Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf War with Iraq in 1991. The symptoms reported include fatigue, skin rash, muscle and joint pain, headaches, loss of memory, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and extreme sensitivity to commonly occurring chemicals. (Nature 1994 May 5;369(6475):8)
United Nations' action to intervene in conflict between the nation of Kuwait and occupying Iraqi forces, occurring from 1990 through 1991.
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kuwait" is not a medical term that has a definition in the field of medicine. Kuwait is actually a country located in the Middle East, known officially as the State of Kuwait. It might be that you have confused it with a medical condition or term, if so, I would be happy to help clarify or provide information on that topic instead.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iraq" is a country located in the Middle East and it doesn't have a medical definition. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I'd be happy to try to help answer them!
I am not aware of any established medical definition for "Iran" as it is primarily used to refer to a country located in the Middle East, known officially as the Islamic Republic of Iran. If you are looking for information on healthcare or medical conditions within Iran, I would be happy to help with that!
Disorders claimed as a result of military service.
An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)
A characteristic symptom complex.
Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.
A body of water located at the southeastern corner of North America. It is bordered by the states to the north of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas; by five Mexican states to the west: Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan; and by Cuba to the southeast.
A cholinesterase inhibitor with a slightly longer duration of action than NEOSTIGMINE. It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the actions of muscle relaxants.
Former members of the armed services.
Traditional Arabic methods used in medicine in the ARAB WORLD.
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Study of stamps or postal markings. It usually refers to the design and commemorative aspects of the stamp.
The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.
An order of insects comprising the sucking lice, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites of mammals. Recognized families include: Echinphthiriidae, Haematopinidae, and Pediculidae. The latter contains the medically important genera affecting humans: PEDICULUS and PHTHIRUS.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Conversion from one language to another language.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)

Health status of Persian Gulf War veterans: self-reported symptoms, environmental exposures and the effect of stress. (1/102)

BACKGROUND: Most US troops returned home from the Persian Gulf War (PGW) by Spring 1991 and many began reporting increased health symptoms and medical problems soon after. This investigation examines the relationships between several Gulf-service environmental exposures and health symptom reporting, and the role of traumatic psychological stress on the exposure-health symptom relationships. METHODS: Stratified, random samples of two cohorts of PGW veterans, from the New England area (n = 220) and from the New Orleans area (n = 71), were selected from larger cohorts being followed longitudinally since arrival home from the Gulf. A group of PGW-era veterans deployed to Germany (n = 50) served as a comparison group. The study protocol included questionnaires, a neuropsychological test battery, an environmental interview, and psychological diagnostic interviews. This report focuses on self-reported health symptoms and exposures of participants who completed a 52-item health symptom checklist and a checklist of environmental exposures. RESULTS: The prevalence of reported symptoms was greater in both Persian Gulf-deployed cohorts compared to the Germany cohort. Analyses of the body-system symptom scores (BSS), weighted to account for sampling design, and adjusted by age, sex, and education, indicated that Persian Gulf-deployed veterans were more likely to report neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cardiac, dermatological, musculoskeletal, psychological and neuropsychological system symptoms than Germany veterans. Using a priori hypotheses about the toxicant effects of exposure to specific toxicants, the relationships between self-reported exposures and body-system symptom groupings were examined through multiple regression analyses, controlling for war-zone exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-reported exposures to pesticides, debris from Scuds, chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents, and smoke from tent heaters each were significantly related to increased reporting of specific predicted BSS groupings. CONCLUSIONS: Veterans deployed to the Persian Gulf have higher self-reported prevalence of health symptoms compared to PGW veterans who were deployed only as far as Germany. Several Gulf-service environmental exposures are associated with increased health symptom reporting involving predicted body-systems, after adjusting for war-zone stressor exposures and PTSD.  (+info)

Human herpesviruses in chronic fatigue syndrome. (2/102)

We have conducted a double-blind study to assess the possible involvement of the human herpesviruses (HHVs) HHV6, HHV7, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients compared to age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. The CFS patient population was composed of rigorously screened civilian and Persian Gulf War veterans meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's CFS case definition criteria. Healthy control civilian and veteran populations had no evidence of CFS or any other exclusionary medical or psychiatric condition. Patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by PCR for the presence of these HHVs. Using two-tailed Fisher's exact test analyses, we were unable to ascertain any statistically significant differences between the CFS patient and control populations in terms of the detection of one or more of these viruses. This observation was upheld when the CFS populations were further stratified with regard to the presence or absence of major axis I psychopathology and patient self-reported gradual versus acute onset of disease. In tandem, we performed serological analyses of serum anti-EBV and anti-HHV6 antibody titers and found no significant differences between the CFS and control patients.  (+info)

RNAs in the sera of Persian Gulf War veterans have segments homologous to chromosome 22q11.2. (3/102)

Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was used for polyribonucleotide assays with sera from deployed Persian Gulf War veterans with the Gulf War Syndrome and a cohort of nonmilitary controls. Sera from veterans contained polyribonucleotides (amplicons) that were obtained by RT-PCR and that ranged in size from 200 to ca. 2,000 bp. Sera from controls did not contain amplicons larger than 450 bp. DNA sequences were derived from two amplicons unique to veterans. These amplicons, which were 414 and 759 nucleotides, were unrelated to each other or to any sequence in gene bank databases. The amplicons contained short segments that were homologous to regions of chromosome 22q11.2, an antigen-responsive hot spot for genetic rearrangements. Many of these short amplicon segments occurred near, between, or in chromosome 22q11.2 Alu sequences. These results suggest that genetic alterations in the 22q11.2 region, possibly induced by exposures to environmental genotoxins during the Persian Gulf War, may have played a role in the pathogenesis of the Gulf War Syndrome. However, the data did not exclude the possibility that other chromosomes also may have been involved. Nonetheless, the detection of polyribonucleotides such as those reported here may have application to the laboratory diagnosis of chronic diseases that have a multifactorial etiology.  (+info)

No serologic evidence of an association found between Gulf War service and Mycoplasma fermentans infection. (4/102)

Occult occupational infection with Mycoplasma fermentans has been proposed as a cause for illness among Persian Gulf War veterans. Symptom data and sera from a 1994-1995 cross-sectional survey of Navy Seabees were used to select symptomatic and asymptomatic Gulf War veterans and nondeployed veterans to evaluate this hypothesis. Survey sera from 96 Seabees were matched to prewar (before September 1990) archived sera. Immunoblot serologic analyses were performed for M. fermentans in a controlled, blinded fashion. Both Gulf War veterans and nondeployed veterans had prewar and postwar serologic evidence of M. fermentans infection consistent with natural infection data. Among study subjects collectively, and stratified by Gulf War service, none of the immunoblot banding profiles (prewar or postwar) or their changes over time were associated with postwar symptoms. These serologic data do not support the hypothesis that Gulf War veterans have experienced Gulf War-related morbidity from M. fermentans infection.  (+info)

Increased postwar symptoms and psychological morbidity among U.S. Navy Gulf War veterans. (5/102)

To investigate reports on war-related morbidity, 527 active-duty Gulf War veterans and 970 nondeployed veterans from 14 Seabee commands were studied in 1994 with a questionnaire, sera collection, handgrip strength, and pulmonary function testing. The questionnaire assessed postwar symptoms, war exposures, and screened for chronic fatigue syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, and psychological symptoms suggesting neurosis (Hopkins Symptom Checklist). Sera were tested with four nonspecific reactant assays: C-reactive protein, transferrin, ferritin, and haptoglobin. Gulf War veterans reported a higher prevalence for 35 of 41 symptoms, scored higher on psychological symptom scales, were more likely to screen for post-traumatic stress disorder, had lower handgrip strength, and had higher serum ferritin assay results. Numerous comparisons of these morbidity outcomes with 30 self-reported exposures demonstrated many associations, but no unique exposure or group of exposures were implicated. Morbidity data are consistent with other postwar observations, but the etiology for morbidity findings remains uncertain.  (+info)

