Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Peripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral: A group of malignant lymphomas thought to derive from peripheral T-lymphocytes in lymph nodes and other nonlymphoid sites. They include a broad spectrum of lymphocyte morphology, but in all instances express T-cell markers admixed with epithelioid histiocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. Although markedly similar to large-cell immunoblastic lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, LARGE-CELL, IMMUNOBLASTIC), this group's unique features warrant separate treatment.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Blood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell SeparationPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Nerve Sheath Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Peripheral Tolerance: The mechanism, in peripheral lymphoid organs (LYMPH NODES; SPLEEN; TONSILS; and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue), that prevents mature lymphocytes from reacting to SELF-ANTIGENS. This is accomplished through a variety of means including CLONAL ANERGY and CLONAL DELETION.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Mice, Inbred BALB CDNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Nerve Tissue ProteinsActins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
al (Feb 2013). "Prickle1 is expressed in distinct cell populations of the central nervous system and contributes to neuronal ... Prickle is recruited to the cell surface membrane by strabismus, another planar cell polarity protein. In the developing ... with flamingo to regulate sensory axon advance at the transition between the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous ... Molecular and Cellular Biology. 23 (24): 9025-9031. doi:10.1128/mcb.23.24.9025-9031.2003. Bassuk, Alexander (November 2008). "A ...
A normal cell will display peptides from normal cellular protein turnover on its class I MHC, and CTLs will not be activated in ... response to them due to central and peripheral tolerance mechanisms. When a cell expresses foreign proteins, such as after ... The α3 domain is plasma membrane-spanning and interacts with the CD8 co-receptor of T-cells. The α3-CD8 interaction holds the ... PirB is expressed in the central nervous system and diminishes ocular dominance plasticity in the developmental critical period ...
Peripheral tissues Gastric parietal cells (oxyntic cells) Vascular smooth muscle Neutrophils Mast cells Heart Uterus Central ... The histamine receptor H2 belongs to the rhodopsin-like family of G protein-coupled receptors. It is an integral membrane ... Boron (2005). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3. Page 479 Del Valle ... nervous system tissues Caudate-putamen Cerebral cortex (external layers) Hippocampal formation Dentate nucleus of the ...
Growth Cone Biomechanics and Substrate Rigidity Response in Peripheral and Central Nervous System Neurons". Biophysical Journal ... Cellular adhesions can be defined as proteins or protein aggregates that form mechanical and chemical linkages between the ... This protein has been shown to be highly mobile, as it contains a GPI membrane anchor. Although much of the details are elusive ... Cell-cell adhesions provide chemical and mechanical connections between adjacent cells. Of special importance to neuronal ...
... cellular responses. They pass through the cell membrane 7 times. G-protein-Linked receptors are a huge family that have ... They are found in mammals, both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS), as well as other animals. Its ... there are also receptor systems in which the receptor and the ion channel are separate proteins in the cell membrane, instead ... Also called G protein-coupled receptor, seven-transmembrane domain receptor, 7 TM receptor, constitute a large protein family ...
... is localised to the plasma membrane of cells whilst vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are found in the membrane of ... EAAT2 is responsible for over 90% of glutamate reuptake within the central nervous system (CNS). The EAAT3-4 subtypes are ... concentrations of glutamate in the extracellular space by transporting it along with other ions across cellular membranes. ... Glutamate transporters also transport aspartate and are present in virtually all peripheral tissues, including the heart, liver ...
These receptors are greatly distributed in neurons and glial cells throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. P2X ... More specifically, they are involved in several cellular functions, including proliferation and migration of neural stem cells ... P2X receptors are ligand-gated ion channels, whereas the P1 and P2Y receptors are G protein-coupled receptors. These ligand- ... Purinergic receptors, also known as purinoceptors, are a family of plasma membrane molecules that are found in almost all ...
It has been observed before and during synaptogenesis in the central nervous system as well as the peripheral nervous system. ... Conventionally, necrosis is associated with unprogrammed cell death resulting from cellular damage or infiltration by pathogens ... and the scaffold protein FIP200. Class III PI3K complex, containing hVps34, Beclin-1, p150 and Atg14-like protein or ... The lipidated form of LC3, known as LC3-II, is attached to the autophagosome membrane. Autophagy and apoptosis are connected ...
Schwann cells supply the myelin for the peripheral nervous system, whereas oligodendrocytes, specifically of the ... Techniques include surgically implanting oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the central nervous system and inducing myelin ... Myelin basic protein (MBP) constitutes ~23% of myelin protein, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, and proteolipid protein ( ... Myelin decreases capacitance and increases electrical resistance across the cell membrane (the axolemma). Thus, myelination ...
