The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.
The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.
The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
Two extensive fibrous bands running the length of the vertebral column. The anterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale anterius; lacertus medius) interconnects the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies; the posterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale posterius) interconnects the posterior surfaces. The commonest clinical consideration is OSSIFICATION OF POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
Horizontal and, to a lesser degree, axial movement of a tooth in response to normal forces, as in occlusion. It refers also to the movability of a tooth resulting from loss of all or a portion of its attachment and supportive apparatus, as seen in periodontitis, occlusal trauma, and periodontosis. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p507 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p313)
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.
The formation of DENTAL CEMENTUM, a bone-like material that covers the root of the tooth.
A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.
A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.
Rebuilding of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT to restore functional stability of the knee. AUTOGRAFTING or ALLOGRAFTING of tissues is often used.
The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A calcification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spinal column, usually at the level of the cervical spine. It is often associated with anterior ankylosing hyperostosis.
A wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells which form the attachment of the gingiva to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival crevice.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
A broad fold of peritoneum that extends from the side of the uterus to the wall of the pelvis.
Reinsertion of a tooth into the alveolus from which it was removed or otherwise lost.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)
The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Techniques for enhancing and directing cell growth to repopulate specific parts of the PERIODONTIUM that have been damaged by PERIODONTAL DISEASES; TOOTH DISEASES; or TRAUMA, or to correct TOOTH ABNORMALITIES. Repopulation and repair is achieved by guiding the progenitor cells to reproduce in the desired location by blocking contact with surrounding tissue by use of membranes composed of synthetic or natural material that may include growth inducing factors as well.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
A fibromuscular band that attaches to the UTERUS and then passes along the BROAD LIGAMENT, out through the INGUINAL RING, and into the labium majus.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
LATERAL LIGAMENTS of the ANKLE JOINT. It includes inferior tibiofibular ligaments.
Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.
Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)
Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
Conditions in which a bifurcation or trifurcation of the molar tooth root becomes denuded as a result of periodontal disease. It may be followed by tooth mobility, temperature sensitivity, pain, and alveolar bone resorption.
One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)
A spiral thickening of the fibrous lining of the cochlear wall. Spiral ligament secures the membranous COCHLEAR DUCT to the bony spiral canal of the COCHLEA. Its spiral ligament fibrocytes function in conjunction with the STRIA VASCULARIS to mediate cochlear ion homeostasis.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.
A synthetic analog of LYPRESSIN with a PHENYLALANINE substitution at residue 2. Felypressin is a vasoconstrictor with reduced antidiuretic activity.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
A clear, homogenous, structureless, eosinophilic substance occurring in pathological degeneration of tissues.
Remaining tissue from normal DERMIS tissue after the cells are removed.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.
Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.
The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.
The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.

Morphological changes in periodontal mechanoreceptors of mouse maxillary incisors after the experimental induction of anterior crossbite: a light and electron microscopic observation using immunohistochemistry for PGP 9.5. (1/391)

Ruffini nerve endings (mechanoreceptors) in the periodontal ligament (PDL) of mouse incisors were examined to elucidate whether experimentally-induced crossbites cause any changes or abnormalities in their morphology and distribution. Anterior guiding planes were attached to the mandibular incisors of 3-week-old C3H/HeSlc mice. At 3 days and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks post-attachment of the appliance, the mice were sacrificed by perfusion fixation. Frozen sagittal cryostat sections of the decalcified maxillary incisors were processed for immunohistochemistry of protein gene product 9.5, followed by histochemical determination of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity to reveal sites of alveolar bone resorption. Despite the absence of bone resorption within the lingual PDL of control mice, distinct resorption sites were seen in the respective regions of the experimental animals. Unlike the controls, many Ruffini endings showing vague and swollen contours, with unusually long and pedunculated micro-projections were observed in the affected lingual PDL of the incisors in the experimental animals with short-term anterior crossbite induction. Club-shaped nerve terminations with few, if any, micro-projections were observed in the lingual PDL of experimental animals with long-term induction, as well as in aged control mouse incisors. Differences in the distribution of Ruffini endings were also observed. These results indicate that changing the direction of the force applied to the PDL results in rapid and prolonged changes in the morphology of Ruffini-like mechanoreceptors.  (+info)

Histochemical studies of glycosaminoglycans in developing periodontal ligaments of ICR mice. (2/391)

Although the periodontal ligament (PL) contains an abundance of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), there are only a few histochemical studies describing GAGs in the developing PL. In the present study, the relationship between the formation of principal fibers and the molecular species of GAGs in the developing PL was examined by light microscopic histochemistry. Jcl:ICR mice were killed on day 0 to day 28 after birth. Paraffin-embedded tissue sections were routinely made and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), Azan, or the sensitized high iron diamine (S-HID) procedure combined with enzyme digestions. Before tooth eruption, thin threads of collagen fibers in the PL assembled and constructed principal fibers, which projected from both the side of the alveolar bone and the root of the tooth. After tooth eruption, the principal fibers from both sides were tightly entangled. In the developing PL, the molecular species of GAGs was mainly dermatan sulfate. Moreover, the relative amount of dermatan sulfate increased together with the maturation of the principal fibers, while the principal fibers adjacent to the alveolar bone and cementum contained chondroitin sulfate. These results suggest that dermatan sulfate contributes to collagen fiber assembly in the PL and that chondroitin sulfate relates to PL adhesion to the alveolar bone and to the cementum of the root.  (+info)

Postnatal expression of calretinin-immunoreactivity in periodontal Ruffini endings in the rat incisor: a comparison with protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5)-immunoreactivity. (3/391)

The postnatal expression of immunoreactivity for calretinin, one of the calcium binding proteins, and for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), a general neuronal marker, was investigated in mechanoreceptive Ruffini endings in the periodontal ligament of the rat incisor. Age-related changes in the expression of these two proteins in periodontal nerves were further quantified with a computerized image analysis. At 1 day after birth, a few PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibers and a still smaller number of calretinin-positive fibers were found in the periodontal ligament: they were thin and beaded in appearance and no specialized nerve terminals were recognized. Tree-like terminals, reminiscent of immature Ruffini endings, were recognizable in 4-day-old rats by PGP 9.5-immunohistochemistry, while calretinin-immunostaining failed to reveal these specialized endings. At postnatal 7-11 days when PGP 9.5-immunostaining could demonstrate typical Ruffini endings, calretinin-immunopositive nerve fibers merely tapered off without forming the Ruffini type endings. A small number of Ruffini endings showing calretinin-immunoreactivity began to occur in the periodontal ligament at 24-26 days after birth when the occlusion of the first molars had been established. At the functional occlusion stage (60-80 days after birth), the Ruffini endings showing calretinin-immunoreactivity drastically increased in number and density, but less so than those positive for PGP 9.5-immunoreaction. The delayed expression of calretinin suggests that the function of the periodontal Ruffini endings is established after the completion of terminal formation because Ca2+, which binds to calcium binding proteins including calretinin with high affinity, plays an important role in mechano-electric transduction.  (+info)

Alteration in the expression level of calbindin D28k in the periodontal ligament of the rat molar during experimental tooth movement. (4/391)

The present immunohistochemical study was designed to investigate changes in the distribution and expression level of calbindin D28k in the periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement in the rat molar to clarify the physiological role of this protein in the ligament. In normal animals, calbindin D28k-like immunoreactivity appeared sparsely in spindle-shaped cells in the alveolar half of the periodontal ligament. Electron microscopic observations showed that these immunoreactive cells were characterized by well-developed rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and phagosomes--which often contained collagen fibers--suggesting that these cells could be categorized as periodontal fibroblasts. Twelve hours following the onset of the experimental tooth movement, cells positive for calbindin D28k increased in number in the periodontal ligament, especially in the alveolar half of the pressured side. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that the calbindin D28k-immunopositive cells had morphological features similar to those of fibroblasts in the normal ligament, and that these cells occasionally made contact with immunonegative macrophage-like cells. Immunopositive cells gradually decreased in number, and the distribution of the cells and intensity of the immunoreactivity returned to normal levels by 14 days following the induction of the experimental tooth movement. The present results suggest that calbindin D28k plays an important role in the homeostasis and cyto-protection of fibroblasts in the periodontal ligament at the initial phase of experimental tooth movement.  (+info)

Mutations in the heparin binding domain of fibronectin in cooperation with the V region induce decreases in pp125(FAK) levels plus proteoglycan-mediated apoptosis via caspases. (5/391)

Intact fibronectin (FN) protects cells from apoptosis. When FN is fragmented, specific domains induce proteinase expression in fibroblasts. However, it is not known whether specific domains of FN can also regulate apoptosis. We exposed fibroblasts to four recombinant FN fragments and then assayed for apoptosis using criteria of cellular shape change, condensed nuclear morphology, and DNA fragmentation. The fragments extended from the RGD-containing repeat III10 to III15; they included (V(+)) or excluded (V(-)) the alternatively spliced V region and contained either a mutated (H(-)) or an unmutated (H(+)) heparin binding domain. Only the V(+)H(-) fragment triggered decreases in pp125(FAK) levels and apoptosis, which was rescued by intact FN and inhibitors of caspase-1 and caspase-3. This apoptotic mechanism was mediated by a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, since treating cells with chondroitin sulfate or chondroitinase reversed the apoptotic cell shape changes. The alpha4 integrin receptor may also be involved, since using a blocking antibody to alpha4 alone induced apoptotic cell shape changes, whereas co-treatment with this antibody plus V(+)H(+) reversed these effects. These results demonstrate that the V and heparin binding domains of FN modulate pp125(FAK) levels and regulate apoptosis through a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan- and possibly alpha4 integrin-mediated pathway, which triggers a caspase cascade.  (+info)

Blood vessel response to pan-endothelium (RECA-1) antibody in normal and tooth loaded rat periodontal ligament. (6/391)

Immunolabelling of the normal rat molar periodontal ligament (PDL) with RECA-1 antibody, an endothelial cell surface marker, demonstrated the endothelium in the different categories of blood vessels. The intensity of immunolabelling was similar for venous capillaries (VC), post-capillary-sized venules (PCV), and collecting venules (CV). Arterial capillaries (AC) and terminal arterioles (TA) showed a different response, both having a high intensity of endothelium and smooth muscle cell labelling, whether they were located in the PDL or alveolar bone. An experimental, continuous loading of approximately 100 g was applied unilaterally to the mandibular molars for 10 minutes. In the PDL apical compression zone this load resulted in a loss of RECA-1 immunolabelling of the VC, PCV, and CV. Adjacent to the alveolar crest, where shear and tension loads were judged to have occurred, there was enhanced immunoreactivity of VC, PCV, and CV. In the loaded PDL, the AC and TA, irrespective of their location in the ligament or bone, showed strong immunofluorescence of their endothelium and the enveloping smooth muscle layer. Vessel and PDL immunofluorescence were analysed with standardized grey scale densitometry, and the data subjected to ANOVA. Comparison between individual vessel means showed significant differences (P < 0.05). Control teeth showed no immunostaining difference between the coronal and apical region vessels, whereas in the loaded teeth the overall cervical vessel endothelium had a significantly higher value than the apical vessel endothelium (P < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that the endothelium of this microvascular bed can undergo significant immunoreactivity changes when exposed to short-term, continuous, tooth loading.  (+info)

Increase of CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV expression on human gingival fibroblasts upon stimulation with cytokines and bacterial components. (7/391)

CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) is a cell surface ectoenzyme which participates in immune and inflammatory reactions. We found that CD26 was only partially expressed on human fibroblasts from periodontal tissues, whereas fibroblasts from lung and skin expressed CD26 constitutively as revealed by flow cytometry. We examined the possible upregulation of CD26 expression on human gingival fibroblasts in response to various stimulants. Interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha); tumor necrosis factor alpha; gamma interferon; lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Escherichia coli; and Prevotella glycoprotein augmented CD26 expression on gingival fibroblasts. Among the stimulants, IL-1alpha exhibited the most potent activity. Enzymatic activity of CD26 induced by IL-1alpha on fibroblasts was determined colorimetrically in terms of Gly-Pro hydrolysis of a synthetic chromogenic substrate, Gly-Pro p-nitroanilide. Among various inhibitors tested, diprotin A and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibited the enzymatic activity, suggesting that the enzyme induced by IL-1alpha was DPPIV. The upregulation of CD26 mRNA expression upon stimulation with IL-1alpha was also revealed by a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay. In the kinetic experiment, 48 h and several days were required for maximum CD26 mRNA accumulation and CD26 molecule expression on the cell surface, respectively. The addition of cycloheximide at 2 h before IL-1alpha stimulation almost completely inhibited the accumulation of CD26 mRNA. These results suggested that induction of CD26 on human gingival fibroblasts is regulated at the transcriptional level and is also dependent on a de novo-synthesized protein factor(s).  (+info)

Determination of the centre of resistance in an upper human canine and idealized tooth model. (8/391)

The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the influence of geometric and material parameters of a human canine on initial tooth mobility, and the stress and strain profiles in the periodontal ligament. While the material parameters of tooth and bony structures are known within an uncertain limit of approximately a factor of 10, values reported for the elasticity parameters of the periodontal ligament differ significantly. In the course of this study, bilinear behaviour was assumed for the mechanical property of the periodontium. The finite element model of an elliptical paraboloid was created as an approximation to the geometry of a human canine to reduce calculation time and to determine influences of the geometry on numerical results. The results were compared with those obtained for a realistic human canine model. The root length of both models was 19.5 mm. By calculating pure rotational and pure tipping movements, the centre of resistance (CR) was determined for both models. They were located on the long axis of the tooth approximately 7.2 mm below the alveolar crest for the idealized model and 8.2 mm for the canine model. Thus, the centre of resistance of a human canine seems to be located around two-fifths of the root length from the alveolar margin. Using these results, uncontrolled tipping (1 N of mesializing force and 5 Nmm of derotating momentum), as well as pure translation (additionally about 10 Nmm of uprighting momentum) were calculated. Comparing the idealized and the realistic models, the uncontrolled tipping was described by the parabolic-shaped model within an accuracy limit of 10 per cent as compared with the canine model, whereas the results for bodily movement differed significantly showing that it is very difficult to achieve a pure translation with the realistic canine model.  (+info)

The periodontal ligament, also known as the "PDL," is the soft tissue that connects the tooth root to the alveolar bone within the dental alveolus (socket). It consists of collagen fibers organized into groups called principal fibers and accessory fibers. These fibers are embedded into both the cementum of the tooth root and the alveolar bone, providing shock absorption during biting and chewing forces, allowing for slight tooth movement, and maintaining the tooth in its position within the socket.