The postwar hospitalization experience of Gulf War Veterans possibly exposed to chemical munitions destruction at Khamisiyah, Iraq. (6/102)

Using Department of Defense hospital data, the authors examined the postwar hospitalization experience from March 1991 through September 1995 of US Gulf War veterans who were near Khamisiyah, Iraq, during nerve agent munition destruction in March 1991. Multiple sources of meteorologic, munition, and toxicology data were used to circumscribe geographic areas of low level, vaporized nerve agent for 4 days after the destruction. Plume estimates were overlaid on military unit positions, and exposure was estimated for the 349,291 US Army Gulf War veterans. Exposure was classified as not exposed (n = 224,804), uncertain low dose exposure (n = 75,717), and specific estimated subclinical exposure (n = 48,770) categorized into three groups for dose-response evaluation. Using Cox proportional hazard modeling, the authors compared the postwar experiences of these exposure groups for hospitalization due to any cause, for diagnoses in 15 unique categories, and for specific diagnoses an expert panel proposed as most likely to reflect latent disease from such subclinical exposure. There was little evidence that veterans possibly exposed to the nerve agent plumes experienced unusual postwar morbidity. While there were several differences in hospitalization risk, none of the models suggested a dose-response relation or neurologic sequelae. These data, having a number of limitations, do not support the hypothesis that Gulf War veterans are suffering postwar morbidity from subclinical nerve agent exposure.  (+info)

Are Gulf War veterans suffering war-related illnesses? Federal and civilian hospitalizations examined, June 1991 to December 1994. (7/102)

A previous epidemiologic study demonstrated no unexplained increase in risk for postwar hospitalization among Gulf War veterans who had remained on active duty. The authors sought to expand this study to include Reserve and separated military personnel. They examined hospitalization data from the Department of Defense, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), and the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development hospital systems for the years 1991-1994. Since denominator data were not available, the authors compared the proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) of hospitalization discharge diagnoses (both large categories and specific diagnoses) between Gulf War veterans and other veterans of the same era. There were no indications that Gulf War veterans were suffering increased PMRs for infectious diseases; neoplasms; endocrine diseases; blood diseases; skin conditions; or diseases of the nervous system, circulatory system, or musculoskeletal system. However, these veterans did experience proportionally more hospitalizations for various specific diagnoses, namely, fractures and bone and soft-tissue injuries (Department of Defense and California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development), various diseases of the respiratory (including asthma) and digestive systems (VA), and diverse symptom diagnoses (VA). While these findings may be influenced by chance or by a number of potential confounders, including health registry participation, they merit further examination using other study designs.  (+info)

Role of vaccinations as risk factors for ill health in veterans of the Gulf war: cross sectional study. (8/102)

OBJECTIVES: To explore the relation between ill health after the Gulf war and vaccines received before or during the conflict. To test the hypothesis that such ill health is limited to military personnel who received multiple vaccines during deployment and that pesticide use modifies any effect. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of Gulf war veterans followed for six to eight years after deployment. SETTING: UK armed forces. PARTICIPANTS: Military personnel who served in the Gulf and who still had their vaccine records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Multisymptom illness as classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; fatigue; psychological distress; post-traumatic stress reaction; health perception; and physical functioning. RESULTS: The response rate for the original survey was 70.4% (n=3284). Of these, 28% (923) had vaccine records. Receipt of multiple vaccines before deployment was associated with only one of the six health outcomes (post-traumatic stress reaction). By contrast five of the six outcomes (all but post-traumatic stress reaction) were associated with multiple vaccines received during deployment. The strongest association was for the multisymptom illness (odds ratio 5.0; 95% confidence interval 2.5 to 9.8). CONCLUSION: Among veterans of the Gulf war there is a specific relation between multiple vaccinations given during deployment and later ill health. Multiple vaccinations in themselves do not seem to be harmful but combined with the "stress" of deployment they may be associated with adverse health outcomes. These results imply that every effort should be made to maintain routine vaccines during peacetime.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Persian Gulf Syndrome" is not a widely recognized or officially defined medical condition. The term has been used informally to describe various nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive problems, and muscle pain reported by some military personnel who served in the Persian Gulf region. However, these symptoms are common and can be caused by many different factors, so it's not clear that they are related to service in the Persian Gulf.

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) recognizes "Persian Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses" as a category of unexplained illnesses that some veterans of the 1990-1991 Gulf War experience. This includes conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and functional gastrointestinal disorders, among others. But it's important to note that these are recognized diseases with specific diagnostic criteria, not a single syndrome.

If you or someone else is experiencing persistent health issues that may be related to military service, it's recommended to consult with a healthcare provider. They can provide a thorough evaluation and help determine if the symptoms are related to service or some other cause.

"Gulf War" is not a medical term per se, but it does refer to a specific historical conflict with significant medical and health implications. Officially known as the Persian Gulf War, it was a war waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait. The war lasted from August 1990 to February 1991.

Medically, the term "Gulf War veterans" or "Gulf War illness" is used to describe a range of chronic symptoms and health conditions reported by veterans of this conflict. These symptoms can include fatigue, headaches, memory and concentration problems, muscle and joint pain, neurological issues, and other unexplained medical disorders. The exact cause of these conditions is still a subject of ongoing research and debate, with possible factors including exposure to depleted uranium, pesticides, nerve agents, and other chemical compounds during the war.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Indian Ocean" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical term referring to the third largest of the world's five oceans, situated between southeastern Africa, the Southern Asian landmass, and Australia. It is bounded on the north by the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, on the west by eastern Africa, on the east by the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, and Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean or Antarctica.

If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "war" is not a medical term. It refers to a state of armed conflict between different nations or states or between political or social groups, usually with large-scale violence and loss of life. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Middle East" is not a medical term. It is a geographical region that includes countries such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey, Egypt, and others. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

I apologize for any confusion, but "Military Personnel" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals who serve in the military forces of a country, including the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. Medical terms typically refer to specific conditions, diagnoses, treatments, or anatomical features related to healthcare. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify!

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) analysis is a laboratory test used to determine the amount of oxygen consumed by microorganisms during the decomposition of organic matter in a sample of water. It is a measure of the pollution potential of a wastewater, with higher BOD values indicating greater pollution. The test involves measuring the difference in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels between a controlled incubation period (usually five days) and the initial DO level. The difference is reported as the BOD, typically expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) or parts per million (ppm). This information helps in assessing the effectiveness of wastewater treatment processes and monitoring water quality in rivers, streams, and other bodies of water.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kuwait" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in the Middle East, known officially as the State of Kuwait. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iraq" is not a medical term. It is a country located in the Middle East. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iran" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in southwest Asia. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them!

Veterans disability claims refer to the requests for benefits filed by veterans who have disabilities as a result of their military service. These benefits are provided through the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in the United States.

A veteran must be able to provide evidence of a current physical or mental disability, and a link between that disability and an injury, illness, or event that occurred during their military service. The VA then rates the severity of the disability on a scale from 0 to 100 percent, in increments of 10, with a higher rating indicating a more severe disability.

The VA uses this disability rating to determine the amount of compensation the veteran is entitled to receive. Benefits may also include medical treatment and vocational rehabilitation services. Veterans can appeal the decision if they disagree with the disability rating or the denial of their claim.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Persia" is not a medical term. It is an ancient name for a region that is now modern-day Iran and parts of neighboring countries. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, please let me know!