It is expressed in noradrenergic nerve terminals of the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as in chromaffin cells ... This protein may use the morpheein model of allosteric regulation. DBH is inhibited by disulfiram, tropolone, and, most ... It is the only enzyme involved in the synthesis of small-molecule neurotransmitters that is membrane-bound, making ... Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 57 (8-9): 1236-59. doi:10.1007/pl00000763. PMID 11028916. Broadley KJ (March 2010). "The ...
P11's involvement with the cytoskeleton may aid the transport of other proteins throughout the cell and to the cell membrane. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT), is a neurotransmitter found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is ... S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells. They regulate a number of cellular ... It is involved in the trafficking of proteins to the plasma membrane and can be expressed on the cell surface as a receptor. ...
"Lipophilic cationic drugs increase the permeability of lysosomal membranes in a cell culture system". Journal of Cellular ... Additionally, cinnarizine can be used in scuba divers without an increased risk of central nervous system oxygen toxicity which ... Deka, C.V.R. (2006). "Role of Cinnarizine in Peripheral Vertigo". Vertigo Viewpoint. 4 (1): 2-4.. ... "Effects of the calcium antagonists perhexiline and cinnarizine on vascular and cardiac contractile protein function". The ...
In addition, both the central and peripheral nervous systems can use angiotensin for sympathetic neurotransmission. Other ... Angiotensin II stimulates Na+ /H+ exchangers located on the apical membranes (faces the tubular lumen) of cells in the proximal ... This in turn leads to a decreased hydrostatic pressure and increased oncotic pressure (due to unfiltered plasma proteins) in ... 866-7); The Adrenal Gland (p. 1059)". Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160- ...
... and trace amines which mediates some of their cellular effects in monoamine neurons within the central nervous system. The ... In model cell systems, hTAAR1 has extremely poor membrane expression. A method to induce hTAAR1 membrane expression has been ... One of the downstream effects of active TAAR1 is to increase cAMP in the presynaptic cell via Gαs G-protein activation of ... TAAR1 peripheral and immune localization/functions: It is important to note that in addition to the brain, TAAR1 is also ...
The myelinating glial cells; oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous ... The extra-cellular region of β subunits can associate with itself and other proteins, such as tenascin R and the cell-adhesion ... This membrane stretches and spirally wraps itself over and over as the in-folding of the Schwann cell surface continues. As a ... which anchor the channel to extra-cellular and intra-cellular components. The nodes of Ranvier in the central and peripheral ...
... produces NO in nervous tissue in both the central and peripheral nervous system. The gene coding for nNOS is located on ... a component of plasma membranes surrounding cells, and the membranes of Golgi bodies within cells. eNOS localisation to ... A Green Fluorescent Protein Study". J. Cell Biol. 137 (7): 1525-35. doi:10.1083/jcb.137.7.1525. PMC 2137822 . PMID 9199168. ... This process may be important because it is regulated by cellular redox conditions and may thereby provide a mechanism for the ...
L and M proteins and then travel to the inner membrane of the cell, where a G protein has embedded itself in the membrane. The ... the virus enters the peripheral nervous system. It then travels along the afferent nerves toward the central nervous system. ... The cellular membrane pinches in a procession known as pinocytosis and allows entry of the virus into the cell by way of an ... a protein present in the cytoplasm of nerve cells. Once the virus reaches the cell body it travels rapidly to the central ...
The G glycoprotein is important for viral entry into the host cell. It has been suggested that the p10, or X, protein plays a ... Numerous interactions of the immune system with the central nervous system have been described. Mood and psychotic disorders, ... BoDV-1 p24 RNA has been detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of psychiatric patients with such conditions ... It [binds amphoterin-HMGB1, a multifunctional protein, directly and may cause deleterious effects in cellular functions by ...
G protein-coupled receptors in the plasma membrane of these cells can initiate second messenger pathways that cause cation ... where it excites the cell enough for the impulse to be passed along through a track of neurons to the central nervous system. ... In general, cellular response to stimuli is defined as a change in state or activity of a cell in terms of movement, secretion ... Nerves in the peripheral nervous system spread out to various parts of the body, including muscle fibers. A muscle fiber and ...
... neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological and homeostatic processes in both the central and peripheral nervous ... Additionally, NPY acting on and stimulating Y1 receptors present on progenitor cell membranes in order to increase cell ... The receptor protein that NPY operates on is a G protein-coupled receptor in the rhodopsin like 7-transmembrane GPCR family. ... Furthermore, in situ hybridization results from the study showed the highest cellular levels of NPY mRNA in the arcuate nucleus ...
