyrus, and the orbitofrontal cortex. FFI is thus a prion disease selectively damaging the thalamocortical limbic structures. Loss of sleep, sympathetic hyperactivity, and flattening of vegetative and hormonal circadian oscillations characterize FFI and result from a homeostatic imbalance caused by the interruption of the thalamocortical limbic circuits, the phylogenetically most advanced structures involved in the control of the sleep-wake cycle and the body's homeostasis. The selective atrophy of the limbic thalamus that characterizes FFI might be due to the binding of FFI toxic PrP or PrPres to specific receptors on thalamolimbic neurons.  (+info)

Survey of Japanese physicians' attitudes towards the care of adult patients in persistent vegetative state. (3/137)

OBJECTIVES: Ethical issues have recently been raised regarding the appropriate care of patients in persistent vegetative state (PVS) in Japan. The purpose of our study is to study the attitudes and beliefs of Japanese physicians who have experience caring for patients in PVS. DESIGN AND SETTING: A postal questionnaire was sent to all 317 representative members of the Japan Society of Apoplexy working at university hospitals or designated teaching hospitals by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The questionnaire asked subjects what they would recommend for three hypothetical vignettes that varied with respect to a PVS patient's previous wishes and the wishes of the family. RESULTS: The response rate was 65%. In the case of a PVS patient who had no previous expressed wishes and no family, 3% of the respondents would withdraw artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) when the patient did not require any other life-sustaining treatments, 4% would discontinue ANH, and 30% would withhold antibiotics when the patient developed pneumonia. Significantly more respondents (17%) would withdraw ANH in the case of a PVS patient whose previous wishes and family agreed that all life support be discontinued. Most respondents thought that a patient's written advance directives would influence their decisions. Forty per cent of the respondents would want to have ANH stopped and 31% would not want antibiotics administered if they were in PVS. CONCLUSIONS: Japanese physicians tend not to withdraw ANH from PVS patients. Patients' written advance directives, however, would affect their decisions.  (+info)

Legal and ethical aspects of the vegetative state. (4/137)

The diagnosis of persistent or permanent vegetative state (PVS) raises ethical and legal problems. Strict adherence to the doctrine of the sanctity of life would require carers to continue to maintain the individual, perhaps for many years. However, few would regard this as an appropriate outcome when the person clearly has no capacity to interact with the environment and has no likelihood of recovery. However, the ethical and legal commitment to the sanctity of life has led courts to employ a variety of approaches to this situation in order to find a way in which the person in PVS can be allowed to die. It is argued that each of the approaches is disingenuous and ultimately unhelpful. What the law is doing is endorsing non-voluntary euthanasia, but dressing it up as something else. This is unhelpful for all concerned and the time has come for a review of all end of life decisions so that doctors, patients, and relatives can make honest decisions without fear of legal reprisal.  (+info)

The neuropathology of the vegetative state after an acute brain insult. (5/137)

The vegetative state is often described clinically as loss of function of the cortex while the function of the brainstem is preserved. In an attempt to define the structural basis of the vegetative state we have undertaken a detailed neuropathological study of the brains of 49 patients who remained vegetative until death, 1 month to 8 years after an acute brain insult. Of these, 35 had sustained a blunt head injury and 14 some type of acute non-traumatic brain damage. In the traumatic cases the commonest structural abnormalities identified were grades 2 and 3 diffuse axonal injury (25 cases, 71%). The thalamus was abnormal in 28 cases (80%), and in 96% of the cases who survived for more than 3 months. Other abnormalities included ischaemic damage in the neocortex (13 cases, 37%) and intracranial haematoma (nine cases, 26%). In the non-traumatic cases there was diffuse ischaemic damage in the neocortex in nine cases (64%) and focal damage in four (29%); the thalamus was abnormal in every case. There were cases in both groups where the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum and the brainstem were of structurally normal appearance. In every case, however, there was profound damage to the subcortical white matter or to the major relay nuclei of the thalamus, or both. These lesions render any structurally intact cortex unable to function because connections between different cortical areas via the thalamic nuclei are no longer functional, and there is also extensive damage to afferent and efferent cerebral connections.  (+info)

Auditory processing in the vegetative state. (6/137)

H(2)(15)O-PET was used to investigate changes in regional cerebral blood flow in response to auditory stimulation in patients in the vegetative state. Five patients in a vegetative state of hypoxic origin were compared with 18 age-matched controls. In addition, the cerebral metabolism of these patients and 53 age-matched controls was studied using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose. In control subjects, auditory click stimuli activated bilateral auditory cortices [Brodmann areas (BA) 41 and 42] and the contralateral auditory association cortices (BA 22). In the patients, although resting metabolism was decreased to 61% of normal values, bilateral auditory areas 41 and 42 showed activation as seen in the controls, but the temporoparietal junction cortex (BA 22) failed to be activated. Moreover, the auditory association cortex was functionally disconnected from the posterior parietal association area (BA 40), the anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24) and the hippocampus, as revealed by psychophysiological interaction analysis. Thus, despite altered resting metabolism, the auditory primary cortices were still activated during external stimulation, whereas hierarchically higher-order multi- modal association areas were not. Such a cascade of functional disconnections along the auditory cortical pathways, from the primary auditory areas to multimodal and limbic areas, suggests that the residual cortical processing observed in the vegetative state cannot lead to the integrative processes that are thought to be necessary for the attainment of the normal level of awareness.  (+info)

Anaesthetic management of a pregnant patient in a persistent vegetative state. (7/137)

