An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC
A hemeprotein which catalyzes the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c to ferricytochrome c in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. EC
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
A 66-kDa peroxidase found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil peroxidase is a cationic protein with a pI of 10.8 and is comprised of a heavy chain subunit and a light chain subunit. It possesses cytotoxic activity towards BACTERIA and other organisms, which is attributed to its peroxidase activity.
A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
An enzyme derived from cow's milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.
A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.
Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.
A genus of black-spored basidiomycetous fungi of the family Coprinaceae, order Agaricales; some species are edible.
Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.
Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.
A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)
A selenium compound with the molecular formula H2SO3. It used as a source of SELENIUM, especially for patients that develop selenium deficiency following prolonged PARENTERAL NUTRITION.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A peroxiredoxin that is a cytosolic bifunctional enzyme. It functions as a peroxiredoxin via a single redox-active cysteine and also contains a Ca2+-independent acidic phospholipase A2 activity.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
A THIOREDOXIN-dependent hydroperoxidase that is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme plays a crucial role in protecting mitochondrial components from elevated levels of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.
An extracellular selenoprotein that contains most of the SELENIUM in PLASMA. Selenoprotein P functions as an antioxidant and appears to transport selenium from the LIVER to peripheral tissues.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
A naturally occurring amino acid in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It is found in tRNAs and in the catalytic site of some enzymes. The genes for glutathione peroxidase and formate dehydrogenase contain the TGA codon, which codes for this amino acid.
A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE known for the root used in hot SPICES. It is also the source of HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE which is widely used in laboratories.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.
A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
A genus of fungi in the family Coriolaceae.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin G2.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A product from the iodination of MONOIODOTYROSINE. In the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, diiodotyrosine residues are coupled with other monoiodotyrosine or diiodotyrosine residues to form T4 or T3 thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE).
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent and Ehrlichia chaffeensis reside in different cytoplasmic compartments in HL-60 cells. (1/3678)

The human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent resides and multiplies exclusively in cytoplasmic vacuoles of granulocytes. Double immunofluorescence labeling was used to characterize the nature of the HGE agent replicative inclusions and to compare them with inclusions containing the human monocytic ehrlichia, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, in HL-60 cells. Although both Ehrlichia spp. can coinfect HL-60 cells, they resided in separate inclusions. Inclusions of both Ehrlichia spp. were not labeled with either anti-lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 or anti-CD63. Accumulation of myeloperoxidase-positive granules were seen around HGE agent inclusions but not around E. chaffeensis inclusions. 3-(2, 4-Dinitroanilino)-3'-amino-N-methyldipropylamine and acridine orange were not localized to either inclusion type. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase was not colocalized with HGE agent inclusions but was weakly colocalized with E. chaffeensis inclusions. E. chaffeensis inclusions were labeled with the transferrin receptor, early endosomal antigen 1, and rab5, but HGE agent inclusions were not. Some HGE agent and E. chaffeensis inclusions colocalized with major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens. These two inclusions were not labeled for annexins I, II, IV, and VI; alpha-adaptin; clathrin heavy chain; or beta-coatomer protein. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 colocalized to both inclusions. The cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor was not colocalized with either inclusion type. Endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin, from C6-NBD-ceramide, was not incorporated into either inclusion type. Brefeldin A did not affect the growth of either Ehrlichia sp. in HL-60 cells. These results suggest that the HGE agent resides in inclusions which are neither early nor late endosomes and does not fuse with lysosomes or Golgi-derived vesicles, while E. chaffeensis resides in an early endosomal compartment which accumulates the transferrin receptor.  (+info)

Alternating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody specificity: drug-induced vasculitis in a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis. (2/3678)

We describe a patient who presented with Wegener's granulomatosis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) with a cytoplasmic immunofluorescence pattern (cANCA), whose ANCA type changed to antimyeloperoxidase antibodies with a perinuclear immunofluorescence pattern (pANCA) when treated with propylthiouracil, and changed back to anti-PR3 antibodies with cANCA after the medication was discontinued. The patient developed flares of vasculitis symptoms associated with rises in either type of ANCA. Tests for antimyeloperoxidase ANCA were repeatedly negative before the drug was started, strongly implicating the drug as the cause of the episode. This case demonstrates that patients with idiopathic ANCA-positive vasculitis may quickly develop a superimposed drug-associated ANCA-positive vasculitis. Iatrogenic vasculitis should be suspected when a patient with idiopathic vasculitis with one type of ANCA develops the other type of ANCA.  (+info)

Kinetics of oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic thiols by myeloperoxidase compounds I and II. (3/3678)

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is the most abundant protein in neutrophils and plays a central role in microbial killing and inflammatory tissue damage. Because most of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other drugs contain a thiol group, it is necessary to understand how these substrates are oxidized by MPO. We have performed transient kinetic measurements to study the oxidation of 14 aliphatic and aromatic mono- and dithiols by the MPO intermediates, Compound I (k3) and Compound II (k4), using sequential mixing stopped-flow techniques. The one-electron reduction of Compound I by aromatic thiols (e.g. methimidazole, 2-mercaptopurine and 6-mercaptopurine) varied by less than a factor of seven (between 1.39 +/- 0.12 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and 9.16 +/- 1.63 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)), whereas reduction by aliphatic thiols was demonstrated to depend on their overall net charge and hydrophobic character and not on the percentage of thiol deprotonation or redox potential. Cysteamine, cysteine methyl ester, cysteine ethyl ester and alpha-lipoic acid showed k3 values comparable to aromatic thiols, whereas a free carboxy group (e.g. cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione) diminished k3 dramatically. The one-electron reduction of Compound II was far more constrained by the nature of the substrate. Reduction by methimidazole, 2-mercaptopurine and 6-mercaptopurine showed second-order rate constants (k4) of 1.33 +/- 0.08 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), 5.25 +/- 0.07 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and 3.03 +/- 0.07 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1). Even at high concentrations cysteine, penicillamine and glutathione could not reduce Compound II, whereas cysteamine (4.27 +/- 0.05 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)), cysteine methyl ester (8.14 +/- 0.08 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)), cysteine ethyl ester (3.76 +/- 0.17 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) and alpha-lipoic acid (4.78 +/- 0.07 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)) were demonstrated to reduce Compound II and thus could be expected to be oxidized by MPO without co-substrates.  (+info)