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

Combat disorders are a category of mental health conditions that can occur in military personnel as a result of their experiences during combat. These disorders can include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, and adjustment disorders, among others. Combat disorders may be caused by exposure to traumatic events, such as experiencing or witnessing combat, the threat of death or serious injury, or the loss of fellow soldiers. Symptoms can include flashbacks, nightmares, avoidance of reminders of the trauma, difficulty sleeping, irritability, and feelings of detachment or numbness. Treatment for combat disorders typically involves a combination of medication and therapy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Gulf of Mexico" is not a medical concept or condition. The Gulf of Mexico is a large gulf located in the North American continent, surrounded by the United States to the north, Mexico to the west and south, and Cuba to the east. It's a geographical feature, specifically an oceanic gulf, and not related to medical terminology or healthcare.

Pyridostigmine Bromide is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as cholinesterase inhibitors. It is primarily used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue.

Pyridostigmine works by blocking the action of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter essential for muscle contraction. By preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine, pyridostigmine helps to increase its levels at the neuromuscular junction, thereby improving muscle strength and function.

The bromide salt form of pyridostigmine is commonly used because it is more soluble in water, which makes it easier to administer orally as a liquid or tablet. The medication's effects typically last for several hours, and its dosage may be adjusted based on the patient's response and any side effects experienced.

Common side effects of pyridostigmine include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increased salivation, sweating, and muscle cramps. In some cases, higher doses of the medication can lead to more severe side effects such as respiratory distress, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely while they are taking pyridostigmine and adjust the dosage as necessary to minimize side effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

A "Veteran" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used to describe individuals who have served in the military. Specifically, in the United States, a veteran is defined as a person who has served in the armed forces of the country and was discharged or released under conditions other than dishonorable. This definition can include those who served in war time or peace time. The term "veteran" does not imply any specific medical condition or diagnosis. However, veterans may have unique health needs and challenges related to their military service, such as exposure to hazardous materials, traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other physical and mental health conditions.

The term "Arabic Medicine" refers to the medical knowledge and practices that were developed by scholars in the Islamic world, which stretched from Spain to Persia during the Middle Ages (approximately 8th to 15th centuries). This period saw a flourishing of intellectual activity in many fields, including medicine.

Arabic medicine was heavily influenced by ancient Greek and Roman medical texts, particularly those of Galen and Hippocrates. These texts were translated into Arabic and studied by Islamic scholars, who built upon this foundation to make significant contributions of their own.

One of the most famous Arabic physicians was Avicenna (Ibn Sina), who wrote the Canon of Medicine, a comprehensive medical text that was widely used in Europe and the Middle East for centuries. Other notable Arabic physicians include Al-Razi (Rhazes) and Ibn al-Nafis, who made important discoveries in anatomy and physiology.

Arabic medicine encompassed a wide range of topics, including anatomy, pharmacology, surgery, and public health. It emphasized the importance of observation, experimentation, and critical thinking in medical practice, and placed a strong emphasis on the use of rational methods to diagnose and treat illness.

Overall, Arabic medicine played a crucial role in preserving and advancing medical knowledge during the Middle Ages, and its influence can still be seen in modern medical practices today.

Chemical warfare is the use of chemicals in military conflict to incapacitate, injure, or kill enemy personnel or destroy equipment and resources. It involves the employment of toxic gases, liquids, or solids that have harmful effects on humans, animals, or plants. Chemical weapons can cause a wide range of symptoms, from temporary discomfort to permanent disability or death, depending on the type and amount of chemical used, as well as the duration and route of exposure.

Chemical warfare agents are classified into several categories based on their primary effects:

1. Nerve agents: These chemicals inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Examples include sarin, tabun, soman, and VX. Exposure to nerve agents can cause symptoms such as muscle twitching, convulsions, respiratory failure, and death.
2. Blister agents: Also known as vesicants, these chemicals cause severe blistering and burns to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Mustard gas is a well-known example of a blister agent. Exposure can lead to temporary or permanent blindness, respiratory problems, and scarring.
3. Choking agents: These chemicals cause damage to the lungs and respiratory system by irritating and inflaming the airways. Phosgene and chlorine are examples of choking agents. Symptoms of exposure include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and potentially fatal lung edema.
4. Blood agents: These chemicals interfere with the body's ability to transport oxygen in the blood, leading to asphyxiation. Cyanide is a common example of a blood agent. Exposure can cause rapid heart rate, dizziness, headache, seizures, and death due to lack of oxygen.
5. Incapacitating agents: These chemicals are designed to temporarily disable or disorient enemy personnel without causing serious harm or death. Examples include riot control agents such as tear gas (CS) and pepper spray (OC). Exposure can cause symptoms such as coughing, sneezing, tears, and temporary blindness.

The use of chemical weapons in warfare is prohibited by several international treaties, including the Geneva Protocol and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Despite these bans, there have been numerous instances of their use throughout history, most notably during World War I and more recently in Syria's ongoing civil war.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

There are many diseases that can affect cats, and the specific medical definitions for these conditions can be quite detailed and complex. However, here are some common categories of feline diseases and examples of each:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include:
* Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), also known as feline parvovirus, which can cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms and death in kittens.
* Feline calicivirus (FCV), which can cause upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing and nasal discharge.
* Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), which can suppress the immune system and lead to a variety of secondary infections and diseases.
* Bacterial infections, such as those caused by Pasteurella multocida or Bartonella henselae, which can cause abscesses or other symptoms.
2. Neoplastic diseases: These are cancerous conditions that can affect various organs and tissues in cats. Examples include:
* Lymphoma, which is a common type of cancer in cats that can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other organs.
* Fibrosarcoma, which is a type of soft tissue cancer that can arise from fibrous connective tissue.
* Squamous cell carcinoma, which is a type of skin cancer that can be caused by exposure to sunlight or tobacco smoke.
3. Degenerative diseases: These are conditions that result from the normal wear and tear of aging or other factors. Examples include:
* Osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative joint disease that can cause pain and stiffness in older cats.
* Dental disease, which is a common condition in cats that can lead to tooth loss, gum inflammation, and other problems.
* Heart disease, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is a thickening of the heart muscle that can lead to congestive heart failure.
4. Hereditary diseases: These are conditions that are inherited from a cat's parents and are present at birth or develop early in life. Examples include:
* Polycystic kidney disease (PKD), which is a genetic disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure.
* Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in some cats.
* Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), which is a group of genetic disorders that cause degeneration of the retina and can lead to blindness.

Philately is not a medical term. It is actually a term used to describe the hobby or study of stamps, postmarks, and postal history. The word comes from the Greek "philos" meaning "lover" and "ateleia" meaning "exemption from taxes," which described the early stamps that were used to indicate payment of taxes on mail. It's a bit surprising that you asked for a medical definition of this term, as it is not related to medicine in any way.

A "Medical History, Medieval" typically refers to the study and documentation of medical practices, knowledge, and beliefs during the Middle Ages, which spanned approximately from the 5th to the 15th century. This era saw significant developments in medicine, including the translation and dissemination of ancient Greek and Roman medical texts, the establishment of hospitals and medical schools, and the growth of surgical techniques.

During this time, medical theories were heavily influenced by the works of Hippocrates and Galen, who believed that diseases were caused by an imbalance in the four bodily fluids or "humors" (blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile). Treatments often involved attempts to restore this balance through diet, lifestyle changes, and various medical interventions such as bloodletting, purgatives, and herbal remedies.

The Medieval period also saw the rise of monastic medicine, in which monasteries and convents played a crucial role in providing medical care to the sick and poor. Monks and nuns often served as healers and were known for their knowledge of herbs and other natural remedies. Additionally, during this time, Islamic medicine flourished, with physicians such as Avicenna and Rhazes making significant contributions to the field, including the development of new surgical techniques and the creation of comprehensive medical texts that were widely translated and studied in Europe.

Overall, the Medieval period was a critical time in the development of medical knowledge and practice, laying the groundwork for many modern medical concepts and practices.

Anoplura is an order of insects that are external parasites, specifically known as sucking lice. They are ectoparasites that live on the skin and hair of mammals, including humans, and feed on their blood. Anoplura species have a specialized mouthpart called a fascicle, which consists of several parts working together to pierce the host's skin and suck blood.

