PeroxidasesGlutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Cytochrome-c Peroxidase: A hemeprotein which catalyzes the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c to ferricytochrome c in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.11.1.5.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Ascorbate Peroxidases: Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.Peroxiredoxins: A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Eosinophil Peroxidase: A 66-kDa peroxidase found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil peroxidase is a cationic protein with a pI of 10.8 and is comprised of a heavy chain subunit and a light chain subunit. It possesses cytotoxic activity towards BACTERIA and other organisms, which is attributed to its peroxidase activity.Guaiacol: An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)Iodide Peroxidase: A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.Selenious Acid: A selenium compound with the molecular formula H2SO3. It used as a source of SELENIUM, especially for patients that develop selenium deficiency following prolonged PARENTERAL NUTRITION.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Peroxiredoxin VI: A peroxiredoxin that is a cytosolic bifunctional enzyme. It functions as a peroxiredoxin via a single redox-active cysteine and also contains a Ca2+-independent acidic phospholipase A2 activity.Fish Flour: A flour made of pulverized, dried fish or fish parts.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Lactoperoxidase: An enzyme derived from cow's milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Selenomethionine: Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.3,3'-DiaminobenzidineBenzidines: Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Amitrole: A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.Selenoprotein P: An extracellular selenoprotein that contains most of the SELENIUM in PLASMA. Selenoprotein P functions as an antioxidant and appears to transport selenium from the LIVER to peripheral tissues.Selenoproteins: Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.White Muscle Disease: A myodegeneration most frequent in calves and lambs whose dams have been fed during gestation or longer on feeds, especially legumes (FABACEAE), grown in certain areas where selenium is either deficient or unavailable in the soil. It has been recorded in many countries. It has been produced experimentally in several species of animals on low-selenium intake. A similar myopathy occurs naturally in goats, deer, foals, and dogs but proof of the etiology is lacking. (Merck Veterinary Manual, 5th ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Organoselenium Compounds: Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Sodium Selenite: The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Selenic Acid: A strong dibasic acid with the molecular formula H2SeO4. Included under this heading is the acid form, and inorganic salts of dihydrogen selenium tetraoxide.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Peroxiredoxin III: A THIOREDOXIN-dependent hydroperoxidase that is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme plays a crucial role in protecting mitochondrial components from elevated levels of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Prostaglandins G: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin G2.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Benzene DerivativesHemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Selenocysteine: A naturally occurring amino acid in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It is found in tRNAs and in the catalytic site of some enzymes. The genes for glutathione peroxidase and formate dehydrogenase contain the TGA codon, which codes for this amino acid.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Vitamin E Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Reducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Catechol Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Iodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Anisoles: A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Spin Trapping: A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Chloride Peroxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC 1.11.1.10.p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene: A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Glutathione Disulfide: A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.Azulenes: Compounds based on a seven-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring. Heat can rearrange them to NAPHTHALENES which have two fused six-membered rings. They are similar to guaiazulenes which are SESQUITERPENES with a six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Dinitrochlorobenzene: A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.Glutaredoxins: A family of thioltransferases that contain two active site CYSTEINE residues, which either form a disulfide (oxidized form) or a dithiol (reduced form). They function as an electron carrier in the GLUTHIONE-dependent synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides by RIBONUCLEOTIDE REDUCTASES and may play a role in the deglutathionylation of protein thiols. The oxidized forms of glutaredoxins are directly reduced by the GLUTATHIONE.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Selenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hemin: Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Acatalasia: A rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the absence of CATALASE activity. Though usually asymptomatic, a syndrome of oral ulcerations and gangrene may be present.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Methimazole: A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Phanerochaete: A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Aniline CompoundsHistidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseGene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Coprinus: A genus of black-spored basidiomycetous fungi of the family Coprinaceae, order Agaricales; some species are edible.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Protein Carbonylation: The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Horseradish Peroxidase Conjugate: The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.Dithiothreitol: A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Pleurotus: A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cyclooxygenase 1: A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
... thyroid peroxidase activity; and hormone release. Graves' disease GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000165409 - Ensembl, May ...