Pregnancy in a patient in a persistent vegetative state presents challenging therapeutic questions about the level of supportive management required, the assessment of fetal well-being, the timing and mode of delivery and the anaesthetic management of labour and delivery. We report the case of a 29-yr-old woman who had a favourable fetal outcome despite suffering hypoxic brain damage after a suicide attempt by a drug overdose. She was managed until the onset of labour on an intensive care unit and had a spontaneous vaginal delivery assisted by epidural anaesthesia.  (+info)

Late occurrence of diffuse cerebral swelling after intracerebral hemorrhage in a patient with the HELLP syndrome--Case report. (8/137)

Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome can occur at any time in the course of pregnancy and is associated with many complications including fatal stroke. A 37-year-old female presented with HELLP syndrome causing an intracerebral hematoma, which was treated by evacuation and mild hypothermia. Unexpected diffuse cerebral swelling occurred on the 15th day of the initially favorable postoperative course. Considerable impairment of consciousness persisted despite conservative therapy. Serial computed tomographic findings indicated delayed cerebral vasospasm as the cause of the swelling. Particularly careful management is required even beyond the first 2 weeks for patients with stroke as a complication of HELLP syndrome.  (+info)

Persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a medical condition characterized by a prolonged disorder of consciousness. It's not the same as a coma. In PVS, a person may open their eyes, appear to be awake and have periods of sleep and wakefulness, but they do not show signs of awareness or cognition. They do not respond to stimuli, cannot communicate, and do not have any purposeful behaviors.

This condition can occur after a severe brain injury, such as from trauma, stroke, or lack of oxygen supply. The chance of recovery from PVS is very low, and if some recovery does occur, it's usually incomplete.

It's important to note that the term "persistent vegetative state" has been replaced in some clinical settings with "unresponsive wakefulness syndrome" due to the negative connotations associated with the term "vegetative".

A coma is a deep state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be awakened, cannot respond to stimuli, and does not exhibit any sleep-wake cycles. It is typically caused by severe brain injury, illness, or toxic exposure that impairs the function of the brainstem and cerebral cortex.

In a coma, the person may appear to be asleep, but they are not aware of their surroundings or able to communicate or respond to stimuli. Comas can last for varying lengths of time, from days to weeks or even months, and some people may emerge from a coma with varying degrees of brain function and disability.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tools and assessments to evaluate the level of consciousness and brain function in individuals who are in a coma, including the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), which measures eye opening, verbal response, and motor response. Treatment for coma typically involves supportive care to maintain vital functions, manage any underlying medical conditions, and prevent further complications.

Passive euthanasia is the act of withholding or withdrawing medical treatments that are necessary to maintain life, allowing the natural dying process to occur. This can include stopping artificial nutrition and hydration, mechanical ventilation, or other forms of life-sustaining treatment. The goal of passive euthanasia is to allow a person who is suffering from a terminal illness or irreversible condition to die with dignity and in comfort, sparing them from unnecessary pain and suffering. It is important to note that the decision to engage in passive euthanasia should be made carefully, with the full involvement of the patient, their family, and medical team, and in accordance with applicable laws and ethical guidelines.

"Withholding treatment" in a medical context refers to the deliberate decision not to provide or initiate certain medical treatments, interventions, or procedures for a patient. This decision is typically made after considering various factors such as the patient's wishes, their overall prognosis, the potential benefits and burdens of the treatment, and the patient's quality of life.

The reasons for withholding treatment can vary widely, but some common reasons include:

* The treatment is unlikely to be effective in improving the patient's condition or extending their life.
* The treatment may cause unnecessary discomfort, pain, or suffering for the patient.
* The patient has expressed a desire not to receive certain treatments, particularly if they are deemed to be burdensome or of little benefit.
* The cost of the treatment is prohibitive and not covered by insurance, and the patient cannot afford to pay out-of-pocket.

It's important to note that withholding treatment does not mean abandoning the patient or providing substandard care. Rather, it involves making thoughtful and informed decisions about the most appropriate course of action for a given situation, taking into account the patient's individual needs and preferences.

Consciousness disorders, also known as altered consciousness, refer to conditions that affect a person's awareness or perception of their surroundings, themselves, or their current state. These disorders can range from mild to severe and can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, illness, or the use of certain medications.

There are several types of consciousness disorders, including:

1. Coma: A state of deep unconsciousness in which a person is unable to respond to stimuli or communicate.
2. Vegetative State: A condition in which a person may have sleep-wake cycles and some automatic responses, but lacks awareness or the ability to interact with their environment.
3. Minimally Conscious State: A condition in which a person has some degree of awareness and may be able to respond to stimuli, but is unable to communicate or consistently interact with their environment.
4. Delirium: A state of confusion and altered consciousness that can occur suddenly and fluctuate over time. It is often caused by an underlying medical condition or the use of certain medications.
5. Locked-in Syndrome: A rare condition in which a person is fully conscious but unable to move or communicate due to complete paralysis of all voluntary muscles except for those that control eye movement.

Treatment for consciousness disorders depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, therapy, or surgery. In some cases, recovery may be possible with appropriate treatment and rehabilitation. However, in other cases, the disorder may be permanent or result in long-term disability.

Consciousness is a complex and multifaceted concept that is difficult to define succinctly, but in a medical or neurological context, it generally refers to an individual's state of awareness and responsiveness to their surroundings. Consciousness involves a range of cognitive processes, including perception, thinking, memory, and attention, and it requires the integration of sensory information, language, and higher-order cognitive functions.

In medical terms, consciousness is often assessed using measures such as the Glasgow Coma Scale, which evaluates an individual's ability to open their eyes, speak, and move in response to stimuli. A coma is a state of deep unconsciousness where an individual is unable to respond to stimuli or communicate, while a vegetative state is a condition where an individual may have sleep-wake cycles and some automatic responses but lacks any meaningful awareness or cognitive function.