In this capacity, glial cells provide multiple functions to both the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous ... of receptor proteins from the cell's plasma membrane contributes to yet another mode of regulation of cellular function. While ... 1979) Review on the properties of glial cells of the central nervous system. Sem Hop. 55(35-36): 1653-61. Jessell TM. (2000) ... 2004) Endogenous adult neural stem cells: limits and potential to repair the injured central nervous system, J Neurosci Res. 76 ...
... s are of a class of cell membrane receptors in the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. As is typical of ... and certain neuronal elements of the peripheral or central nervous systems. The existence of additional cannabinoid receptors ... mast cells, microglia in the brain, Kupffer cells in the liver, astrocytes, etc.), the number of other potential cellular ... CB2 receptors are mainly expressed on T cells of the immune system, on macrophages and B cells, and in hematopoietic cells. ...
They accumulate in the peripheral nervous system where HSAN manifest, but not in the central nervous system in mice bearing a ... However, it cannot account for the aberrant sphingolipid-related cellular features in heterozygous patient-derived cells or the ... and membrane association of the hereditary spastic paraplegia 3A (SPG3A) protein atlastin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Dnmt1 is highly expressed in post-mitotic neurons in the adult central nervous system, with peak expression during the S-phase ...
... and receptor proteins in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Studying these interactions, researchers are developing ... Neurons are known as excitable cells because on its surface membrane there are an abundance of proteins known as ion-channels ... Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system, and the neural mechanisms through ... to bind to the cell membrane and release its contents into the synapse. This cell is known as the pre-synaptic neuron, and the ...
... (TM), CD141 or BDCA-3 is an integral membrane protein expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and serves ... Boffa MC, Jackman RW, Peyri N, Boffa JF, George B (1991). "Thrombomodulin in the central nervous system". Nouvelle Revue ... "Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: from specific surface markers to specific cellular functions". Human Immunology. 63 (12): 1133-48 ... three markers for distinct subsets of dendritic cells in human peripheral blood". Journal of Immunology. 165 (11): 6037-46. doi ...
Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with, or are part of, biological membranes. They include integral membrane proteins that are permanently anchored or part of the membrane and peripheral membrane proteins that are only temporarily attached to the lipid bilayer or to other integral proteins.[1][2] The integral membrane proteins are classified as transmembrane proteins that span across the membrane and integral monotopic proteins that are attached to only one side of the membrane. Membrane proteins are a common type of proteins along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, ...
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bounded compartment inside eukaryotic cells. It is a compartment of the endocytic membrane transport pathway originating from the trans Golgi membrane. Molecules or ligands internalized from the plasma membrane can follow this pathway all the way to lysosomes for degradation, or they can be recycled back to the plasma membrane. Molecules are also transported to endosomes from the trans-Golgi network and either continue to lysosomes or recycle back to the Golgi. Endosomes can be classified as early, sorting, or late depending on their stage post internalization. Endosomes represent a major sorting compartment of the endomembrane system in cells. In HeLa cells, endosomes are approximately 500 nm in diameter when fully mature. Endosomes provide an environment for material to be sorted before it reaches ...
The gag-onc fusion protein (also written as Gag-v-Onc, with "v" indicating that the Onc sequence resides in a viral genome) is a general term for a fusion protein formed from a group-specific antigen ('gag') gene and that of an oncogene ('onc'), a gene that plays a role in the development of a cancer. Onc is a generic placeholder for a given specific oncogene, such as C-jun. (In the case of a fusion with C-jun, the resulting "gag-jun" protein is known alternatively as p65). Gag genes are part of a general architecture for retroviruses, viruses that replicate through reverse transcription, where the gag region of the genome encodes proteins that constitute the matrix, capsid and nucleocapsid of the mature virus particles. Like in HIV's replication cycle, these proteins are needed for viral budding from the host cell's plasma membrane, where the fully formed virions leave the cell to infect other cells. As a ...
... (Ca-AEP or Ca-2AEP) is a vital component in the structure of cell membranes in the human body. It is the calcium salt of phosphorylethanolamine. It was discovered by the eminent biochemist Erwin Chargaff in 1941. Ca-AEP has been shown to help maintain cell membrane integrity and improve cellular functions. It was patented by Hans Alfred Nieper and Franz Kohler. Calcium 2-amino ethyl phosphoric acid (Ca-AEP or Ca-2AEP) is also called calcium ethylamino-phosphate (calcium EAP), calcium colamine phosphate, calcium 2-aminoethyl ester of phosphoric acid, and calcium 2-amino ethanol phosphate 2-AEP plays a role as a component in the cell membrane and at the same time has the property to form complexes with minerals. This mineral transporter goes into the outer layer of the outer cell membrane where it releases its associated mineral and is ...
Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database provides spatial positions of membrane protein structures with respect to the lipid bilayer.[1][2][3][4] Positions of the proteins are calculated using an implicit solvation model of the lipid bilayer.[5][6] The results of calculations were verified against experimental studies of spatial arrangement of transmembrane and peripheral proteins in membranes.[4][7][8][9][10][11][12] Proteins structures are taken from the Protein Data Bank. OPM also provides structural classification of membrane-associated proteins into families and superfamilies, membrane topology, quaternary structure of proteins in membrane-bound state, and the type of a destination membrane for each protein. ...
While Robert Hooke's discovery of cells in 1665 led to the proposal of the Cell Theory, Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the time.[8] Microscopists focused on the cell wall for well over 150 years until advances in microscopy were made. In the early 19th century, cells were recognized as being separate entities, unconnected, and bound by individual cell walls after it was found that plant cells could be separated. This theory extended to include animal cells to suggest a universal mechanism for cell protection and development. By the second half of the 19th century, microscopy was still not advanced enough to make a distinction between cell membranes and ...
While Robert Hooke's discovery of cells in 1665 led to the proposal of the Cell Theory, Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the time.[7] Microscopists focused on the cell wall for well over 150 years until advances in microscopy were made. In the early 19th century, cells were recognized as being separate entities, unconnected, and bound by individual cell walls after it was found that plant cells could be separated. This theory extended to include animal cells to suggest a universal mechanism for cell protection and development. By the second half of the 19th century, microscopy was still not advanced enough to make a distinction between cell membranes and ...
There are many different types of membranes in a cell. The cell membrane, also called the plasma membrane, covers one cell. Membranes also divide the cell into different spaces called organelles. Organelles are special areas of the cell that do different work. For example, the nucleus holds the DNA in a cell. The mitochondria make energy for the cell. Membranes in cells are made of lipids (fats) and protein. The lipids keep the inside of the cell or the organelle separate from the outside. The proteins do many things. Plasma membranes give the cell messages from outside. They let some things (like glucose, calcium, and potassium) go into and out of the cell. ...
A vesicle is a bubble of liquid within a cell. More technically, a vesicle is a small, intracellular, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances within a cell. Vesicles form naturally because of the properties of lipid membranes. Vesicles can fuse with the plasma membrane, and release their contents outside the cell. Vesicles can also fuse with other organelles within the cell. A vesicle is sometimes formed when the cell is doing endocytosis. Endocytosis is a process in which a cell's membrane takes in a particle from the outside and brings it inside the cell with a vesicle around it. Vesicles are also more commonly known as nuclear membranes, because their very similar to the cell membrane. ...
A vesicle is a bubble of liquid within a cell. More technically, a vesicle is a small, intracellular, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances within a cell. Vesicles form naturally because of the properties of lipid membranes. Vesicles can fuse with the plasma membrane, and release their contents outside the cell. Vesicles can also fuse with other organelles within the cell. A vesicle is sometimes formed when the cell is doing endocytosis. Endocytosis is a process in which a cell's membrane takes in a particle from the outside and brings it inside the cell with a vesicle around it. Vesicles are also more commonly known as nuclear membranes, because their very similar to the cell membrane. ...
... s are an important link in the chain from electrical excitation of a cell to its subsequent contraction (excitation-contraction coupling). When contraction of a muscle is needed, stimulation from a nerve or an adjacent muscle cell causes a characteristic flow of charged particles across the cell membrane known as an action potential. At rest, there are fewer positively charged particles on the inner side of the membrane compared to the outer side, and the membrane is described as being polarised. During an action potential, positively charged particles (predominantly sodium and calcium ions) flow across the membrane from the outside to the inside. This reverses the normal imbalance of charged particles and is referred to as depolarisation. One region of membrane depolarises adjacent regions, and the resulting wave of depolarisation then spreads along the ...
... is one of cell membrane classes, occurring as set of parallel elemernts with duble same dimensional membranes, as the nuclear envelope. These lamella have pore complexes which are identical to those of the nuclear cover. It is arranged in highly ordered structure with a regular specing between themselves. These lamella are characteristic for the oocytes, spermatocytes, some somatic and cancer cels. They are characteristic of actively growing cells, including many functions in genetic information transfer and storage. They are probably formed from the nuclear envelope. Similar membranes are found in both the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. In the nucleoplasm, they are small, irrrgular, as well as short-living. It have been established that, in some condition, ribosomes being directly connected to the annulate lamellar membrane, supposing a role in the process of protein synthesis. Cell ...