Glutathione peroxidase activity of inorganic selenium and seleno-DL-cysteine. Experientia 31: 769-770, 1975 Beutler E, et al. ... The normal human female as a mosaic of X-chromosome activity: Studies using the gene for G-6-PD deficiency as a marker. Proc ... Chemical chaperones increase the cellular activity of N370S b-glucosidase: A therapeutic strategy for Gaucher's disease. Proc ... Electrophoretic polymorphism of glutathione peroxidase. Ann Hum Genet 38: 163-169, 1974 Beutler E, et al. ...
"Introduction of a catalytic triad increases the glutathione peroxidase-like activity of diaryl diselenides". Organic & ... In each case, changing the nucleophile reduced the enzyme's protease activity, but increased a different activity. A sulphur ... "Semisynthetic Tellurosubtilisin with Glutathione Peroxidase Activity". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 127 (33): ... Removing the acid histidine results in only a 10-fold activity loss (compared to >10,000-fold when aspartate is removed from ...
2 nanozymes with peroxidase-like activities were reported. Ionic FePt, Fe3O4, Pd, and CdSe NPs with peroxidase-like activities ... peroxidase mimicking activities. Gold nanoparticles' peroxidase mimicking activities were modulated via a supramolecular ... A molecular imprinting strategy was developed to improve the selectivity of Fe3O4 nanozymes with peroxidase-like activity. A ... In 2007, Xiyun Yan and coworkers reported that ferromagnetic nanoparticles possessed intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. In ...
Klebanoff SJ (1970). "Peroxidase-mediated antimicrobial activity of rat uterine fluid". Gynecol Invest. 1: 21-30. doi:10.1159/ ... 10:8. Matu M. N., Orinda G. O., Njagi E. N. M., Cohen C. R., Bukusi E. A. (2010). "In vitro inhibitory activity of human ... with inhibitory activity ranging from narrow (closely related Lactobacillus species) to broad (diverse groups of bacteria, ... salivarius CRL 1328). Several studies have indicated that the activity of bacteriocins is favored by low pH. The inhibitory ...
2. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 ... General function: Involved in peroxidase activity. ... 1999), in which hyperforin provided a potent inhibition of TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB [58]. Another important activity ... a combination of several active constituents of Hypericum species is the carrier of their anti-inflammatory activity.. ...
The reaction involves both cyclooxygenase (dioxygenase) and hydroperoxidase (peroxidase) activity. The cyclooxygenase activity ... The two 15-HETE stereoisomers have intrinsic biological activities but, perhaps more importantly, can be further metabolized to ... These alternate metabolites of COX-1 may contribute to its activities. COX-1 promotes the production of the natural mucus ... released from membrane phospholipids at the sn-2 ester binding site by the enzymatic activity of phospholipase A2, to ...
... inhibits thyroid activity by blocking the enzyme thyroid peroxidase. Its use in recent times has been replaced by ... "Effect of Antithyroid Agents 6-Propyl-2-Thiouracil and l-Methyl-2-Mercaptoimidazole on Human Thyroid Iodide Peroxidase". ...
Their activity is attributed to their mimicry of glutathione peroxidase activity. They reduce hydroperoxides that otherwise ... This selenenic acid derivative of the peroxidase then reacts with a thiol-containing cofactor (GSH) to generate the key ... Selenenic acids derived from selenoenzymes are thought to be responsible for the antioxidant activity of these enzymes. In ... The best known selenoenzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalyzes the reduction of peroxides by glutathione (GSH). The ...
Peroxidase-generated hypothiocyanite inhibits herpes simplex virus and human immunodeficiency virus. The antibacterial activity ... eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS). A heme cofactor is bound near the ... Lactoperoxidase is a peroxidase enzyme secreted from mammary, salivary, and other mucosal glands that functions as a natural ... Lactoperoxidase is a member of the heme peroxidase family of enzymes. In humans, lactoperoxidase is encoded by the LPO gene. ...
This enzyme also demonstrates glutathione-dependent peroxidase activity towards lipid hydroperoxides. Model organisms have been ... and characterization of a novel microsomal enzyme with glutathione-dependent transferase and peroxidase activities". J Biol ...
