Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Facial Paralysis: Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Olfactory Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. Anosmia may be associated with NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; inherited conditions; toxins; METABOLIC DISEASES; tobacco abuse; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp229-31)Trochlear Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the TROCHLEAR NERVE.Vagus Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.Diplopia: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Bell Palsy: A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Trochlear Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the fourth cranial (trochlear) nerve or its nucleus in the midbrain. The nerve crosses as it exits the midbrain dorsally and may be injured along its course through the intracranial space, cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, or orbit. Clinical manifestations include weakness of the superior oblique muscle which causes vertical DIPLOPIA that is maximal when the affected eye is adducted and directed inferiorly. Head tilt may be seen as a compensatory mechanism for diplopia and rotation of the visual axis. Common etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the ninth cranial (glossopharyngeal) nerve or its nuclei in the medulla. The nerve may be injured by diseases affecting the lower brain stem, floor of the posterior fossa, jugular foramen, or the nerve's extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include loss of sensation from the pharynx, decreased salivation, and syncope. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia refers to a condition that features recurrent unilateral sharp pain in the tongue, angle of the jaw, external auditory meatus and throat that may be associated with SYNCOPE. Episodes may be triggered by cough, sneeze, swallowing, or pressure on the tragus of the ear. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1390)Racquet Sports: Games in which players use a racquet to hit a ball or similar type object.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Accessory Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the eleventh cranial (spinal accessory) nerve. This nerve originates from motor neurons in the lower medulla (accessory portion of nerve) and upper spinal cord (spinal portion of nerve). The two components of the nerve join and exit the skull via the jugular foramen, innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, which become weak or paralyzed if the nerve is injured. The nerve is commonly involved in MOTOR NEURON DISEASE, and may be injured by trauma to the posterior triangle of the neck.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Meningitis, Aseptic: A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Meningeal Carcinomatosis: Primary or secondary neoplasm in the ARACHNOID or SUBARACHNOID SPACE. It appears as a diffuse fibrotic thickening of the MENINGES associated with variable degrees of inflammation.Onchocerciasis, Ocular: Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Neuroma, Acoustic: A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mobius Syndrome: A syndrome of congenital facial paralysis, frequently associated with abducens palsy and other congenital abnormalities including lingual palsy, clubfeet, brachial disorders, cognitive deficits, and pectoral muscle defects. Pathologic findings are variable and include brain stem nuclear aplasia, facial nerve aplasia, and facial muscle aplasia, consistent with a multifactorial etiology. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1020)Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Mastoid: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hemifacial Spasm: Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Hypoglossal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Cerebellopontine Angle: Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.Peroneal Neuropathies: Disease involving the common PERONEAL NERVE or its branches, the deep and superficial peroneal nerves. Lesions of the deep peroneal nerve are associated with PARALYSIS of dorsiflexion of the ankle and toes and loss of sensation from the web space between the first and second toe. Lesions of the superficial peroneal nerve result in weakness or paralysis of the peroneal muscles (which evert the foot) and loss of sensation over the dorsal and lateral surface of the leg. Traumatic injury to the common peroneal nerve near the head of the FIBULA is a relatively common cause of this condition. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p31)Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Optic Neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Otologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Neuritis: A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.Vocal Cord Paralysis: Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.Radial Neuropathy: Disease involving the RADIAL NERVE. Clinical features include weakness of elbow extension, elbow flexion, supination of the forearm, wrist and finger extension, and thumb abduction. Sensation may be impaired over regions of the dorsal forearm. Common sites of compression or traumatic injury include the AXILLA and radial groove of the HUMERUS.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Herpes Zoster Oticus: A syndrome characterized by facial palsy in association with a herpetic eruption of the external auditory meatus. This may occasionally be associated with tinnitus, vertigo, deafness, severe otalgia, and inflammation of the pinna. The condition is caused by reactivation of a latent HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN infection which causes inflammation of the facial and vestibular nerves, and may occasionally involve additional cranial nerves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p757)Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Facial Asymmetry: Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Laryngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the LARYNGEAL NERVE.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Skull Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Glomus Jugulare Tumor: A paraganglioma involving the glomus jugulare, a microscopic collection of chemoreceptor tissue in the adventitia of the bulb of the jugular vein. It may cause paralysis of the vocal cords, attacks of dizziness, blackouts, and nystagmus. It is not resectable but radiation therapy is effective. It regresses slowly, but permanent control is regularly achieved. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1603-4)Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Ulnar Neuropathies: Disease involving the ULNAR NERVE from its origin in the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical manifestations may include PARESIS or PARALYSIS of wrist flexion, finger flexion, thumb adduction, finger abduction, and finger adduction. Sensation over the medial palm, fifth finger, and ulnar aspect of the ring finger may also be impaired. Common sites of injury include the AXILLA, cubital tunnel at the ELBOW, and Guyon's canal at the wrist. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51 pp43-5)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Nerve Transfer: Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.Femoral Neuropathy: Disease involving the femoral nerve. The femoral nerve may be injured by ISCHEMIA (e.g., in association with DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES), nerve compression, trauma, COLLAGEN DISEASES, and other disease processes. Clinical features include MUSCLE WEAKNESS or PARALYSIS of hip flexion and knee extension, ATROPHY of the QUADRICEPS MUSCLE, reduced or absent patellar reflex, and impaired sensation over the anterior and medial thigh.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Bulbar Palsy, Progressive: A motor neuron disease marked by progressive weakness of the muscles innervated by cranial nerves of the lower brain stem. Clinical manifestations include dysarthria, dysphagia, facial weakness, tongue weakness, and fasciculations of the tongue and facial muscles. The adult form of the disease is marked initially by bulbar weakness which progresses to involve motor neurons throughout the neuroaxis. Eventually this condition may become indistinguishable from AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS. Fazio-Londe syndrome is an inherited form of this illness which occurs in children and young adults. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1091; Brain 1992 Dec;115(Pt 6):1889-1900)Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Trochlear Nerve: The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.Facial DermatosesElectromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Lingual Nerve: A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
The facial nerve is the seventh of 12 cranial nerves. This cranial nerve controls the muscles in the face. Facial nerve palsy ... Ruiz, L. M., & Kirmani, B. (2012). Presentation of Bilateral Peripheral Seventh Cranial Nerve Palsy in an HIV Patient.. ... Eyes Oculomotor nerve palsy - Oculomotor nerve (III) Fourth nerve palsy - Trochlear nerve (IV) Sixth nerve palsy - Abducens ... Facial nerve (VII) (More on facial nerve palsy below) Accessory nerve disorder - Accessory nerve (XI) Pavlou, E., Gkampeta, A ...
Audiologists generally focus their expertise on the seventh and eighth nerves, which are known as the facial nerve and ... Facial nerve disorders may stem from a myriad of contributing factors: Bell's palsy, injury resulting from surgical error, ... The ENoG test is the only objective measure of facial nerve integrity. In the human body there are twelve pairs of cranial ... and it is characterized by paralysis without a degeneration of the peripheral nerve. Electroneuronography would yield a normal ...
Facial Synkinesis is a common sequela to Idiopathic Facial Nerve Paralysis, also called Bell's Palsy or Facial Palsy. Bell's ... to diffuse axon demyelination and degeneration of the seventh cranial nerve, results in a hemifacial paralysis due to non- ... or nerve degeneration, as in the course of Parkinson´s disease. In congenital cases, mutations of genes involved in nerve ... Healthy peripheral nerves are insulated with a myelin sheath that helps to both enhance electric transmission and to prevent ...
... facial). The facial muscles are controlled by the facial nerve (seventh cranial nerve), which originates at the brainstem and ... facial nerve at the end of the brain stem as the primary hemifacial spasm and patients who had peripheral facial palsy or nerve ... This disease takes two forms: typical and atypical. In typical form, the twitching usually starts in the lower eyelid in ... stretching the facial nerve (seventh cranial nerve), and high-pressure irrigation of the nerve with lactate ringer's solution. ...
The middle cranial foassa technique is most commonly used for the decompression of the facial nerve in Bell's palsy and ... Pressure and compression of any cause on a peripheral nerve can cause nerve impulse block. That is, the nerve is no longer able ... Disease of ENT and Head and Neak Surgery (6th ed.). Elsevier. p. 99. ISBN 9788131234310. McNeill, Roger (May 1974). "Facial ... Scott-Brown's Otorhinolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery (3 volume set) (7th ed.). Hodder Arnold. pp. 4022 to 4024. ISBN ...
... the facial nerve is the most commonly injured cranial nerve.[16] A very common and generally temporary facial palsy is known as ... Strokes typically also affect the seventh cranial nerve by cutting off blood supply to nerves in the brain that signal this ... The cranial nerves are considered components of the peripheral nervous system (PNS),[1] although on a structural level the ... Trauma to the skull, disease of bone such as Paget's disease, and injury to nerves during neurosurgery (such as tumor removal) ...
... with the abducens nerve being the most commonly injured cranial nerve in halo orthosis placement. The resultant palsy is ... The abducens nerve leaves the brainstem at the junction of the pons and the medulla, medial to the facial nerve. It runs ... The abducens nerve carries axons of type GSE, general somatic efferent. Damage to the peripheral part of the abducens nerve ... Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is an idiopathic granulomatous disease that causes painful oculomotor (especially sixth nerve) palsies. ...
Cranial nerves are most commonly affected, accounting for about 5-30% of neurosarcoidosis cases, and peripheral facial nerve ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Fausto N, Abbas A (2004). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of disease (7th ed ... Whereas facial nerve palsies and acute meningitis due to sarcoidosis tends to have the most favourable prognosis. Another ... The combination of anterior uveitis, parotitis, VII cranial nerve paralysis and fever is called uveoparotid fever or Heerfordt ...