Disorders of consciousness can result from brain injury, trauma, infection, or other medical conditions that affect the functioning of the brainstem or cerebral cortex. The study of consciousness is a rapidly evolving field that involves researchers from various disciplines, including neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, and artificial intelligence.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "wedge argument" is not a term used in medical terminology. It is a concept from logic and rhetoric, often used in debates or arguments to drive a wedge between the opposing sides by introducing a point of disagreement within the group. This can cause one side to weaken or change their position, making it easier for the other side to argue their case.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare, please don't hesitate to ask!

After four weeks in a vegetative state (VS), the patient is classified as in a persistent vegetative state. Here the metabolism ... Although visually similar to a comatose state such as persistent vegetative state, the two should not be confused. Criteria for ... This category generally includes minimally conscious state and persistent vegetative state, but sometimes also includes the ... In a persistent vegetative state, the patient has sleep-wake cycles, but lacks awareness, is not able to communicate and only ...
... type of experience registered by people in a state of coma. Persistent vegetative state (vegetative coma), deep coma without ... some progress to a vegetative state or a minimally conscious state, and others die. Some patients who have entered a vegetative ... 11-1) to (11-2). ISBN 1-932703-01-2. "Persistent vegetative state: A medical minefield". New Scientist: 40-3. July 7, 2007. See ... The most common cause of death for a person in a vegetative state is secondary infection such as pneumonia, which can occur in ...
Multi-Society Task Force on PVS (1994-06-02). "Medical Aspects of the Persistent Vegetative State". New England Journal of ... some people with in a persistent vegetative state who have no awareness of themselves or their surroundings. Based on Singer's ... The United States Animal Welfare Act of 1966, attempted to tackle the problems of animal research; however, their effects were ... The theory of utilitarianism states that "an action is right if and only if it produces a better balance of benefits and harms ...
... persistent vegetative state (in which patients are unable to achieve a state of alertness to interact with their surroundings ... "Persistent vegetative state" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary. Schiff ND, Plum F, Rezai AR (March 2002). "Developing prosthetics ... vegetative state, or severe disability when compared to those receiving standard medical therapies. Once medically stable, ... It is unacceptable that the United States has been at war for nearly a decade and there is still no plan to treat these ...
This can lead to a persistent vegetative state. It has been shown in studies on the rat that axonal damage from a single mild ... October 2019). "Repeated mild traumatic brain injuries induce persistent changes in plasma protein and magnetic resonance ...
She was in a persistent vegetative state thereafter. After 8 years in this state without recovery, her husband decided to have ... Nancy Cruzan was a 31-year-old woman who was in a persistent vegetative state after a motor vehicle accident that caused brain ... All states within the United States adhere to the original or modified UDDA. The dead donor role states that a patient should ... was in a persistent vegetative state after experiencing two 15-minute apneic periods secondary to drug use. After a year ...
Level 5 is comatose or persistent vegetative state. Level 6 is brain dead or death from other causes. Advance healthcare ... 2018 guidelines on disorders of consciousness say it is no longer appropriate to use the term "permanent vegetative state." ... Geographically, there is wide variation state-to-state in survival after CPR in US hospitals, from 40% in Wyoming to 20% in New ... including 23 state-wide registries, and individual communities in 18 other states as of 2019. CARES data show that in health ...
It differs from persistent vegetative state, in which the person is alive and some autonomic functions remain. It is also ... Multi-Society Task Force on PVS (May 1994). "Medical aspects of the persistent vegetative state (1)". N. Engl. J. Med. 330 (21 ... Medicine portal Brainstem death Clinical death Consciousness after death Death Persistent vegetative state Information- ... 2012 State Comparisons "State and Federal Law on Organ Procurement". Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Unless the ...
Terri Schiavo, 41, American persistent vegetative state patient. Surender Singh, 58, Indian politician. Fox, Margalit (March 3 ... Yeiki Kobashigawa, 87, United States Army soldier and recipient of the Medal of Honor. Charles Palmer, 85, English cricketer. ... head of state). Dame Moura Lympany, 89, British classical pianist. Yesmore Mutero, 25, Zimbabwean footballer (women's national ...
Rarely, individuals may remain in a persistent vegetative state. The most common long-term complication of viral encephalitis ...
Jahi McMath, 17, American persistent vegetative state patient, liver failure. Nandagopal, 84, Indian film journalist, editor ... Jamsheed Marker, 95, Pakistani diplomat, Ambassador to the United States (1986-1989). Elsa Massa, 93, Argentine human rights ... Innocent Umezulike, 64, Nigerian jurist, chief judge of Enugu State. Jennifer Welles, 81, American pornographic actress (Inside ... Pandel Savic, 92, Macedonian-born American football player (Ohio State Buckeyes), complications from Alzheimer's disease. ...
Persistent Vegetative State: What's the Legal Difference?". Findlaw. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2004-12-15 ... Brain death is a different condition than persistent vegetative state. Due to better seat belt use, bicycle helmets, and the ... The Uniform Determination of Death Act (UDDA) is a model state law that was approved for the United States in 1981 by the ... The act has since been adopted by most US states and is intended "to provide a comprehensive and medically sound basis for ...
... persistent vegetative state and coma. Patients in a persistent vegetative state "are alive but also have severely impaired ... Young, B; Blume W; Lynch A. (November 1989). "Brain death and the persistent vegetative state: similarities and contrasts". The ... or recovery or even a persistent vegetative state. Several laws have bearing in situations that involve maternal somatic ... There is also question about the intervening capacity of state authority in such cases, particularly in states like Texas, ...