PPA also causes a decrease in glutathione and Glutathione Peroxidase activity. The epoxide of allylcatechol may also be ... These two mechanisms result in lowered mixed function oxidase activity. Furthermore, because of the altered structural and ... oxide induces neuronal apoptosis through inhibition of integrin β4/SOD activity and elevation of ROS/NADPH oxidase activity". ... "Synthesis and analgesic activity of novel N-acylarylhydrazones and isosters, derived from natural safrole". European Journal of ...
Liu, M.; T. Kagahara; H. Abe; Y. Ito (2009). "Direct In Vitro Selection of Hemin-Binding DNA Aptamer with Peroxidase Activity ... They can also be used to modulate activities of cell receptors and deliver different agents (e.g., siRNA and drugs) into the ... Bound to a target, aptamers inhibit its activity. Aptamers suffer from two issues that limit their effectiveness. Firstly, the ... Carothers JM, Oestreich SC, Davis JH, Szostak JW (Apr 2004). "Informational complexity and functional activity of RNA ...
Exposure to dimethoate also decreases glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and carboxylesterases activity. Because C ... brunneus in non polluted reference sites do not experience the same decrease in enzyme activities, researchers have suggested ... that the decreased enzyme activities can be contributed to the tradeoff associated with adapting to living in heavily polluted ... from heavily polluted sites have increased glutathione concentrations and decreased glutathione S-transferase activity. In the ...
Diminished SOD3 activity has been linked to lung diseases such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) or Chronic ... Catalase Peroxidase Jiaogulan NADPH oxidase, an enzyme which produces superoxide PDB: 1VAR​; Borgstahl GE, Parge HE, Hickey MJ ... However, ingestion of SOD bound to wheat proteins could improve its therapeutic activity, at least in theory. ... Likewise, SOD has multiple pharmacological activities. E.g., it ameliorates cis-platinum-induced nephrotoxicity in rodents. As ...
Kim SY, Bae YS, Park JW (2002). "Thiol-linked peroxidase activity of human sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG) protein". Free ... and ubiquitin ligase activity of CUL1". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (21): 8185-97. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.21.8185-8197.2000. PMC 86428 . ... represents a family of cullin partners with an associated ubiquitin ligase activity". Mol Cell. 3 (4): 535-41. doi:10.1016/ ...
Effect of light on distribution of peroxidase activity in Zea mays. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 88:169 Binding, H., S.M. Jain, J. ...
It has a peroxidase-like activity and effectively eliminate autoxidation-derived H2O2, which is a cause of haeme degradation ... variants possessing efficient peroxidase activity". J Microbiol Biotechnol. 20 (3): 532-541. PMID 20372024. ...
"Low serum selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy". Br Med J (Clin ...
Involved in peroxidase activity Wölfle U, Seelinger G, Schempp CM (2014). "Topical application of St. John's wort (Hypericum ... Li S, Zhang Z, Cain A, Wang B, Long M, Taylor J (2005). "Antifungal activity of camptothecin, trifolin, and hyperoside isolated ... "Biological activities and chemical modifications of caffeic acid derivatives". Fudan University Journal of Medical Sciences. 38 ... Wenk M, Todesco L, Krähenbühl S (2004). "Effect of St John's wort on the activities of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2D6, N- ...
Ihalin R, Loimaranta V, Tenovuo J (January 2006). "Origin, structure, and biological activities of peroxidases in human saliva ... The enzymes lysozyme and peroxidase, defensins, cystatins and an antibody, IgA, are all antibacterial. Thrombospondin and some ...
There are at least four different glutathione peroxidase isozymes in animals.[154] Glutathione peroxidase 1 is the most ... Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. World Cancer Research Fund (2007). ISBN ... Peroxidases. catalase. H. 2. O. Water. {\displaystyle {\ce {{\underset {Oxygen}{O2}}-,{\underset {Superoxide}{*O2^{-}}}-,[{\ce ... Pro-oxidant activities[edit]. Further information: Pro-oxidant. Antioxidants that are reducing agents can also act as pro- ...