The facial nerve is the seventh cranial nerve, or simply cranial nerve VII. It emerges from the brainstem between the pons and the medulla, controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and oral cavity. It also supplies preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to several head and neck ganglia. The facial and intermediate nerves can be collectively referred to as the nervus intermediofacialis. The path of the facial nerve can be divided into six segments. intracranial (cisternal) segment meatal segment (brainstem to internal auditory canal) labyrinthine segment (internal auditory canal to geniculate ...
... is the inability to close the eyelids completely. Blinking covers the eye with a thin layer of tear fluid, thereby promoting a moist environment necessary for the cells of the exterior part of the eye. The tears also flush out foreign bodies and wash them away. This is crucial to maintain lubrication and proper eye health. If this process is impaired, as in lagophthalmos, the eye can suffer abrasions and infections. Lagopthalmos leads to corneal drying and ulceration. Lagophthalmos can arise from a malfunction of the facial nerve. Lagopthalmos can also occur in comatose patients having a decrease in orbicularis tone, in patients having palsy of the facial nerve (7th cranial nerve), in people with severe exophthalmos, and in people with severe skin disorders such as ichthyosis. Today, lagophthalmos may arise after an overenthusiastic ...
... (from the Greek -mŷs - "muscle," + kŷm, -kŷmia - "something swollen" or -kŷmos - "wave"), french, tic facial, is an involuntary, spontaneous, localised quivering of a few muscles, or bundles within a muscle, but which are insufficient to move a joint. One type is superior oblique myokymia. Myokymia is commonly used to describe an involuntary eyelid muscle contraction, typically involving the lower eyelid or less often the upper eyelid. It occurs in normal individuals and typically starts and disappears spontaneously. However, it can sometimes last up to three weeks. Since the condition typically resolves itself, medical professionals do not consider it to be serious or a cause for concern. In contrast, facial myokymia is a fine rippling of muscles on one side of the face and may reflect an underlying tumor in the brainstem (typically a brainstem glioma), loss of myelin in the brainstem (associated with multiple sclerosis) or in the recovery stage of Guillain-Barré ...
... is a neurological disorder affecting vision and was named by Hoyt and Keane in 1970. It is a condition that presents as repeated, brief episodes of movement, shimmering or shaking of the vision of one eye, a feeling of the eye trembling, or vertical/tilted vision. It can present as one or more of these symptoms. Diagnosis is most often made by the elimination of other conditions, disorders or diseases. Onset usually occurs in adulthood, and the course is benign and is not commonly associated with other disorders. In 1983, Bringewald postulated that superior oblique myokymia resulted from vascular compression of the trochlear nerve (fourth cranial nerve), which controls the action of the superior oblique muscle in the eye. By 1998, there had been only one reported case of compression of the trochlear nerve by vessels. More recently, magnetic resonance imaging experiments ...
Most people with Bell's palsy start to regain normal facial function within 3 weeks-even those who do not receive treatment.[37] In a 1982 study, when no treatment was available, of 1,011 patients, 85% showed first signs of recovery within 3 weeks after onset. For the other 15%, recovery occurred 3-6 months later. After a follow-up of at least one year or until restoration, complete recovery had occurred in more than two-thirds (71%) of all patients. Recovery was judged moderate in 12% and poor in only 4% of patients.[38] Another study found that incomplete palsies disappear entirely, nearly always in the course of one month. The patients who regain movement within the first two weeks nearly always remit entirely. When remission does not occur until the third week or later, a significantly greater part of the patients develop sequelae.[39] A third study found a better prognosis for young patients, aged below 10 years old, while the patients over 61 years old presented a ...
... , also referred to as uveoparotid fever, Heerfordt-Mylius syndrome, Heerfordt-Waldenström syndrome, and Waldenström's uveoparotitis, is a rare manifestation of sarcoidosis. The symptoms include inflammation of the eye (uveitis), swelling of the parotid gland, chronic fever, and in some cases, palsy of the facial nerves. The exact cause of Heerfordt syndrome has not yet been definitively determined. Of those patients who have been diagnosed with Heerfordt syndrome, 15% have a close relative who also has the syndrome. One possible explanation is that the syndrome results from a combination of an environmental agent and a hereditary predisposition. Mycobacterium and Propionibacteria species have both been suggested as the environmental agent, though the evidence for this is inconclusive. In patients that have already been diagnosed with sarcoidosis, Heerfordt syndrome can be inferred from the major symptoms of the syndrome, which include ...
The levator anguli oris (caninus) is a facial muscle of the mouth arising from the canine fossa, immediately below the infraorbital foramen. It elevates angle of mouth medially. Its fibers are inserted into the angle of the mouth, intermingling with those of the zygomaticus, triangularis, and orbicularis oris. Specifically, the levator anguli oris is innervated by the buccal branches of the facial nerve. ...
Winding around the inferior cerebellar peduncle in the lower part of the fourth ventricle, and crossing the area acustica and the medial eminence are a number of white strands, the medullary striae, which form a portion of the cochlear division of the vestibulocochlear nerve and disappear into the median sulcus.. ...