Both sides are teachers and learners." Lia Lee lived in a persistent vegetative state for 26 years. She died in Sacramento, ... because she had lived in a persistent vegetative state for such a long period of time. As of 2012 most individuals who go into ... She stated "Were I citing the source of each detail, Quincy's name would attach itself to nearly every sentence in the pages on ... Outside of the State of California Lia Lee's death was not widely reported. Fadiman said that pneumonia was the immediate cause ...
... the father beat his son into a persistent vegetative state. The Supreme Court ruled that despite involvement by state social ... In United States constitutional law, a state actor is a person who is acting on behalf of a governmental body, and is therefore ... Though the term would seem to include only persons who are directly employed by the state, the United States Supreme Court has ... But in a handful of states, notably California, state constitutional protections and certain common law rights have been ...
He was then in a persistent vegetative state, albeit often awake. He had been subjected to repeated blows to the back of his ... As of April 2017, Colón had remained in a persistent vegetative state. In 2017, the parents of Prichard Colón filed a lawsuit ... who after a bout in 2015 was left in a persistent vegetative state (Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), CS1 Spanish- ... She also stated that he was learning how to communicate through a computer. In 2023, his family, particularly his mother Nieves ...
The most severe cases result in coma or even persistent vegetative state. Symptoms observed in children include changes in ... The number of new cases is 1.7 million in the United States each year, with about 3% of these incidents leading to death. ... Children with neurologic deficits who improve daily are more likely to recover, while those who are vegetative for months are ... According to the United States CDC, 32% of traumatic brain injuries (another, more specific, term for head injuries) are caused ...
Persistent Vegetative State,' Dies at 86". The New York Times. Badal Rahman, director of the first Bangladeshi children's film ... "persistent vegetative state", primary progressive aphasia. Badal Rahman, 61, Bangladeshi film director and political activist. ... Hannah Atkins, 86, American politician, Secretary of State of Oklahoma (1987-1991) and State Representative (1969-1981), cancer ... "Head of State regrets death of adm. Rosa Coutinho". Angola Press. "Former A Current Affair host Michael Schildberger dies, aged ...
The most severe cases result in coma or even persistent vegetative state. Even a mild incident can have long-term effects or ... Symptoms observed in children include changes in eating habits, persistent irritability or sadness, changes in attention, or ...
Persistent vegetative state is a condition in which awake patients are unconscious and unaware of their surroundings and the ... "Coma" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary "Persistent vegetative state" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary. Giacino JT (2005). " ... to be in a persistent vegetative state but are capable of demonstrating the ability to actively process information. Locked-in ... A vegetative state can result from diffuse injury to the cerebral hemispheres of the brain without damage to the lower brain ...
This damage may range from moderate disability to a persistent vegetative state. A 2012 review suggests that while survival ...
He also acknowledged that McLeod was still in a persistent vegetative state. Funchess was formally sentenced to death for ... Initially, they stated that they were looking to question eight former Avondale Liquor Store employees for their potential ... In 1967, he enlisted in the United States Marine Corps; that summer, he and his unit, the 3rd Marine Division, were sent to ... Funchess's execution made him the first Vietnam War veteran diagnosed with PTSD to be executed by a U.S. state. Funchess was ...
Pearse concludes that Terri Schiavo is in a persistent vegetative state with no possibility of improvement and that Michael ... Cranford,Greer, and Bambakidis testify that Terri was in a persistent vegetative state. Dr. Maxfield and Dr. Hammesfahr testify ... Victor Gambone, Terri Schiavo's primary care physician, concludes that she is in an irreversible persistent vegetative state ( ... Michael accepts the diagnosis that Terri is in an irreversible persistent vegetative state. In consultation with Terri's ...
Jennett B, Plum F (1972). "Persistent vegetative state after brain damage: A syndrome in search of a name". The Lancet. 1 (7753 ... In 1972 working with Dr Plum of America, Jennett published The Persistent Vegetative State - defining a condition and coining a ... in 1972, Jennett and the neurologist Fred Plum coined the term vegetative state. Jennett was born and raised in Twickenham to ... His continuing work included a 2002 monograph, The Vegetative State, and his final publication appeared in the British Journal ...
A minimally conscious state or MCS is a disorder of consciousness distinct from persistent vegetative state and locked-in ... as in the case with Terri Schiavo who was diagnosed with persistent vegetative state. In the case of minimally conscious state ... Unlike persistent vegetative state, patients with MCS have partial preservation of conscious awareness. MCS is a relatively new ... The "Medical Aspects of the Persistent Vegetative State" was published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) in 1994. In ...
American (1995). "Practice Parameters: Assessment and Management of Patients in the Persistent Vegetative State: Summary ... In the United States, all states recognize some form of living wills or the designation of a health care proxy. The term living ... As many as 30,000 persons are kept alive in comatose and permanently vegetative states. Cost burdens to individuals and ... In the United States, although 25 states have now passed legislation in the past decade establishing authority for PADs, there ...
Karp's and Vincent Gambone's diagnosis of Persistent Vegetative State that Schiavo was legally in a persistent vegetative state ... Quinlan entered a persistent vegetative state in 1975, and her family was allowed to remove her from a ventilator in 1976 after ... They argued that persistent vegetative state is frequently misdiagnosed, and that the reasons for withdrawal of life support ... In this decision, the court found that Terri Schiavo was in a persistent vegetative state and that she had made reliable oral ...
Her brain was damaged to the extent that she entered a persistent vegetative state. Her eyes were "disconjugate" (they no ... Quinlan continued in a persistent vegetative state for slightly more than nine years, until her death from respiratory failure ... followed by a persistent vegetative state. After doctors refused the request of her parents (Joseph and Julia Quinlan) to ... The Role of the Thalamus in the Persistent Vegetative State". The New England Journal of Medicine. 330 (21): 1469-1475. doi: ...