The most common and medically significant example of Anoplura is Pediculus humanus, which includes two subspecies: P. h. capitis (head louse) and P. h. corporis (body louse). These species are obligate parasites that can only survive on human hosts. Infestations with these lice can cause skin irritation, itching, and the transmission of diseases such as typhus and trench fever.

It is important to note that Anoplura species are not to be confused with other types of lice, such as chewing lice (Mallophaga), which primarily feed on dead skin scales and hair rather than blood.

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is characterized by intellectual and developmental disabilities, distinctive facial features, and sometimes physical growth delays and health problems. The condition affects approximately one in every 700 babies born in the United States.

Individuals with Down syndrome have varying degrees of cognitive impairment, ranging from mild to moderate or severe. They may also have delayed development, including late walking and talking, and may require additional support and education services throughout their lives.

People with Down syndrome are at increased risk for certain health conditions, such as congenital heart defects, respiratory infections, hearing loss, vision problems, gastrointestinal issues, and thyroid disorders. However, many individuals with Down syndrome live healthy and fulfilling lives with appropriate medical care and support.

The condition is named after John Langdon Down, an English physician who first described the syndrome in 1866.

In the context of medicine, particularly in neurolinguistics and speech-language pathology, language is defined as a complex system of communication that involves the use of symbols (such as words, signs, or gestures) to express and exchange information. It includes various components such as phonology (sound systems), morphology (word structures), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (social rules of use). Language allows individuals to convey their thoughts, feelings, and intentions, and to understand the communication of others. Disorders of language can result from damage to specific areas of the brain, leading to impairments in comprehension, production, or both.

Metabolic syndrome, also known as Syndrome X, is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. It is not a single disease but a group of risk factors that often co-occur. According to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, a person has metabolic syndrome if they have any three of the following five conditions:

1. Abdominal obesity (waist circumference of 40 inches or more in men, and 35 inches or more in women)
2. Triglyceride level of 150 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) or greater
3. HDL cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dL in men or less than 50 mg/dL in women
4. Systolic blood pressure of 130 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or greater, or diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or greater
5. Fasting glucose level of 100 mg/dL or greater

Metabolic syndrome is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as physical inactivity and a diet high in refined carbohydrates and unhealthy fats. Treatment typically involves making lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and losing weight if necessary. In some cases, medication may also be needed to manage individual components of the syndrome, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol.

In the context of medicine, "translating" often refers to the process of turning basic scientific discoveries into clinical applications that can directly benefit patients. This is also known as "translational research." It involves taking findings from laboratory studies and experiments, and finding ways to use that knowledge in the development of new diagnostic tools, treatments, or medical practices.

The goal of translation is to bridge the gap between scientific discovery and clinical practice, making sure that new advances in medicine are both safe and effective for patients. This process can be complex and challenging, as it requires collaboration between researchers, clinicians, regulatory agencies, and industry partners. It also involves rigorous testing and evaluation to ensure that any new treatments or interventions are both safe and effective.

I'm not a medical professional, but the term "History, Ancient" is not a medical term per se. However, in a broader context, it could refer to the study of ancient medical practices, theories, and beliefs that existed in civilizations prior to the Middle Ages or Classical Antiquity. This might include the examination of ancient texts, artifacts, and archaeological evidence to understand how illnesses were treated and viewed in these historical periods. It forms an essential part of the evolution of medical knowledge and practices over time.

Petroleum pollution is not a medical term per se, but it is an environmental and public health issue. It refers to the contamination of the environment, particularly water bodies, soil, and air, by petroleum products or hydrocarbons. These pollutants can originate from various sources, including oil spills, leaks from underground storage tanks, runoff from roads, and improper disposal of industrial waste.

The health effects of petroleum pollution can vary depending on the type and amount of exposure. Short-term exposure to high levels of hydrocarbons can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, while long-term exposure has been linked to more severe health problems such as neurological damage, cancer, and reproductive issues. Therefore, it is crucial to prevent and mitigate petroleum pollution to protect both the environment and public health.