ލައިޓް މައިކްރަސްކޯޕަކުން ބަލައިފިނަމަ ޕްލޭޓްލިޓްތައް ހުންނާނީ ވަށް ނުވަތަ ކުކުޅު ބިސް ބުރުގެ ބައްޓަމަށެވެ. ޕްލޭޓްލިޓް އުފެދިފައިވަނީ ސާފު ހުދުކުލައިގެ އަރިމަތީ ބަޔަކާއި، ކުލަ އެކުލެވޭ މެދު ބައެއްގެ މަައްޗަށެވެ. މިބުނި ސާފު ހުދުކުލައިގެ އަރިމަތީބަޔަށް ކިޔަނީހައިއަލޯމީރް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Hyalomere) އެވެ.ކުލަ އެކުލެވޭ މެދުގައިވާ ބަޔަށް ކިޔަނީ ގްރެނިއޫލޯމީރް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Granulomere)ނުވަތަ ކްރޯމަމީރް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Chromomere) އެވެ. އިލެކްޓްރޯން މައިކްރޯސްކޯޕަކުން ބަލައިފިނަމަ ޕްލޭޓްލިޓްގެ ބޭރުފަށަލަ(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Cell membrane)ހުންނަނީ ...
Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.. * Cellular localization. Cell membrane. ... Expressed abundantly within the central nervous system in both hypothalamus and hippocampus. In peripheral tissues, the ... Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. ... The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that activate the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via G(q)) ...
It signifies the acceleration of neuronal protein synthesis in the face of cellular injury. At the same time, the cytoskeletal ... Malformations of the central nervous system. In: Veterinary Neuropathology. Mosby, St. Louis, MO, 68-94. ... lying adjacent to the cell membrane. During recovery from the neural insult, the Nissl substance may reaggregate, but from the ... it may be secondary to traumatic radicular nerve crush or severance of the peripheral nerve. Central chromatolysis (arrow) ...
... original research and review articles dealing with the cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in the nervous ... cellular survival and cellular longevity. Oxidative stress impacts almost all acute and chronic progressive disorders and on a ... cellular basis is intimately linked to aging, cardiovascular disease, cancer, immune function, metabolism and neurodegeneration ... Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity is a unique peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes ...
... plasma membranes) and in the layers that make up the myelin sheaths in the central and peripheral nervous systems. In plasma ... Sterols also exert a direct effect on proteins in the membrane. For example, the function of the human red cell hexose ... Cholesterol is found particularly in external cellular membranes ( ... Sterols are important constituents of the cell membranes of most eukaryotic cells. The cell membranes of terrestrial ...
By this mechanism, ATP functions as an important neurotransmitter both in the central and peripheral nervous systems (Bodin and ... channel proteins and plasma membrane-located ABC transporters have been proposed to function as ATP export proteins (Bodin and ... There is evidence that in animals, cellular ATP export occurs by vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane (Bodin and Burnstock, ... In summary, PM-ANT1 is an MCF-type transporter located at the plasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell. The activity of PM-ANT1 is ...
... which are distributed throughout the peripheral and central nervous system (4). The actions of endocannabinoids are terminated ... Endogenously generated from cell membrane lipid precursors when required, these lipid mediators exert their functions through ... via cellular uptake by membrane transporters and hydrolysis by specific enzymes, such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and ... binding to and activating two G protein-coupled receptors, namely cannabinoid (CB) receptors 1 and 2, ...
... damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems), genotoxicity (damage to DNA leading to cell transformation, abnormal ... lymphoid and erythroid cells. They have caustic and irritant effects on the skin and mucous membrane (Devegowda and Murthy, ... programmed cell death) leading to cellular necrosis (Surai, 2002, Fink-Gremmels, 2008). The mycotoxins may cause immune ... Protein and glucosides, as an example, can be bound to mycotoxins by growing plants in the field to protect themselves from ...
Oligodendroglial Cells using Live-cell Imaging and Cleaveable Fluorogenic-dye Substrates Following Potassium-induced Membrane ... myelin basic proteins include Monitoring Cleaved Caspase-3 Activity and Apoptosis of Immortalized ... A group of 7 proteins produced from a single gene by alternate splicing found in central and peripheral nervous system myelin. ... elicits a cellular immune response that produces the CNS autoimmune disease called experimental allergic encephalomyelitis ( ...
... a new spectrin localized at axon initial segments and nodes of ranvier in the central and peripheral nervous system. J. Cell ... Ankyrins and cellular targeting of diverse membrane proteins to physiological sites. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 13, 61-67. ... An important structural element that links cell adhesion proteins in the cell membrane to the F-actin cytoskeleton is the sub- ... via the adaptor protein Ankyrin. An additional protein recruited to the basolateral cell membrane is the Na+/K+-ATPase ( ...