... enzyme activity regulated by thioredoxin Peroxiredoxin - enzyme activity regulated by thioredoxin Thioredoxin fold GRCh38: ... Thioredoxins act as electron donors to peroxidases and ribonucleotide reductase. The related glutaredoxins share many of the ... Hirota K, Matsui M, Iwata S, Nishiyama A, Mori K, Yodoi J (April 1997). "AP-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by a direct ... Reduction of insulin is classically used as an activity test. Thioredoxins are characterized at the level of their amino acid ...
... anti-oxidant and cytoprotective activity. It acts as a mimic of glutathione peroxidase and can also react with peroxynitrite. ... Satheeshkumar K, Mugesh G (2011). "Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of Peptide-Based Ebselen Analogues". Chem. Eur. J. 17 (17 ... "Synthesis and Antioxidant Activities of Novel Chiral Ebselen Analogues". Heteroatom Chemistry. 25 (5): 320-325. doi:10.1002/hc. ... "Ebselen treatment reduces noise induced hearing loss via the mimicry and induction of glutathione peroxidase". Hearing Research ...
2006). "Peroxidase Activity and Structural Transitions of Cytochrome c Bound to Cardiolipin-Containing Membranes". Biochemistry ... It's also associated with a 15% reduction in linked complex I/III activity of the electron transport chain, which is thought to ...
Other predictors of the required dosage are sex, BMI, deiodinase activity (SPINA-GD) and etiology of hypothyroidism.[16] Annual ... people with elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody titers, people with symptoms of hypothyroidism and TSH levels between 5-10 mIU ... Massive overdose can be associated with increased sympathetic activity and thus require treatment with beta-blockers.[18] ... Its chemical nature and physiologic activity". J. Am. Med. Assoc. 64 (25): 2042-2043. doi:10.1001/jama.1915.02570510018005.. ...
Eosinophil peroxidase is a heme peroxidase, its activities including the oxidation of halide ions to bacteriocidal reactive ... The third and less relevant mechanism is the catalase activity of peroxidases. This mechanism appears to operate only in the ... However, not all members possess peroxidase activity. The calcium ion binding site has typical pentagonal bipyramidal geometry ... Eosinophil peroxidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Eosinophil peroxidase on InterPro ...
Screening of laccase, manganese peroxidase, and versatile peroxidase activities of the genus Pleurotus in media with some raw ... However, relative activities of DMP oxidation in the absence of Mn2+, as percentages of activity against DMP in the presence of ... Pleurotus / laccase / manganese peroxidase / versatile peroxidase / submerged fermentation / solid-state fermentation. Source: ... Mn-dependent peroxidase (MnP), versatile peroxidase (VP), and the H2O2-generating enzyme aryl-alcohol oxidase, but not lignin ...
Peroxidase activity was no longer seen in the endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, whereas it was observed in portions of ... Peroxidase activity measured in the thyroid progressively decreased with prolonged administration of amitrole (Strum & ... In addition, fibrous thickening of both stroma and capsule was prominent and cisternal peroxidase activity was absent. Over 50- ... Fine structure and localization of thyroid peroxidase activity. Laboratory Investigation, 24: 1-12. Styles, J.A. (1979). ...
... to a pure oxygen atmosphere under conditions of nutrient starvation has been widely adopted to induce lignin peroxidase (LiP) ... 1985; Strategies for production of high ligninase activities by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J Biotechnol3:97-107[CrossRef] ... Keyword(s): cellulose , lignin peroxidase , LiP, lignin peroxidase , NBT, nitro blue tetrazolium , oxidant stress , ... 1991; Depolymerization of a synthetic lignin in vitro by lignin peroxidase. Enzyme Microb Technol13:15-18[CrossRef] ...