Mr Bland was in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) after being crushed at Hillsborough. His parents successfully applied to ...
In Bland, a person in a persistent vegetative state was considered to be alive; accordingly, anything less than brain stem ... which took on a meaning only of the required mental state for murder, since malice aforethought required neither malice ( ...
... a state from which the person does not recover; - ; - Moreover, Persistent vegetative state is a state in . . . ... Persistent vegetative state refers to a state in which a persons brain stem is the only part of the brain that is functioning ... Persistent vegetative state Persistent vegetative state refers to a state in which a person"s brain stem is the only part of ... Moreover, Persistent vegetative state is a state in which a persons brainstem functions to continue to maintain heartbeat and ...
What is a Persistent Vegetative State?. Home / Faq / What is a Persistent Vegetative State? ... What is a Persistent Vegetative State?2020-03-192020-03-19http://www.mcmh.us/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/mcmh-logo-2.pngMCMHhttp ...
Recovery From Persistent Vegetative State?: The Case of Carrie Coons  Steinbock, Bonnie (1989) ... Persistent Vegetative State -- How Long Until Recovery Is Impossible?. Creator. Ayd, Frank J. ... How reliable is a diagnosis of irreversible unconsciousness? In a unique case in New York, a state Supreme Court judge vacated ...
... distinction between Persistent Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome and Minimally Conscious State ... distinction between Persistent Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome and Minimally Conscious State ...
Results of search for su:{Persistent Vegetative State} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ...
After four weeks in a vegetative state (VS), the patient is classified as in a persistent vegetative state. Here the metabolism ... Although visually similar to a comatose state such as persistent vegetative state, the two should not be confused. Criteria for ... This category generally includes minimally conscious state and persistent vegetative state, but sometimes also includes the ... In a persistent vegetative state, the patient has sleep-wake cycles, but lacks awareness, is not able to communicate and only ...
Persistent Vegetative State see Coma * Personal Health Records * Personality Disorders * Perspiration see Sweat ... A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States. ...
765.404 Persistent vegetative state.-For persons in a persistent vegetative state, as determined by the persons primary ...
Persistent Vegetative State / drug therapy * Persistent Vegetative State / etiology * Recovery of Function ... the treatment effect was similar for patients in a vegetative state and those in a minimally conscious state. The rate of ... Methods: We enrolled 184 patients who were in a vegetative or minimally conscious state 4 to 16 weeks after traumatic brain ...
31, 2013 A patient in a seemingly vegetative state, unable to move or speak, showed signs of attentive awareness that had not ... Doctors communicate with vegetative state patient. 02/10/10. 4. Sleeping pill wakes persistent vegetative state patients!. 12/ ... United States. 11/02/2013 09:24 AM. Report Abusive Post. Report Copyright Violation. Re: Patient in Vegetative State Not Just ... United States. 11/01/2013 07:29 PM. Report Abusive Post. Report Copyright Violation. Re: Patient in Vegetative State Not Just ...
News of a woman in a vegetative state for more than a decade giving birth to a boy on December 29 has stirred emotions ... If a coma continues, it is considered a "persistent vegetative state ." By contrast, a brain-dead patient is unconscious, has ... "In a persistent vegetative state, your organs still work, and your fertility is still there," she said. ... News of a woman in a vegetative state for more than a decade giving birth to a boy on December 29 has stirred emotions ...
Childs, N. L., Mercer, W. N. & Childs, H. W. Accuracy of diagnosis of persistent vegetative state. Neurology 43, 1465-1465 ( ... Residual auditory function in persistent vegetative state: a combined pet and fmri study. Neuropsychol. Rehabil. 15, 290-306 ( ... Clinical Characteristics of Patients in the Persistent Vegetative State. Arch. Intern. Med. 151, 930-932 (1991). ... and unresponsive wakefulness state (UWS, formerly vegetative state, or VS) patients in a similar auditory search paradigm ...
By convention, after one month, the vegetative state is described as the persistent vegetative state (PVS). Dr. Roberts ... clarifying the distinction between persistent vegetative state and permanent vegetative state was important. ... Persistent Vegetative State. Six weeks after Matts accident, he was breathing through the tracheostomy without the support of ... to vegetative state, to minimally conscious state, to consciousness, with varying degrees of motor, cognitive, and affective ...
Worst case, they remain in a persistent vegetative state. Terry Schiavo was an example of this. Such a person may move their ... Coma is a state of unconsciousness, according to the Mayo Clinic. Generally speaking, a coma doesnt last more than a few weeks ... However, these definitions vary legally from one state to the next. Even so, no one has ever been declared brain dead and ... Here, the family insisted she be taken off life support, while the hospital refused, citing a Texas law that states such ...
MCS stands for minimally conscious state, and PVS stands for persistent vegetative state. (Florian Mormann via Scholarpedia) ... A person in a persistent vegetative state, however, might have reflexes or automatic movements - such as opening their eyes ... This could transform our obligations to people in vegetative states. If there is indeed a subclass of patients in vegetative ... In 2006, some of them went on to publish a study in Science of one 23-year-old patient in a vegetative state who seemed to show ...
Persistent vegetative state and minimally conscious state: ethical, legal and practical dilemmas. Lindy Willmott et al., ... The best interests of persistently vegetative patients: to die rather that to live? ... The best interests of persistently vegetative patients: to die rather that to live? ... The best interests of persistently vegetative patients: to die rather that to live? ...
What is the harm of letting Terri Schiavos parents care for her? If she is in a persistent vegetative state, it would be ... She is in a persistent vegetative state, with no concept of anything, since that aspect of her brain has been destroyed and ... 1, is she in a persistent vegetative state now? Exams from different doctors have come to different conclusions. At this point ... suggest that there is a slight difference between fifteen years of nonresponsive existence in a persistent vegetative state and ...
persistent vegetative state 780.03. *. transient 780.02. *Transient - see also condition*. alteration of awareness 780.02 ...