The inhibition of myeloperoxidase by ceruloplasmin can be reversed by anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies. (4/3678)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize the recently reported inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO) by ceruloplasmin and to determine whether this may be disturbed in the presence of anti-MPO antibodies. METHODS: Specificity of the binding between ceruloplasmin and MPO was confirmed by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the enzymatic activity of MPO was measured in the presence of ceruloplasmin, affinity-purified anti-MPO antibodies, or both. The affinity of the binding between MPO and ceruloplasmin and MPO and the anti-MPO antibodies was measured using a biosensor, with the results confirmed by chaotrope ELISA. RESULTS: Affinity-purified anti-MPO antibodies from patients with microscopic polyangiitis and florid renal vasculitis inhibited the binding between ceruloplasmin and MPO to a maximum of 72.9 +/- 12.8%, whereas those from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis and only minimal renal involvement inhibited the binding to a maximum of only 36.8 +/- 10.9% (P < 0. 001), with comparable reversal of the ceruloplasmin-mediated inhibition of MPO activity. Measurement of the affinity of the interactions demonstrated that binding between MPO and the anti-MPO antibodies is stronger than that between MPO and ceruloplasmin (1.61 x 107 to 1.33 x 108 vs. 7.46 x 106 m-1), indicating that binding to the autoantibody would be favored in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms a role for ceruloplasmin as a physiological inhibitor of MPO, and demonstrates how the inhibition may be disrupted in the presence of anti-MPO antibodies. Because a majority (16 of 21) of the antibodies did not themselves inhibit MPO activity, their interference with the inhibition mediated by ceruloplasmin may be brought about by steric hindrance consequent upon the binding of the antibody to a dominant epitope at or near the active site.  (+info)

A cell-surface superoxide dismutase is a binding protein for peroxinectin, a cell-adhesive peroxidase in crayfish. (5/3678)

Peroxinectin, a cell-adhesive peroxidase (homologous to human myeloperoxidase), from the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, was shown by immuno-fluorescence to bind to the surface of crayfish blood cells (haemocytes). In order to identify a cell surface receptor for peroxinectin, labelled peroxinectin was incubated with a blot of haemocyte membrane proteins. It was found to specifically bind two bands of 230 and 90 kDa; this binding was decreased in the presence of unlabelled peroxinectin. Purified 230/90 kDa complex also bound peroxinectin in the same assay. In addition, the 230 kDa band binds the crayfish beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein. The 230 kDa band could be reduced to 90 kDa, thus showing that the 230 kDa is a multimer of 90 kDa units. The peroxinectin-binding protein was cloned from a haemocyte cDNA library, using immuno-screening or polymerase chain reaction based on partial amino acid sequence of the purified protein. It has a signal sequence, a domain homologous to CuZn-containing superoxide dismutases, and a basic, proline-rich, C-terminal tail, but no membrane-spanning segment. In accordance, the 90 and 230 kDa bands had superoxide dismutase activity. Immuno-fluorescence of non-permeabilized haemocytes with affinity-purified antibodies confirmed that the crayfish CuZn-superoxide dismutase is localized at the cell surface; it could be released from the membrane with high salt. It was thus concluded that the peroxinectin-binding protein is an extracellular SOD (EC-SOD) and a peripheral membrane protein, presumably kept at the cell surface via ionic interaction with its C-terminal region. This interaction with a peroxidase seems to be a novel function for an SOD. The binding of the cell surface SOD to the cell-adhesive/opsonic peroxinectin may mediate, or regulate, cell adhesion and phagocytosis; it may also be important for efficient localized production of microbicidal substances.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a novel extracellular peroxidase from Trametes versicolor. (6/3678)

The white rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor secretes a large number of peroxidases which are believed to be involved in the degradation of polymeric lignin. These peroxidases have been classified previously as lignin peroxidases or manganese peroxidases (MnP). We have isolated a novel extracellular peroxidase-encoding cDNA sequence from T. versicolor CU1, the transcript levels of which are repressed by low concentrations of Mn2+ and induced by nitrogen and carbon but not induced in response to a range of stresses which have been reported to induce MnP expression.  (+info)

Expression of the cell adhesion molecules on leukocytes that demarginate during acute maximal exercise. (7/3678)

The pulmonary vascular bed is an important reservoir for the marginated pool of leukocytes that can be mobilized by exercise or catecholamines. This study was designed to determine the phenotypic characteristics of leukocytes that are mobilized into the circulation during exercise. Twenty healthy volunteers performed incremental exercise to exhaustion [maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max)] on a cycle ergometer. Blood was collected at baseline, at 3-min intervals during exercise, at VO2 max, and 30 min after exercise. Total white cell, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN), and lymphocyte counts increased with exercise to VO2 max (P < 0.05). Flow cytometric analysis showed that the mean fluorescence intensity of L-selectin on PMN (from 14.9 +/- 1 at baseline to 9.5 +/- 1.6 at VO2 max, P < 0.05) and lymphocytes (from 11.7 +/- 1.2 at baseline to 8 +/- 0.8 at VO2 max, P < 0.05) decreased with exercise. Mean fluorescence intensity of CD11b on PMN increased with exercise (from 10.2 +/- 0.6 at baseline to 25 +/- 2.5 at VO2 max, P < 0.002) but remained unchanged on lymphocytes. Myeloperoxidase levels in PMN did not change with exercise. In vitro studies showed that neither catecholamines nor plasma collected at VO2 max during exercise changed leukocyte L-selectin or CD11b levels. We conclude that PMN released from the marginated pool during exercise express low levels of L-selectin and high levels of CD11b.  (+info)