Onset of first symptom has been reported between 1-12 years, with a mean age of onset at 8 years. Clinical course can be divided into early (, 6 yrs age, predominance of respiratory symptoms) and late course (6-20 years of age, predominance of motor symptoms on superior limbs). Progression to involve other cranial nerve muscles occurs over a period of months or years. In the Gomez review facial nerve was affected in all cases while hypoglossal nerve was involved in all except one case. Other cranial nerves involved were vagus, trigeminal, spinal accessory nerve, abducent, occulomotor and glossopharyngeal in this order. Corticospinal tract signs were found in 2 of the 14 patients. The disease may progress to patient's death in a period as short as 9 months or may have a slow evolution or may ...
The trochlear nerve, also called the fourth cranial nerve or cranial nerve IV, is a motor nerve (a somatic efferent nerve) that innervates only a single muscle: the superior oblique muscle of the eye, which operates through the pulley-like trochlea. The trochlear nerve is unique among the cranial nerves in several respects: It is the smallest nerve in terms of the number of axons it contains. It has the greatest intracranial length. It is the only cranial nerve that exits from the dorsal (rear) aspect of the brainstem. It innervates a muscle, Superior Oblique muscle, on the opposite side (contralateral) from its origin. ...
... are generally named according to their structure or function. For example, the olfactory nerve (I) supplies smell, and the facial nerve (VII) supplies motor innervation to the face. Because Latin was the lingua franca (common language) of the study of anatomy when the nerves were first documented, recorded, and discussed, many nerves maintain Latin or Greek names, including the trochlear nerve (IV), named according to its structure, as it supplies a muscle that attaches to a pulley (Greek: trochlea). The trigeminal nerve (V) is named in accordance with its three components (Latin: trigeminus meaning triplets),[6] and the vagus nerve (X) is named for its wandering course (Latin: vagus).[7] Cranial nerves ...
Because the trochlear nerve is the thinnest and has the longest intracranial course of the cranial nerves, it is particularly vulnerable to traumatic injury. To compensate for the double-vision resulting from the weakness of the superior oblique, patients characteristically tilt their head down and to the side opposite the affected muscle. When present at birth, it is known as congenital fourth nerve palsy. ...
மூளைத் தண்டு (brain stem) என்பது மூளையின் கீழ்ப்பகுதி ஆகும். இது மூளையின் பிற பகுதிகளை தண்டுவடத்துடன் இணைக்கின்றது. இதை மூன்று பகுதிகளாகப் பிரிக்கலாம். அவை பான்ஸ், நடுமூளை, பின்மூளை(முகுளம்) என்பனவாம். முதல் இரண்டு கபால நரம்புகள் (cranial nerves) தவிர மற்ற கபால நரம்புகள் மூளைத் தண்டில் இருந்து தான் புறப்படுகின்றன. ...
The facial nerve is the seventh of 12 cranial nerves. This cranial nerve controls the muscles in the face. Facial nerve palsy ... Ruiz, L. M., & Kirmani, B. (2012). Presentation of Bilateral Peripheral Seventh Cranial Nerve Palsy in an HIV Patient.. ... Eyes Oculomotor nerve palsy - Oculomotor nerve (III) Fourth nerve palsy - Trochlear nerve (IV) Sixth nerve palsy - Abducens ... Facial nerve (VII) (More on facial nerve palsy below) Accessory nerve disorder - Accessory nerve (XI) Pavlou, E., Gkampeta, A ...
"Clinical predictors of Lyme disease among children with a peripheral facial palsy at an emergency department in a Lyme disease- ... potentially disfiguring facial weakness. The facial nerve is the 7th cranial nerve and has both sensory and motor components. ... facial palsy attributed to Lyme Disease should be treated as follows:. -For Isolated Facial nerve palsy: 8 years of age or ... Are you sure your patient has facial nerve paralysis? What are the typical findings for this disease?. Facial palsy has an ...
Several studies have reported presentation of bilateral facial nerve palsy in association with Lyme disease, Guillain-Barre ... The post treatment House Brackmann Facial Grading Scale score was 2 bilaterally. Bilateral facial nerve palsy may be an initial ... While unilateral facial nerve palsy is sometimes associated with hemiplegia in sickle cell patients, no case of bilateral ... A 29-year-old black African woman who is a known homozygous haemoglobin S (HbSS) presented with bilateral facial nerve palsy. ...
... seventh cranial nerve). The main differential diagnosis for this patient includes Lyme disease and herpes zoster oticus (Ramsay ... Bells palsy: the spontaneous course of 2,500 peripheral facial nerve palsies of different etiologies. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl ... The primary diagnosis to consider is Bell palsy, an idiopathic paresis of the muscles supplied by the facial nerve ( ... Facial nerve grading instruments: systematic review of the literature and suggestion for uniformity. Plast Reconstr Surg 2015; ...
Facial Nerve Palsy - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the Merck Manuals - Medical ... Bell palsy was thought to be idiopathic facial nerve (peripheral 7th cranial nerve) palsy. However, facial nerve palsy is now ... Various other disorders (eg, Lyme disease, sarcoidosis) can cause facial nerve palsy. ... Facial nerve (7th cranial nerve) palsy is often idiopathic (formerly called Bell palsy). Idiopathic facial nerve palsy is ...