Inhibition of Peroxidase Activity of Cytochrome c: De Novo Compound Discovery and Validation. Ahmet Bakan, Alexandr A. Kapralov ... Inhibition of Cytochrome c Peroxidase Activity. Ahmet Bakan, Alexandr A. Kapralov, Hulya Bayir, Feizhou Hu, Valerian E. Kagan ... Inhibition of Cytochrome c Peroxidase Activity. Ahmet Bakan, Alexandr A. Kapralov, Hulya Bayir, Feizhou Hu, Valerian E. Kagan ... Pore opening is enhanced by peroxidase activity of cyt c gained upon its complexation with cardiolipin in the presence of ...
Uterine peroxidase enzyme activity has been studied as a marker for estrogen action in the uterus to help clarify the mechanism ... Uterine peroxidase enzyme activity has been studied as a marker for estrogen action in the uterus to help clarify the mechanism ... DeSombre E.R., Lyttle C.R. (1979) Steroid Hormone Regulation of Uterine Peroxidase Activity. In: Leavitt W.W., Clark J.H. (eds ... Estrogen-induced increases in peroxidase were found to closely parallel increases in uterine weight and DNA content in the ...
GSH peroxidase activity, non-selenium glutathione peroxidase activity, reduced glutathione peroxidase activity, selenium- ... Gene Ontology Term: glutathione peroxidase activity. GO ID. GO:0004602 Aspect. Molecular Function. Description. Catalysis of ...
Glutathione peroxidase activity protects against symptoms of Huntingtons disease. *Download PDF Copy ... Their paper, Glutathione peroxidase activity is neuroprotective in models of Huntingtons disease, was published in Nature ... The team now aim to further validate the observations regarding glutathione peroxidase activity, in order to understand whether ... The team of University of Leicester researchers identified that glutathione peroxidase activity - a key antioxidant in cells - ...
Points: Low serum selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy Br Med J ... Points: Low serum selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Br Med J ... Points: Low serum selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy ... Points: Low serum selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy ...
... Sunil Kumar Singh, ... I. Grgič, H. Podgornik, M. Berovič, and A. Perdih, "Improvements in the determination of manganese peroxidase activity," ... H. B. Dunford, "Horseradish peroxidase: structure and kinetic properties," in Peroxidases in Chemistry and Biology, J. Everse, ... M. H. Gold and J. K. Glenn, "Manganese peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium," Methods in Enzymology, vol. 161, no. C, pp ...
The influence of atmospheric chromium on selenium content and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood of tannery workers. ... The concentration of selenium and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase ...
Yang L, Liu X, Lu Q, Huang N, Liu M, Zhang Y, Yao S (2016) Catalytic and peroxidase-like activity of carbon based-AuPd ... Hosseini M, Sabet FS, Khabbaz H, Aghazadeh M, Mizani F, Ganjali MR (2017) Enhancement of the peroxidase-like activity of cerium ... Choleva TG, Gatselou VA, Tsogas GZ, Giokas DL (2018) Intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of rhodium nanoparticles, and their ... Colorimetric aptasensor for Campylobacter jejuni cells by exploiting the peroxidase like activity of [email protected] nanoparticles. ...
Association of glutathione peroxidase activity with insulin resistance and dietary fat intake during normal pregnancy.. Chen X1 ... Association of glutathione peroxidase activity with insulin resistance and dietary fat intake during normal pregnancy. [J Clin ... GPx activity and the metabolic parameters were determined at entry to care (16 wk of pregnancy) and during the third trimester ... Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is one of the most important antioxidant enzymes in humans. We studied the relationship between ...
... we also discovered that the reason why this enzyme is essential is not due to its well characterized peroxidase activity, which ... In short, by proposing a novel, peroxidase-unrelated role for the Leishmania mitochondrial peroxiredoxin during mammals ...
Peroxidase activity was localized in the posterior (female-specific) lobes of salivary glands and was also detected in ... Protein and peroxidase activities were significantly lower in salivary glands of mosquitoes after probing and feeding on blood ... The salivary catechol oxidase/peroxidase activities of the mosquito Anopheles albimanus Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Additionally, peroxidase activity on both synthetic (o-dianisidine) and biologically active (serotonin) substrates was also ...