Purification and cloning of the salivary peroxidase/catechol oxidase of the mosquito Anopheles albimanus. (8/3678)

Salivary homogenates of the adult female mosquito Anopheles albimanus have been shown previously to contain a vasodilatory activity associated with a catechol oxidase/peroxidase activity. We have now purified the salivary peroxidase using high-performance liquid chromatography. The pure enzyme is able to relax rabbit aortic rings pre-constricted with norepinephrine. The peroxidase has a relative molecular mass of 66 907 as estimated by mass spectrometry. Amino-terminal sequencing allowed us to design oligonucleotide probes for isolation of cDNA clones derived from the salivary gland mRNA from female mosquitoes. The full sequence of the cDNA demonstrated homology between A. albimanus salivary peroxidase and several members of the myeloperoxidase gene family. A close comparison of A. albimanus salivary peroxidase with canine myeloperoxidase, for which the crystal structure is known, showed that all six disulfide bridges were conserved and demonstrated identity for all five residues associated with a Ca2+-binding site. In addition, 16 of 26 residues shown to be in close proximity to the heme moiety in the canine myeloperoxidase were identical. We conclude that the salivary peroxidase of A. albimanus belongs to the myeloperoxidase gene family. Other possible functions for this molecule in blood feeding are discussed.  (+info)