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

She immediately flew to Toronto to shoot Thanks of a Grateful Nation, about Persian Gulf War syndrome. Carlson moved to Los ...
"Persian Gulf War , Summary, Dates, Combatants, Casualties, Syndrome, Map, & Facts , Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved ... During the first Gulf War, in 1990 and 1991, 3.3km2 of surface area was lost per day in the Mosul reservoir falling from 372 to ...
"Persian Gulf War , Summary, Dates, Combatants, Casualties, Syndrome, Map, & Facts , Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved ...
... he headed the Department of Defense's Task Force on Persian Gulf War Health Effects, which investigated Gulf War Syndrome. ...
"Jackson settles down to his new life in the Persian Gulf". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 12 February 2006. Retrieved ... Peter Pan syndrome is a pop-psychology term used to describe an adult who is socially immature. It is a metaphor, based on the ... Peter Pan Syndrome is not recognized by the World Health Organization and is not listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical ... Kiley got the idea for "The Peter Pan Syndrome" after noticing that, like the famous character in the J. M. Barrie play, many ...
... wrote approvingly about Pocalyko's role as a veterans advocate with respect to the controversial Persian Gulf War Syndrome ... He also commanded special intelligence missions in the Persian Gulf. In the mid-1980s he was desk officer for the Navy's ... Hersh, Seymour M. [2] Against All Enemies: Gulf War Syndrome, The War Between America's Ailing Veterans and Their Government ( ...
Hyams, Kenneth C. (1996-09-01). "War Syndromes and Their Evaluation: From the U.S. Civil War to the Persian Gulf War". Annals ... Gulf War Syndrome'. Thought to be discrete and different from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), these war syndromes have a ... Since the American Civil War, there have been multiple "war syndromes" reported such as 'irritable heart', 'effort syndrome' ...
"I Went to the Persian Gulf and All I Got Was This Lousy Syndrome", a reference to Gulf War syndrome. During Bart's rampage ...
... to investigate the causes of Gulf War syndrome, and to provide medical treatment for veterans of the Persian Gulf War. After ...
In the mid-1990s media reports on vaccines discussed the Gulf War Syndrome, a multi-symptomatic disorder affecting returning US ... military veterans of the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War. Among the first articles of the online magazine Slate was one by Atul ... were named as one of the likely culprits for the symptoms associated with the Gulf War Syndrome. In the late 1990s Slate ... Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is most common in infants around the time in life when they receive many vaccinations. ...
... the Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study". Cardiovascular Diabetology. 5: 25. doi:10.1186/1475-2840-5-25. PMC 1697801. PMID ... Chia, J K S; Chia, A Y (2007). "Chronic fatigue syndrome is associated with chronic enterovirus infection of the stomach". ... Kerr, JR; Bracewell, J; Laing, I; Mattey, DL; Bernstein, RM; Bruce, IN; Tyrrell, DA (2002). "Chronic fatigue syndrome and ... Muller, N; Riedel, M; Blendinger, C; Oberle, K; Jacobs, E; Abelehorn, M (2004). "infection and Tourette's syndrome". Psychiatry ...
Some Gulf War veterans that were in the area have reported symptoms that meet the definitions of Gulf War Syndrome, while ... Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, 1997 Ministry of Defense, UK (2005), Review of Modelling of the Demolitions at ... Gulf War, Gulf War syndrome, Populated places in Dhi Qar Province). ... Ali Air Base Chemical warfare Gulf War syndrome Weapon of mass destruction Khamisiyah: A Historical Perspective on Related ...
"What is Persian Gulf War Illness?". Royal British Legion. 20 February 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2021. "Gulf War syndrome 'not ... Studies have consistently indicated that Persian Gulf War syndrome is not the result of combat or other stressors and that Gulf ... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses (1 November 2008). "Gulf War Illness and the Health of Persian Gulf ... "Recent research on Persian Gulf War illness and other health problems in veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War: Effects of ...
Gassed in the Gulf: The Inside Story of the Pentagon-CIA Cover-Up of Gulf War Syndrome. Insignia Publishing Company. 2000. ISBN ... he presented the claim of substantial evidence that American soldiers were exposed to chemical agents during the Persian Gulf ... Eddington resigned in 1996 after working on the book Gassed in the Gulf: The Inside Story of the Pentagon-CIA Cover-up of Gulf ... Gulf War syndrome, American whistleblowers, Place of birth missing (living people), All stub articles, United States government ...
... see Gulf War syndrome). Depleted uranium is also used as a shielding material in some containers used to store and transport ... UK and other countries during wars in the Persian Gulf and the Balkans raised questions concerning uranium compounds left in ... "Development of DU Munitions". Depleted Uranium in the Gulf (II). Gulflink, official website of Force Health Protection & ...
After the Gulf War of 1990-1991, a number of war veterans suffered from similar illness, popularly dubbed Gulf War syndrome. ... He was appointed chairman of the Medical-Scientific Panel for the Persian Gulf War Veterans Conference. On suspicion of the ... About Gulf War Syndrome". The Spotlight. Retrieved August 9, 2014. Nicolson, G (2001). "Continuing research into Gulf War ... During the outbreak of the Gulf War syndrome, he was the leading authority on the study of the cause, treatment and prevention ...
... is also thought to be a cause of Gulf War Syndrome. US troops suffered from mycotoxicosis-like symptoms after an ... Iraqi missile detonated in a US military camp in Saudi Arabia during Operation Desert Storm in the Persian Gulf War, in 1991. ... 207-292 (1971). USAMRIID's Medical Management Of Biological Casualties Handbook US Military Gulf War Syndrome site T-2 ...
This article uses the proper name Persian Gulf. For more information, see the Persian Gulf naming dispute article. "V: "Thunder ... "Gulf war syndrome; higher rates of specific birth defects in gulf war veterans' children". Medical Letter on the CDC & FDA: 14 ... Persian) Gulf War. Different sources may call the conflicts by different names. The name 'Persian Gulf' is itself a subject of ... Blitzkrieg in the Gulf by Yves Debay U.S. Marines in the Persian Gulf, 1990-1991 With the 1st U.S. Marine Division in Desert ...
In 2009 the foundation was awarded the first Chaillot prize for human rights organisations in the Persian Gulf region. As of ... Princess Moudi is a board member of the Saut, an agency of the down syndrome foundation in Saudi Arabia. In 2011 she began to ... "Saudi philanthropist Princess Al Bandari dies". Gulf Business. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2020. (CS1 Arabic-language ...
... was extremely popular after the Persian Gulf War, with approval rating at times reaching as high as 90 percent. That war had ... helped erase the Vietnam Syndrome America had felt since the 1960s, restoring confidence in the country's ability to assert ...
Personnel were primarily attached to four units in the Persian Gulf region: Canadian Task Group at sea the Canadian Air Task ... suffered no casualties during the conflict but since its end many veterans have complained of suffering from Gulf War syndrome ... The Canadian Forces Air Command provided combat air patrols in the north and central areas of the Persian Gulf. These patrols ... Canadian pilots were credited with partially destroying an Iraqi patrol boat in the Persian Gulf, and Canadian CF-18 jets ...
He claimed that Persian Gulf countries (UAE, Saudi Arabia) should be a strategic priority of the Romanian state. He intervened ... and the protection of people with Down syndrome. Ovidiu Raețchi is also the originator of the law of an Advocate for Diaspora, ...
Phillips CJ, Matyas GR, Hansen CJ, Alving CR, Smith TC, Ryan MA (June 2009). "Antibodies to squalene in US Navy Persian Gulf ... A 2009 U.S. Department of Defense study comparing healthy Navy personnel to those suffering from Gulf War syndrome was ... Asa PB, Cao Y, Garry RF (February 2000). "Antibodies to squalene in Gulf War syndrome". Exp. Mol. Pathol. 68 (1): 55-64. ... Alving CR, Grabenstein JD (June 2000). "Re: Antibodies to squalene in Gulf War Syndrome". Exp. Mol. Pathol. 68 (3): 196-8. doi: ...
In the Persian Gulf area, Ba'athist Iraq continued to have conflict, with periodic provocative moves by Saddam Hussein ... and the faulty perceptions of the Gulf War illness syndrome held by some of the media and much of the public. At a ceremony for ... The United States worked with its allies in the Persian Gulf area to bolster their capacity to defend themselves and to use ... Iran, too, behaved aggressively, placing at least 6,000 troops in March 1995 on three islands at the mouth of the Persian Gulf ...
Some American military personnel complained of Gulf War syndrome, typified by symptoms including immune system disorders and ... caused when Iraqi forces opened valves at the Sea Island oil terminal and dumped oil from several tankers into the Persian Gulf ... During the 1991 Gulf War, the Kuwaiti oil fires were a result of the scorched earth policy of Iraqi forces retreating from ... Paul Brown, Gulf troops face tests for cancer guardian.co.uk 25 April 2003, Retrieved February 3, 2009 U.S. Office of the ...