The activity of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase was maximum between pH 6.5 and 7.0 and no activity was detected at pH 2.5 or ... Optimum temperature for PPO and PO activities. The activity of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase was determined in a temperature ... The activity of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase was maximum at pH 6.5 and 7.0, respectively, and no activity was detected at ... Peroxidase activity was highest at 70ºC and remained active for a period of 120 min at 70 and 80ºC. Peroxidase became ...
2. Measurements of the activities of horseradish and tea peroxidase by this and two other methods, involving respectively ... 1. Peroxidase has been assayed by a chronometric method involving the coupled reaction of ascorbic acid with the product of the ...
Detoxification of azo dyes mediated by cell-free supernatant culture with manganese-dependent peroxidase activity: Effect of Mn ... cell-free culture of WRF with manganese peroxidase activity was used to investigate its degradative capacity under various ... C. Palma, L. Lloret, L. Sepúlveda, E. Contreras, Production of versatile peroxidase fromPleurotus eryngiiby solid-state ... Purification and Characterization of a Novel Manganese Peroxidase from Irpex lacteus CD2 and Its Application in the ...
... graphene oxide-Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposites were demonstrated to possess intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and enhanced ... Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposites were demonstrated to possess intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and enhanced affinity toward H2O2 ... Graphene oxide-Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposites with peroxidase-like activity for colorimetric detection of glucose. Y. Dong, H. ... Graphene oxide-Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposites with peroxidase-like activity for colorimetric detection of glucose. ...
... study showing Kaplan-Meier survivor curves using 2.5 and 5.0 mg MPO/mouse and also 2.5 and 5.0 mg eosinophil peroxidase (EPO)/ ...
... property and peroxidase-like activity. It is found that the catalytic activity of the AuNC/GNR heterostructure could be ... Prompting peroxidase-like activity of gold nanorod composites by localized surface plasmon resonance for fast colorimetric ... Prompting peroxidase-like activity of gold nanorod composites by localized surface plasmon resonance for fast colorimetric ... Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of enzyme-like AuNC/GNRs may be regulated by immunoreactions to realize specific recognition ...
Peroxidase and peroxidase-oxidase activities of isolated human myeloperoxidases. B E Svensson, K Domeij, S Lindvall, G Rydell ... Peroxidase and peroxidase-oxidase activities of isolated human myeloperoxidases Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... When these forms were assayed for peroxidase and peroxidase-oxidase activities with several substrates, they all exhibited ... and enzyme-activity measurements. Although the myeloperoxidases exhibited different elution profiles on cation-exchange ...
This is the first example of 1-Cys Prx that has thioredoxin peroxidase activity. Finally, exposure of null Prx1p mutant cells ... Moreover, 2-Cys Prxs, also named thioredoxin peroxidases, have peroxide reductase activity with the use of thioredoxin as ... We show also that Prx1p has peroxide reductase activity in vitro using the yeast mitochondrial thioredoxin system as electron ... the absolutely conserved cysteine as the only cysteine residue also shows thioredoxin-dependent peroxide reductase activity. ...
Glucose oxidase (GOD), horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and gold nanoparticles were immobilized with sol-gel method on the inside ... Horseradish Peroxidase / chemistry*. Luminescent Measurements / instrumentation*. Nanoparticles / chemistry*. Reproducibility ... Glucose oxidase (GOD), horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and gold nanoparticles were immobilized with sol-gel method on the inside ... 0/Enzymes, Immobilized; 50-99-7/Glucose; 7440-57-5/Gold; EC 1.1.3.4/Glucose Oxidase; EC 1.11.1.-/Horseradish Peroxidase ...
Activity Assay Kit: Colorimetric Assay for Measuring GPx Activity in plasma, erythrocyte lysates, tissue homogenates, cell ... Glutathione Peroxidase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit. based on 8 citations in multiple journalsGlutathione Peroxidase ... Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx, EC 1.11.1.9) is an enzyme family with peroxidase activity, and plays important role in protecting ... BioVisions Glutathione Peroxidase Assay Kit measures glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity through a coupled reaction with ...