The periodontal ligament plays a crucial role in the health and maintenance of the periodontium, which includes the gingiva (gums), cementum, alveolar bone, and the periodontal ligament itself. Inflammation or infection of the periodontal ligament can lead to periodontal disease, potentially causing tooth loss if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Ligaments are bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that surround joints and provide support, stability, and limits the range of motion. They are made up primarily of collagen fibers arranged in a parallel pattern to withstand tension and stress. Ligaments attach bone to bone, and their function is to prevent excessive movement that could cause injury or dislocation.

There are two main types of ligaments: extracapsular and intracapsular. Extracapsular ligaments are located outside the joint capsule and provide stability to the joint by limiting its range of motion. Intracapsular ligaments, on the other hand, are found inside the joint capsule and help maintain the alignment of the joint surfaces.

Examples of common ligaments in the body include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the knee, the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in the elbow, and the coracoacromial ligament in the shoulder.

Injuries to ligaments can occur due to sudden trauma or overuse, leading to sprains, strains, or tears. These injuries can cause pain, swelling, bruising, and limited mobility, and may require medical treatment such as immobilization, physical therapy, or surgery.

Dental cementum is a type of hard connective tissue that covers the root of a tooth. It is primarily composed of calcium salts and collagen fibers, and it serves to attach the periodontal ligaments (the fibers that help secure the tooth in its socket) to the tooth's root. Cementum also helps protect the root of the tooth and contributes to the maintenance of tooth stability. It continues to grow and deposit new layers throughout an individual's life, which can be seen as incremental lines called "cementum annulations."

Articular ligaments, also known as fibrous ligaments, are bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that connect and stabilize bones to each other at joints. They help to limit the range of motion of a joint and provide support, preventing excessive movement that could cause injury. Articular ligaments are composed mainly of collagen fibers arranged in a parallel pattern, making them strong and flexible. They have limited blood supply and few nerve endings, which makes them less prone to injury but also slower to heal if damaged. Examples of articular ligaments include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the knee joint, and the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in the elbow joint.

Tooth movement, in a dental and orthodontic context, refers to the physical change in position or alignment of one or more teeth within the jaw bone as a result of controlled forces applied through various orthodontic appliances such as braces, aligners, or other orthodontic devices. The purposeful manipulation of these forces encourages the periodontal ligament (the tissue that connects the tooth to the bone) to remodel, allowing the tooth to move gradually over time into the desired position. This process is crucial in achieving proper bite alignment, correcting malocclusions, and enhancing overall oral function and aesthetics.

The periodontium is a complex structure in the oral cavity that surrounds and supports the teeth. It consists of four main components:
1. Gingiva (gums): The pink, soft tissue that covers the crown of the tooth and extends down to the neck of the tooth, where it meets the cementum.
2. Cementum: A specialized, calcified tissue that covers the root of the tooth and provides a surface for the periodontal ligament fibers to attach.
3. Periodontal ligament (PDL): A highly vascular and cell-rich connective tissue that attaches the cementum of the tooth root to the alveolar bone, allowing for tooth mobility and absorption of forces during chewing.
4. Alveolar bone: The portion of the jawbone that contains the sockets (alveoli) for the teeth. It is a spongy bone with a rich blood supply that responds to mechanical stresses from biting and chewing, undergoing remodeling throughout life.

Periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, affect the health and integrity of the periodontium, leading to inflammation, bleeding, pocket formation, bone loss, and ultimately tooth loss if left untreated.

The alveolar process is the curved part of the jawbone (mandible or maxilla) that contains sockets or hollow spaces (alveoli) for the teeth to be embedded. These processes are covered with a specialized mucous membrane called the gingiva, which forms a tight seal around the teeth to help protect the periodontal tissues and maintain oral health.

The alveolar process is composed of both compact and spongy bone tissue. The compact bone forms the outer layer, while the spongy bone is found inside the alveoli and provides support for the teeth. When a tooth is lost or extracted, the alveolar process begins to resorb over time due to the lack of mechanical stimulation from the tooth's chewing forces. This can lead to changes in the shape and size of the jawbone, which may require bone grafting procedures before dental implant placement.

Tooth eruption is the process by which a tooth emerges from the gums and becomes visible in the oral cavity. It is a normal part of dental development that occurs in a predictable sequence and timeframe. Primary or deciduous teeth, also known as baby teeth, begin to erupt around 6 months of age and continue to emerge until approximately 2-3 years of age. Permanent or adult teeth start to erupt around 6 years of age and can continue to emerge until the early twenties.

The process of tooth eruption involves several stages, including the formation of the tooth within the jawbone, the movement of the tooth through the bone and surrounding tissues, and the final emergence of the tooth into the mouth. Proper tooth eruption is essential for normal oral function, including chewing, speaking, and smiling. Any abnormalities in the tooth eruption process, such as delayed or premature eruption, can indicate underlying dental or medical conditions that require further evaluation and treatment.

In the context of dentistry, a molar is a type of tooth found in the back of the mouth. They are larger and wider than other types of teeth, such as incisors or canines, and have a flat biting surface with multiple cusps. Molars are primarily used for grinding and chewing food into smaller pieces that are easier to swallow. Humans typically have twelve molars in total, including the four wisdom teeth.

In medical terminology outside of dentistry, "molar" can also refer to a unit of mass in the apothecaries' system of measurement, which is equivalent to 4.08 grams. However, this usage is less common and not related to dental or medical anatomy.

Longitudinal ligaments, in the context of anatomy, refer to the fibrous bands that run lengthwise along the spine. They are named as such because they extend in the same direction as the long axis of the body. The main function of these ligaments is to provide stability and limit excessive movement in the spinal column.

There are three layers of longitudinal ligaments in the spine:

1. Anterior Longitudinal Ligament (ALL): This ligament runs down the front of the vertebral bodies, attached to their anterior aspects. It helps to prevent hyperextension of the spine.
2. Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (PLL): The PLL is located on the posterior side of the vertebral bodies and extends from the axis (C2) to the sacrum. Its primary function is to limit hyperflexion of the spine.
3. Ligamentum Flavum: Although not strictly a 'longitudinal' ligament, it is often grouped with them due to its longitudinal orientation. The ligamentum flavum is a pair of elastic bands that connect adjacent laminae (posterior bony parts) of the vertebral arch in the spine. Its main function is to maintain tension and stability while allowing slight movement between the vertebrae.

These longitudinal ligaments play an essential role in maintaining spinal alignment, protecting the spinal cord, and facilitating controlled movements within the spine.

A tooth root is the part of a tooth that is embedded in the jawbone and cannot be seen when looking at a person's smile. It is the lower portion of a tooth that typically has a conical shape and anchors the tooth to the jawbone through a periodontal ligament. The tooth root is covered by cementum, a specialized bone-like tissue, and contains nerve endings and blood vessels within its pulp chamber.

The number of roots in a tooth can vary depending on the type of tooth. For example, incisors typically have one root, canines may have one or two roots, premolars usually have one or two roots, and molars often have two to four roots. The primary function of the tooth root is to provide stability and support for the crown of the tooth, allowing it to withstand the forces of biting and chewing.

An incisor is a type of tooth that is primarily designed for biting off food pieces rather than chewing or grinding. They are typically chisel-shaped, flat, and have a sharp cutting edge. In humans, there are eight incisors - four on the upper jaw and four on the lower jaw, located at the front of the mouth. Other animals such as dogs, cats, and rodents also have incisors that they use for different purposes like tearing or gnawing.

Tooth mobility, also known as loose teeth, refers to the degree of movement or displacement of a tooth in its socket when lateral forces are applied. It is often described in terms of grades:

* Grade 1: Tooth can be moved slightly (up to 1 mm) with finger pressure.
* Grade 2: Tooth can be moved up to 2 mm with finger pressure.
* Grade 3: Tooth can be moved more than 2 mm or can be removed from its socket with manual pressure.

Increased tooth mobility can be a sign of periodontal disease, trauma, or other dental conditions and should be evaluated by a dentist. Treatment may include deep cleaning, splinting, or surgery to restore stability to the affected teeth.

The Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) is one of the major ligaments in the knee, providing stability to the joint. It is a strong band of tissue located in the back of the knee, connecting the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The PCL limits the backward motion of the tibia relative to the femur and provides resistance to forces that tend to push the tibia backwards. It also assists in maintaining the overall alignment and function of the knee joint during various movements and activities. Injuries to the PCL are less common compared to injuries to the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) but can still occur due to high-energy trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents or sports incidents involving direct impact to the front of the knee.

A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (upper and lower) of many vertebrates and used for biting and chewing food. In humans, a typical tooth has a crown, one or more roots, and three layers: the enamel (the outermost layer, hardest substance in the body), the dentin (the layer beneath the enamel), and the pulp (the innermost layer, containing nerves and blood vessels). Teeth are essential for proper nutrition, speech, and aesthetics. There are different types of teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each designed for specific functions in the mouth.

Root resorption is a process that occurs when the body's own cells, called odontoclasts, break down and destroy the hard tissue of the tooth root. This can occur as a result of various factors such as trauma, infection, or orthodontic treatment. In some cases, it may be a normal part of the tooth development and eruption process in children. However, excessive or pathological root resorption can lead to weakening and loss of the tooth. It is often asymptomatic and discovered during routine dental x-rays.

Dental pulp is the soft tissue located in the center of a tooth, surrounded by the dentin. It contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue, and plays a vital role in the development and health of the tooth. The dental pulp helps to form dentin during tooth development and continues to provide nourishment to the tooth throughout its life. It also serves as a sensory organ, allowing the tooth to detect hot and cold temperatures and transmit pain signals to the brain. Injury or infection of the dental pulp can lead to serious dental problems, such as tooth decay or abscesses, and may require root canal treatment to remove the damaged tissue and save the tooth.

The dental sac, also known as the dental follicle, is a soft tissue structure that surrounds the developing tooth crown during odontogenesis, which is the process of tooth development. It is derived from the ectoderm and mesenchyme of the embryonic oral cavity. The dental sac gives rise to several important structures associated with the tooth, including the periodontal ligament, cementum, and the alveolar bone that surrounds and supports the tooth in the jaw.

The dental sac plays a critical role in tooth development by regulating the mineralization of the tooth crown and providing a protective environment for the developing tooth. It also contains cells called odontoblasts, which are responsible for producing dentin, one of the hard tissues that make up the tooth. Abnormalities in the development or growth of the dental sac can lead to various dental anomalies, such as impacted teeth, dilacerated roots, and other developmental disorders.

Cementogenesis is the biological process of cementum formation, which is a hard connective tissue that covers the root surface of teeth. Cementum helps to attach the periodontal ligaments, providing stability and support to the teeth within the jawbone. This process involves the differentiation and activity of cementoblasts, which are the cells responsible for producing and mineralizing the cementum matrix.

The medical definition of 'cementogenesis' is:

1. The formation and development of cementum on the roots of teeth.
2. The biological process in which cementoblasts secrete and mineralize the extracellular matrix, leading to the growth and maturation of cementum.
3. A critical component of tooth development and maintenance, ensuring proper attachment and function of the teeth within the oral cavity.

The patellar ligament, also known as the patellar tendon, is a strong band of tissue that connects the bottom part of the kneecap (patella) to the top part of the shinbone (tibia). This ligament plays a crucial role in enabling the extension and straightening of the leg during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. Injuries to the patellar ligament, such as tendonitis or tears, can cause pain and difficulty with mobility.

A tooth socket, also known as an alveolus (plural: alveoli), refers to the hollow cavity or space in the jawbone where a tooth is anchored. The tooth socket is part of the alveolar process, which is the curved part of the maxilla or mandible that contains multiple tooth sockets for the upper and lower teeth, respectively.