Background: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is well-established as a negative risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and its anti-oxidant property has been attributed mainly to the HDL-bound enzyme paraoxonase-1 (PON-1). Recently, myeloperoxidase (MPO), a pro-oxidant enzyme released from activated neutrophils, has been shown to reverse the atheroprotective action of HDL. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma MPO and serum PON-1 levels in patients with stable (SAP) and unstable angina pectoris (UAP).. Methods: Plasma MPO and serum PON-1 concentrations and activity were measured in patients with SAP (n=230) and UAP (n=151), and in control subjects (n=102).. Results: Plasma MPO levels were significantly higher in UAP patients than in SAP patients or control subjects (UAP, 21.6 [16.7-44.6]; SAP, 19.2 [15.6-29.1]; control, 16.0 [14.8-18.9] ng/ml; P,0.0001). Furthermore, serum PON-1 concentrations were significantly lower in UAP and SAP patients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human myeloperoxidase and thyroid peroxidase, two enzymes with separate and distinct physiological functions, are evolutionarily related members of the same gene family. AU - Kimura, Shioko. AU - Ikeda-Saito, Masao. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - Human myeloperoxidase and human thyroid peroxidase nucleotide and amino acid sequences were compared. The global similarities of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences are 46% and 44%, respectively. These similarities are most evident within the coding sequence, especially that encoding the myeloperoxidase functional subunits. These results clearly indicate that myeloperoxidase and thyroid peroxidase are members of the same gene family and diverged from a common ancestral gene. The residues at 416 in myeloperoxidase and 407 in thyroid peroxidase were estimated as possible candidates for the proximal histidine residues that link to the iron centers of the enzymes. The primary structures around these histidine residues were compared ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of the serum myeloperoxidase/high-density lipoprotein particle ratio and incident cardiovascular events in a multi-ethnic population. T2 - Observations from the Dallas Heart Study. AU - Khine, Htet W.. AU - Teiber, John F.. AU - Haley, Robert W.. AU - Khera, Amit. AU - Ayers, Colby R.. AU - Rohatgi, Anand. N1 - Funding Information: The Dallas Heart Study is supported by grants from the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the NIH (UL1TR001105). Anand Rohatgi is supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the NIH under Award Number K08HL118131 and by the American Heart Association under Award Number 15CVGPSD27030013. Publisher Copyright: © 2017 Elsevier B.V.. PY - 2017/8. Y1 - 2017/8. N2 - Background and aims Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a product of systemic inflammation, promotes oxidation of lipoproteins; whereas, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) exerts anti-oxidative effects in part via ...
To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the diagnostic accuracy of neutrophil MPO expression measured by flow cytometric analysis in PB to rule out MDS. Accordingly, a RCV value ,30% identified patients at low risk of MDS in whom invasive BM aspirate could potentially be avoided. Because the 95%CI for both sensitivity (78-100%) and negative predictive value (83-100%) estimates were relatively imprecise, these findings warrant replication in a larger and more diverse cohort of patients.. Importantly, all ICUS patients had RCV values ,30% and would be recommended for BM aspirate or biopsy, a strategy that complies with published guidelines.2322 Although BM aspirate may help establish an alternate diagnosis for patients without MDS, it was not contributive for any of 45 patients with unconfirmed suspicion of MDS in our prospective validation study. This observation may not be consistent with clinical practice and deserves confirmation in an independent sample.. In contrast, flow ...
Abstract: A significant increase in the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity has been found in plasma of patients with stable angina and with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in comparison with the control group. MPO concentration was significantly increased in plasma of ACS patients. Reduced MPO activity in the treated ACS patients correlated with a favorable outcome of the disease. Generally, changes in plasma MPO concentration coincided with changes in lactoferrin concentration thus confirming the role of neutrophil degranulation in the increase of plasma concentrations of these proteins. The increase in MPO activity was obviously determined by modification of the MPO protein caused by reactive oxygen species and halogen in the molar ratio of 1 : 25 and 1 : 50. The decrease in plasma MPO activity may be associated with increased plasma concentrations of the physiological inhibitor of its activity, ceruloplasmin, and also with modification of the MPO protein with reactive oxygen species and halogen at ...
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In the present study, we showed that myeloperoxidase activity in rabbit atherosclerotic plaques, and thus biologically relevant active inflammation, can be detected noninvasively with a clinical MR scanner by use of the myeloperoxidase-activatable agent MPO(Gd). Myeloperoxidase-rich areas were selectively enhanced by MPO(Gd) and easily identified 120 minutes after administration. We verified that the foci of increased intensity on MPO(Gd) imaging colocalized and correlated with myeloperoxidase-rich areas infiltrated by macrophages on histopathological evaluations. Biochemical assays showed that atherosclerotic plaques possessed elevated myeloperoxidase activity compared with normal arterial walls and that myeloperoxidase activity correlated positively with plaque size. The results demonstrate that in vivo myeloperoxidase activity is well associated with atherosclerotic plaque development and progression.. The animal model in the present study develops arterial plaques that exhibit several plaque ...
|b||i|Background:|/i||/b| The role of myeloperoxidase in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its association with coronary artery disease (CAD) is controversial. In this study, we
Anti-Myeloperoxidase antibody (ab45977) has been cited in 33 publications. References for Human, Mouse, Rat in ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB
OBJECTIVE-Obesity is associatedwith a state of chronic low-grade inflammation.Myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays an important role in the initiation and progression of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objectives of the current study were to evaluate plasma MPO levels in prepubertal obese children and to determine whether MPO could be an early biomarker of inflammation and CVD risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-In a prospective multicenter case-control study paired by age and sex of 446 Caucasian prepubertal children ages 6-12 years, 223 normal-weight and 223 obese children were recruited. Blood pressure, waist circumference, weight, and height were measured. In addition to MPO, glucose, insulin, metabolic lipid parameters, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor a, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 were determined. RESULTS-We ...