Recombinant Proteins. Application: SDS-PAGE, Western (WB), ELISA (EIA), Immunoprecipitation (IP). ... A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 22 Recombinant Protein-AAH92465.1 (MBS2033170) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ... central nervous system development; myelination in the peripheral nervous system; negative regulation of cell adhesion; ... Membrane protein, integral; Cell adhesion; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis. Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 7q21. Cellular ...
They may contain phospholipids, DNA, RNA and both membrane-bound and cytoplasmic proteins of the donor cell. Microparticle ... functions have been characterized extensively in peripheral tissues, but only recently have their roles in the central nervous ... Microparticles are small (0.1-1 mm) vesicles that are formed by outward blebbing of cellular membrane. ... signaling to communicate the functional status of the donor cell to the surrounding target cells without direct cell-to-cell ...
Only in 2006, ATP was finally recognized as a cotransmitter in both the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNS) [9, 10, 14 ... "Purinergic signaling and the functioning of the nervous system cells," Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters, vol. 20, no. 5, ... The A2A receptor activity, a T-cell surface immune checkpoint protein, could lead to the discovery that adenosine in the tumor ... leading to cell membrane depolarization [23]. The P2X2/3 receptors are located in the nodose ganglia [24], P2X4/6/7 in the CNS ...
Nerve Tissue: Brief introduction to anatomy of central and peripheral nervous systems. Neuron morphology, dendrites, axons etc ... Skeletal muscle cell structure in detail, internal membrane systems, e.g. sarcoplasmic reticulum. Myofibril structure, ... Proteins of striated muscles, myosin, structure and properties, enzymic cleavage, heavy and light myosin and their properties. ... Epithelial Tissue, Definition and cellular structure. Melanin,location and structure. Synthesis of melanin. Albinism, ...
Ab164633 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA. Abcam provides free… ... Cellular localization. Cytoplasm, cytosol. Cell membrane. Localizes to the cytosol and is recruited to the plasma membrane ... Its role in oligodendrocytes formation probably explains its importance in myelination of the central and peripheral nervous ... Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. ...
Only in 2006, ATP was finally recognized as a cotransmitter in both the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNS) [9, 10, 14 ... "Purinergic signaling and the functioning of the nervous system cells," Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters, vol. 20, no. 5, ... central nervous system (CNS), and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP). Table 6: Ectonucleotidases (E-NTPDase, E-5- ... Caption: Figure 1: Cell membrane-anchored ectonucleotidases and their respective hydrolysis reactions. Table 1: ...
P2X1 is present in smooth muscle as well as in the central and peripheral nervous system. P2X2 is expressed in brain, spinal ... Membrane-bound P2-receptors mediate the actions of extracellular nucleotides in cell-to-cell signalling. P2X-receptors are ... Activation of these receptors is partially dependent on ATP (or UTP) release from cells, often in the setting of cellular ... P2Y14 is a receptor for UDP-glucose and other UDP-sugar coupled to G-proteins. Not activated by ATP, ADP, UTP or ATP. Highest ...
Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule), Authors: Esra Yavuz, Merve Oyken, Ayse Elif Erson Bensan. Published in: Atlas ... The expression of ALCAM was found during organ development in the central and peripheral nervous system, sensory organs, ... of plasma membrane retinal ganglion cell axon guidance T cell receptor complex identical protein binding neuronal cell body ... In addition, ALCAM-ALCAM homophilic interaction contributes to cellular changes, such as angiogenesis, immune response and cell ...
By whole-exome sequencing in a patient with a multisystem neurological disorder of both the central and peripheral nervous ... are important components of cellular membranes and functionally associated with fundamental processes such as cell ... compared to wild type cells which was in line with a reduced expression of mutant DEGS1 protein. Moreover, an atypical and ... as cause for a novel sphingolipid disorder with hypomyelination and degeneration of both the central and peripheral nervous ...
proteins. ATP also plays a critical role in the transport of macromolecules across cell membranes, e.g. exocytosis and ... In humans, this signaling role is important in both the central and peripheral nervous system. Activity-dependent release of ... ATP use in cells. ATP is the main energy source for the majority of cellular functions. This includes the synthesis of ... motor proteins, and transport proteins to carry out the work of the cell. Also, the hydrolysis yields free inorganic Pi and ADP ...
... autoantibodies directed toward particular nervous system antigens. It also provides for substantially purified preparations of ... The present invention relates to methods of diagnosing peripheral neuropathies which comprises the steps of determining the ... is a nervous system-specific protein that is found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is present in myelin ... related membranes but not the compact myelin of oligodendrocytes andSchwann cells. MAG is an integral membrane protein. Almost ...
... are important components of cellular membranes and functionally associated with fundamental processes such as cell ... By whole-exome sequencing in a patient with a multisystem neurological disorder of both the central and peripheral nervous ... which was in line with a reduced expression of mutant DEGS1 protein. Moreover, an atypical and potentially neurotoxic ... as the cause of a sphingolipid disorder with hypomyelination and degeneration of both the central and peripheral nervous ...