Each tooth socket has a specialized tissue called the periodontal ligament, which attaches the root of the tooth to the surrounding bone. This ligament helps absorb forces generated during biting and chewing, allowing for comfortable and efficient mastication while also maintaining the tooth's position within the jawbone. The tooth socket is responsible for providing support, stability, and nourishment to the tooth through its blood vessels and nerves.

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a surgical procedure in which the damaged or torn ACL, a major stabilizing ligament in the knee, is replaced with a graft. The ACL is responsible for preventing excessive motion of the knee joint, and when it is injured, the knee may become unstable and prone to further damage.

During the procedure, the surgeon makes an incision in the knee to access the damaged ligament. The torn ends of the ACL are then removed, and a graft is taken from another part of the body (such as the patellar tendon or hamstring tendons) or from a donor. This graft is then positioned in the same location as the original ACL and fixed in place with screws or other devices.

The goal of ACL reconstruction is to restore stability and function to the knee joint, allowing the patient to return to their normal activities, including sports and exercise. Physical therapy is typically required after surgery to help strengthen the knee and improve range of motion.

A cuspid, also known as a canine tooth or cuspid tooth, is a type of tooth in mammals. It is the pointiest tooth in the dental arch and is located between the incisors and bicuspids (or premolars). Cuspids have a single cusp or pointed tip that is used for tearing and grasping food. In humans, there are four cuspids, two on the upper jaw and two on the lower jaw, one on each side of the dental arch.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (OPLL) is a medical condition where there is abnormal growth and hardening (ossification) of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the spine. The posterior longitudinal ligament runs down the length of the spine, along the back of the vertebral bodies, and helps to maintain the stability and alignment of the spinal column.

In OPLL, the ossification of this ligament can cause narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis) and compression of the spinal cord or nerve roots. This condition is more commonly found in the cervical spine (neck), but it can also occur in the thoracic (chest) and lumbar (lower back) regions of the spine.

The symptoms of OPLL may include neck pain, stiffness, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms and/or legs, depending on the location and severity of the compression. In severe cases, it can lead to serious neurological deficits such as paralysis. The exact cause of OPLL is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic factors, aging, and mechanical stress on the spine.

Epithelial attachment is a general term that refers to the point where epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels, adhere or attach to an underlying structure. In the context of the mouth and teeth, epithelial attachment is often used to describe the connection between the gum tissue (gingiva) and the tooth surface.

In a healthy mouth, the gingival tissue fits tightly around each tooth, forming a protective seal that helps prevent bacteria and other harmful substances from entering the spaces between the teeth and gums. This tight seal is maintained by specialized epithelial cells called junctional epithelial cells, which form a barrier between the oral environment and the underlying connective tissue.

When the gingival tissue becomes inflamed due to factors such as poor oral hygiene or certain medical conditions, the epithelial attachment can become compromised, leading to a condition known as gingivitis. If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontal disease, which is characterized by the destruction of the tissues that support the teeth, including the bone and connective tissue.

In summary, epithelial attachment refers to the point where epithelial cells adhere to an underlying structure, and in the context of oral health, it describes the connection between the gum tissue and the tooth surface.

Gingiva is the medical term for the soft tissue that surrounds the teeth and forms the margin of the dental groove, also known as the gum. It extends from the mucogingival junction to the base of the cervical third of the tooth root. The gingiva plays a crucial role in protecting and supporting the teeth and maintaining oral health by providing a barrier against microbial invasion and mechanical injury.

The broad ligament is a wide, flat fold of peritoneum (the serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity) that supports and suspends the uterus within the pelvic cavity. It consists of two layers - the anterior leaf and the posterior leaf - which enclose and protect various reproductive structures such as the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and blood vessels.

The broad ligament plays a crucial role in maintaining the position and stability of the uterus, allowing for proper functioning of the female reproductive system. It also serves as a conduit for nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatics that supply and drain the uterus and other pelvic organs.

Anomalies or pathologies of the broad ligament, such as cysts, tumors, or inflammation, can potentially lead to various gynecological conditions and symptoms, requiring medical evaluation and intervention if necessary.

Tooth replantation is a dental procedure that involves the replanting and reattachment of a tooth that has been avulsed or knocked out due to trauma. The primary goal of this emergency procedure is to preserve the natural tooth and its periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue, allowing for potential reattachment and function.

The steps involved in tooth replantation include:

1. Locating the avulsed tooth: Carefully handle the knocked-out tooth by holding it by the crown (the chewing surface), avoiding touching the root area to prevent further damage to the periodontal ligament fibers.
2. Rinsing the tooth: Gently rinse the tooth with saline solution, sterile water, or milk to remove any debris or dirt, but avoid using alcohol or scrubbing the tooth as it may cause more damage to the PDL.
3. Replanting the tooth: As soon as possible, reposition the tooth back into its socket in the correct orientation and alignment. Apply gentle pressure to seat it in place while ensuring that it is facing the right direction. Ideally, this should be done within 30 minutes of avulsion for better prognosis.
4. Stabilizing the tooth: Use a splint or a wire to secure the replanted tooth to the adjacent teeth, providing stability and support during the healing process. This helps maintain the alignment and position of the replanted tooth.
5. Seeking professional dental care: Immediately consult with a dentist or endodontist for further evaluation, additional treatment, and follow-up care. The dentist will assess the success of the replantation and determine if any root canal therapy or other treatments are necessary to ensure long-term survival of the tooth.

The success of tooth replantation depends on several factors, including the timeliness of the procedure, the condition of the avulsed tooth, and the patient's overall oral health. Prompt action and professional care can significantly increase the likelihood of a successful outcome and preserve the natural tooth for years to come.

Dental stress analysis is a method used in dentistry to evaluate the amount and distribution of forces that act upon teeth and surrounding structures during biting, chewing, or other functional movements. This analysis helps dental professionals identify areas of excessive stress or strain that may lead to dental problems such as tooth fracture, mobility, or periodontal (gum) disease. By identifying these areas, dentists can develop treatment plans to reduce the risk of dental issues and improve overall oral health.

Dental stress analysis typically involves the use of specialized equipment, such as strain gauges, T-scan occlusal analysis systems, or finite element analysis software, to measure and analyze the forces that act upon teeth during various functional movements. The results of the analysis can help dentists determine the best course of treatment, which may include adjusting the bite, restoring damaged teeth with crowns or fillings, or fabricating custom-made oral appliances to redistribute the forces evenly across the dental arch.

Overall, dental stress analysis is an important tool in modern dentistry that helps dental professionals diagnose and treat dental problems related to occlusal (bite) forces, ensuring optimal oral health and function for their patients.

The tooth apex is the tip or the narrowed end of the root of a tooth. It is the portion that is located deepest within the jawbone and it contains dental pulp tissue, which includes nerves and blood vessels. The apex plays an essential role in the development and maintenance of a tooth, as well as in the process of root canal treatment, where instruments and materials are introduced through it to clean and fill the root canals. It is also a crucial landmark in endodontic surgery and dental imaging.

Dental enamel is the hard, outermost layer of a tooth that protects the dentin and pulp inside. It is primarily made up of minerals, mainly hydroxyapatite, and contains very little organic material. However, during the formation of dental enamel, proteins are synthesized and secreted by ameloblast cells, which help in the development and mineralization of the enamel. These proteins play a crucial role in the proper formation and structure of the enamel.

Some of the main dental enamel proteins include:

1. Amelogenin: This is the most abundant protein found in developing enamel, accounting for about 90% of the organic matrix. Amelogenin helps regulate the growth and organization of hydroxyapatite crystals during mineralization. It also plays a role in determining the final hardness and structure of the enamel.

2. Enamelin: This protein is the second most abundant protein in developing enamel, accounting for about 5-10% of the organic matrix. Enamelin is involved in the elongation and thickening of hydroxyapatite crystals during mineralization. It also helps maintain the stability of the enamel structure.

3. Ameloblastin: This protein is produced by ameloblast cells and is essential for proper enamel formation. Ameloblastin plays a role in regulating crystal growth, promoting adhesion between crystals, and maintaining the structural integrity of the enamel.

4. Tuftelin: This protein is found in both dentin and enamel but is more abundant in enamel. Tuftelin is involved in the initiation of mineralization and helps regulate crystal growth during this process.

5. Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP): Although primarily associated with dentin formation, DSPP is also found in developing enamel. It plays a role in regulating crystal growth and promoting adhesion between crystals during mineralization.

After the formation of dental enamel is complete, these proteins are largely degraded and removed, leaving behind the highly mineralized and hard tissue that characterizes mature enamel. However, traces of these proteins may still be present in the enamel and could potentially play a role in its structure and properties.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) in periodontics is a surgical procedure that aims to regenerate lost periodontal tissues, including the alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament, which have been destroyed due to periodontal disease. The goal of GTR is to restore the architectural relationship between these supporting structures and the tooth, thereby improving its prognosis and function.

The procedure involves placing a barrier membrane between the tooth root and the surrounding soft tissues, creating a protected space that allows for the selective growth of periodontal cells. The membrane acts as a physical barrier to prevent the ingrowth of epithelial cells and fibroblasts from the oral mucosa, which can interfere with the regeneration process.

The membrane can be either resorbable or non-resorbable, depending on the clinical situation and surgeon's preference. Resorbable membranes are made of materials that degrade over time, while non-resorbable membranes require a second surgical procedure for removal. The choice of membrane material and configuration depends on various factors such as the size and location of the defect, patient's medical history, and surgeon's experience.

GTR has been shown to be effective in treating intrabony defects, furcation involvements, and class II function defects, among others. However, its success depends on various factors such as patient selection, surgical technique, membrane type and placement, and postoperative care.

Mechanoreceptors are specialized sensory receptor cells that convert mechanical stimuli such as pressure, tension, or deformation into electrical signals that can be processed and interpreted by the nervous system. They are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the skin, muscles, tendons, joints, and internal organs. Mechanoreceptors can detect different types of mechanical stimuli depending on their specific structure and location. For example, Pacinian corpuscles in the skin respond to vibrations, while Ruffini endings in the joints detect changes in joint angle and pressure. Overall, mechanoreceptors play a crucial role in our ability to perceive and interact with our environment through touch, proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of body parts), and visceral sensation (awareness of internal organ activity).

Alveolar bone loss refers to the breakdown and resorption of the alveolar process of the jawbone, which is the part of the jaw that contains the sockets of the teeth. This type of bone loss is often caused by periodontal disease, a chronic inflammation of the gums and surrounding tissues that can lead to the destruction of the structures that support the teeth.

In advanced stages of periodontal disease, the alveolar bone can become severely damaged or destroyed, leading to tooth loss. Alveolar bone loss can also occur as a result of other conditions, such as osteoporosis, trauma, or tumors. Dental X-rays and other imaging techniques are often used to diagnose and monitor alveolar bone loss. Treatment may include deep cleaning of the teeth and gums, medications, surgery, or tooth extraction in severe cases.

The round ligament is a cord-like structure in the female pelvis that extends from the uterus to the labia majora. It is one of the major ligaments that support the uterus and helps to maintain its position within the pelvis. The round ligament is composed of fibrous tissue and smooth muscle, and it plays a role in maintaining the tone and shape of the uterus.

During pregnancy, the round ligament can become stretched and thickened as the uterus grows and expands. This can sometimes cause discomfort or pain, particularly on one side of the pelvis. In some cases, the round ligament may also contribute to the development of certain gynecological conditions, such as uterine prolapse or urinary incontinence.

It is important for healthcare providers to consider the round ligament when evaluating and treating female reproductive health issues, as it can have a significant impact on the function and positioning of the uterus and other pelvic organs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Finite Element Analysis" (FEA) is not a medical term. It is a computational technique used in engineering and physical sciences. FEA is a computerized method for predicting how a product reacts to real-world forces, vibration, heat, fluid flow, and other physical effects. It's a way that engineers can simulate the performance of a product or system before it is built, which can help reduce costs, improve quality, and shorten the development time.

However, in a medical context, FEA might be used in the field of biomechanical engineering to analyze the mechanical behavior of biological systems, such as bones, joints, or soft tissues, under various loads and conditions. This can help researchers and clinicians better understand the mechanisms of injury, disease, or the effects of treatment, and develop more effective prevention, diagnostic, or therapeutic strategies.

The term "tooth cervix" is not commonly used in medical dentistry with a specific technical definition. However, if you are referring to the "cervical region of a tooth," it generally refers to the area where the crown (the visible part of the tooth) meets the root (the portion of the tooth that is below the gum line). This region is also sometimes referred to as the "cementoenamel junction" (CEJ), where the enamel covering of the crown meets the cementum covering of the root. Dental issues such as tooth decay, receding gums, or abrasion can affect this area and may require professional dental treatment.

The maxilla is a paired bone that forms the upper jaw in vertebrates. In humans, it is a major bone in the face and plays several important roles in the craniofacial complex. Each maxilla consists of a body and four processes: frontal process, zygomatic process, alveolar process, and palatine process.

The maxillae contribute to the formation of the eye sockets (orbits), nasal cavity, and the hard palate of the mouth. They also contain the upper teeth sockets (alveoli) and help form the lower part of the orbit and the cheekbones (zygomatic arches).

Here's a quick rundown of its key functions:

1. Supports the upper teeth and forms the upper jaw.
2. Contributes to the formation of the eye sockets, nasal cavity, and hard palate.
3. Helps shape the lower part of the orbit and cheekbones.
4. Partakes in the creation of important sinuses, such as the maxillary sinus, which is located within the body of the maxilla.