To determine the mechanism by which MPO consumes NO, experiments were performed with purified human MPO. MPO and H2O2 in concert facilitated rapid consumption of NO (Fig. 4A) consistent with previous observations (18, 19). Despite the nearly 300-fold greater concentration of NO relative to MPO, complete consumption of NO indicated a catalytic mechanism. The reaction of NO with compounds I and II of the prototypical heme peroxidase HRP is rapid; the second-order rate constants are 7.0 × 105and 1.3 × 106 M−1s−1, respectively (18). Despite unequivocal evidence demonstrating catalytic consumption of NO by heme peroxidases, the physiological relevance of this reaction pathway can be challenged on kinetic terms; stated another way, physiologic levels of NO (10 nM to 1 μM) are unlikely to compete with much more abundant substrates of MPO (i.e., ascorbate and tyrosine) given the similar rates of reaction [k ∼ 106M−1s−1 (18,22-24)]. To address this issue, experiments were performed in human ...
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of these patients and examined the administered dose of sunitinib, treatment-related toxicity, and the clinical response to therapy. This was the first large-scale, 10-year, multi-site follow-up of the Oxford mobile-bearing medial UKA undertaken in the United States, displaying good survivorship and excellent patient outcomes. In HFRS convalescents the antibody was found to persist in high titre for 20 years (the observation period). Arrhythmia induction and defibrillation threshold testing is often performed at implantation and postoperatively buy generic viagra during long-term follow-up to ensure proper device function. The GS system contains glycosylation machinery and is localized between ERGIC and retromer.. Cathepsin D, a major constituent of inflammatory cells, does not digest all types of connective tissue proteins. Visceral fat predicted plasma myeloperoxidase in patients with CKD, but not in healthy controls. A retrospective review of ...
Purpose: Lung cancer (LC) is a worldwide public health problem and a leading cause of death in both men and women. Its development is attributed to epigenetic factors, including smoking, diet, and occupation that can be modified. Glutathione S-transferase that belongs to the mu class (GSTM1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) gene polymorphisms have been cumulating in the literature, associating lifestyle factors and LC development. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine the associations of lifestyle factors with GSTM1 and MPO genes for LC prevention.. Procedure: Literature searcheswere completed by searching at three different times using keyword related to human GSTM1, MPO, and LC. Quality of the studies were rated based the standards of Quality of Reporting of Meta-analysis. Inter-rater evaluation on data coding was completed to ensure data accuracy. Pooled relative risks (RR) was computed to determine the association of factors with LC.. Findings: Preliminary analyses included 28,831 cases ...
1DNU: Human myeloperoxidase: structure of a cyanide complex and its interaction with bromide and thiocyanate substrates at 1.9 A resolution.
aseanostatin P5: from actinomycetes; inhibits myeloperoxidase release from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes; structure given in first source; RN given refers to cpd without isomeric designation
The cytochrome P450 family of enzymes is responsible for many of the initial metabolic conversions of procarcinogenic compounds in tobacco smoke to reactive metabolites. However, other enzyme-based systems such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) may also be in
BioAssay record AID 393286 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of MPO activity in TNF-alpha-stimulated human HL60 cells measured enzyme activity per 106 cells at 50 uM by spectrophotometrically.
Goat Polyclonal Anti-Myeloperoxidase/MPO Antibody [Unconjugated] cited in 13 publications. Validated: WB, Simple Western, IHC, ICC. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Dietary glutamine supplementation reduces cellular adhesion molecule expression and tissue myeloperoxidase activity in mice with gut-derived sepsis. AU - Yeh, Chiu L.. AU - Hsu, Chun-Sen. AU - Yeh, Sung Ling. AU - Lin, Ming Tsan. AU - Chen, Wei J.. PY - 2006/4. Y1 - 2006/4. N2 - Objectives: This study investigated the effects of glutamine (Gln) on plasma intracellular adhesion molecule-1 levels and leukocyte integrin (CD11a/CD18 and CD11b/CD18) expressions in gut-derived sepsis. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities in organs were also analyzed to identify the extent of tissue injury resulting from neutrophil infiltration. Methods: Mice were randomly assigned to a normal group (NC), a control group, or a Gln group. The NC group was fed standard chow diet; the control group was fed a common semipurified diet; and the Gln group received a diet in which part of the casein was replaced by Gln, which provided 25% of total amino acid nitrogen. After 3 wk, sepsis was induced by cecal ...
As observed in tobacco-associated carcinogenesis, genetic factors such as the polymorphic metabolic/oxidative enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) could modulate individual susceptibility to asbestos-associated carcinogenesis.. RFLP-PCR analysis identified the MPO genotypes in 375 Caucasian lung cancer cases and 378 matched controls. An epidemiological interview elicited detailed information regarding smoking history and occupational history and exposures.. Asbestos exposure was associated with a significantly elevated risk estimate (OR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.04-2.02). On stratified analysis, we found the MPO genotypes modified the effect of asbestos exposure on lung cancer risk. Specifically, G/G carriers who were exposed to asbestos had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.72 (95% CI; 1.09-2.66), while A-allele carriers (G/A + A/A) exposed to asbestos exhibited a reduced OR of 0.89 (95% CI; 0.56-1.44). The OR was further reduced to 0.73 (0.49-1.06) for A-allele carriers not exposed to asbestos. A similar trend was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neutrophils autoinactivate secretory products by myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation. AU - Clark, R. A.. AU - Borregaard, N.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - The neutrophil response to inflammatory stimuli involves the formation of reactive oxygen species and secretion of granule enzymes. In studying secretion of vitamin B12 binding protein by human neutrophils, we noted a major decrease in total recoverable activity from the extracellular fluid plus the stimulated cells (54% of resting cells). Recovery of B12 binding protein from neutrophils exposed to phorbol myristate acetate or opsonized zymosan was significantly enhanced on addition of heme enzyme inhibitors (azide, cyanide) or catalase or when halide-free medium was used. The changes in B12 binding protein recovery were attributable entirely to increases in extracellular fluid levels, and cell pellet content was unaffected. These data indicate extracellular destruction of functional B12 binding protein by the ...
Myeloperoxidase is a member of the heme peroxidase superfamily and is an abundant component of the azurophilic granules of leukocytes. Release of these granules by activated leukocytes enables the participation of MPO in host defense by its elaboration of numerous potent reactive oxidant species, including hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Myeloperoxidase is found predominantly in neutrophils and monocytes and has been shown to be enriched, along with its oxidation products, within human atheroma (5). Specifically, chlorotyrosine, a marker of protein modification by HOCl, has been localized within atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, increased amounts of chlorotyrosine and other oxidation products have been found in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol isolated from human atheroma, suggesting that HOCl, as well as other MPO-derived reactive species, may participate in the oxidation of LDL within the arterial wall (5). These histopathologic findings, in conjunction with in vitro studies of the ...