... are important components of cellular membranes and functionally associated with fundamental processes such as cell ... By whole-exome sequencing in a patient with a multisystem neurological disorder of both the central and peripheral nervous ... which was in line with a reduced expression of mutant DEGS1 protein. Moreover, an atypical and potentially neurotoxic ... HAP1 cells where the dhSL species reached up to 90% of the total SLs. In contrast, WT cells had less than 15% dhSL species. ...
... a protein located in microdomains of the inner cell membrane [18]. It is involved in many cellular processes such as ... Almeida-Souza L , Timmerman V , Janssens S . Microtubule dynamics in the peripheral nervous system: A matter of balance. ... ADLD is a late-onset demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system white matter. The major clinical feature of ... MARCH3 encodes a member of the membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) family. The protein is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase and ...
... there are consistent findings of fragmentation and degeneration of myelin in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. A ... resulting in cell membrane injury. This enzymatic injury results in swelling and vacuolization of mitochondrial and cell death ... Thallium interferes with protein synthesis by damaging ribosomes, particularly the 60s ribosome, further leading to cellular ... Thallium accumulates in tissues with high potassium concentrations such as muscle, heart, and central and peripheral nerve ...
These receptors are localized throughout the central and peripheral nervous system and play a role in homeostasis of many ... iGluRs are complexes of various subunits creating ion channels in the cell plasma membranes that allow for influx or efflux of ... mGluRs indirectly activate ion channels on the plasma membrane through a signaling cascade that involves G proteins. ... It participates in processes such as neuronal precursor-cell proliferation, cellular homeostasis, synaptic transmission, growth ...
  • One of the earliest events in programmed cell death is the externalization of phosphatidylserine, a membrane phospholipid normally restricted to the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer. (pnas.org)
  • Antioxidant treatment consistently protects cells from the lipid peroxidation caused by fluoride exposure, suggesting that oxidative/nitrosative damage is the major mode of action of fluoride. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Like many stem cell-derived neural cells, NG108-15 cells are cultured in a propagation mode and then switched to a differentiation medium that arrests cell division and promotes the elaboration of axons and the expression of a variety of neural-specific genes, including voltage-gated ion channels and synaptic specializations. (thermofisher.com)
  • The cholesterol present in a particular tissue has either been synthesised de novo in the cells of that tissue, or was derived from circulating lipoprotein cholesterol. (bmj.com)
  • These diseases strike from children to elderly and are generally characterized by progressive deterioration of cells, eventually leading to tissue or organ degeneration. (hindawi.com)
  • Epithelial Tissue, Definition and cellular structure. (edu.sa)
  • Nerve Tissue: Brief introduction to anatomy of central and peripheral nervous systems. (edu.sa)
  • GDF15 plays key roles in prenatal development and the regulation of cellular responses to stress signals, inflammation and tissue repair after acute injuries in adult life [ 2 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • This application hereby incorporates by reference, in its entirety, U.S. patent application entitled, "METHODS FOR INDUCING REGENERATION, REMYELINATION, AND HYPERMYELINATION OF NERVOUS TISSUE", application Ser. (google.com)
  • The usage of stem cells is a promising strategy for the repair of damaged tissue in the injured brain. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These findings suggest that CX43-mediated intercellular communication between AF cells and cortical astrocytes may contribute to the reconstruction of damaged tissue by mediating modulatory, homeostatic, and protective factors in the injured brain and hence warrants further investigation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • prevents most large molecules and cells found in the blood from entering the brain tissue. (mssociety.ca)
  • Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) - An MS-like disease created in laboratory mice after they are injected with CNS tissue or a derivative of myelin basic protein. (mssociety.ca)
  • As the fluid courses in along arteries through the tissue and out along veins in a continuous flow, it sweeps along particles that are sitting in between the cells," Iliff said. (alzforum.org)
  • 9 The early steps in the pathway are also required for the synthesis of non-sterol isoprenes-isopentenyl-tRNAs, dolichol, ubiquinone, and haem A. The isopentenyl groups in tRNAs are thought to be important in stabilising codon-anticodon iteraction, thus preventing misreading of the genetic code during protein synthesis. (bmj.com)
  • By whole-exome sequencing in a patient with a multisystem neurological disorder of both the central and peripheral nervous systems, we identified a homozygous p.Ala280Val variant in DEGS1, which catalyzes the last step in the ceramide synthesis pathway. (jci.org)
  • The course provides an in-depth study of the microscopic anatomy dealing with the structure of cells, basic concepts of cell physiology, including structure and function of cellular membranes and organelles, cell growth, and communication and nucleic acid structure and synthesis. (barry.edu)