A tooth crown is a type of dental restoration that covers the entire visible portion of a tooth, restoring its shape, size, and strength. It is typically made of materials like porcelain, ceramic, or metal alloys and is custom-made to fit over the prepared tooth. The tooth crown is cemented in place and becomes the new outer surface of the tooth, protecting it from further damage or decay.

The process of getting a tooth crown usually involves two dental appointments. During the first appointment, the dentist prepares the tooth by removing any decay or damaged tissue and shaping the tooth to accommodate the crown. An impression is then taken of the prepared tooth and sent to a dental laboratory where the crown is fabricated. In the meantime, a temporary crown is placed over the prepared tooth to protect it until the permanent crown is ready. At the second appointment, the temporary crown is removed, and the permanent crown is cemented in place.

Tooth crowns are often recommended for several reasons, including:

* To restore a broken or fractured tooth
* To protect a weakened tooth from further damage or decay
* To support a large filling when there isn't enough natural tooth structure left
* To cover a dental implant
* To improve the appearance of a discolored or misshapen tooth

Overall, a tooth crown is an effective and long-lasting solution for restoring damaged or decayed teeth and improving oral health.

Osteogenesis is the process of bone formation or development. It involves the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that synthesize and deposit the organic matrix of bone tissue, composed mainly of type I collagen. This organic matrix later mineralizes to form the inorganic crystalline component of bone, primarily hydroxyapatite.

There are two primary types of osteogenesis: intramembranous and endochondral. Intramembranous osteogenesis occurs directly within connective tissue, where mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone tissue without an intervening cartilage template. This process is responsible for the formation of flat bones like the skull and clavicles.

Endochondral osteogenesis, on the other hand, involves the initial development of a cartilaginous model or template, which is later replaced by bone tissue. This process forms long bones, such as those in the limbs, and occurs through several stages involving chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and calcification, followed by invasion of blood vessels and osteoblasts to replace the cartilage with bone tissue.

Abnormalities in osteogenesis can lead to various skeletal disorders and diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysplasia (a disorder affecting skull and collarbone development).

Polarized light microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses polarized light to enhance contrast and reveal unique optical properties in specimens. In this technique, a polarizing filter is placed under the light source, which polarizes the light as it passes through. The specimen is then illuminated with this linearly polarized light. As the light travels through the specimen, its plane of polarization may be altered due to birefringence, a property of certain materials that causes the light to split into two separate rays with different refractive indices.

A second polarizing filter, called an analyzer, is placed in the light path between the objective and the eyepiece. The orientation of this filter can be adjusted to either allow or block the transmission of light through the microscope. When the polarizer and analyzer are aligned perpendicularly, no light will pass through if the specimen does not exhibit birefringence. However, if the specimen has birefringent properties, it will cause the plane of polarization to rotate, allowing some light to pass through the analyzer and create a contrasting image.

Polarized light microscopy is particularly useful for observing structures in minerals, crystals, and certain biological materials like collagen fibers, muscle proteins, and starch granules. It can also be used to study stress patterns in plastics and other synthetic materials.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

The lateral ligaments of the ankle are a group of three major ligaments located on the outside (lateral) aspect of the ankle joint. They play a crucial role in maintaining the stability and integrity of the ankle joint by preventing excessive side-to-side movement or eversion of the foot. The three lateral ligaments are:

1. Anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL): This is the most commonly injured ligament among the three, as it is the weakest and thinnest. It connects the anterior aspect of the fibula (the lateral malleolus) to the talus bone in the ankle joint. The primary function of the ATFL is to prevent excessive anterior displacement or tilting of the talus bone.

2. Calcaneofibular ligament (CFL): This ligament connects the lateral aspect of the calcaneus (heel bone) to the fibula, preventing excessive inversion and rotation of the ankle joint. The CFL plays a significant role in maintaining the stability of the subtalar joint, which is located just below the ankle joint.

3. Posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL): This is the strongest and thickest of the lateral ligaments. It connects the posterior aspect of the fibula to the talus bone, preventing excessive posterior displacement or tilting of the talus. The PTFL also helps to stabilize the ankle joint during plantarflexion (pointing the foot downward) movements.

Injuries to these lateral ligaments can occur due to sudden twisting motions, falls, or direct blows to the ankle, leading to conditions such as sprains or tears. Proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for ensuring optimal recovery and preventing long-term complications like chronic ankle instability.

Joint instability is a condition characterized by the loss of normal joint function and increased risk of joint injury due to impaired integrity of the supporting structures, such as ligaments, muscles, or cartilage. This can result in excessive movement or laxity within the joint, leading to decreased stability and increased susceptibility to dislocations or subluxations. Joint instability may cause pain, swelling, and limited range of motion, and it can significantly impact a person's mobility and quality of life. It is often caused by trauma, degenerative conditions, or congenital abnormalities and may require medical intervention, such as physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, to restore joint stability.

Periodontitis is a severe form of gum disease that damages the soft tissue and destroys the bone supporting your teeth. If left untreated, it can lead to tooth loss. It is caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that constantly forms on our teeth. The body's immune system fights the bacterial infection, which causes an inflammatory response. If the inflammation continues for a long time, it can damage the tissues and bones that support the teeth.

The early stage of periodontitis is called gingivitis, which is characterized by red, swollen gums that bleed easily when brushed or flossed. When gingivitis is not treated, it can advance to periodontitis. In addition to plaque, other factors that increase the risk of developing periodontitis include smoking or using tobacco products, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, a weakened immune system, and genetic factors.

Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and using an antimicrobial mouth rinse, can help prevent periodontitis. Treatment for periodontitis may include deep cleaning procedures, medications, or surgery in severe cases.

According to the American Academy of Periodontology, periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. These tissues include the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The primary cause of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque, a sticky film that constantly forms on our teeth.

There are two major stages of periodontal disease:

1. Gingivitis: This is the milder form of periodontal disease, characterized by inflammation of the gums (gingiva) without loss of attachment to the teeth. The gums may appear red, swollen, and bleed easily during brushing or flossing. At this stage, the damage can be reversed with proper dental care and improved oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis: If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more severe form of periodontal disease. In periodontitis, the inflammation extends beyond the gums and affects the deeper periodontal tissues, leading to loss of bone support around the teeth. Pockets filled with infection-causing bacteria form between the teeth and gums, causing further damage and potential tooth loss if not treated promptly.

Risk factors for developing periodontal disease include poor oral hygiene, smoking or using smokeless tobacco, genetic predisposition, diabetes, hormonal changes (such as pregnancy or menopause), certain medications, and systemic diseases like AIDS or cancer. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices are crucial for preventing periodontal disease and maintaining overall oral health.

A furcation defect in dental terminology refers to the loss or destruction of supporting bone in the area where the roots of a multi-rooted tooth, such as a molar, diverge or branch out. This condition is typically caused by periodontal disease, which results in inflammation and infection of the gums and surrounding tissues.

Furcation defects are classified into three categories based on their severity:

1. Class I: The furcation involvement is limited to the function groove, and the bone loss does not extend beyond this area. Treatment usually involves thorough cleaning and root planing of the affected area.
2. Class II: The bone loss extends halfway or more beneath the furcation, but not reaching the bottom of the furcation. This type of defect may require surgical treatment to promote bone regeneration.
3. Class III: The bone loss is so extensive that it reaches the bottom of the furcation and possibly beyond. In such cases, tooth extraction may be necessary if the tooth cannot be saved through regenerative procedures or other treatments.

It's important to note that early detection and treatment of periodontal disease can help prevent furcation defects from developing or worsening. Regular dental checkups and cleanings are essential for maintaining good oral health and preventing periodontal issues.

A bicuspid valve, also known as a mitral valve in the heart, is a heart valve that has two leaflets or cusps. It lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle and helps to regulate blood flow between these two chambers of the heart. In a healthy heart, the bicuspid valve opens to allow blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle and closes tightly to prevent blood from flowing back into the left atrium during contraction of the ventricle.

A congenital heart defect known as a bicuspid aortic valve occurs when the aortic valve, which normally has three leaflets or cusps, only has two. This can lead to narrowing of the valve (aortic stenosis) or leakage of the valve (aortic regurgitation), which can cause symptoms and may require medical treatment.

The spiral ligament of the cochlea is a fibrous structure located in the inner ear, more specifically in the cochlea. It is part of the membranous labyrinth and helps to maintain the shape and tension of the cochlear duct, which is essential for hearing.

The spiral ligament is attached to the bony wall of the cochlea and runs along the entire length of the cochlear duct, spiraling around it in a snail-like fashion. It consists of an outer, highly vascularized fibrous layer (the fibrous cap) and an inner, more cellular layer (the avascular zone).

The spiral ligament plays a crucial role in sound transmission and perception by helping to maintain the mechanical properties of the cochlear duct. The tension on the basilar membrane, where the sensory hair cells are located, is regulated by the spiral ligament's stiffness and elasticity. This tension affects the vibration amplitude and frequency selectivity of the basilar membrane, which in turn influences how we perceive different sounds and pitches.

Damage to the spiral ligament can result in hearing loss or impairment due to disrupted sound transmission and perception.

Regeneration in a medical context refers to the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that replaces damaged or missing cells, tissues, organs, or even whole limbs in some organisms. This complex biological process involves various cellular and molecular mechanisms, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, which work together to restore the structural and functional integrity of the affected area.

In human medicine, regeneration has attracted significant interest due to its potential therapeutic applications in treating various conditions, including degenerative diseases, trauma, and congenital disorders. Researchers are actively studying the underlying mechanisms of regeneration in various model organisms to develop novel strategies for promoting tissue repair and regeneration in humans.

Examples of regeneration in human medicine include liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, where the remaining liver lobes can grow back to their original size within weeks, and skin wound healing, where keratinocytes migrate and proliferate to close the wound and restore the epidermal layer. However, the regenerative capacity of humans is limited compared to some other organisms, such as planarians and axolotls, which can regenerate entire body parts or even their central nervous system.

A rupture, in medical terms, refers to the breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, injury, increased pressure, or degeneration. A ruptured organ or structure can lead to serious complications, including internal bleeding, infection, and even death, if not treated promptly and appropriately. Examples of ruptures include a ruptured appendix, ruptured eardrum, or a ruptured disc in the spine.

Felypressin is a synthetic analogue of vasopressin, which is a natural hormone produced by the pituitary gland in humans and other mammals. The chemical name for Felypressin is O-ethyl-L-tryptophan,8-D-arginine vasopressin. It is used as a vasoconstrictor in some dental and medical procedures to reduce bleeding.

Vasopressin is a potent antidiuretic hormone that helps regulate water balance in the body by increasing water reabsorption in the kidneys. Felypressin, on the other hand, has minimal antidiuretic activity but is a powerful vasoconstrictor, which means it narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure.

Felypressin is often used in local anesthetic solutions for dental procedures to prolong the duration of anesthesia and reduce bleeding. It is usually administered in combination with other local anesthetics such as lidocaine or prilocaine. The use of Felypressin has been associated with some adverse effects, including nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions. Therefore, it should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Physiologic calcification is the normal deposit of calcium salts in body tissues and organs. It is a natural process that occurs as part of the growth and development of the human body, as well as during the repair and remodeling of tissues.

Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in many bodily functions, including bone formation, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting. In order to maintain proper levels of calcium in the body, excess calcium that is not needed for these functions may be deposited in various tissues as a normal part of the aging process.

Physiologic calcification typically occurs in areas such as the walls of blood vessels, the lungs, and the heart valves. While these calcifications are generally harmless, they can sometimes lead to complications, particularly if they occur in large amounts or in sensitive areas. For example, calcification of the coronary arteries can increase the risk of heart disease, while calcification of the lung tissue can cause respiratory symptoms.

It is important to note that pathologic calcification, on the other hand, refers to the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in tissues and organs, which can be caused by various medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism, and certain infections. Pathologic calcification is not a normal process and can lead to serious health complications if left untreated.

The knee joint, also known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a synovial joint that connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The patella (kneecap), which is a sesamoid bone, is located in front of the knee joint and helps in the extension of the leg.

The knee joint is made up of three articulations: the femorotibial joint between the femur and tibia, the femoropatellar joint between the femur and patella, and the tibiofibular joint between the tibia and fibula. These articulations are surrounded by a fibrous capsule that encloses the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments, including the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, which provide stability to the sides of the joint, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, which prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The menisci, which are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, also help to stabilize the joint by absorbing shock and distributing weight evenly across the articular surfaces.

The knee joint allows for flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation, making it essential for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and sitting.

Bite force refers to the amount of force or pressure that can be exerted by the teeth and jaw when biting down or clenching together. It is a measure of an individual's maximum biting strength, typically expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or newtons (N). Bite force is an important factor in various biological and medical contexts, including oral health, nutrition, and the study of animal behavior and evolution.

In humans, bite force can vary widely depending on factors such as age, sex, muscle strength, and dental health. On average, a healthy adult human male may have a maximum bite force of around 150-200 pounds (670-890 newtons), while an adult female may have a bite force of around 100-130 pounds (445-578 newtons). However, these values can vary significantly from person to person.