  • Hence, they cannot act as a peroxidase mimic and oxidize the substrate 3,3 ′ ,5,5 ′ -tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to give a blue product. (springer.com)
  • It displayed GSH-dependent peroxidase activity and exhibited the largest affinity to and the highest catalytic efficiency on phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide, suggesting that phospholipid hydroperoxide is probably the optimum substrate for RsPHGPx. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, differences exist which unsurprisingly account for differences in substrate specificity among peroxidases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our data suggest that Apx2 is a novel heat shock gene and that the enzymatic activity of APX2/APX S is required to compensate heat stress-dependent decline of APX1 activity in the cytosol. (plantphysiol.org)
  • ROS-scavenging enzyme activities and their respective transcript levels were examined in order to evaluate whether ASA-mitigation of oxidative damages in roots due to water stress was associated with the enzymatic ROS-scavenging system. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of the present research is to evaluate the contribution of the enzymatic antioxidant glutathione peroxidase (GP) by optimization of the spectrophotometric method of Paglia and Valentine [ 1 ] so that it can be applied to blood samples from several animals differing from sex, age and species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, this side reaction has little impact on enzymatic activity because it follows slower third order kinetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a measure of hemin content and is not necessarily indicative of enzymatic activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Although these observations suggest that PRDX6 has the ability to support invasiveness and metastasis of the cancer cells analyzed, it is currently unclear whether such functions of PRDX6 depend on its enzymatic activities, although such information is essential for a better understanding of the mechanism of PRDX6 action in cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Calcium is essential for maintaining the haem structure, enzymatic activity and thermal stability of wheat bran peroxidase. (cftri.com)
  • On the basis of the high activity, the reaction provides a simple, sensitive and selective method for colorimetric detection of glucose in diabetic urine. (rsc.org)
  • Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx, EC 1.11.1.9) is an enzyme family with peroxidase activity, and plays important role in protecting of organisms from oxidative damage. (abcam.com)
  • Glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ) ( EC 1.11.1.9 ) is the general name of an enzyme family with peroxidase activity whose main biological role is to protect the organism from oxidative damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present study, SFN content and peroxidase activity has been assessed in treated Lepidium draba seedlings with different concentrations of iron and copper during 8 and 16 hours treatment. (ac.ir)
  • The aim of this study is to establish the relationship between polyamine content and peroxidase activity in potassium deficiency conditions. (agriculture-xprt.com)
  • GPx activity and the levels of insulin resistance increased significantly between entry and the third trimester. (nih.gov)
  • African Americans had significantly higher GPx activity, dietary fat, and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake than Hispanics and Caucasians. (nih.gov)
  • RESULTS: We found that whole blood GPX activity was significantly (p=0.001) lower in depressed patients than in normal controls and that there were no significant differences between ME/CFS and controls. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The mean value of glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly lower in the aged group (−36%) than that observed in the young control group ( n = 10). (clinsci.org)
  • 2. This defect was accompanied by a marked increase (+106%) in the oxygenated metabolism of endogenous arachidonic acid by lipoxygenases as judged by the radiolabel associated with hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids in [ 3 H]arachidonic acid-prelabelled peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whereas the cyclo-oxygenase activity, estimated by the radiolabel associated with thromboxane B 2 , was not significantly altered. (clinsci.org)
  • Rh_DypB shows a classical peroxidase activity which is significantly increased by adding Mn 2+ ions: kinetic parameters for H 2 O 2 , Mn 2+ , ABTS, and 2,6-DMP were determined. (springer.com)
  • Taken together, our results indicated that, for the first time, blood δ -ALA-D activity was significantly inhibited in AD patients. (tu-dortmund.de)
  • Peroxidase activity levels correlated significantly with resistance of the mycobacterial strains to H 2 O 2 -mediated killing. (asm.org)
  • Peroxidase activity was not significantly increased at test concentrations of 15 µg mL-1 or lower. (edu.au)
  • GST activity was significantly elevated at anatoxin-a concentrations of 5 and 20 µg mL-1. (edu.au)