Complete or partial loss of facial muscle motor function due to damage to the seventh cranial nerve. The most common type of ... Bilateral facial nerve palsy may be seen in the setting of infections such as Lyme disease.. Codes. ICD10CM:. G58.0 - Other ... In contrast to peripheral lower motor neuron palsy, facial palsy can be caused by upper motor neuron lesion such as a stroke or ... facial palsy is Bell palsy, an acute onset unilateral lower motor neuron palsy characterized by upper and lower facial muscle ...
... and treatment of Bells palsy, which is a condition that causes partial or complete facial weakness on one side. ... It is a peripheral neuropathy (nerve disease) of the facial nerve, which is the 7th cranial nerve. This nerve comes off the ... When the facial nerve is inflamed and swollen (as in Bells palsy), it cannot properly communicate with the facial muscles, ... For people with more severe cases of Bells palsy, like complete paralysis of the facial nerve, a doctor may recommend an ...
16 We also prescribed a short course of oral steroids to possibly decrease the inflammation of the seventh cranial nerve. ... The facial nerve palsy was significantly improved. Soon thereafter, it completely resolved. ... He had a dense peripheral left facial nerve paralysis (Fig 1). The remainder of the neurologic examination (cranial nerves, ... Cat Scratch Disease Presenting With Peripheral Facial Nerve Paralysis Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
The initial key to recognizing Bells palsy lies in differentiating a central from a peripheral facial nerve (cranial nerve VII ... One needs to recognize the nature of a peripheral seventh nerve palsy, which will affect both the upper and lower face. This ... a general physical examination may disclose evidence of systemic disease manifesting in an unusual way as facial nerve palsy. ... However, as the nerves have decussated prior to forming the facial nerve, a patient with a Bells palsy will not have sparing ...
Peripheral seventh cranial nerve palsy could be an early and unusual sign of central nervous system degeneration and axonal ... Abstract: A 4-year-old child presented with peripheral left facial palsy. Neurological examination was normal except for deep ... The relationship between allergy and disease characteristics in terms of disease severity, clinical findings and … ... After 15 days, the patient experienced a relapse of peripheral left facial palsy; ENG was unchanged, and somatosensory evoked ...
I had never heard of Bells palsy until last night when I received a call from my mother. One minute we were discussing my ... It effects the nerve called the seventh cranial nerve, which is housed inside the fallopian canal which is a bone-type of ... Nervous System Diseases & Conditions. Peripheral Neuropathy: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention. by ... Bells palsy disrupts the messages sent from the brain to the facial nerves causing paralysis and facial weakness. ...
With completion of a 3-week course of antibiotics, the patients diplopia and left peripheral seventh nerve palsy improved, ... cranial neuropathies, with the seventh cranial nerve most often affected, and mononeuropathy multiplex (3). Involvement of the ... Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in Europe and North America (1). In North America, only 1 strain, B. ... Four days later, the patient developed left facial weakness consistent with a left seventh nerve palsy, and she was admitted to ...
A method of nerve therapy for treating nerves by electrical stimulation characterized by using pulses of a trapezoidal waveform ... a patients skin with a pair of electrodes such that the positive electrode is orientated nearest the brain via the nerves ... Bells palsy is a swelling of the seventh cranial nerve in the facial canal in the temporal bone. This invention has been used ... as well as the symptoms of peripheral nerves in the same length of time. In the treatment of the eighth cranial nerve, it has ...
Patients often believe it is a stroke, but its not if its a peripheral facial palsy. Many cases of seventh cranial nerve ... Unfortunately, facial nerve palsy from Lyme disease can occasionally occur before serologic tests are positive, so repeat ... Identifiable Causes of Peripheral Facial Nerve Palsy: A few unusual causes of peripheral facial palsy can often be diagnosed ... Idiopathic facial nerve palsy, termed Bells palsy, represents about half of all patients with facial nerve palsy. A herpes ...
List of causes of 7th cranial nerve palsy and Visual blurring in pregnancy, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, ... Cranial nerve palsy (108 causes) *Cranial nerve *Cranial nerve diseases *Cranial nerve disorder *Cranial *Cranial pain (10 ... 7th cranial nerve palsy:*Causes: 7th cranial nerve palsy *Introduction: 7th cranial nerve palsy *7th cranial nerve palsy: Add a ... More Searches: 7th cranial nerve palsy. *7th cranial nerve palsy: Add a 3rd symptom *7th cranial nerve palsy: Remove a symptom ...
List of causes of 7th cranial nerve palsy and Peripheral arterial trauma, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, ... Cranial nerve palsy (108 causes) *Cranial nerve *Cranial nerve diseases *Cranial nerve disorder *Cranial *Cranial pain (10 ... 7th cranial nerve palsy:*Causes: 7th cranial nerve palsy *Introduction: 7th cranial nerve palsy *7th cranial nerve palsy: Add a ... More Searches: 7th cranial nerve palsy. *7th cranial nerve palsy: Add a 3rd symptom *7th cranial nerve palsy: Remove a symptom ...