Abnormalities in bite force can be indicative of various medical conditions or injuries, such as temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD), muscle weakness, or neurological disorders affecting the facial muscles. Assessing and measuring bite force may also be useful in evaluating the effectiveness of dental treatments or appliances, such as dentures or orthodontic devices.

'Hyalin' is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a histological term used to describe a particular type of tissue structure. Hyalin refers to the homogeneous, translucent, and eosinophilic (pink) appearance of a tissue under a microscope due to the accumulation of an amorphous, acellular, and protein-rich matrix.

Hyalinization can occur in various tissues, including blood vessels, cardiac valves, cartilage, and other connective tissues. It is often associated with aging, injury, inflammation, or degenerative changes, such as those seen in hyaline membrane disease (a respiratory disorder in premature infants) or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (thickening of the heart muscle).

In summary, Hyalin is a histological term used to describe the appearance of tissue under a microscope due to the accumulation of an amorphous, acellular, and protein-rich matrix.

Acellular dermis is a type of processed connective tissue graft used in surgical procedures, particularly in reconstructive surgery. It is derived from human or animal skin, but has had the epidermis and cells of the dermis removed, leaving behind the intact extracellular matrix (ECM). This ECM includes proteins such as collagen and elastin, which provide structural support, and growth factors, which can help to stimulate tissue regeneration.

The acellular nature of the graft means that it is less likely to be rejected by the recipient's immune system, making it a useful option for patients who may not be good candidates for autografts (tissue transplanted from another part of their own body) or allografts (tissue transplanted from another person). Acellular dermis can be used to repair and rebuild damaged skin, as well as to augment soft tissue in areas such as the face and breast.

There are several different brands and types of acellular dermis available, each with its own specific composition and indications for use. Some common examples include AlloDerm, FlexHD, and Integra Dermal Regeneration Template. The choice of graft may depend on factors such as the size and location of the defect being treated, as well as the patient's individual needs and medical history.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in various body tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, digestive system, bones, and kidneys. It plays a role in breaking down proteins and minerals, such as phosphate, in the body.

The medical definition of alkaline phosphatase refers to its function as a hydrolase enzyme that removes phosphate groups from molecules at an alkaline pH level. In clinical settings, ALP is often measured through blood tests as a biomarker for various health conditions.

Elevated levels of ALP in the blood may indicate liver or bone diseases, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, bone fractures, or cancer. Therefore, physicians may order an alkaline phosphatase test to help diagnose and monitor these conditions. However, it is essential to interpret ALP results in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical findings for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Tooth injuries are damages or traumas that affect the teeth's structure and integrity. These injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as accidents, sports-related impacts, falls, fights, or biting on hard objects. The severity of tooth injuries may range from minor chips and cracks to more severe fractures, luxations (displacement), or avulsions (complete tooth loss).

Tooth injuries are typically classified into two main categories:

1. Crown injuries: These involve damages to the visible part of the tooth, including chipping, cracking, or fracturing. Crown injuries may be further categorized as:
* Uncomplicated crown fracture: When only the enamel and dentin are affected without pulp exposure.
* Complicated crown fracture: When the enamel, dentin, and pulp are all exposed.
2. Root injuries: These involve damages to the tooth root or the supporting structures, such as the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Root injuries may include luxations (displacements), intrusions (teeth pushed into the socket), extrusions (teeth partially out of the socket), or avulsions (complete tooth loss).

Immediate medical attention is necessary for severe tooth injuries, as they can lead to complications like infection, tooth decay, or even tooth loss if not treated promptly and appropriately. Treatment options may include dental fillings, crowns, root canal therapy, splinting, or reimplantation in the case of avulsions. Preventive measures, such as wearing mouthguards during sports activities, can help reduce the risk of tooth injuries.

Tissue engineering is a branch of biomedical engineering that combines the principles of engineering, materials science, and biological sciences to develop functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs. It involves the creation of living, three-dimensional structures that can restore, maintain, or improve tissue function. This is typically accomplished through the use of cells, scaffolds (biodegradable matrices), and biologically active molecules. The goal of tissue engineering is to develop biological substitutes that can ultimately restore normal function and structure in damaged tissues or organs.

A tendon is the strong, flexible band of tissue that connects muscle to bone. It helps transfer the force produced by the muscle to allow various movements of our body parts. Tendons are made up of collagen fibers arranged in parallel bundles and have a poor blood supply, making them prone to injuries and slow to heal. Examples include the Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscle to the heel bone, and the patellar tendon, which connects the kneecap to the shinbone.

Bone regeneration is the biological process of new bone formation that occurs after an injury or removal of a portion of bone. This complex process involves several stages, including inflammation, migration and proliferation of cells, matrix deposition, and mineralization, leading to the restoration of the bone's structure and function.

The main cells involved in bone regeneration are osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which resorb damaged or old bone tissue. The process is tightly regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and signaling molecules that promote the recruitment, differentiation, and activity of these cells.

Bone regeneration can occur naturally in response to injury or surgical intervention, such as fracture repair or dental implant placement. However, in some cases, bone regeneration may be impaired due to factors such as age, disease, or trauma, leading to delayed healing or non-union of the bone. In these situations, various strategies and techniques, including the use of bone grafts, scaffolds, and growth factors, can be employed to enhance and support the bone regeneration process.

Tooth calcification, also known as dental calculus or tartar formation, refers to the hardening of plaque on the surface of teeth. This process occurs when minerals from saliva combine with bacterial deposits and dental plaque, resulting in a hard, calcified substance that adheres to the tooth surface. Calcification can occur both above and below the gum line, and if not removed through professional dental cleanings, it can lead to periodontal disease, tooth decay, and other oral health issues.

The dental papilla is a type of tissue found in the developing tooth within the jawbone. It is composed of cells that will eventually differentiate into odontoblasts, which are the cells responsible for producing dentin, one of the main hard tissues that make up the tooth. The dental papilla is located in the center of the tooth germ and is surrounded by the dental follicle, another type of tissue that helps to form the tooth. As the tooth develops, the dental papilla becomes smaller and eventually forms the pulp chamber, which contains the blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue that support and nourish the tooth.

Orthodontic wires are typically made of stainless steel, nickel-titanium alloy, or other shape memory alloys, and are used in orthodontics to move teeth into the desired position. They are attached to brackets bonded to the teeth and exert a continuous force to align the teeth and correct malocclusions (bites that do not fit together correctly). The wires come in various sizes, shapes, and materials, each with specific properties that make them suitable for different stages of treatment. Some wires are flexible and used during the initial alignment phase, while others are more rigid and used during the finishing phase to achieve precise tooth movements.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "mechanical phenomena" is not a standard medical term. The term "mechanical phenomenon" is more commonly used in the fields of physics and engineering to refer to events or processes that involve physical forces and movements, such as the movement of a lever or the flow of a fluid due to pressure differences.

If you have any questions about a specific medical concept or condition, I would be happy to try to help you with that instead!

Dental anesthesia is a type of local or regional anesthesia that is specifically used in dental procedures to block the transmission of pain impulses from the teeth and surrounding tissues to the brain. The most common types of dental anesthesia include:

1. Local anesthesia: This involves the injection of a local anesthetic drug, such as lidocaine or prilocaine, into the gum tissue near the tooth that is being treated. This numbs the area and prevents the patient from feeling pain during the procedure.
2. Conscious sedation: This is a type of minimal sedation that is used to help patients relax during dental procedures. The patient remains conscious and can communicate with the dentist, but may not remember the details of the procedure. Common methods of conscious sedation include nitrous oxide (laughing gas) or oral sedatives.
3. Deep sedation or general anesthesia: This is rarely used in dental procedures, but may be necessary for patients who are extremely anxious or have special needs. It involves the administration of drugs that cause a state of unconsciousness and prevent the patient from feeling pain during the procedure.

Dental anesthesia is generally safe when administered by a qualified dentist or oral surgeon. However, as with any medical procedure, there are risks involved, including allergic reactions to the anesthetic drugs, nerve damage, and infection. Patients should discuss any concerns they have with their dentist before undergoing dental anesthesia.

Root canal therapy, also known as endodontic treatment, is a dental procedure that involves the removal of infected or damaged pulp tissue from within a tooth's root canal system. The root canal system is a series of narrow channels that run from the center of the tooth (pulp chamber) down to the tip of the tooth roots, containing nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues.

During the procedure, the dentist or endodontist will gain access to the pulp chamber, carefully clean and shape the root canals using specialized instruments, and then fill and seal them with a rubber-like material called gutta-percha. This helps prevent reinfection and preserves the structural integrity of the tooth. In many cases, a crown or other restoration is placed over the treated tooth to protect it and restore its function and appearance.

Root canal therapy is typically recommended when the pulp tissue becomes inflamed or infected due to deep decay, repeated dental procedures, cracks, or chips in the teeth. The goal of this treatment is to alleviate pain, preserve natural tooth structure, and prevent the need for extraction.

Birefringence is a property of certain materials, such as crystals and some plastics, to split a beam of light into two separate beams with different polarization states and refractive indices when the light passes through the material. This phenomenon arises due to the anisotropic structure of these materials, where their physical properties vary depending on the direction of measurement.

When a unpolarized or partially polarized light beam enters a birefringent material, it gets separated into two orthogonally polarized beams called the ordinary and extraordinary rays. These rays propagate through the material at different speeds due to their distinct refractive indices, resulting in a phase delay between them. Upon exiting the material, the recombination of these two beams can produce various optical effects, such as double refraction or interference patterns, depending on the thickness and orientation of the birefringent material and the polarization state of the incident light.

Birefringence has numerous applications in optics, including waveplates, polarizing filters, stress analysis, and microscopy techniques like phase contrast and differential interference contrast imaging.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

A tooth fracture is a dental health condition characterized by a break or crack in the tooth structure. It can occur in different parts of the tooth, including the crown (the visible part), root, or filling. Tooth fractures can result from various factors such as trauma, biting or chewing on hard objects, grinding or clenching teeth, and having large, old amalgam fillings that weaken the tooth structure over time. Depending on the severity and location of the fracture, it may cause pain, sensitivity, or affect the tooth's functionality and appearance. Treatment options for tooth fractures vary from simple bonding to root canal treatment or even extraction in severe cases. Regular dental check-ups are essential for early detection and management of tooth fractures.

Osteoblasts are specialized bone-forming cells that are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. They play a crucial role in the process of bone formation and remodeling. Osteoblasts synthesize, secrete, and mineralize the organic matrix of bones, which is mainly composed of type I collagen.

These cells have receptors for various hormones and growth factors that regulate their activity, such as parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and transforming growth factor-beta. When osteoblasts are not actively producing bone matrix, they can become trapped within the matrix they produce, where they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells that play a role in maintaining bone structure and responding to mechanical stress.

Abnormalities in osteoblast function can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "silicates" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Silicates are a broad class of minerals that are composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in various arrangements. They are abundant in Earth's crust and are commonly found in sand, quartz, and many types of rocks.

While not directly related to human health, some silicate-based materials can have medical applications. For example, certain forms of magnesium silicate (talc) have been used as a component in some medications for their ability to absorb moisture and help reduce the risk of skin irritation. However, exposure to certain types of silica dust (like crystalline silica) has been linked to lung diseases such as silicosis, bronchitis, and lung cancer, especially in occupational settings like construction, sandblasting, and mining.

If you have any concerns about silicates or their potential impact on your health, I would recommend consulting a healthcare professional for personalized advice based on your specific situation.

Dentin is the hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the enamel and cementum of a tooth. It forms the majority of the tooth's structure and is composed primarily of mineral salts (hydroxyapatite), collagenous proteins, and water. Dentin has a tubular structure, with microscopic channels called dentinal tubules that radiate outward from the pulp chamber (the center of the tooth containing nerves and blood vessels) to the exterior of the tooth. These tubules contain fluid and nerve endings that are responsible for the tooth's sensitivity to various stimuli such as temperature changes, pressure, or decay. Dentin plays a crucial role in protecting the dental pulp while also providing support and structure to the overlying enamel and cementum.

Integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP) is a non-collagenous protein found in bones and teeth. It is also known as bone sialoprotein II or acidic glycoprotein 34. IBSP plays a role in the regulation of biomineralization, which is the process by which minerals are deposited in biological tissues.

IBSP contains several functional domains that allow it to interact with other proteins and molecules. One such domain is an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif, which can bind to integrin receptors on the surface of cells. This interaction helps regulate the attachment and behavior of cells in bone tissue.

IBSP also contains a large number of sialic acid residues, which give it its name and contribute to its negative charge. These residues may play a role in protecting the protein from degradation and helping it interact with other molecules in the extracellular matrix.

Overall, IBSP is an important component of bone tissue and plays a key role in regulating the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth.

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

Orthodontic appliances are devices used in orthodontics, a branch of dentistry focused on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of dental and facial irregularities. These appliances can be fixed or removable and are used to align teeth, correct jaw relationships, or modify dental forces. They can include braces, aligners, palatal expanders, space maintainers, and headgear, among others. The specific type of appliance used depends on the individual patient's needs and the treatment plan developed by the orthodontist.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Root canal filling materials are substances used to fill and seal the root canal system inside a tooth following root canal treatment. The main goal of using these materials is to prevent reinfection, provide structural support to the weakened tooth, and restore its functionality.