  • kcal / mole in vivo (inside of a living cell) and -7.3 kcal / mole in vitro (in laboratory conditions). (mcgill.ca)
  • Cromakalim (BRL 34915) restores in vitro the membrane potential of depolarized human skeletal muscle fibres. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Together, the in vitro and in vivo results suggest that there might be an age-limit by which dietary intervention needs to be initiated to elicit a beneficial response on peripheral nerve health. (fightaging.org)
  • Both species of bat show in vivo and in vitro resistance to protein oxidation under conditions of acute oxidative stress . (fightaging.org)
  • In this paradigm, PrP C serves two principal roles: to modulate the inflammatory potential of immune cells and to protect vulnerable parenchymal cells against noxious insults generated through inflammation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The field of PET scans for neuroinflammation is finally producing some potential tags to image the nervous system's resident immune cells. (alzforum.org)
  • The innate immune response is initiated when common features of bacteria are detected by sensors on the surface of dendritic immune cells, which thereby stimulate a rapid attack upon the foreign invaders. (cornell.edu)
  • At cell-cell contact zones, the basolateral (αβ) 2 -Spectrin is recruited to Neuroglian, a Drosophila homolog of the L1-cell adhesion molecule, via the adaptor protein Ankyrin. (biologists.org)
  • A component of the AP-1 clathrin adapter complexes, μ1B, that is involved in sorting of proteins to basolateral surfaces was involved in targeting of PRV particles to lateral surfaces. (asm.org)
  • Studies on isolated segments of the duodenum suggest that copper ions enter into the mucosal cells lining the intestine by simple diffusion and exit at the basolateral surface by a different mode of transport (Bremner 1980). (nap.edu)
  • Studies of this disease led to the prediction of a copper-transporting adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) in the basolateral membrane of mucosal cells. (nap.edu)
  • Another way that Vitamin K impacts the brain is through vitamin K-dependent proteins such as Gas6 and Protein S. Both of these proteins are mediated by vitamin K and are a part of brain physiology, but have yet to be explored deeply by behavioral research. (mazeengineers.com)
  • It was one of the few cases where we really understood something at a cellular basis and where mathematics predicted the physiology," Gardner said. (pbs.org)
  • We also identified the expression of the N terminal extended form of PDIP1alpha (referred to as PDIP1beta) consisting of 2649 amino acids (295 kDa) in human cultured cell lines by RT-PCR, and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. (embl.de)
  • At present, nine MRP proteins ranging in size from 1,325 to 1,545 amino acids have been identified in humans (hMRP1-9). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In another 10 to 25 percent of cases, mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the proteolipid protein 1 and DM20 proteins and lead to excess or abnormal proteins that are often misfolded. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Despite intensive studies since the 1990s, the physiological role of the cellular prion protein (PrP C ) remains elusive. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cellular prion protein (PrP C ) is known for its crucial involvement, via its scrapie isoform PrP Sc , in the development of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in man and scrapie in sheep and goats. (frontiersin.org)
  • There are different strains of PrP "prion protein" that vary between species. (stanford.edu)
  • Prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are believed to result from the misfolding of a widely expressed normal cellular prion protein, PrP c . (springer.com)
  • Interestingly, the polyclonal response to PrP Sc was predominantly of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) isotype, unlike the immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses elicited by PrP c or by recombinant PrP adsorbed or not to immunomagnetic particles, presumably reflecting the polymeric structure of disease-associated prion protein. (springer.com)
  • Changes in axons after injury or in disease states often occur without the contribution of transcriptional events in the cell body in part because of the distance separating the injury site from the nucleus. (mcponline.org)
  • Remarkably, injury to the peripheral branch prior to injury to the central branch promotes regeneration of central axons ( 5 - 7 ). (mcponline.org)
  • This phenomenon is referred to as the "conditioning lesion" paradigm and indicates that injury signals elicited at the peripheral injury site increase the intrinsic growth capacity, enabling centrally injured axons to regenerate after lesion. (mcponline.org)
  • GABA increases electrical excitability in a subset of human unmyelinated peripheral axons. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Flat cells--encircle axons. (studystack.com)
  • Structurally, the TRP channels are tetrameric integral membrane proteins whose monomeric subunits display a domain structure characterized by six transmembrane segments (S1-S6), C- and N-cytosolic domains, and an aqueous pore region structured by S5 and S6 segments and their connecting loop. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, over the last decade it has become apparent that cells that do not express P-gp can also be resistant to a variety of structurally unrelated drugs, which suggested the existence of other membrane-bound efflux proteins. (aspetjournals.org)