... the kingdom held the highest number of confirmed cases in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. The kingdom announced the ... caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first case in the kingdom was confirmed by the ... "Saudi locks down Qatif as coronavirus surges in the Gulf". Al Jazeera. 8 March 2020. Archived from the original on 8 March 2020 ... "Saudi man arrested for false news on COVID-19 patient". Gulf News. 22 April 2020. Archived from the original on 2 May 2020. ...
A 2020 American study on Gulf War syndrome found that "the way the Gulf War illness manifests itself may be different in female ... A 1997 American study found that "women's health care needs during the Persian Gulf War were reported to be very similar to ... Murphy, F; Browne, D; Mather, S; Scheele, H; Hyams, KC (October 1997). "Women in the Persian Gulf War: health care implications ... Women were active in a number of roles during the Gulf War. The Gulf War marked the first conflict in which women officially ...
The 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 Iraq War brought about a significant negative impact on the environment. Indeed, Persian Gulf ... The term "Gulf War illness" or "Gulf War syndrome" refers to the illness and neurological symptoms as "fatigue, muscle and ... The Persian Gulf countries have a proven record of cooperating towards cleaning up the Gulf ruin and preventing future havoc. ... "Persian Gulf Wars". The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sand, Peter H. (2011). "Catastrophic Environmental Damage and the Gulf War ...
The first Iraqi missile hitting Israel during the Persian Gulf War was believed to contain chemical or biological weapons. ... "Mass hysteria: one syndrome or two?" British Journal of Psychiatry 1997; 170 387-88. Web. 17 Dec. 2009. [1] Archived 2011-06-06 ... "Mass hysteria: one syndrome or two?" British Journal of Psychiatry 1997; 170 387-78. Web. 17 Dec. 2009. Balaratnasingam, ... Seven U.S. intelligence agencies headed by the CIA spent years reviewing thousands of possible cases of Havana syndrome and ...
He provided testimony about Gulf War Syndrome before the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight in 1998. He served for ... "Illnesses of Persian Gulf Veterans". The National Academies. Retrieved 12 May 2015. Committee to Review the Department of ...
ClinicalTrials.gov: Persian Gulf Syndrome (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Veterans (National Institutes ... Infectious Diseases -- Diseases Related to Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan Service (Department of Veterans Affairs) ...
She immediately flew to Toronto to shoot Thanks of a Grateful Nation, about Persian Gulf War syndrome. Carlson moved to Los ...
Neuroimaging and Genomic Research into Chronic Neurotoxic Encephalopathy from the 1991 Persian Gulf War ... Neurotoxicity Syndromes. Persian Gulf Syndrome. Sarin--adverse effects. United States. Veterans Publication Types: Lecture. ... Epidemiologic, neuroimaging, and genomic research into chronic neurotoxic encephalopathy from the 1991 Persian Gulf War / ... Neuroimaging and Genomic Research into Chronic Neurotoxic Encephalopathy from the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Download VideoCast. ...
Sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in a sample of veterans of the Persian Gulf War. Mil Med 1997;162(4):249-51. ... of Persian Gulf War veterans self-referred to the Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program at Fort Sam Houston had histories ... Young T, Evans L, Finn L, Palta M. Estimation of the clinically diagnosed proportion of sleep apnea syndrome in middle-aged men ... Comparison of the indices of oxyhemoglobin saturation by pulse oximetry in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. Chest ...
Persian Gulf Syndrome; Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics* ... of PON1 status in determining OP susceptibility of Gulf War ...
Low paraoxonase in Persian Gulf War Veterans self-reporting Gulf War syndrome. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 276((2)):729-733. ... 2002, 2004), and Parkinson disease (Zintzaras and Hadjigeorgiou 2004). Gulf War syndrome, which some have hypothesized may be ... Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and Gulf War illnesses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105((11)):4295-4300. 18332428. . Crossref, ... Association of low PON1 type Q (type A) arylesterase activity with neurologic symptom complexes in Gulf War veterans. Toxicol ...
Persian Gulf Syndrome* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... The Gulf War Syndrome twenty years on]. Auxéméry Y. Auxéméry Y. Encephale. 2013 Oct;39(5):332-8. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2012.11. ... Health status of Persian Gulf War veterans: self-reported symptoms, environmental exposures and the effect of stress. Proctor ... Assessment of arthropod vectors of infectious diseases in areas of U.S. troop deployment in the Persian Gulf. Cope SE, Schultz ...
Perrault syndrome + Perry syndrome persian gulf syndrome persistent fetal circulation syndrome persistent Mullerian duct ... Restless Leg Syndrome ; Restless Legs ; WED ; Willis Ekbom Disease ; Willis Ekbom Syndrome ; Wittmaack Ekbom syndrome ; ... restless legs syndrome, susceptibility to, 4 ; restless legs syndrome, susceptibility to, 5 ; restless legs syndrome, ... Renal Nutcracker Syndrome restless legs syndrome + A central nervous system disease characterized by throbbing, pulling ...
Perrault syndrome + Perry syndrome persian gulf syndrome persistent fetal circulation syndrome persistent Mullerian duct ... complex regional pain syndrome + congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract syndrome with or without hearing loss, ... Cerebellar Vermis Aplasia with Associated Features suggesting Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome and Meckel Syndrome ... Limb-Mammary Syndrome (DOID:9002385). Annotations: Rat: (1) Mouse: (1) Human: (1) Chinchilla: (1) Bonobo: (1) Dog: (1) Squirrel ...
Mycoplasma contamination of the anthrax vaccine has been suggested as a possible cause of Persian Gulf illness. ... with Mycoplasma fermentans could have been responsible for human illness specifically associated with Persian Gulf syndrome. ...
apnea-hypopnea syndrome in a sample of veterans of the Persian Gulf War. Mil. Med 1997;162(4):249-51. ... 46 of 192) of Persian Gulf War veterans self-referred to the Comprehensive. Clinical Evaluation Program at Fort Sam Houston had ... metabolic syndrome. Respir Med 2007;101(8):1696-701.. *Ashton CM, Petersen NJ, Wray NP, Yu HJ.. The Veterans Affairs. medical ... hypopnea syndrome. Chest 2009;135(1):86-93.. *Findley LJ, Wilhoit SC, Suratt PM.. Apnea duration and hypoxemia. during REM ...
... with Mycoplasma fermentans could have been responsible for human illness specifically associated with Persian Gulf syndrome. ... military personnel during the Persian Gulf War. It was used more recently as part of a comprehensive vaccination policy for ... No serological evidence of an association found between Gulf War service and Mycoplasma fermentans infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg ... of the licensed anthrax vaccine administered to military personnel has been suggested as a possible cause of Persian Gulf ...
Syndromic surveillance of U.S. marines for treated diarrheal syndromes during the lead-up to the Persian Gulf War, 1990-1991. ... For example, Figure 1-1 illustrates the tracking of diarrheal syndromes in a U.S. Marine force during the first Gulf War of ... Syndromes other than ILI, for example, might be more easily detected because they are less common, but this only works if a ... For example, the Syndrome Reporting Information System (SYRIS) system, now operating in Lubbock, Texas, and elsewhere, enables ...
Cohn, S; Dyson, C; Wessely, S; (2008) Early accounts of Gulf War illness and the construction of narratives in UK service ...
The Persian Gulf War was the result of Iraq invading and annexing the oil rich nation of Kuwait at the order of Iraqi dictator ... Their symptoms were termed "Gulf War Illness or "Gulf War Syndrome". It is widely believed US. Forces were exposed to Chemical ... Williams County Persian Gulf War Memorial. . , The Persian Gulf War was the result of Iraq invading and annexing the oil rich ... Their symptoms were termed "Gulf War Illness or "Gulf War Syndrome". It is widely believed US. Forces were exposed to Chemical ...
Persian Gulf Syndrome - Preferred Concept UI. M0028292. Scope note. Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian ... Persian Gulf Syndrome Entry term(s). Gulf War Syndrome Syndrome, Gulf War Syndrome, Persian Gulf ... Syndrome de la guerre du Golfe Entry term(s):. Gulf War Syndrome. Syndrome, Gulf War. Syndrome, Persian Gulf. ... Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf War with Iraq in 1991. The symptoms reported include fatigue, ...
Persian Gulf Syndrome Preferred Concept UI. M0028292. Scope Note. Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf ... Persian Gulf Syndrome Preferred Term Term UI T056394. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag EPO. ThesaurusID NLM (1996). ... Persian Gulf Syndrome. Tree Number(s). C24.653. Unique ID. D018923. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/D018923 ... Gulf War Syndrome Term UI T056395. Date09/27/1994. LexicalTag EPO. ThesaurusID NLM (1996). ...
Persian Gulf Syndrome Preferred Concept UI. M0028292. Scope Note. Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf ... Persian Gulf Syndrome Preferred Term Term UI T056394. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag EPO. ThesaurusID NLM (1996). ... Persian Gulf Syndrome. Tree Number(s). C24.653. C26.946.500. I01.880.735.950.500.951.500.500. Unique ID. D018923. RDF Unique ... Gulf War Syndrome Term UI T056395. Date09/27/1994. LexicalTag EPO. ThesaurusID NLM (1996). ...