Article about Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma. Includes illustrations and topical information provided by ADAM and Drugs ... Causes of Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma. An infants facial nerve (also called the seventh cranial nerve) can be ... Learn more about Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma. Associated drugs. *Peripheral Neuropathy ... Fanaroff and Martins Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine Diseases of the Fetus and Infant. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...
The main trunk of CN VII consists of motor fibers and the intermediate nerve which is a part of CN VII has parasympathet.. ... Facial nerve is the seventh paired cranial nerve. ... Facial nerve is the seventh paired cranial nerve. The main ... 2Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Disease, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland ... Keywords: Peripheral facial nerve palsy; Tympanometry; Middle ear function. Subscription required. Please login to access the ...
The disease is transmitted to humans via tick bites, from infected ticks of the genus Ixodes. ... Lyme disease is a multisystem illness caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and the bodys immune ... Cranioneuropathy, especially cranial nerve VII and Bell palsy (peripheral seventh nerve palsy with decreased unilateral ... Clinical predictors of Lyme disease among children with a peripheral facial palsy at an emergency department in a Lyme disease- ...
This nerve is called the facial or seventh cranial nerve. D.... Image ... Sudden, facial weakness ( facial palsy ) is a common neurological symptom that involves the nerves to the muscles of the face. ... Involvement of one or more peripheral nerves can lead to: Peripheral. Peripheral means "away from the center. " It refers to ... Sarcoidosis is a disease in which inflammation occurs in the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, eyes, skin, or other tissues. ...
Bells palsy is a nonprogressive neurological disorder of the facial nerve (7th cranial nerve). This disorder is characterized ... Rare Disease Database. 0-9• A• B• C• D• E• F• G• H• I• J• K• L• M• N• O• P• Q• R• S• T• U• V• W• X• Y• Z ... The disorder is the second most common cause of atraumatic peripheral facial paralysis. Some researchers believe cases of ... 7th cranial nerve) may produce muscle weakness; pressure on the trigeminal nerve (5th cranial nerve) may lead to facial ...
Here are some Neurological diseases of the Adults: Spinal Cord Injury - Trauma to the Spinal Cord - Spinal Shock (Neurogenic ... Bells Palsy (Facial Paralysis). - Affects the (7th) seventh cranial nerve. - Results in a paralysis in one side of the face. ... acute infectious neuronitis of the cranial and peripheral nerves.. - the immune system destroys its own myelin sheath. ... A sensory disorder of the fifth cranial nerve.. ... Parkinsons Disease. - A degenerative disease caused by the ...
Neuritis of the Cranial Nerves. Bells palsy results from inflammation of the seventh cranial, or facial nerve. The fifth ... Neuritis of the Spinal Nerves. Injury or disease may affect any of the many nerves traveling out from the spine. For example, ... Neuritis and neuralgia attack the peripheral nerves, the nerves that link the brain and spinal cord with the muscles, skin, ... only one nerve is affected. bells palsy, or facial paralysis, results when the facial nerve is affected. It usually lasts only ...
The facial nerve and its branches regulate a number of functions of the mouth and face. Learn more about its anatomy, function ... Bells palsy is the most common medical problem involving the seventh cranial nerve. It is an impairment of the function of the ... this is a disease of the peripheral nerves that can affect both facial nerves at the same time. GBS usually begins in the feet ... while the facial nerve itself is a peripheral nerve. The facial nerve nuclei in the brainstem are called the motor nerve ...
Home > 2011 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Codes > Diseases Of The Nervous System And Sense Organs 320-389 > Disorders Of The Peripheral ... On examination - cranial 7 -paralysis-UMN. *On examination - cranial nerve 7-palsy-LMN ... seventh or facial 351.8*. newborn 767.5. *. eighth or acoustic 388.5. *. ninth or glossopharyngeal 352.1. ... Short description: Facial nerve dis NEC.. *ICD-9-CM 351.8 is a billable medical code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis ...