Relatively few laboratory markers have been evaluated for the detection or monitoring of intestinal inflammation in canine chronic enteropathies, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Previous research found that the intestinal mucosal levels of S100A12 and myeloperoxidase (MPO), as biomarkers of gut inflammation, were elevated in human patients with IBD. To date, the S100A12 and MPO levels in intestinal mucosal samples from either healthy dogs or from dogs suffering from IBD remain unreported. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the mucosal S100A12 and MPO levels in four different parts of the intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon) in 12 healthy laboratory Beagle dogs using the ELISA and spectrophotometric methods, respectively. Based on histological examinations, the recorded findings for all the samples were considered normal. The mucosal concentration of S100A12 in the ileum was significantly higher than in all other segments of the intestine (p | 0.05). MPO activity was
Poster (2011, July). Background: Despite the recent advances in this area, colic remains a major cause of morbidity and death in horses. Neutrophilic activation and degranulation may play a key role in the postoperative ... [more ▼]. Background: Despite the recent advances in this area, colic remains a major cause of morbidity and death in horses. Neutrophilic activation and degranulation may play a key role in the postoperative complications. Activated neutrophils release enzymes like proteases and myeloperoxidase (MPO). MPO concentrations in plasma and tissue are considered as a marker of neutrophil activation. (McConnico et al. 1999; Hoy et al. 2002). When freed in the tissue, active MPO is able to oxidize, nitrate and chlorate most organic molecules (Klebanoff 2005). Objectives: The aim of this study was 1) to determine the time trends of blood leukocyte and neutrophil counts as well as of plasmatic MPO concentrations in the perioperative period of horses undergoing colic surgery and 2) to ...
DCs are a critical component of immune responses in cancer primarily due to their ability to cross-present tumor-associated antigens. Cross-presentation by DCs in cancer is impaired, which may represent one of the obstacles for the success of cancer immunotherapies. Here, we report that polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSC) blocked cross-presentation by DCs without affecting direct presentation of antigens by these cells. This effect did not require direct cell-cell contact and was associated with transfer of lipids. Neutrophils (PMN) and PMN-MDSC transferred lipid to DCs equally well; however, PMN did not affect DC cross-presentation. PMN-MDSC generate oxidatively truncated lipids previously shown to be involved in impaired cross-presentation by DCs. Accumulation of oxidized lipids in PMN-MDSC was dependent on myeloperoxidase (MPO). MPO-deficient PMN-MDSC did not affect cross-presentation by DCs. Cross-presentation of tumor-associated antigens in vivo by DCs was improved ...
Autoimmune Diseases is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies on all aspects of autoimmunity. As a multidisciplinary journal, basic science aimed at understanding the biology and mechanism of disease will be considered, as well as articles focusing on medical treatment of autoimmune diseases.
Poster (2011, May). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays a key role in inflammatory response and constitutes a target for new drug development. The effects of some benzoic acid analogs were studied on the specific activity of human ... [more ▼]. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays a key role in inflammatory response and constitutes a target for new drug development. The effects of some benzoic acid analogs were studied on the specific activity of human MPO measured by SIEFED (Specific Immunologic Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection), an original method that consists of incubation of the compound with MPO, followed by capture of the enzyme by specific antibodies, washing (elimination of the compounds) and enzymatic detection of the immunocaptured enzyme. The compounds tested at 10-4, 10-5 and 10-6 M were studied in terms of structure activity relationship. Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) with 3 hydroxyl groups had an important dose dependent inhibitory effect on MPO activity. Other molecules ...
Among the human heme-peroxidase family, myeloperoxidase (MPO) has a unique disulfide-linked oligomeric structure resulting from multi-step processing of the pro-protein monomer (proMPO) after it exits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Related family members undergo some, but not all, of the processing steps involved with formation of mature MPO. Lactoperoxidase has its pro-domain proteolytically removed and is a monomer in its mature form. Eosinophil peroxidase undergoes proteolytic removal of its pro-domain followed by proteolytic separation into heavy and light chains and is a heterodimer. However, only MPO undergoes both these proteolytic modifications and then is further oligomerized into a heterotetramer by a single inter-molecular disulfide bond. The details of how and where the post-ER processing steps of MPO occur are incompletely understood. We report here that T47D breast cancer cells stably transfected with an MPO expression plasmid are able to efficiently replicate all of the processing steps
AZD5904 is a potent and irreversible inhibitor of human Myeloperoxidase (MPO) with an IC50 of 140 nM and has similar potency in mouse and rat. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Bis-phenylamides and bis-hydroxyindolamides of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-gadolinium (DTPA(Gd)) are paramagnetic reducing substrates of peroxidases that enable molecular imaging of peroxidase activity in vivo. Specifically, gadolinium chelates of bis-5-hydroxytryptamide-DTPA (bis-5HT-DTPA(Gd)) have been used to image localized inflammation in animal models by detecting neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity at the inflammation site. However, in other preclinical disease models, bis-5HT-DTPA(Gd) presents technical challenges due to its limited solubility in vivo. Here we report a novel MPO-sensing probe obtained by replacing the reducing substrate serotonin (5-HT) with 5-hydroxytryptophan (HTrp). Characterization of the resulting probe (bis-HTrp-DTPA(Gd)) in vitro using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and enzyme kinetic analysis showed that bis-HTrp-DTPA(Gd) (1) improves solubility in water; (2) acts as a substrate for both horseradish peroxidase and MPO enzymes; (3) induces
Oxidative damage to tissue proteins has been implicated in the pathogenesis of liver disease, but the mechanisms that promote oxidation in vivo are unclear. Hydrogen peroxide is transformed into an array of potentially damaging reactants by the heme protein myeloperoxidase. This proinflammatory enzy …
Just because genes that are associated with chronic disease have been selected for, doesnt mean the chronic disease has been selected for (thats a false dichotomy). Genes produce proteins that have many effects on the body. Some of these effects may have been beneficial among hunter-gatherers but promote disease in the context of a western diet and lifestyle. A good example is the GG phenotype for myeloperoxidase (MPO), which increases the expression of the MPO gene, therefore generally more MPO. The GG phenotype would have ideal for hunter-gatherers as it enhances immunity but is detrimental now as MPO products can oxidise LDL and HDL and promote atherosclerosis. The argument above could conclude that atherosclerosis and CVD are evolutionarily adaptive. The more likely explanation is that the GG phenotype has had positive selection for its immune effects without negative selection due to CVD ...