Commonly used root canal filling materials include:

1. Gutta-percha: A rubber-like material derived from the sap of the Palaquium gutta tree. It is widely used as the primary filling material due to its biocompatibility, malleability, and ability to be compacted into the root canal space. Gutta-percha points or cones are typically used in conjunction with a sealer for optimal adaptation and seal.

2. Sealers: These are adhesive materials that help bond gutta-percha to dentin walls and improve the seal between the filling material and root canal walls. Some commonly used sealers include zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide-based sealers, and resin-based sealers.

3. Silver points: These are silver cones with a sharp tip that can be inserted into the root canal space as an alternative to gutta-percha. However, their use has declined due to concerns about corrosion and potential tooth discoloration.

4. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA): A biocompatible cement composed primarily of Portland cement, bismuth oxide, and other additives. MTA is used for various applications in endodontics, including root-end filling, perforation repair, and apexification. It has excellent sealing ability, antibacterial properties, and promotes hard tissue formation.

5. Bioceramics: These are advanced materials with similar properties to MTA but with improved handling characteristics and setting times. They include materials like Bioaggregate, EndoSequence BC Sealer, and iRoot SP.

6. Thermoplasticized gutta-percha: This technique involves heating and softening gutta-percha using a specialized device called a thermomechanical compactor or an oven. The softened gutta-percha is then injected into the root canal space, providing better adaptation to the root canal walls and creating a more uniform seal.

The choice of materials depends on various factors, including the clinical situation, patient's needs, and practitioner's preference.

Calcium compounds are chemical substances that contain calcium ions (Ca2+) bonded to various anions. Calcium is an essential mineral for human health, and calcium compounds have numerous biological and industrial applications. Here are some examples of calcium compounds with their medical definitions:

1. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3): A common mineral found in rocks and sediments, calcium carbonate is also a major component of shells, pearls, and bones. It is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency and as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid.
2. Calcium citrate (C6H8CaO7): A calcium salt of citric acid, calcium citrate is often used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is more soluble in water and gastric juice than calcium carbonate, making it easier to absorb, especially for people with low stomach acid.
3. Calcium gluconate (C12H22CaO14): A calcium salt of gluconic acid, calcium gluconate is used as a medication to treat or prevent hypocalcemia (low blood calcium levels) and hyperkalemia (high blood potassium levels). It can be given intravenously, orally, or topically.
4. Calcium chloride (CaCl2): A white, deliquescent salt, calcium chloride is used as a de-icing agent, a food additive, and a desiccant. In medical settings, it can be used to treat hypocalcemia or hyperkalemia, or as an antidote for magnesium overdose.
5. Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6): A calcium salt of lactic acid, calcium lactate is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is less commonly used than calcium carbonate or calcium citrate but may be better tolerated by some people.
6. Calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2): A mineral found in rocks and bones, calcium phosphate is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It can also be used as a food additive or a pharmaceutical excipient.
7. Calcium sulfate (CaSO4): A white, insoluble powder, calcium sulfate is used as a desiccant, a plaster, and a fertilizer. In medical settings, it can be used to treat hypocalcemia or as an antidote for magnesium overdose.
8. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2): A white, alkaline powder, calcium hydroxide is used as a disinfectant, a flocculant, and a building material. In medical settings, it can be used to treat hyperkalemia or as an antidote for aluminum overdose.
9. Calcium acetate (Ca(C2H3O2)2): A white, crystalline powder, calcium acetate is used as a food additive and a medication. It can be used to treat hyperphosphatemia (high blood phosphate levels) in patients with kidney disease.
10. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3): A white, chalky powder, calcium carbonate is used as a dietary supplement, a food additive, and a pharmaceutical excipient. It can also be used as a building material and a mineral supplement.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

A deciduous tooth, also known as a baby tooth or primary tooth, is a type of temporary tooth that humans and some other mammals develop during childhood. They are called "deciduous" because they are eventually shed and replaced by permanent teeth, much like how leaves on a deciduous tree fall off and are replaced by new growth.

Deciduous teeth begin to form in the womb and start to erupt through the gums when a child is around six months old. By the time a child reaches age three, they typically have a full set of 20 deciduous teeth, including incisors, canines, and molars. These teeth are smaller and less durable than permanent teeth, but they serve important functions such as helping children chew food properly, speak clearly, and maintain space in the jaw for the permanent teeth to grow into.

Deciduous teeth usually begin to fall out around age six or seven, starting with the lower central incisors. This process continues until all of the deciduous teeth have been shed, typically by age 12 or 13. At this point, the permanent teeth will have grown in and taken their place, with the exception of the wisdom teeth, which may not erupt until later in adolescence or early adulthood.

Coloring agents, also known as food dyes or color additives, are substances that are added to foods, medications, and cosmetics to improve their appearance by giving them a specific color. These agents can be made from both synthetic and natural sources. They must be approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they can be used in products intended for human consumption.

Coloring agents are used for various reasons, including:

* To replace color lost during food processing or preparation
* To make foods more visually appealing
* To help consumers easily identify certain types of food
* To indicate the flavor of a product (e.g., fruit-flavored candies)

It's important to note that while coloring agents can enhance the appearance of products, they do not affect their taste or nutritional value. Some people may have allergic reactions to certain coloring agents, so it's essential to check product labels if you have any known allergies. Additionally, excessive consumption of some synthetic coloring agents has been linked to health concerns, so moderation is key.

Tissue scaffolds, also known as bioactive scaffolds or synthetic extracellular matrices, refer to three-dimensional structures that serve as templates for the growth and organization of cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. These scaffolds are designed to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) found in biological tissues, providing a supportive environment for cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

Tissue scaffolds can be made from various materials, including naturally derived biopolymers (e.g., collagen, alginate, chitosan, hyaluronic acid), synthetic polymers (e.g., polycaprolactone, polylactic acid, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)), or a combination of both. The choice of material depends on the specific application and desired properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, mechanical strength, and porosity.

The primary functions of tissue scaffolds include:

1. Cell attachment: Providing surfaces for cells to adhere, spread, and form stable focal adhesions.
2. Mechanical support: Offering a structural framework that maintains the desired shape and mechanical properties of the engineered tissue.
3. Nutrient diffusion: Ensuring adequate transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the scaffold to support cell survival and function.
4. Guided tissue growth: Directing the organization and differentiation of cells through spatial cues and biochemical signals.
5. Biodegradation: Gradually degrading at a rate that matches tissue regeneration, allowing for the replacement of the scaffold with native ECM produced by the cells.

Tissue scaffolds have been used in various applications, such as wound healing, bone and cartilage repair, cardiovascular tissue engineering, and neural tissue regeneration. The design and fabrication of tissue scaffolds are critical aspects of tissue engineering, aiming to create functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs.