Because liberalism is a persistent vegetative state. « Smith & Wesson SD40 Home Defense Kit Review , Main , Socialistic Energy- ... Unless we re actually dead--or at least in some sort of post-life state--and experiencing a group delusion of living, the world ... Where things went wrong---you knew that was coming, didn t you? was when someone from the state utility, the Long Island Power ... Think this sounds petty? Presidents of the United States have protocol people to ensure that this sort of thing doesn t happen ...
When a cotton swab slips into her mouth, she grimaces." See? She wasnt in a persistent vegetative state. Shes listening. Like ... that states "The United States should not make an open-ended commitment to keep large numbers of American troops deployed in ... Or maybe we could go with something a bit more complex: the people of the state dont like to be bullied. And they dont like ... Dry Saddams organs and grind them into a powder and pour it into the water supply of the United States so we can each consume ...
Because liberalism is a persistent vegetative state. « Oops, He Did It Again , Main , Obama vs. Palin: Whod You Rather... » ... Also, most Jewish-Americans are liberals and progressives and are pretty thin on the ground in the red states, so spare me your ...
Woman with no hope of recovery has been in a persistent vegetative state for 10 years ... Judge to rule later on mothers bid to let daughter in vegetative state to die. ... Brussels attacker had sympathies for Islamic State. Moroccan man (36) detonated case with nails and gas bottles at Central ...
He argues the wording reflects reality ("persistent vegetative state") but not the case "as seen in the media." I tend to think ... On the one hand, they would support her continued existence in a "vegetative" state. But on the other, they would oppose stem- ... State governments mainly multiply the federal bureaucracy X 50. And if state laws have created a crazy system for making life- ... The forums for matters such as the Schiavo case are state courts, upholding state laws. Conservatives, especially religious ...
Rather, she was said by doctors to be in a persistent vegetative state (PVS); all she needed to survive was a feeding tube and ... Although the precise definition of brain death varies among states, and its application to individual cases is inconsistent, ...
In the United States, the incidence of closed head injury is estimated to be approximately 200 cases per 100,000 persons per ... Those who survive are often left with severe neurologic deficits that may include a persistent vegetative state. A great ... die or remain in a persistent vegetative state, as compared to 15% of those who regain pupillary function. [21] ... In the United States, closed head injury, or TBI, has an annual incidence of approximately 500 in 100,000. Around 80% of all ...
In the window between the persistent and permanent vegetative states, patients can progress to the minimally conscious state ( ... As the pathologists who performed the autopsy stated clearly, the diagnosis of a persistent vegetative state is clinical, i.e ... It seems likely that he migrated from the persistent vegetative state into the minimally conscious state before it became ... N.L. Childs, W.N. Mercer, and H.W. Childs, "Accuracy of Diagnosis of Persistent Vegetative State," Neurology, Vol. 43, No. 8 ( ...
Persistent Vegetative State (37) * Peru (1) * Peter MacKay (10) * Peter Saunders (82) ... Margaret Dore is an attorney in Washington State where assisted suicide is legal. She is President of Choice is an Illusion, a ... In the United States, elder abuse is a huge problem.[9] Oregons report also lists "concerns" as to why the people who ingested ...
Some experts say she is in a persistent vegetative state; others say she is not. Her husband wants to remove her feeding tube ... In a statement provided in March 2004, Pope John Paul II urges us to see every patient in a so-called vegetative state as a ...
Persistent Vegetative State (37) * Peru (1) * Peter MacKay (10) * Peter Saunders (82) ... The media report stated:. This is more than double the total figure of 17 in 2014 as a whole, the clinics first half figures ... In July 2014, Theo Boer, an ethicist and a nine year member of a Netherlands euthanasia regional review committee stated that: ...
  • This category generally includes minimally conscious state and persistent vegetative state, but sometimes also includes the less severe locked-in syndrome and more severe but rare chronic coma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a minimally conscious state, the patient has intermittent periods of awareness and wakefulness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The criteria for minimally conscious state, that patients are not in a vegetative state but are not able to communicate consistently. (wikipedia.org)
  • We enrolled 184 patients who were in a vegetative or minimally conscious state 4 to 16 weeks after traumatic brain injury and who were receiving inpatient rehabilitation. (nih.gov)
  • In a prespecified subgroup analysis, the treatment effect was similar for patients in a vegetative state and those in a minimally conscious state. (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that some patients in a vegetative or minimally conscious state might in fact be able to direct attention to the sounds in the world around them. (godlikeproductions.com)
  • MCS stands for minimally conscious state, and PVS stands for persistent vegetative state. (vox.com)
  • Didion wrote: "According to Dr. Joseph Fins, chief of the medical ethics division at New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center, one study suggested that as many as 30 percent of vegetative patients studied were in fact minimally conscious. (nybooks.com)
  • In point of fact, Ms. Didion took this statement out of context from a New York Times article describing research done by colleagues on the minimally conscious state (MCS). (nybooks.com)
  • The reasons for potential misdiagnoses of the minimally conscious state are multifactorial. (nybooks.com)
  • In the window between the persistent and permanent vegetative states, patients can progress to the minimally conscious state (MCS). (nybooks.com)
  • A minimally conscious state, unlike a vegetative state, is characterized by some evidence of awareness of self and/or the environment, and patients tend to improve. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, a diagnosis of persistent vegetative state does not imply permanent disability because in very rare cases (eg, after traumatic brain injury), patients can improve, reaching a minimally conscious state or a higher level of consciousness. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In the minimally conscious state, unlike the vegetative state, there is evidence that patients are aware of themselves and/or their environment. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Patients can transition between the vegetative state and minimally conscious state, sometimes for years after the original brain damage. (msdmanuals.com)