Anti-MPO - ELISA (P-ANCA),The Anti-MPO - ELISA (P-ANCA) is for the specific detection of MPO antibodies using highly purified myeloperoxidase as antigen. No false-positive results caused by contaminations like lactoferrin or elastase in the antigen preparation. MPO antibodies can not be detected by indirect immunofluorescen,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Mucus is normally clear, it functions as a natural protection mechanism of your body. During an infection you produce an increased amount of mucus and white blood cells (neutrophils) are attracted to the area to fight the infection. The neutrophils will try and combat the infection by engulfing the pathogen and secreting toxins. Some will die in the process, creating a pus. The enzyme myeloperoxidase that is excreted by the neutrophils seems to be to blame for a greenish color of infected mucus, due to the high iron-content ...
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and complete myeloperoxidase deficiency both yield strongly reduced dihydrorhodamine 123 test signals but can be easily discerned in routine testing for CGD ...
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The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. myeloperoxidase - 1.-.-.- Oxidoreductases. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
XenoLight RediJect Chemiluminescent Inflammation probe (Standard Kit) for monitoring Inflammation to study myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity.
Escherichia coli K-12 (luxABCDEamp). A tool for analysis of bacterial killing by complement and myeloperoxidase activities on a real-time basis. ...
Plasmid pRF-BM3R1 from Dr. Christopher Voigts lab contains the insert BM3R1 repressor and is published in Nat Chem Biol. 2013 Dec 8. doi: 10.1038/nchembio.1411. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The predictive value of serum myeloperoxidase for vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. AU - Lim, Michael. AU - Bower, Regina S.. AU - Wang, Ying. AU - Sims, Leroy. AU - Bower, Mark R.. AU - Joaquin, Camara Quintana. AU - Li, Gordon. AU - Cheshier, Samuel. AU - Harsh, Griffith R.. AU - Steinberg, Gary K.. AU - Guccione, Samira. PY - 2012/7. Y1 - 2012/7. N2 - Vasospasm is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), with inflammation playing a key role in its pathophysiology. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an inflammatory marker, was examined as a potential marker of vasospasm in patients with SAH. Daily serum samples from patients with aneurysmal SAH were assayed for MPO, and transcranial Doppler (TCDs) and neurological exams were assessed to determine vasospasm. Suspected vasospasm was confirmed by angiography. Peak MPO levels were then compared with timing of onset of vasospasm, based on clinical exams, TCDs and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of leukotriene B4 in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. AU - Tabata, T.. AU - Ono, S.. AU - Song, C.. AU - Noda, M.. AU - Suzuki, S.. AU - Tanita, T.. AU - Fujimura, S.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Monocrotaline (MCT) causes lung inflammation and chronic pulmonary hypertension associated with lung vascular thickening in rats. We hypothesized that leukotrine B4 (LTB4) and LTB4-induced accumulation of leukocytes in the lung play a role in MCT-induced lung disease, and therefore measured LTB4 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in lung tissue of MCT- treated rats. Next, we examined the effect of an orally active LTB4 receptor antagonist (ONO4057) on MPO levels in lung tissue, on pulmonary hypertension, and on pulmonary vascular remodeling induced by MCT. Lung LTB4 and MPO levels had increased by 3 days after MCT injection. In the ONO4057-treated MCT rats, lung MPO levels were significantly lower than in the rats given MCT but not ONO4507. By the third week after ...
Objective: Inflammation along with oxidative stress plays an important role in the development, progression, instability and rupture of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Several studies introduced curcumin (diferuloylmethane) as a wonderful chemical in Curcuma longa (turmeric) with appropriate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The effect of curcumin on inflammatory biomarkers was assessed in several clinical trials. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of curcumin on three pro-inflammatory biomarkers in patients with unstable angina. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with unstable angina who met the inclusion criteria, participated in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. The patients in the treatment group received nanocurcumin 80 mg per day for 5 days and the control group received placebo 80 mg per day for five days. Blood samples were obtained before the administration, and also 1, 2 and 4 days after taking the treatment.
COVID-19 affects millions of patients worldwide with clinical presentation ranging from isolated thrombosis to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring ventilator support. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) originate from decondensed chromatin released to immobilize pathogens and can trigger immunothrombosis. We studied the connection between NETs and COVID-19 severity and progression. We conducted a prospective cohort study of COVID-19 patients (n=33) with age- and sex-matched controls (n=17). We measured plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO)-DNA complexes (NETs), Platelet Factor 4, RANTES, and selected cytokines. Three COVID-19 lung autopsies were examined for NETs and platelet involvement. We assessed NET formation ex vivo in COVID-19 neutrophils and in healthy neutrophils incubated with COVID-19 plasma. We also tested the ability of neonatal NET-Inhibitory Factor (nNIF) to block NET formation induced by COVID-19 plasma. Plasma MPO-DNA complexes increased in COVID-19 with intubation ...
Objective- Apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI) acts as an ABCA1-dependent acceptor of cellular phospholipids and cholesterol during the biogenesis of HDL, but this activity is susceptible to oxidative inactivation by myeloperoxidase. We tried to determine which residues mediated this inactivation and create an oxidant-resistant apoAI variant.. Methods and Results- Mass spectrometry detected the presence of tryptophan, methionine, tyrosine, and lysine oxidation in apoAI recovered from human atheroma. We investigated the role of these residues in the myeloperoxidase-mediated loss of apoAI activity. Site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification were used to create variants of apoAI which were tested for ABCA1-dependent cholesterol acceptor activity and oxidative inactivation. We previously reported that tyrosine modification is not required for myeloperoxidase-induced loss of apoAI function. Lysine methylation did not alter the sensitivity of apoAI to myeloperoxidase, whereas site-specific ...
MPO levels were significantly increased in placental extracts from women with preeclampsia. Placental MPO levels have been shown to increase with gestational age in the placenta for normal pregnancies.27 MPO levels were significantly elevated when compared with gestationally age-matched placental samples without preeclampsia or normal term placental samples. The normal pregnancy data were limited to a sample set with matching gestational age to the preeclampsia group, resulting in a group of patients with early deliveries but without any evidence of pregnancy complications related to infection. This is consistent with the low concentrations of MPO measured in these patients. The high levels of MPO in the placental extracts were confirmed immunohistochemically; however, the samples used for the extract preparation did not include the basal plate, which was shown to have the most dramatic difference in MPO localization in the placental sections analyzed.. The previous data on circulating MPO ...