  • The Optic Nerve. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • The optic nerve is the cable that transmits signals from the eye to the brain. (nyee.edu)
  • Optic atrophy is a sign of remote damage to the optic nerve. (nyee.edu)
  • The optic nerve will appear pale. (nyee.edu)
  • This causes damage to the optic nerve. (nyee.edu)
  • If the lack of blood flow is towards the front of the optic nerve, it will become swollen initially and this is called anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION). (nyee.edu)
  • Some infections such as Lyme disease, syphilis and tuberculosis can involve the optic nerve and need to be treated with antibiotics often in conjunction with steroids to prevent damage. (nyee.edu)
  • His decreased visual acuity is from optic nerve damage. (utah.edu)
  • The second photograph shows optic atrophy , which is pallor of the optic disc resulting form damage to the optic nerve from pressure, ischemia, or demyelination. (utah.edu)
  • In persistent intracranial hypertension, the increased CSF pressure can trigger swelling and damage to the optic nerve- a condition called papilledema. (iytmed.com)
  • The increased pressure causes papilledema, which is swelling of the optic disc, the spot where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. (iytmed.com)
  • Nerve diseases and other problems can affect the optic nerve and other pathways that carry vision signals to the brain, or compromise vision by affecting tissues around the eye itself. (epso.ca)
  • The majority of these cases are due to serious underlying medical conditions such as Lyme disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome, leukaemia, sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis and trauma and may need emergency medical treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main differential diagnosis for this patient includes Lyme disease and herpes zoster oticus (Ramsay Hunt syndrome), or some rarer viral cause such as herpes simplex, mumps or cytomegalovirus. (cmaj.ca)
  • Tests (eg, chest x-ray, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] level, tests for Lyme disease, serum glucose) are done to diagnose treatable causes. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Various other disorders (eg, Lyme disease , sarcoidosis ) can cause facial nerve palsy. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Lyme disease and Epstein-Barr virus studies were negative, as were blood and cerebrospinal bacterial cultures. (aappublications.org)
  • The first manifestation of early disseminated Lyme disease may be a peripheral facial palsy, and those patients should have a Lyme disease blood test. (lww.com)
  • Occasionally an erythema migrans skin lesion can be found or a tick-bite history can be elicited, both indicative of Lyme disease. (lww.com)
  • Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne illness in the United States, is a multisystem illness usually caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (see the image below) and the body's immune response to the infection. (medscape.com)
  • See Lyme Disease and 4 Emerging Tick-Borne Illnesses , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify and treat several tick-borne conditions. (medscape.com)
  • Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease vary by disease stage. (medscape.com)
  • In July 2019, the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of concurrent or sequential EIA testing for diagnosis of Lyme disease. (medscape.com)
  • With appropriate antibiotic treatment, most patients with early-stage Lyme disease recover rapidly and completely. (medscape.com)
  • Antibiotic selection, route of administration, and duration of therapy for Lyme disease are guided by the patient's clinical manifestations and stage of disease, as well as the presence of any concomitant medical conditions or allergies. (medscape.com)
  • How does lyme disease affect the eye? (wordpress.com)
  • Lyme disease is a spirochetal disease responsible for a multitude of ocular and systemic manifestations, and patients may present to ophthalmologists and general clinicians with a wide variety of generalized and ocular signs which can result in chronic and disabling sequelae. (wordpress.com)
  • Here we report two cases of patients suffering with Lyme disease who developed a rare associated papillitis. (wordpress.com)
  • Following exclusion of raised intracranial pressure as the cause of the findings, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot serology confirmed a positive result for Borrelia burgdorferi which, along with ophthalmic signs and exposure to an endemic area, confirmed the diagnosis of Lyme disease. (wordpress.com)
  • Dr Burrascano a leading pioneer in Lyme disease, treatments & diagnosis regularly publishes a useful guide. (wordpress.com)
  • CanLyme (Canadian Lyme Disease Foundation) have a good symptom check list (click on symptoms link on the site). (wordpress.com)
  • They show 75 known symptoms of 'chronic' Lyme disease as well as the earlier signs! (wordpress.com)
  • How do you come in contact with Lyme disease? (wordpress.com)
  • Bell palsy is usually caused by a reactivation of herpes simplex virus although other infections (such as syphilis or Lyme disease) are sometimes implicated. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Blood tests will be done to look for medical problems such as Lyme disease, which may cause Bell palsy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • See related handout on Lyme disease , written by the authors of this article. (aafp.org)
  • Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi , is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States. (aafp.org)
  • Identification of an erythema migrans rash following a tick bite is the only clinical manifestation sufficient to make the diagnosis of Lyme disease in the absence of laboratory confirmation. (aafp.org)
  • The treatment of Lyme disease is determined mainly by the clinical manifestations of the disease. (aafp.org)
  • Although there is controversy regarding treatment of post-Lyme disease syndrome and chronic Lyme disease, there is no biologic or clinical trial evidence indicating that prolonged antibiotic therapy is of benefit. (aafp.org)
  • For diagnosis of Lyme disease, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a two-tier serologic testing protocol using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay initially, followed by the more specific Western blot to confirm the diagnosis when the assay samples are positive or equivocal. (aafp.org)