  • citation needed] Patients in such a dramatically altered state of consciousness present unique problems for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • People in a coma or vegetative state are at risk for additional medical problems. (injuryverdicts.com)
  • People who suffer brain injuries or are victims of a coma or vegetative state lose both the quality of life that they are used to and their financial security. (lintonhirshman.com)
  • In cases involving a brain injury, coma or vegetative state, people may be entitled to significant compensation for lost wages, medical expenses, pain and suffering or long-term care needs. (lintonhirshman.com)
  • persistent tients for whom the prognosis is hopeless vegetative states) or death. (who.int)
  • Prognosis for patients with persistent deficits is typically bleak. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Persistent vegetative state refers to a state in which a person"s brain stem is the only part of the brain that is functioning, a state from which the person does not recover. (psychology-lexicon.com)
  • When a family member has suffered a traumatic brain injury or your loved one is injured to the point of a persistent vegetative state, we will investigate your case to determine if it was caused by medical malpractice or another's negligence. (lintonhirshman.com)
  • This diagnosis can be further classified as a permanent vegetative state (PVS) after approximately 1 year of being in a vegetative state after traumatic brain injury Like coma, chronic coma results mostly from cortical or white-matter damage after neuronal or axonal injury, or from focal brainstem lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now appreciated that a persistent vegetative state becomes permanent three months after anoxic injury (from oxygen deprivation) and a year following traumatic injury. (nybooks.com)
  • In the United States, closed head injury, or traumatic brain injury (TBI), has an annual incidence of approximately 500 in 100,000. (medscape.com)
  • In our study, 10.4% of the diatric hospital admissions per year in the patients with traumatic coma were in the United States of America [14] and it is the infant age group compared to 27.9% with leading cause of death in children older than non-traumatic coma. (who.int)
  • The diagnosis of the vegetative state should be questioned when there is any degree of sustained and reproducible visual pursuit or fixation or response to threatening gestures. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a society we should respect differences of opinion about life in a permanent vegetative state while not allowing these moral valuations to undermine an accurate diagnosis. (nybooks.com)
  • Moreover, Persistent vegetative state is a state in which a person's brainstem functions to continue to maintain heartbeat and respiration even when there is no cortical functioning. (psychology-lexicon.com)
  • Those who survive are often left with severe neurologic deficits that may include a persistent vegetative state. (medscape.com)
  • [ 7 , 9 ] Patients with severe head injury have a 30-50% mortality rate, and those who survive are often left with severe neurological deficits that may include a persistent vegetative state. (medscape.com)
  • Further improvement towards full conscious recovery is more likely in this state than in the vegetative state, but still some patients remain in the MCS constantly. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this ability can be developed consistently in certain patients who are vegetative, it could open the door to specialised devices in the future and enable them to interact with the outside world. (godlikeproductions.com)
  • They found that one of the vegetative patients was able to filter out unimportant information and home in on relevant words they were being asked to pay attention to. (godlikeproductions.com)
  • Dr Srivas Chennu at the University of Cambridge, said: 'Not only did we find the patient had the ability to pay attention, we also found independent evidence of their ability to follow commands -- information which could enable the development of future technology to help patients in a vegetative state communicate with the outside world. (godlikeproductions.com)
  • Sleeping pill wakes persistent vegetative state patients! (godlikeproductions.com)
  • One in five vegetative patients might be conscious. (vox.com)
  • And it would be a huge deal if patients in vegetative states could communicate, even if only through their brainwaves. (vox.com)
  • And recent research seems to be suggesting that there may be a subset of vegetative patients who actually are consciously aware within their own minds - even though they show no outward signs of it. (vox.com)
  • Essentially, up until kind of the late 1990s, the general consensus was that patients in a vegetative state were completely unaware of themselves and their environments," says Cruse. (vox.com)
  • The best interests of persistently vegetative patients: to die rather that to live? (bmj.com)
  • Patients in a vegetative state show no evidence of awareness of self or environment and cannot interact with other people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This produces more than 90,000 newly disabled patients annually, including 2500 who are in a persistent vegetative state. (medscape.com)
  • In a persistent vegetative state, the patient has sleep-wake cycles, but lacks awareness, is not able to communicate and only displays reflexive and non-purposeful behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oct. 31, 2013 A patient in a seemingly vegetative state, unable to move or speak, showed signs of attentive awareness that had not been detected before, a new study reveals. (godlikeproductions.com)
  • In 2006, some of them went on to publish a study in Science of one 23-year-old patient in a vegetative state who seemed to show some conscious awareness on fMRI brain scans. (vox.com)
  • A vegetative state is absence of responsiveness and awareness due to overwhelming dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres, with sufficient sparing of the diencephalon and brain stem to preserve autonomic and motor reflexes and sleep-wake cycles. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A syndrome characterized by a silent and inert state without voluntary motor activity despite preserved sensorimotor pathways and vigilance. (bvsalud.org)
  • The injuries put her in a persistent vegetative state until she died as a result in 2018. (oxygen.com)
  • He remained in a persistent vegetative state (i.e., dependent and no meaningful responsiveness) on discharge from the reporting acute-care facility 24 days after he was injured. (cdc.gov)
  • The Globe and Mail reported that doctors originally diagnosed Rasouli as being in a persistent vegetative state, never able to regain a degree of consciousness again. (thecourt.ca)