Inflammatory reactions mediated by oxidative stress (OS) have been implicated in the deterioration of oocyte quality, which may lead to subfertility. Oxidative stress generated from enhancement of activated macrophages secondary to an inflammatory response are the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2•−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), as well as, the pro-inflammatory enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). Previously, it has been shown that these ROS have deleterious effect on oocytes; however the link between inflammation through macrophage activity and oocyte quality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated: 1) the mechanism through which direct exposure of ROS and MPO, or through their generation by activated macrophages, deteriorate oocyte quality and whether melatonin (MLT), a potent MPO inhibitor and ROS scavenger, can protect oocyte quality; and 2) the mechanism through which MLT inhibits MPO catalytic activity.
Inflammatory mediators trigger polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS: O2-, H2O2, ∙OH). Mediated by myeloperoxidase in PMN, HOCl is formed, detectable in a chemiluminescence (CL) assay. We have shown that the abundant cytosolic PMN protein calprotectin (S100A8/A9) similarly elicits CL in response to H2O2 in a cell-free system. Myeloperoxidase and calprotectin worked synergistically. Calprotectin-induced CL increased, whereas myeloperoxidase-triggered CL decreased with pH | 7.5. Myeloperoxidase needed NaCl for CL, calprotectin did not. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, binding ∙OH, almost abrogated calprotectin CL, but moderately increased myeloperoxidase activity. The combination of native calprotectin, or recombinant S100A8/A9 proteins, with NaOCl markedly enhanced CL. NaOCl may be the synergistic link between myeloperoxidase and calprotectin. Surprisingly- and unexplained- at higher concentration of S100A9 the stimulation vanished, suggesting a switch from pro-oxidant to
The present study was first aimed at a complete steady-state kinetic analysis of the reaction between guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and the myeloperoxidase (MPO)/H2O2 system, including a description of the isolation and purification of MPO from human polymorphonuclear neutrophil cells. Secondly, the overall reaction of the oxidation of NADPH, mediated by the reactive intermediates formed from the oxidation of guaiacol in the MPO/H2O2 system, was analysed kinetically. The presence of guaiacol stimulates the oxidation of NADPH by the MPO/H2O2 system in a concentration-dependent manner. Concomitantly, the accumulation of biphenoquinone (BQ), the final steady-state product of guaiacol oxidation, is lowered, and even inhibited completely, at high concentrations of NADPH. Under these conditions, the stoichiometry of NADPH:H2O2 is 1, and the oxidation rate of NADPH approximates to that of the rate of guaiacol oxidation by MPO. The effects of the presence of superoxide dismutase, catalase and of anaerobic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Urethan anesthesia protects rats against lethal endotoxemia and reduces TNF-α release. AU - Kotanidou, Anastasia. AU - Choi , Augustine M K. AU - Winchurch, Richard A.. AU - Otterbein, Leo. AU - Fessler, Henry E.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Urethan is a commonly used animal anesthetic for nonrecovery laboratory surgery. However, urethan has diverse biological effects that may complicate the interpretation of experimental findings. This study examined the effect of urethan on the response to an intravenous bolus of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 30 mg/kg) in rats. In instrumented rats, urethan (1.2 gm/kg ip) completely prevented the fall in arterial pressure immediately after LPS administration but did not prevent late cardiovascular collapse. In uninstrumented rats, urethan also attenuated indexes of organ injury measured 4 h after LPS administration, including mural bowel hemorrhage, hemoconcentration, hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and lung myeloperoxidase activity, a measure of ...
Alterations in Soluble Class III Peroxidases of Maize Shoots by Flooding Stress. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The host defense response critically depends on the production of leukocytes by the marrow and the controlled delivery of these cells to relevant sites of inflammation/infection. The cytokine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is commonly used therapeutically to augment neutrophil recovery following chemo/radiation therapy for malignancy, thereby decreasing infection risk. Although best known as a potent inducer of myelopoiesis, we previously reported that G-CSF also promotes the delivery of leukocytes to sites of inflammation by stimulating expression of potent E-selectin ligands, including an uncharacterized ∼65-kDa glycoprotein. To identify this ligand, we performed integrated biochemical analysis and mass spectrometry studies of G-CSF-treated primary human myeloid cells. Our studies show that this novel E-selectin ligand is a glycoform of the heavy chain component of the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), a well-known lysosomal peroxidase. This specialized MPO glycovariant, referred ...
Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a key step associated with ischemic stroke and its increased permeability causes extravasation of plasma proteins and circulating leukocytes. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) proteases may participate in BBB breakdown. We investigated the role of PMNs in ischemic conditions by testing their effects on a model of BBB in vitro, under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to mimic ischemia, supplemented or not with high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) to assess their potential protective effects. Human cerebral endothelial cells cultured on transwells were incubated for 4 hours under OGD conditions with or without PMNs and supplemented or not with HDLs or alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT, an elastase inhibitor). The integrity of the BBB was then assessed and the effect of HDLs on PMN-induced proteolysis of extracellular matrix proteins was evaluated. The release of myeloperoxidase and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) by PMNs was quantified. Polymorphonuclear ...
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Results. Serum levels of cell-free DNA, myeloperoxidase (MPO)-DNA complex, and α-defensin were significantly increased in patients with AOSD compared to HC. Serum levels of the NET molecules, cell-free DNA, MPO-DNA, and α-defensin were correlated with several disease activity markers for AOSD. In followup of patients with AOSD after treatment with corticosteroid, the levels of cell-free DNA and α-defensin decreased significantly. On immunohistochemistry, neutrophil elastase-positive and MPO-positive inflammatory cells were detected in skin and LN of patients with AOSD, and were expressed in fiber form in the lesions. The serum from patients with active AOSD induced NETosis in neutrophils from HC. NET molecules induced interleukin 1β production in monocytes, representing a novel mechanism in the pathogenesis of AOSD. ...
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an heterodimeric glycoprotein of 150 kDa with an α2/β2 structure. The two subunits (α and β) have a molecular weight of 55 and 15 kDa, respectively. MPO synthesis occurs in bone marrow at an early stage of myeloid lineage differentiation.
Immunodot für die qualitative Bestimmung von IgG Antikörpern gegen Myeloperoxidase (MPO), Proteinase 3 (PR3) und Glomeruläre Basalmembran (GBM) in humanem Serum oder Plasma ...

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