Persian Gulf War Syndrome, Attention Deficit Disorder, autism, bipolar disorder and more. The money will be used to fund ... Immune Dysfunction Syndrome; Fibromyalgia; Epstein Barr Virus Syndrome; Multiple Chemical Sensitivities; And Gulf War Syndrome ... NOT ONE GULF WAR SYNDROME BUT THREE:. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia, and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity ... and MCS among Gulf War Veterans. The diagnosis of these syndromes in Gulf War veterans had been rejected for years by both VA ...
Increase in Leukotriene Signaling Accompanies Chronic Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Impairment in a Model of Gulf War Illness ... Persian Gulf Syndrome * Rats Identity. Digital Object Identifier (DOI) * 10.3389/fimmu.2022.853000 ... Persistent cognitive impairment is a primary central nervous system-related symptom in veterans afflicted with chronic Gulf War ... Increase in Leukotriene Signaling Accompanies Chronic Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Impairment in a Model of Gulf War Illness ...
Persian Gulf Syndrome. Public MeSH Note. 2024. History Note. 2024. Date Established. 2024/01/01. Date of Entry. 2023/07/26. ...
Persian Gulf Syndrome Medicine & Life Sciences 16% * Antiphospholipid Syndrome Medicine & Life Sciences 10% ... macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome, Gulf war syndrome and post-vaccination phenomena. Exposure to adjuvants has been documented ... macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome, Gulf war syndrome and post-vaccination phenomena. Exposure to adjuvants has been documented ... macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome, Gulf war syndrome and post-vaccination phenomena. Exposure to adjuvants has been documented ...
The co-exposure of Gulf War chemical and antibiotic (for gut sterility) or Gulf War chemical and Ribavirin, an antiviral ... Gulf War illness (GWI) is characterized by the persistence of inflammatory bowel disease, chronic fatigue, neuroinflammation, ... Persian Gulf Syndrome (chemically induced, microbiology, virology); Phenotype; Pyridostigmine Bromide (administration & dosage ... The co-exposure of Gulf War chemical and antibiotic (for gut sterility) or Gulf War chemical and Ribavirin, an antiviral ...
1994 --Headed Defense Department Task Force on Persian Gulf War Health Effects, which concluded that there is insufficient ... epidemiological evidence for a coherent Gulf War "syndrome". * 2005 --Lederberg continued to conduct laboratory research on ...
Persian Gulf Syndrome (‎1)‎. Radioactive Waste (‎1)‎. Radiometry (‎1)‎. Uranium (‎1)‎. * * Filter by: Subject * IRIS Home ...
A chronic ebook behavior of managerial development: The Loma Prieta syndrome and the Persian Gulf War. FELIZ CUMPLEAÑOS ENRIQUE ... a syndrome life). ebook 2008 Financial of the Post-SARS Patients) ( in social). small Acute Respiratory Syndrome( SARS) . ... ebook: syndrome of the University Mathematics Requirement, or systematic bond in MATH-170 or MATH-211 or STAT-202 or STAT-203. ... Jess clear syndrome( Harel 1992). Student B requires the end-inspiratory defense to Student A. The Messengers overlap their ...
  • Mycoplasma contamination of the licensed anthrax vaccine administered to military personnel has been suggested as a possible cause of Persian Gulf illness. (cdc.gov)
  • ( 3 ) suggested that contamination of this vaccine with Mycoplasma fermentans could have been responsible for human illness specifically associated with Persian Gulf syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • A brain imaging study of veterans with Gulf War illness (GWI) and patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) (sometimes called myalgic encephalomyelitis), has shown that the two illnesses produce distinctly different, abnormal patterns of brain activity after moderate exercise. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The result of the Georgetown University Medical Center study suggests that GWI and CFS are distinct illnesses, an outcome that could affect the treatment of veterans with Gulf War illness. (sciencedaily.com)
  • While it is estimated that CFS affects 0.2-2% of the U.S. population, GWI is a multi-symptom illness that affects about 25% to 30% of the approximately 700,000 military personnel who participated in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Some medical institutions, including the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (the VA), list CFS as a symptom of GWI (called chronic multisymptom illness associated with service in the Gulf War by the VA). (sciencedaily.com)
  • Gulf War Syndrome is an illness like no other, and it is caused by several war-related factors. (wkveterans.com)
  • You may be eligible to receive VA disability compensation for an undiagnosed illness that falls under the umbrella term "Gulf War Syndrome. (wkveterans.com)
  • WACO, Texas (Jan. 20, 2015) - Nearly 24 years after the 1991 Gulf War, a Baylor University scientist has identified a significant link between Gulf War illness (GWI) and a genetic factor that can render some individuals more susceptible to adverse effects of certain chemicals. (91outcomes.com)
  • Gulf War illness refers to the complex of chronic symptoms that affect veterans of the 1991 Gulf War at excess rates, but are not explained by routine clinical diagnoses or laboratory tests. (91outcomes.com)
  • Gulf War illness is characterized by multiple concurrent symptoms that typically include persistent headache, widespread pain, memory and concentration difficulties, fatigue, and digestive and other abnormalities. (91outcomes.com)
  • Although Gulf War Syndrome (GWS) or Gulf War Illness (GWI ) might be treated as a psychological illness, this may not be a mental health issue. (seankendalllaw.net)
  • BACKGROUND: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Gulf War Illness (GWI) recommend integrative health approaches such as yoga for relief from symptoms, yet little is known about the long-term efficacy of yoga in reducing symptoms of GWI. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we evaluated the long-term efficacy of yoga and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) chronic pain treatment in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 75 Veterans (57 men, 42-71 ± 7.1 years of age) with Gulf War Illness (GWI). (bvsalud.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: Gulf War Illness (GWI) and alcohol use are both major sources of disability among Gulf War Veterans. (bvsalud.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the factors that led to enrollment in, and satisfaction with, behavioral interventions for Veterans living with Gulf War Illness (GWI). (bvsalud.org)
  • Recent examples of important emerging infectious diseases include prolonged diarrheal illness due to waterborne Cryptosporidium, hemorrhagic colitis and renal failure from foodborne Escherichia coli O157:H7, pneumonia and middle-ear infections caused by drug-resistant pneumococci, and rodentborne hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • I think the time for a lone researcher, working alone, to figure out Gulf War illness is over," said Dr. Lange, stressing the need for wide collaborative research efforts to help Gulf War veterans at this point in time, nearly 20 years after the war. (91outcomes.com)
  • In a report published by Scientific Reports, a peer-reviewed journal, the scientists dismissed earlier studies which suggested that veterans' disabilities may be associated with exposure to DU, stating that "past research has not tested the potential association of [Gulf War Illness, or GWI] with inhaled DU nor used isotope mass spectrometry of sufficient sensitivity to rigorously assess prior DU exposure. (sputnikglobe.com)
  • Dr. Randall Parrish, the study's lead author, told media that the findings were highly significant, closing the book on the hypothesis that DU was the main cause of Gulf War veterans' illness. (sputnikglobe.com)
  • The study provides the first direct evidence of a specific gene-exposure interaction in veterans' risk for GWI, the complex medical condition that afflicts at least one in four of the nearly 700,000 U.S. veterans who served in the 1991 Gulf War. (91outcomes.com)
  • These results are important because they identify a specific genetic factor that would plausibly put veterans at increased risk for GWI in connection with a chemical to which personnel were widely exposed during the 1991 Gulf War. (91outcomes.com)
  • The 1991 Gulf War was the only conflict in which hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops took PB as a protective measure against the possible deadly effects of chemical nerve agents. (91outcomes.com)
  • Studies indicate that GWI affects between 25 and 30 percent of veterans who served in the 1991 Gulf War, and that few veterans have recovered over time. (91outcomes.com)
  • The purpose of this project was to examine kynurenine pathway and neuroglia functioning using biomarkers obtained from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 1990-1991 Gulf War veterans with (n=46) and without (n=23) GWI. (dtic.mil)
  • VA established the WRIISC's in 2001 in response to deployment-related health concerns of veterans returning from the 1991 Persian Gulf War. (91outcomes.com)
  • To date, the WRIISC's have more than 45 research publications specific to veterans of the 1991 Gulf War, with active research collaborative relations with numerous top research universities. (91outcomes.com)
  • About a quarter of a million of the 697,000 US troops who took part in the 1991 Gulf War have reported suffering from Gulf War Syndrome - a chronic disorder. (sputnikglobe.com)
  • About a quarter of a million of the 697,000 US troops who took part in the 1991 Gulf War have reported suffering from Gulf War Syndrome - a chronic disorder with a broad range of symptoms including headaches, fatigue, diarrhoea, muscle and joint pain, respiratory problems, neurological problems, and excess risk of cancer. (sputnikglobe.com)
  • The latest information indicates that thyroid problems may play a significant role in many of the 21st century's most puzzling illnesses, such as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). (healthy.net)