  • Controls were victims with bad outcomes (death or severe neurologic sequelae or persistent vegetative state). (bvsalud.org)
  • This state may be the first indication of brain damage or may follow a vegetative state as people recover some function. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The financial burden of head injuries in the United States is estimated to be $75-100 billion annually. (medscape.com)
  • A person in a coma is alive but essentially is in a prolonged state of sleep and unaware of their surroundings. (injuryverdicts.com)
  • This was not the case for Ms. Schiavo, who was sufficiently evaluated by neurologists for the Florida Supreme Court to rule that there was clear and convincing evidence that she was in a persistent or permanent vegetative state. (nybooks.com)
  • After four weeks in a vegetative state (VS), the patient is classified as in a persistent vegetative state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, the family insisted she be taken off life support, while the hospital refused, citing a Texas law that states such support cannot be withdrawn from a pregnant patient. (bigthink.com)
  • In a statement provided in March 2004, Pope John Paul II urges us to see every patient in a so-called 'vegetative' state as a fellow human being, retaining his or her full dignity despite diminished abilities. (splendoroftruth.com)
  • Some coma victims improve, but only to the point of a persistent vegetative state. (injuryverdicts.com)
  • Victims in a vegetative state may be able to live in a facility or even at home. (injuryverdicts.com)
  • The Vatican's Declaration on Euthanasia states, "By euthanasia is understood an action or an omission which of itself or by intention causes death, in order that all suffering may in this way be eliminated" [¶II]. (hli.org)
  • Examples of this type of euthanasia are the many infanticides committed each year in the United States by withholding food and water from handicapped newborn babies who would otherwise have lived. (hli.org)
  • Another example of passive euthanasia is the withholding of food and water from a person in a so-called "persistent vegetative state," or from someone whose health is not improving rapidly enough in the opinions of the attending health care workers. (hli.org)
  • A living will states your preferences for care when you have a terminal condition or are permanently unconscious. (spartanburgregional.com)
  • Note: In South Carolina, permanently unconscious means that you are in a "persistent vegetative state. (spartanburgregional.com)
  • Over the past few decades, scientists have used brain-imaging techniques to figure out that some people in vegetative states really do seem to retain consciousness - they just can't communicate with the outside world. (vox.com)
  • It's possible - though not at all certain - that some people in vegetative states might benefit from new treatments that could improve their conditions or increase the chances that they wake up. (vox.com)
  • 7] They said the Constitution gives competent people this right in the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. (rio-negocios.com)
  • The vegetative state is a chronic condition that preserves the ability to maintain blood pressure (BP), respiration, and cardiac function, but not cognitive function. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Three years after sustaining major injuries from this incident, Nancy was still in a rehabilitation hospital operated by the State of Missouri. (rio-negocios.com)
  • Rodeos are popular sporting events in the southern and western United States, and bull riders sustain 37% of all rodeo-related injuries -- more than participants in any other rodeo event (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • A person in a persistent vegetative state, however, might have reflexes or automatic movements - such as opening their eyes from a loud noise - yet appear to be completely unaware of themselves and their environments. (vox.com)
  • This state reflects an intact brainstem and allied structures but severely damaged white and gray matter in both cerebral hemispheres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerebral concussion is defined as an altered mental state that may or may not include loss of consciousness that occurs as a result of head trauma. (medscape.com)
  • METHODS: The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System contains detailed crash and injury data in a sample of major crashes in the United States. (bvsalud.org)
  • Worst case, they remain in a persistent vegetative state. (bigthink.com)
  • A person in a vegetative state has some low-brain functions such as being able to breathe on their own and sleep. (injuryverdicts.com)
  • The study showed that the area of the brain that turns on when a normal person sees a familiar face also lit up on a PET scan for a 26-year-old woman who had been diagnosed as in a vegetative state. (vox.com)
  • News of a woman in a vegetative state for more than a decade giving birth to a boy on December 29 has stirred emotions nationwide. (newschannel5.com)
  • Nancy Beth Cruzan, de ŝiaj gepatroj kaj ko-gardantoj, Cruzan et ŭ.v. Nancy Cruzan was a woman who was in a persistent vegetative state. (rio-negocios.com)
  • 22 Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Idaho: 23 SECTION 1. (idaho.gov)
  • Unable to win what they wanted in the state legislatures, the liberals turned to the Supreme Court to make an end-run around the democratic process. (cross-currents.com)
  • 2] They believed Nancy would not have wanted to live in a persistent vegetative state. (rio-negocios.com)
  • 5] The court said Nancy's conversation with her friend showed that she would not want to live in a persistent vegetative state. (rio-negocios.com)
  • The Uniform Determination of Death Act states that the cessation of respiratory or heart functions, or of brain functioning inside the brain stem constitute brain death. (bigthink.com)
  • 8] She had been in a persistent vegetative state for eight years. (rio-negocios.com)
  • The three-year-old suffered brain damage and is in a persistent vegetative state. (ynetnews.com)
  • In the United States, the incidence of closed head injury is estimated to be approximately 200 cases per 100,000 persons per year. (medscape.com)
  • In both cases, comas and vegetative states, around-the-clock care is required. (injuryverdicts.com)
  • What makes it even more controversial is a recent development that questions whether Rasouli is really in a persistent vegetative state. (thecourt.ca)
  • Persistent Vegetative State -- How Long Until Recovery Is Impossible? (georgetown.edu)
  • Recovery From Persistent Vegetative State? (georgetown.edu)
  • In a persistent vegetative state, your organs still work, and your fertility is still there," she said. (newschannel5.com)
  • This won't necessarily work for everyone who's in a vegetative state. (vox.com)