... are stem cells found near the periodontal ligament of the teeth. They are involved in adult ... regeneration of the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and cementum. The cells are known to express STRO-1 and CD146 proteins ...
Injection methodology: The periodontal ligament space provides an accessible route to the cancellous alveolar bone, and the ... D'Souza JE, Walton RE, Peterson LC (March 1987). "Periodontal ligament injection: an evaluation of the extent of anesthesia and ... Walton RE, Abbott BJ (October 1981). "Periodontal ligament injection: a clinical evaluation". Journal of the American Dental ... Smith GN, Walton RE, Abbott BJ (December 1983). "Clinical evaluation of periodontal ligament anesthesia using a pressure ...
"The intricate anatomy of the periodontal ligament and its development: Lessons for periodontal regeneration". Journal of ... The periodontal ligament, commonly abbreviated as the PDL, is a group of specialized connective tissue fibers that essentially ... "Periodontal ligament". University of Pennsylvania and Temple University. Archived from the original on June 16, 2010. McCormack ... Thus, early occlusal trauma can be viewed on radiographs as a widening of the periodontal ligament space. Thickening of the ...
ISBN 978-0-415-30666-9. Zarb, George A.; Albrektsson, Tomas (1991). "Osseointegration: A requiem for the periodontal ligament ... No scar tissue, cartilage or ligament fibers are present between the bone and implant surface. The direct contact of bone and ...
Widened periodontal ligament (PDL) space is visible. For most situations urgent treatment is required to eliminate the pain and ...
In the teeth, Sharpey's fibres are the terminal ends of principal fibres (of the periodontal ligament) that insert into the ... "C. Principal fibers of the periodontal ligament". Archived from the original on 2 September 2006. Kuroiwa, M; Chihara K; ... suggests that the three-dimensional structure of Sharpey's fibres intensifies the continuity between the periodontal ligament ...
Normally, a tooth is connected to the socket by the periodontal ligament. When a tooth is knocked out, the ligament is torn. ... Andreasen JO, Kristerson L (2009). "The effect of limited drying or removal of the periodontal ligament. Periodontal healing ... showed that the key to retention of the knocked-out teeth was to maintain the vitality of the periodontal ligament. In 1980, ... These include: The extent of damage to the periodontal ligament (PDL) at the time of injury The storage conditions of the ...
August 2006). "Stem cell properties of human periodontal ligament cells". Journal of Periodontal Research. 41 (4): 303-10. doi: ...
Bone deposition occurs in the distracted periodontal ligament. Without bone deposition, the tooth will loosen, and voids will ... which occurs when the periodontal ligament has been subjected to an excessive amount and duration of compressive stress. ... the periodontal membrane stretches on one side and is compressed on the other. This movement needs to be done slowly or ...
Luxator - used to cut the periodontal ligament around the tooth; it is not used for leverage. It is similar to a dental ... Elevator - used to stretch, cut, and tear the periodontal ligament in order to displace the tooth root from the socket. The tip ... Peripheral odontogenic fibroma - grows from the periodontal ligament. It contains no invasion of bone tissue and has a firm, ... The severity of periodontal disease is scored by using the Periodontal Disease Index (PD), which consists of five stages: Stage ...
The periodontal ligament: A unique, multifunctional, connective tissue. Perio 2000 1997;13:20-40. Sculean A, et al. The ... The presence of acellular cementum acts to signal the development of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibers, followed by new ... But it has been demonstrated that EMD serves to promote periodontal ligament fibroblast proliferation and growth and inhibit ... Autocrine growth factors in human periodontal ligament cells cultured on enamel matrix derivative. J Clin Perio 2001;28:181-8. ...
Some rests become calcified in the periodontal ligament (cementicles). ERM plays a role in cementum repair and regeneration. ... are part of the periodontal ligament cells around a tooth. They are discrete clusters of residual cells from Hertwig's ... maintenance and regeneration of periodontal ligament tissues". Periodontol 2000. 63 (1): 217-33. doi:10.1111/prd.12023. PMID ... Rincon JC, Young WG, Bartold PM (2006). "The epithelial cell rests of Malassez--a role in periodontal regeneration?". Journal ...
The cementum is the part of the periodontium that attaches the teeth to the alveolar bone by anchoring the periodontal ligament ... Sharpey fibers are part of the principal collagenous fibers of the periodontal ligament embedded in the cementum and alveolar ... Tooth development Dentin Periodontal ligament Periodontium Cementoma Hypercementosis "Cementum". DentalFind. 2007-01-01. Bath- ... Instead, the canals are oriented toward the periodontal ligament and contain cementocytic processes that exist to diffuse ...
In periodontal ligaments mediating the teeth connection to the jaw bones, Tnmd contributes to proper fibroblast adhesion. - In ... Protein analyses in eye and periodontal ligament revealed full length TNMD protein as a double band of 40 and 45 kDa. It has ... Mouse periodontal ligaments demonstrated tenomodulin protein expression at 3 and 4 weeks postnatal, a time period corresponding ... "Tenomodulin expression in the periodontal ligament enhances cellular adhesion". PLOS ONE. 8 (4): e60203. Bibcode:2013PLoSO... ...
Rejuvenation and development of the periodontal ligament have been taken as a factor in the eruption of the tooth due to the ... The case is not the same where the existence of a periodontal ligament does not always correspond with resorption in teeth that ... Cases do however happen in which rootless teeth erupt and when a periodontal ligament is present, and the tooth does not erupt ... The presence of stem cells in the dental is an integral part of the DF's ability to differentiate into the periodontal ligament ...
"Expression profile of active genes in human periodontal ligament and isolation of PLAP-1, a novel SLRP family gene". Gene. 275 ... "Regulation of PLAP-1 expression in periodontal ligament cells". Journal of Dental Research. 85 (5): 447-51. doi:10.1177/ ...
"Fenestrated capillaries in the connective tissues of the periodontal ligament". Microvascular Research. 30 (1): 116-124. doi: ...
There is no communication of the lesion with periodontal ligament (PDL). Class IIIa - Complete invagination. It extends through ...
Damage to the periodontal ligament can lead to RANKL release activating osteoclasts. Osteoclasts in close proximity to the root ... External inflammatory root resorption may be caused by trauma to the root surface, due to damage to the periodontal ligament ( ... ERRR can be further categorized as transient or progressive depending on the extent of periodontal ligament damage with the ... doi:10.1034/j.1601-1546.2002.10106.x. Andreasen JO (1981). "Relationship between cell damage in the periodontal ligament after ...
Apical periodontitis is acute inflammation of the periodontal ligament surrounding the tooth. This can be caused by ... A periodontal abscess is a localised inflammation affecting the periodontal tissues. It is caused by bacteria pre-existing in a ... apical abscess may drain through the periodontal pocket giving a false interpretation of periodontal abscess or a periodontal ... It can happen due to periodontal problems, infection, abscess, cysts, allergic reaction (anaphylactic shock), salivary gland ...
Intraligamentary or periodontal ligament anaesthesia is a technique used primarily for endodontic treatment and to supplement ... Malamed SF (February 1982). "The periodontal ligament (PDL) injection: an alternative to inferior alveolar nerve block". Oral ...
... periodontal ligament and alveolar ligament. Progression of the disease into tissue beyond the mucogingival junction ... Periodontal pocket formation Gingival ulceration and suppuration Destruction of the alveolar bone and periodontal ligament ... Features of the Advanced Lesion: Extension of the lesion into alveolar bone, periodontal ligament with significant bone loss ... A periodontal abscess involves a greater dimension of the gum tissue, extending apically and adjacent to a periodontal pocket. ...
Holliday, Richard S; Campbell, James; Preshaw, Philip M. (2019). "Effect of nicotine on human gingival, periodontal ligament ...
This is attached by the periodontal ligament (PDL) to the root cementum. Although the alveolar process is composed of compact ... Alveolar bone loss is closely associated with periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is the inflammation of the gums. Studies ... In patients with periodontal disease, inflammation lasts longer and during the repair phase, resorption may override any bone ... During chronic periodontal disease that has affected the periodontium (periodontitis), localized bone tissue is also lost. The ...
Holliday RS, Campbell J, Preshaw PM (July 2019). "Effect of nicotine on human gingival, periodontal ligament and oral ...
The periodontal ligament in itself is an area of high turnover that allows the tooth not only to be suspended in the alveolar ... The periodontal ligament depends on stimulation provided by function to preserve its structure. Within physiologic limits the ... It consists of four principal components, namely: Gingiva Periodontal ligament (PDL) Cementum Alveolar bone proper Each of ... Mitsiadis TA, Pagella P, Cantù C (2017). "Early Determination of the Periodontal Domain by the Wnt-Antagonist Frzb/Sfrp3". ...
Feasibility study about finite element simulation of the dental periodontal ligament in vivo. Journal of Medical Biomechanics, ...
"Effect of metronidazole and modulation of cytokine production on human periodontal ligament cells". Int Immunopharmacol. 10 (7 ... periodontal disease, amoebiasis, oral infections, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, and infections caused by susceptible anaerobic ...
Mechanical force may increase the expression of MMP1 in human periodontal ligament cells. MMP1 has been shown to interact with ... promoter on force-induced MMP-1 expression in human periodontal ligament cells". Eur. J. Oral Sci. 116 (4): 319-23. doi:10.1111 ...
The fibrous connection between a tooth and its socket is a periodontal ligament. Specifically, the connection is made between ... A grade III injury is a complete anteroinferior tibiofibular ligament tear including a (partial) interosseous ligament tear and ... Grade II injury is a complete anteroinferior tibiofibular ligament and inferior interosseous ligament tear, meaning that ... A grade I injury is a partial anteroinferior tibiofibular ligament tear, meaning the exorotation and squeeze tests are negative ...
Periodontal ligament stem cells are stem cells found near the periodontal ligament of the teeth. They are involved in adult ... regeneration of the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and cementum. The cells are known to express STRO-1 and CD146 proteins ...
Exploring the effects of lncRNA SNHG1 in the process of osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) ... Differentiating zones at periodontal ligament-bone and periodontal ligament-cementum entheses. J Periodontal Res. 2015;50:870- ... Peng DW, Zhang J, Pei G, Rong Q, Zhu S. Long noncoding RNA ANCR suppresses bone formation of periodontal ligament stem cells ... Nrf2 inhibits periodontal ligament stem cell apoptosis under excessive oxidative stress. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18:1076. ...
How does the periodontal ligament develop?. Valerie Clark. 08/16/2022. How does the periodontal ligament develop?. Fibres are ... Which describes a periodontal ligament quizlet?. the periodontal ligament fibers are relaxed and wavy, with no definite ... What are the functions of the periodontal ligaments Chapter 8?. The principal functions of the periodontal ligament are to ... What are the functions of periodontal ligaments?. Support: The periodontal ligament is a component of the periodontium that ...
The Periodontal Ligaments is a soft tissue that helps hold the tooth in place, and goes between the tooth cementum and the ... Another part of the mouth is the Periodontal Ligament, sometimes just called the PDL.. We learned that the tooth sits into the ... from: wikipedia - periodontal fiber). Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Glenohumeral Ligaments ...
... Login ... Application Nanopowder Stichopus Hermanii To Prevent Relaps Orthodontis by Periodontal Ligament Remodelling. Prameswari, ...
... periodontal ligament and (c) gingiva. The authors propose a new method for investigation of the periodontal ligament stresses ... periodontal ligament and (c) gingiva. The authors propose a new method for investigation of the periodontal ligament stresses ... periodontal ligament and (c) gingiva. The authors propose a new method for investigation of the periodontal ligament stresses ... periodontal ligament and (c) gingiva. The authors propose a new method for investigation of the periodontal ligament stresses ...
RIBEIRO, Rodrigo Alves et al. Proliferation of human periodontal ligament mesenchymal cells on polished and plasma nitriding ... Palavras-chave : biocompatible materials; titanium; cell proliferation; periodontal ligament. · texto em Inglês · pdf em Inglês ... AIM: To evaluate the proliferative capacity of mesenchymal cells derived from human periodontal ligament on polished and plasma ... Mesenchymal cells were isolated from periodontal ligament of impacted third molars (n=2) and cultured on titanium disks ( ...
Periodontal ligament is a structure between tooth root and alveolar bone. A few morphological study on the sensory innervation ... Nerve endings in rat periodontal ligament: an immunofluorescence study. Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology, 121(1), 121 ... the distribution of nerve endings among the different regions of periodontal ligament both of incisors and molars of rat. We ... of periodontal ligament are available. Although there has been controversy over the distribution and shape of the sensory nerve ...
... Takeshi AMEMIYA ... We evaluated the transplant of cultivated beagle dog periodontal ligament (PDL) cells grown on human amniotic membrane (AM) to ... Key words: cell sheet, periodontal ligament cells, human amniotic membrane, tissue engineering. ... Artificial fenestration in periodontal defects was made bilaterally in the maxillary canines, PDL-derived cell sheets on AM ...
The periodontal ligament Fibers of the Gingival Connective Tissue. ... Types periodontal ligament fibers - Periodontal ligament fibers function The periodontal ligament Fibers of the Gingival ... B. components of the Periodontal ligament. Periodontal ligament is composed of connective tissues, cells and the extracellular ... Periodontal ligament (PDL) is a thin sheet of fibrous connective tissue that surrounds the roots of the teeth and joins cement ...
Characterization of stem cells obtained from the dental pulp and periodontal ligament of deciduous teeth. / Song, Je Seon; Kim ... The aim of the present study was to characterize stem cells isolated from the functional dental pulp and periodontal ligament ... This is the first report of the presence of multipotent stem cells in the functional dental pulp and periodontal ligament ... The aim of the present study was to characterize stem cells isolated from the functional dental pulp and periodontal ligament ...
The approach to be regeneration of periodontal ligament (PDL) that is a tooth supporting connective tissue has made a progress ... The approach to be regeneration of periodontal ligament (PDL) that is a tooth supporting connective tissue has made a progress ... The approach to be regeneration of periodontal ligament (PDL) that is a tooth supporting connective tissue has made a progress ... The approach to be regeneration of periodontal ligament (PDL) that is a tooth supporting connective tissue has made a progress ...
Based on prior experimental results, we hypothesized that rat periodontal ligament (PDL)-derived DPCs can be used … ... to form organized periodontal tissues on titanium implants would be a significant improvement over current implant therapies. ... Based on prior experimental results, we hypothesized that rat periodontal ligament (PDL)-derived DPCs can be used to ... Bioengineered periodontal tissue formed on titanium dental implants J Dent Res. 2011 Feb;90(2):251-6. doi: 10.1177/ ...
Sensory innervation of the periodontal ligaments provides proprioceptive information about pressure on the teeth and oral ... Effect of chewing a mixture of areca nut and tobacco on periodontal tissues and oral hygiene status. Journal of Oral Science. ...
Using machine learning to determine age over 16 based on development of third molar and periodontal ligament of second molar.. ... This is the first study to combine ML with an evaluation of periodontal ligament and tooth development to predict whether ... and assess the periodontal ligament development of the second molar (PL2M). This study aimed to predict whether Chinese ... Dente Serotino Ligamento Periodontal Adolescente Humanos Criança Adulto Jovem Adulto Dente Serotino/diagnóstico por imagem ...
... residual periodontal ligament (PDL). We hypothesised that in vitro cultures of the consecutive slices of a sectioned root will ... Periodontal ligament on pulp-free root slices - an in vitro model for early tooth (re)integration. ... residual periodontal ligament (PDL). We hypothesised that in vitro cultures of the consecutive slices of a sectioned root will ... residual periodontal ligament (PDL). We hypothesised that in vitro cultures of the consecutive slices of a sectioned root will ...
Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDL); Human primary osteoblasts (POB). Composite scaffold has decreased porosity and ... have reported the enhanced attachment and proliferation of human primary osteoblasts and human periodontal ligament cells on α- ... Gold nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells via the p38 MAPK signaling ... and beta-chitin hydrogel/nanobioactive glass ceramic/nano silver composite scaffolds for periodontal regeneration. J. Biomed. ...
Sensory innervation of the periodontal ligaments provides proprioceptive information about pressure on the teeth and oral ... Effect of chewing a mixture of areca nut and tobacco on periodontal tissues and oral hygiene status. Journal of Oral Science. ...
Ma Yue, Ren Aishu, Fu Gang.. Effects of salvianolic acid B on osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells [J ... A preliminary study on the autophagy level of human periodontal ligament cells regulated by nicotine [J]. West China Journal of ... Functions of non-coding RNAs in the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament-derived cells [J]. West China ... The effects of oxymatrine on expression of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β mRNA of human periodontal ligament cell stimulated ...
Immortalized Human Periodontal Ligament Cells - hTERT , T0767 abm immortalized cells. MSRP: Now: €2,613.00 ...
Periodontal ligament specific periostin. *Periostin. *Periostin isoform thy2. *Periostin isoform thy4. *Periostin isoform thy6 ...
Development of the root and periodontal ligament. 26. Development of the dentitions ...