  • Because of the conditions present during the Gulf War, many military veterans began reporting that they had debilitating medical symptoms such as widespread body pain, chronic diarrhea, and more. (wkveterans.com)
  • If you served in one or more of these areas during the Gulf War and you suffer from a cluster of medically unexplained chronic symptoms that are detrimental to your health, you may be able to claim health benefits to help you cover the cost of living with Gulf War Syndrome. (wkveterans.com)
  • Previously Dr. Lange served as a researcher at the WRIISC on fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and Gulf War Syndrome. (91outcomes.com)
  • HARTFORD-- Gulf War veteran Melissa Sterry s voice shook as she told state lawmakers Thursday about the devastating illnesses she blames on her contact with depleted uranium ammunition and armor in Kuwait. (parody-times.com)
  • Gulf War Illnesses arose from effects the Immune system (probably direct) by the drug taken by the vets (PB pill) combined with pesticides, adrenaline, and an immune system activated by a mess of shots. (seankendalllaw.net)
  • Previously, she worked for the Boston Herald, where stories she co-wrote on illnesses among veterans of the first Persian Gulf War led to the first Congressional hearings on Gulf War Syndrome, and at the Cincinnati Enquirer, where her stories on the association between local cancer clusters and contamination escaping a federal nuclear weapons plant contributed to a successful nuclear-harm lawsuit by residents. (sciencewritersmeeting.org)
  • The Western Powers used the Iraq-Iran war to control the oil from the Gulf. (beyondweird.com)
  • For those US veterans who are suffering from Gulf War Syndrome, a debilitating and painful condition that has resulted from service in Iraq, the struggle to receive recognition and healthcare from the VA has been a long and arduous one. (wkveterans.com)
  • To my knowledge these weren't used during the Gulf War (there's not exactly much foliage in Iraq/Kuwait). (usmilitary.com)
  • A 1997 report found, however, that the US intelligence community had assessed that Iraq did not use its chemical weapons stocks during the Gulf War, presumably out of fears of US retaliation. (sputnikglobe.com)
  • 354: 936-9), the authors suggest that the problems seen in conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, premenstrual syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), CFS and FMS are all in the head. (healthy.net)
  • In my last blog post, I gave a broad overview of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and the connection of that condition to Gulf War Veterans. (hillandponton.com)
  • What Are the Persian Gulf War Environmental Hazards? (wkveterans.com)
  • During the Persian Gulf War, several different environmental hazards led to the development of Gulf War syndrome. (wkveterans.com)
  • After the Gulf War, congress enabled statutory directives which addressed disabilities that veterans who served in Southwest Asia may have suffered. (wkveterans.com)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Predicting costs of Veterans Affairs health care in Gulf War veterans with medically unexplained physical symptoms. (duke.edu)
  • Measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression were used to predict Veterans Affairs outpatient treatment costs among Persian Gulf War veterans with medically unexplained physical symptoms. (duke.edu)
  • The symptoms of gulf war syndrome include digestive issues, difficulty sleeping, and other health problems with memory and cognition. (wkveterans.com)
  • If you or someone you love is a Gulf War veteran and has experienced any of these symptoms and detriment to their health, you may want to speak with a lawyer about compensation. (wkveterans.com)
  • In fact, of the three-quarters of a million service personnel involved in the Persian Gulf War, approximately 30,000 have complained of neurological symptoms. (thelostherbs.com)
  • The Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation provided by the WRIISC's is a comprehensive standardized medical evaluation of medically unexplained symptoms for Gulf War veterans and veterans from any era or conflict. (91outcomes.com)
  • In more recent years, CDC's National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) has taken the lead for HHS in addressing the health concerns of veterans of the Vietnam War and the Gulf War, and NCEH is working with the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs to protect the health of our future military forces. (cdc.gov)
  • Implications exist for current multidisciplinary care of wounded active duty and veteran service members, and future research should determine whether multimorbidity denotes distinct post-blast injury syndromes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study is based on the samples of 154 US Gulf War veteran test subjects. (sputnikglobe.com)
  • Of course, for Bush the Elder one of the significant outcomes of the First Persian Gulf War-Desert Storm-was putting "Vietnam syndrome" to rest. (nocaptionneeded.com)
  • The implications of these findings for anticipating costs of care for Persian Gulf War veterans are discussed. (duke.edu)
  • Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA, BioPort Corporation, Lansing, MI) is a licensed vaccine for anthrax that was administered to approximately 150,000 U.S. military personnel during the Persian Gulf War. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the VA, as it relates to VA disability benefits, Gulf War service is considered being active military at any point in the Southwest Asia war theater starting on August 2, 1990, until the present time. (hillandponton.com)
  • Patients (N = 206) enrolled in a Veterans Affairs primary care clinic for Persian Gulf War veterans completed study assessments at the initial appointment or at a proximal follow-up visit. (duke.edu)
  • Cryptosporidiosis has recently gained attention because of its occurrence in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) [1]. (who.int)
  • So what is this disorder, what benefits for your Gulf War Service are available, and how can you receive the compensation you deserve? (wkveterans.com)
  • The Persian Gulf War Syndrome Compensation Act sets out which military veterans can be compensated for Persian Gulf War Syndrome following service in the Gulf War. (wkveterans.com)
  • Veterans of the Persian Gulf War are eligible for presumptive service connection. (hillandponton.com)
  • The Problem Gulf War veterans face an uphill battle when trying to get presumptive service connection under the regulation 38 CFR § 3.317. (hillandponton.com)
  • Further, several service personnel who served in the Gulf War were exposed to what were supposed to be "protective agents," including DEET. (thelostherbs.com)
  • As a result, many of these service men and women ended up with Gulf War Syndrome . (thelostherbs.com)
  • Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Gulf War and Health: Literature Review of Pesticides and Solvents. (edu.au)
  • She noted that the gene-exposure interaction identified by the study is consistent with previous suggestions that genetic differences in BChE and other protective enzymes are important for understanding the long term health effects of chemicals encountered by military personnel during Gulf War deployment. (91outcomes.com)
  • Second, the Vietnam Syndrome's anti-interventionist effect challenged the established security of containment policy through military intervention, forcing presidents and their administrations to implement different rhetorical approaches and messages to unshackle, in their view, America from the anti-interventionist effects of the Vietnam Syndrome on foreign policy decisions. (boisestate.edu)
  • The most prominent GWI risk factors identified by studies of Gulf War veterans include taking PB and exposure to certain pesticides that can exert toxic effects on the brain and nervous system. (91outcomes.com)
  • Gulf War and health. (edu.au)
  • Another key role of the WRIISC's is to conduct medical research that will help improve the health and lives of ill Gulf War veterans and other war veterans. (91outcomes.com)
  • A half million U.S. troops were gathering in the Persian Gulf. (beyondweird.com)
  • In the Gulf War's immediate aftermath, US investigators initially feared that the US-led coalition had been attacked by Iraqi missiles, rockets, artillery shells and aircraft-dropped bombs containing chemical weapons, with a 1994 report to Congress alleging that this, as well as the aftermath of coalition troops' destruction of Iraqi chemical factories, were responsible for exposing soldiers to chemical poisoning. (sputnikglobe.com)
  • Despite ample scientific evidence to support Gulf War Syndrome, all too often, claims for support and help from the VA have been denied due to a reluctance to accept that the condition exists. (wkveterans.com)
  • First, the Vietnam Syndrome had a significant cultural impact on the American public which altered the U.S. public's collective cultural view of war from an interventionist to an anti-interventionist stance. (boisestate.edu)
  • Especially the soldiers who were exposed to agent orange and other chemical weapons in the Persian Gulf War. (usmilitary.com)
  • In this section of our blog, we cover everything there is to know about Gulf War Syndrome and Gulf War claims. (hillandponton.com)
  • Please continue reading below to learn more about gulf war syndrome and who you can contact for more information and guidance when its effects hit close to home. (wkveterans.com)
  • It is important to evaluate this in a larger group of Gulf War veterans to determine if it can be replicated and provide more information about how many veterans were affected," Steele said. (91outcomes.com)