  • Doxycycline is effective for the treatment of early Lyme disease and is the preferred agent for oral treatment because of its activity against other tick-borne illnesses. (aafp.org)
  • Prolonged antibiotic therapy for chronic Lyme disease or post-Lyme disease syndrome, beyond the standard recommendations, provides no benefit and is not recommended. (aafp.org)
  • Recommended measures to prevent Lyme disease include avoiding areas with high tick burdens, wearing protective clothing, using tick repellants (e.g., diethyltoluamide [DEET]), performing frequent body checks for ticks and bathing following outdoor activities, and instituting environmental landscape modifications (e.g., grass mowing, deer exclusion fencing, removing leaf litters and woodpiles) to reduce the tick burden. (aafp.org)
  • Differentiating Lyme meningitis (LM) from other forms of aseptic meningitis (AM) in children is a common diagnostic dilemma in Lyme disease-endemic regions. (aappublications.org)
  • Patients were considered to have Lyme disease only if they met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria (documented erythema migrans and/or positive Lyme serology). (aappublications.org)
  • Longer duration of headache, presence of cranial neuritis, and predominance of CSF mononuclear cells are predictive of LM in children presenting with meningitis in a Lyme disease-endemic region. (aappublications.org)
  • 1 In 2002, 23763 cases of Lyme disease were reported, and an overwhelming majority of these cases came from 10 northeastern and mid-Atlantic states. (aappublications.org)
  • 1 , 2 According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, the diagnosis of Lyme disease requires the presence of the erythema migrans rash diagnosed by a physician or the presence of other clinical manifestations accompanied by positive Lyme-serology testing with confirmatory immunoblotting. (aappublications.org)
  • In children with Lyme disease, 2% have an initial clinical manifestation of meningitis 3 that requires 2 to 4 weeks of parenteral antibiotics. (aappublications.org)
  • 1 , 4 Although a minority of children with Lyme disease present with Lyme meningitis (LM), distinguishing LM from aseptic meningitis (AM) in children who live in a Lyme disease-endemic region can be challenging, especially during the summer months when both LM and AM are at peak incidence. (aappublications.org)
  • Patients with Lyme disease typically present with additional manifestations, such as arthritis, rash, or facial swelling. (aafp.org)
  • Routine testing for Borrelia burgdorferi is not recommended for patients with Bell palsy in the absence of additional symptoms of Lyme disease. (aafp.org)
  • Lyme disease is a medical condition caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by ticks that usually live on deer. (enetmd.com)
  • Symptoms of Lyme disease may vary in severity and occur in cycles lasting for about one to three weeks. (enetmd.com)
  • Treatment of Lyme disease is with antibiotic drugs and is most effective when given soon after initial infection. (enetmd.com)
  • Lyme disease is an infection transmitted by the bite of ticks carrying the spiral-shaped bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. (enetmd.com)
  • Controversy clouds the true incidence of Lyme disease because no test is 100% diagnostic for the disease, and many of its symptoms mimic those of so many other diseases. (enetmd.com)
  • In states where Lyme disease is more common, the rate can be as high as 37.4 per 100,000 population. (enetmd.com)
  • Some epidemiologists believe that the actual incidence of Lyme disease in the United States may be 5-10 times greater than that reported by the CDC. (enetmd.com)
  • Lyme disease has also been found in Canada, most countries in continental Europe, some countries of the former Soviet Union, Japan, China, and Australia. (enetmd.com)
  • People ages 5-14 and 50-59 are most likely to contract Lyme disease because these groups are more likely to participate in outdoor activities where they are exposed to ticks. (enetmd.com)
  • Lyme disease, which is also called Lyme borreliosis, is a vector-borne disease. (enetmd.com)
  • It is important to note that neither B. burgdorferi nor Lyme disease can be transmitted directly from one person to another or from pets to humans. (enetmd.com)
  • In the United States, Lyme disease accounts for more than 90% of all reported vector-borne illnesses. (enetmd.com)
  • The physician will check other possible conditions first, which may cause the disease, like a tumor, Lyme disease, stroke, or any other underlying condition. (healthclues.net)
  • A particular type of rash may be an evidence of Lyme disease. (healthclues.net)
  • So far, the MRI results are negative, Lyme disease negative, diabetes negative, but I do have high cholesterol. (wisegeekhealth.com)
  • Its smooth muscle is innervated by involuntary nerves (sympathetic nerves via the sympathetic trunk and parasympathetic nerves via the vagus nerve) and in addition voluntary nerves (lower. (numpor.org)
  • The paired vagus nerves of humans have different functions, and stimulation of the left vagus has been shown to be a therapeutic treatment for epilepsy, and may modulate the perception of pain. (meducation.net)
  • Surgical treatment of a gastric ulcer includes severing the vagus nerve (vagotomy) to reduce the amount of gastric acid secreted by the gastric cells. (rnpedia.com)
  • It is one of the most common neurologic disorders of the cranial nerves (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Neurologic manifestations occur over the entire spectrum of HIV disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PLMS are considered "periodic" if three or more occur with idiopathic peripheral seventh cranial nerve V, but there has been in an adverse effect reported in association with dystonia, and prolongation of interpeak latencies, especially asymmetric prolongations, as well as in progressive myoclonic epilepsy, are associated with developmental delay, neurologic deficits, and visual sensitivity. (cide.edu)
  • Although there is a decrease of tetanus infection worldwide due to immunisation programmes and the use of anti-tetanus toxoid, it is important for health workers to recognise the symptoms and signs of this disease and start treatment as soon as possible because of the high morbidity and mortality rate. (scielo.org.za)
  • Chronic mastoiditis, also called chronic tympanomastoiditis or chronic suppurative otitis media, is an inflammatory disease of the mastoid and middle ear that often presents with chronic drainage from the ear and hearing loss. (neurologyadvisor.com)