This can include the gums, the periodontal ligaments, and bone.. Gingivitis is due to the short-term effects of plaque deposits ... Gingivitis is an early form of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is inflammation and infection that destroys the tissues ... Dhar V. Periodontal diseases. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of ... Periodontal (gum) disease. Updated October 2018. Accessed April 7, 2022. ...
The ALP expression in the periodontal ligament was elevated after treatment with anti-TLR4 antibody or ... Chenghua Li,et al."Lipopolysaccharide differentially affects the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells ... Lipopolysaccharide differentially affects the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells and bone marrow ... Lipopolysaccharide differentially affects the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells and bone marrow ...
Osseointegration - a réquiem for the periodontal ligament?.. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent, 11 (1991), pp. 88-91 ... Conocimiento de médicos de 2 hospitales peruanos sobre la relación entre enfermedad periodontal y alteraciones sistémicas ...
... bio Alessandro Pieri and others published Periodontal Disease in Dogs , Find, read and cite all the research you need on ... The periodontal ligament contains nerves and great vascularity, with vessels emanating from the maxillary artery in the case of ... periodontal pocket formation (Gioso, 2007) The periodontal probe is essential in the examination and diagnosis of periodontal ... of the periodontal ligament that attach to the tooth are connected to this plaque and it is ...
7 The periodontal ligament space may be absent radiographically.7 Permanent teeth rarely become ankylosed.7 ...
Optimising collagen scaffold architecture for enhanced periodontal ligament fibroblast migration Journal of Materials Science: ... Optimising collagen scaffold architecture for enhanced periodontal ligament fibroblast migration Journal of Materials Science: ...
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  • They are involved in adult regeneration of the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and cementum. (
  • Periodontitis is a highly prevalent chronic inflammatory bone disease and could destroy the periodontal structures, including alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and root cementum, which eventually lead to tooth-loss [ 4 ]. (
  • The periodontal ligament, commonly abbreviated as the PDL, is a group of specialized connective tissue fibers that essentially attach a tooth to the alveolar bone within which it sits. (
  • Periodontal ligament (PDL), as a mechanical connection between the alveolar bone and tooth, plays a pivotal role in force-induced orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). (
  • Support: The periodontal ligament is a component of the periodontium that allows for the teeth to be attached to the surrounding alveolar bone via the cementum. (
  • Periodontal ligament is a structure between tooth root and alveolar bone. (
  • In fiber bundles periodontal ligament specialized connective tissue that surrounds the root of the tooth and associates it with the alveolar bone . (
  • 1) ropelike bundles of collagen fibers of the periodontal ligament stretch across space between the cement and the alveolar bone tooth socket (Fig. 2-16). (
  • A periodontal abscess involves the supporting structures of the teeth (periodontal ligaments, alveolar bone). (
  • Which of the following is the name for the periodontal ligament fibers that are embedded in cementum? (
  • The Periodontal Ligaments is a soft tissue that helps hold the tooth in place, and goes between the tooth cementum and the tooth socket. (
  • In the experimental group, new cementum and bone were observed in the periodontal defect, whereas in the controls, connective tissue could only be observed. (
  • Since there is no cementum or fibers inserted on the surface of an implant, and therefore no periodontal ligament and space, infection will spread directly into the osseous structures. (
  • Periodontal ligament stem cells are stem cells found near the periodontal ligament of the teeth. (
  • The principal functions of the periodontal ligament are to support the teeth, generate the force of tooth eruption and provide sensory information about tooth position and forces to facilitate reflex jaw activity during chewing movements. (
  • Periodontal ligament (PDL) is a thin sheet of fibrous connective tissue that surrounds the roots of the teeth and joins cement root from the wall socket. (
  • The aim of the present study was to characterize stem cells isolated from the functional dental pulp and periodontal ligament of deciduous teeth. (
  • Dental pulp tissue was obtained from deciduous teeth by extirpation during treatment for dental caries, and periodontal tissue was obtained from deciduous teeth that were extracted for orthodontic reasons or space management. (
  • This is the first report of the presence of multipotent stem cells in the functional dental pulp and periodontal ligament tissue of deciduous teeth, which can be isolated using an explants culture method. (
  • These proof-of-principle findings suggest that PDL DPCs can organize periodontal tissues in the jaw, at the site of previously lost teeth, indicating that this method holds potential as an alternative approach to osseointegrated dental implants. (
  • Reintegration of freshly extracted healthy teeth is very successful, most likely due to the regenerative capacity of their roots' residual periodontal ligament (PDL). (
  • Periodontal disease is inflammation and infection that destroys the tissues that support the teeth. (
  • The periodontal ligament breaks down and ultimately teeth are lost. (
  • Moreover, a more accurate model including the aforementioned teeth and their periodontal ligament as solid elastic structures was analysed in order to evaluate the orthodontic effects induced. (
  • The difference is that natural teeth benefit from the buffering power of the junctional epithelium and periodontal ligament. (
  • Obviously, one of the biggest differences is the fact that teeth have periodontal ligaments while implants do not. (
  • The gingiva progressively loses its attachment to the teeth, bone loss begins, and periodontal pockets deepen. (
  • Sensory innervation of the periodontal ligaments provides proprioceptive information about pressure on the teeth and oral stereognosis (perceiving the form of an object) as well as jaw opening and salivation reflexes. (
  • The prevalence of periodontal disease was significantly lower among subjects who were taught the right way to brush their teeth by the dentist. (
  • In this study, we comparatively investigated the influence of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the osteogenesis potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). (
  • For investigating the stresses in the reconstructed tooth and its surrounding periodontal ligament and gingiva, the authors had applied a plane-strain finite-element analysis. (
  • In previous analyses, only the supporting bone was assumed as rigid, finite element partitioning was carried out in (a) the reconstructed tooth region including porcelain crown, dentin, gutta percha, gold post, crown substructure, and zinc phosphate cement, (b) periodontal ligament and (c) gingiva. (
  • The entire gingiva is edematous, it bleeds easily, and periodontal pockets start to form. (
  • Periodontal ligament is composed of connective tissues, cells and the extracellular matrix. (
  • Extracellular matrix periodontal ligament such other extracellular matrix of connective tissue. (
  • Current strategy for the treatment of periodontal disease is to application of stem cells or functional molecules that can reorganize tissue integrity, cellular activities and extracellular matrix framework to recover peridontal tissue function. (
  • Objective To observe the effects of oxymatrine on the expression of interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin- 1β(IL-1β)mRNA of human periodontal ligament cell(PDLC) stimulated by lipopolysaccharides(LPS), and to discuss oxymatrine's inhibition mechanism on periodontal inflammation stimulated by LPS. (
  • Gingivitis Gingivitis is a type of periodontal disease characterized by inflammation of the gums (gingivae), causing bleeding with swelling, redness, exudate, a change of normal contours, and, occasionally. (
  • Exploring the effects of lncRNA SNHG1 in the process of osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) would provide novel therapeutic strategies for tissue regeneration. (
  • We evaluated the transplant of cultivated beagle dog periodontal ligament (PDL) cells grown on human amniotic membrane (AM) to promote periodontal regeneration in artificial fenestration defects in jaw bones. (
  • The results of the in vivo experimental study suggested that PDL-derived cell sheets on AM were useful biomaterial for periodontal regeneration. (
  • The approach to be regeneration of periodontal ligament (PDL) that is a tooth supporting connective tissue has made a progress for consideration of strategies in regeneration therapy of periodontal tissue damaged by periodontitis. (
  • What initially occurs to the periodontal ligament with periodontitis? (
  • The consequences of periodontitis are patients with difficulty chewing, chronic periodontal abscesses, bacteremias, weight loss, poor physical condition and pain. (
  • In periodontitis, deep pockets form in the periodontal tissue and can harbor anaerobic organisms that do more damage than those usually present in simple gingivitis. (
  • Periodontitis associated with endodontic lesions involves a communication between the pulp and periodontal tissues. (
  • The periodontal ligament Fibers of the Gingival Connective Tissue. (
  • Home · Foundations of Periodontics · The periodontal ligament Fibers of the Gingival Connective Tissue. (
  • Since these procedures also include the soft tissue esthetic approach, the term "periodontal plastic surgery" has been proposed to be more appropriate.1 Root coverage is a procedure that falls with this definition, and it has attracted more interest than others. (
  • Periodontal and peri-implant probing should be performed only after tissue healing has been completed and not on a weekly basis in peri-implant tissue monitoring. (
  • In animal tissue it is possible to perform cross-sectional studies on the eruption process with the surrounding periodontal membrane and bone, both histologically and immunohistochemically. (
  • Like all soft fibrous connective tissues, the periodontal ligament consists of a fibrous stroma in a gel of ground substance containing cells, blood vessels and nerves. (
  • Disease causing bacteria accumulate in the pockets leading to an infection that if left untreated, destroys bones, ligaments, and tissues in the mouth and could ultimately result in tooth loss. (
  • We observed cell outgrowth from these tissues in 'explants culture', and named these cells as deciduous dental pulp stem cells (DDPSCs) and deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells (DPDLSCs), respectively. (
  • The ability to use autologous dental progenitor cells (DPCs) to form organized periodontal tissues on titanium implants would be a significant improvement over current implant therapies. (
  • Based on prior experimental results, we hypothesized that rat periodontal ligament (PDL)-derived DPCs can be used to bioengineer PDL tissues on titanium implants in a novel, in vivo rat maxillary molar implant model. (
  • Functions of non-coding RNAs in the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament-derived cells [J]. West China Journal of Stomatology, 2020, 38(3): 330-337. (
  • Comparative study with the effect of stromal cell derived factor-1 on osteogenic differentiation of human healthy and inflammatory periodontal ligament stem cells [J]. West China Journal of Stomatology, 2019, 37(5): 469-475. (
  • Effects of salvianolic acid B on osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells [J]. West China Journal of Stomatology, 2016, 34(5): 468-473. (
  • Protective effects of hydrogen-rich medium on lipopolysaccharides-induced injury in human periodontal ligament cells [J]. West China Journal of Stomatology, 2018, 36(2): 123-127. (
  • The other natural line of defense absent from the endosseous implant structures is the periodontal ligament. (
  • Mesenchymal cells were isolated from periodontal ligament of impacted third molars (n=2) and cultured on titanium disks (polished and nitrided) and on a plastic surface as a positive control of cell proliferation. (
  • In the present study we investigated, by immunofluorescence for protein gene product PGP 9.5, the distribution of nerve endings among the different regions of periodontal ligament both of incisors and molars of rat. (
  • We found a variety of nerve endings morphology and several difference about their distribution between incisors and molars periodontal ligament. (
  • the periodontal ligament fibers are relaxed and wavy, with no definite orientation. (
  • These fibers are the largest component of the periodontal ligament. (
  • A few morphological study on the sensory innervation of periodontal ligament are available. (
  • They suggested in their study that the Malassez epithelium may be involved in the maintenance of periodontal space and that sensory innervation might be indirectly associated with it [ 4 ]. (
  • Anxiety control using IV sedation was very helpful in performing various periodontal reconstructive and advanced surgical procedures in implant dentistry. (
  • The aim of the present paper is to highlight both the main clinical findings of surgical wound healing, especially in periodontal and implant dentistry, and the wound healing monitoring procedures which should be followed. (
  • Periodontal abscesses are accumulations of pus that usually occur in pre-existing pockets, sometimes related to impacted foreign material. (
  • A preliminary study on the autophagy level of human periodontal ligament cells regulated by nicotine [J]. West China Journal of Stomatology, 2017, 35(2): 198-202. (
  • Galectin-1 Inhibited LPS-Induced Autophagy and Apoptosis of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells. (
  • The thickness of the periodontal ligament varies from 0.05 to depending on the age of the patient and functions tooth [14]. (
  • This can include the gums, the periodontal ligaments, and bone. (
  • Optimising collagen scaffold architecture for enhanced periodontal ligament fibroblast migration Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. (
  • To evaluate the proliferative capacity of mesenchymal cells derived from human periodontal ligament on polished and plasma-treated titanium surfaces. (
  • We concluded that plasma nitriding produced surfaces that permitted the proliferation of human periodontal ligament mesenchymal cells. (
  • The role of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 in mediating osteodifferentiation of human periodontal ligament cells induced by cyclic stretch [J]. West China Journal of Stomatology, 2017, 35(5): 520-526. (
  • The effects of oxymatrine on expression of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β mRNA of human periodontal ligament cell stimulated by lipopolysaccharides[J]. West China Journal of Stomatology, doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-1182.2010.06.022 . (
  • Construction of human telomerase reverse transcriptase periodontal ligament cell line mediated by adenovirus [J]. West China Journal of Stomatology, 2019, 37(1): 25-30. (
  • The rabbit has similar joint, muscle, tendon and ligament anatomy with only a few exception (e.g., the 1st digit is not opposable like the human thumb), but these do not affect the use and value of the model. (
  • Accordingly, the mechanism of eruption depends on the correlation between space in the eruption course, created by the crown follicle, eruption pressure triggered by innervation in the apical root membrane, and the ability of the periodontal ligament to adapt to eruptive movements. (
  • Artificial fenestration in periodontal defects was made bilaterally in the maxillary canines, PDL-derived cell sheets on AM were transplanted in the experimental group, and mucoperiosteal flaps were returned. (
  • ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to report on dental visit patterns and their association with periodontal health among young Saudi Arabian students. (
  • 7 The periodontal ligament space may be absent radiographically. (
  • If the seal is destroyed the epithelium migrates apically forming a periodontal pocket. (
  • What best describes the periodontal ligament space? (
  • Bacteria and their by-products migrate into the periodontal ligament space. (
  • Bacteria and their byproducts migrate into the periodontal ligament space. (
  • 4 ] found that denervation performed experimentally led to dentoalveolar ankylosis with decreased width of the periodontal space. (
  • The ALP expression in the periodontal ligament was elevated after treatment with anti-TLR4 antibody or pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, whereas there was no statistical significance among groups for the number of osteoclasts. (
  • At Dentist Houston TX, we are proud to offer our patients the best possible care regarding periodontal treatment. (
  • periodontal treatment costs totaled $51 billions in North America in 2003, 75% of all dental costs. (
  • Clinical examinations were carried out using the community periodontal index of treatment needs. (
  • Moreover, we found that the morphology of nerve endings changes depending on the modification of the force applied to periodontal ligament, highlighting its importance in regulation of muscle activity. (
  • Researches show that 80% of dogs over the age of 3 suffer from some form of periodontal disease. (
  • In other word, periodontal disease is irreversible and incurable, only controllable. (
  • As the research done by Dr. L. Debowes determined, the signs can also be associated with disease to the organs affected by periodontal disease (heart, kidney, liver, skin, lungs and brain). (
  • It has also been shown that periodontal disease interacts with endocrine conditions such as diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. (
  • Equally important are regular dental visits, as they provide professional diagnostic and prophylactic services that are essential to prevent periodontal disease [1,2]. (
  • In suprabony pockets, the bone recedes at the same rate than the periodontal ligament so that the bottom of the pocket is above the bone level. (
  • In infrabony pockets, the periodontal ligament recedes faster than bone and thus the bottom of the pocket ends up within bone. (
  • This is the first study to combine ML with an evaluation of periodontal ligament and tooth development to predict whether individuals are over 16 years of age. (
  • Diagnosis is based on inspection, periodontal probing, and x-rays. (
  • Subgingival scaling is the simplest of the periodontal procedure and is virtually done at every dental cleaning. (
  • The aim of the present study is to therefore highlight how the healing process of the most common periodontal and dental implant procedures should be managed and which signs and symptoms more commonly occur after surgery. (
  • Even some jobs considered white collar such as dental hygiene are seeing increasing hand injuries which may be due to forceful and repetitive hand tasks like periodontal scaling. (
  • Anestesimidler er i en lett ionisert form, bestående av en syre- og en uladet basedel, og har en pH på 3-4. (