  • The aim of the presented work was to determine the scope of usefulness of chromogenic substrates for gold nanoparticle (AuNP) activity studies under conditions which significantly extend beyond the activity range of a native HRP. (edu.pl)
  • To validate our hypothesis, we carried out in-vitro studies of these nanomaterials to investigate their peroxidase like behaviour and it was revealed that these amino acids conjugated nanoparticles had dose, temperature, composition, and surface functionality-depended peroxidase like activity. (nsti.org)
  • To determine the interrelationship between sensitivity to H 2 O 2 , catalase and peroxidase activities, and bacillary growth rates measured both intracellularly in human monocytes and in culture medium, we examined one laboratory strain, two clinical isolates, and three recombinant strains of M. tuberculosis with differing levels of KatG and AhpC. (asm.org)
  • More recently, the loss of catalase and peroxidase activities in Mycobacterium bovis has been shown to correlate with the lack of virulence of M. bovis in guinea pigs ( 39 ). (asm.org)
  • Estrogen-induced increases in peroxidase were found to closely parallel increases in uterine weight and DNA content in the castrate rat. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we sought to determine whether the increases in peroxidase activity and electrolyte leakage induced in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves by sodium bisulfite were causally related to the sodium bisulfite-induced increases in sporulation of the pathogen Bipolaris maydis race T on infected maize leaves. (osu.edu)
  • Ahmad M, Roberts JN, Hardiman EM, Singh R, Eltis LD, Bugg TD (2011) Identification of DypB from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 as a lignin peroxidase. (springer.com)
  • Then a specific detection of lignin peroxidase was achieved by the addition of veratryl alcohol, which led to current decrease due to the redox competition between veratryl alcohol and hydroquinone. (naver.com)
  • It is suggested that adult female Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes contain a salivary heme peroxidase that functions during blood finding and blood feeding by destroying hemostatically active biogenic amines released by the vertebrate host during tissue destruction. (biologists.org)
  • Pore opening is enhanced by peroxidase activity of cyt c gained upon its complexation with cardiolipin in the presence of reactive oxygen species. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Peroxidase-mimic Ni-hemin MOFs as reactive oxygen species which could damage MCF-7 cancer cells, however for normal cells (human embryonic kidney HEK 293 cells) killing effect was negligible. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Metabolic analysis showed that, compared with 'Zhenghong532,' the amount of salicylic acid (SA) and total carotenoids in 'Yayu889' increased, while peroxidase activity decreased during the early infection stages, suggesting that increased levels of SA, carotenoids, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) may enhance the defense response of 'Yayu889' to GLS. (springer.com)
  • Sakhabutdinova, A. 2004-09-26 00:00:00 The effect of salicylic acid (SA) on peroxidase activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) calli cocultured with the bunt pathogen Tilletia caries was studied. (deepdyve.com)
  • In the present study, using a combination of druggability simulations, pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening, and in vitro fluorescence measurements to probe peroxidase activity, we identified three repurposable drugs and seven compounds that are validated to effectively inhibit the peroxidase activity of cyt c . (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since progesterone was found to inhibit peroxidase induction due to both estrone and diethylstilbestrol, as well as estradiol, it is considered unlikely that this antagonism relates to progestin-induced increases in uterine 17 β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. (springer.com)
  • In this paper, it was also applied in the detection of lignin-degrading peroxidases in compost bioremediation using P. chrysosporium, showing considerable advantages. (naver.com)
  • In contrast, peroxidases catalyze the reduction of H 2 O 2 and organic peroxides to their respective water and alcohol, oxidizing an electron donor in the reaction ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • The recombinant enzyme shows a good thermostability (melting temperature of 63-65 °C), is stable at pH 6-7, and maintains a large part of the starting activity following incubation for 24 h at 25-37 °C. Rh_DypB activity is not affected by 1 M NaCl, 10% DMSO, and 5% Tween-80, i.e., compounds used for dye decolorization or lignin-solubilization processes. (springer.com)
  • Importantly, there are drug-like compounds available that mimic this activity that have already been tested in human clinical trials for other disorders - which potentially means the approach could be used to treat people with the disease. (news-medical.net)