Periodontal Attachment Loss
Alveolar Bone Loss
Gingival Crevicular Fluid
Focal Infection, Dental
Oral Hygiene Index
Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative
Matrix Metalloproteinase 8
Dental Health Surveys
Dental Devices, Home Care
Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria
Pyorrhoea as cause of pyrexia. (1/894)Three patients with fever and malaise, one of whom also had joint pains, were extensively investigated before their condition was attributed to dental sepsis. Each patient recovered fully after appropriate dental treatment. Dental sepsis should be added to the list of possible causes of pyrexia of undetermined origin, and a routine dental examination should be carried out in each case. (+info)
Treponema denticola outer membrane enhances the phagocytosis of collagen-coated beads by gingival fibroblasts. (2/894)Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) degrade collagen fibrils in physiological processes by phagocytosis. Since Treponema denticola outer membrane (OM) extract perturbs actin filaments, important structures in phagocytosis, we determined whether the OM affects collagen phagocytosis in vitro by HGFs. Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometric assessment of internalized collagen-coated fluorescent latex beads. Confluent HGFs pretreated with T. denticola ATCC 35405 OM exhibited an increase in the percentage of collagen phagocytic cells (phagocytosis index [PI]) and in the number of beads per phagocytosing cell (phagocytic capacity [PC]) compared with untreated controls. The enhancement was swift (within 15 min) and was still evident after 1 day. PI and PC of HGFs for bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated beads were also increased, indicating a global increase in phagocytic processes. These results contrasted those for control OM from Veillonella atypica ATCC 17744, which decreased phagocytosis. The T. denticola OM-induced increase in bead uptake was eliminated by heating the OM and by depolymerization of actin filaments by cytochalasin D treatment of HGFs. Fluid-phase accumulation of lucifer yellow was enhanced in a saturable, concentration-dependent, transient manner by the T. denticola OM. Our findings were not due to HGF detachment or cytotoxicity in response to the T. denticola OM treatment since the HGFs exhibited minimal detachment from the substratum; they did not take up propidium iodide; and there was no change in their size, granularity, or content of sub-G1 DNA. We conclude that a heat-sensitive component(s) in T. denticola OM extract stimulates collagen phagocytosis and other endocytic processes such as nonspecific phagocytosis and pinocytosis by HGFs. (+info)
In vitro induction of activation-induced cell death in lymphocytes from chronic periodontal lesions by exogenous Fas ligand. (3/894)Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which gradually destroys the supporting tissues of the teeth, leading to tooth loss in adults. The lesions are characterized by a persistence of inflammatory cells in gingival and periodontal connective tissues. To understand what mechanisms are involved in the establishment of chronic lesions, we hypothesized that infiltrating lymphocytes might be resistant to apoptosis. However, both Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were weakly detected in lymphocytes from the lesions, compared with those from peripheral blood, suggesting that these cells are susceptible to apoptosis. Nevertheless, very few apoptotic cells were observed in tissue sections from the lesions. Lymphocytes from the lesions expressed mRNA encoding Fas, whereas Fas-ligand mRNA was very weakly expressed in lymphocytes from the lesions and in periodontal tissues. Since the results indicated that lymphocytes in the lesions might be susceptible to Fas-mediated apoptosis but lack the death signal, we next investigated if these lymphocytes actually undergo apoptosis by the addition of anti-Fas antibodies in vitro. Fas-positive lymphocytes from the lesions underwent apoptosis by these antibodies, but Fas-negative lymphocytes and Fas-positive peripheral lymphocytes did not undergo apoptosis by these antibodies. These results indicate that lymphocytes in the lesions are susceptible to activation-induced cell death and are induced to die by apoptosis after the addition of exogenous Fas ligand. (+info)
Molecular interactions of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae with host proteins: kinetic analyses based on surface plasmon resonance. (4/894)Fimbriae of Porphyromonas gingivalis are thought to play an important role in the colonization and invasion of periodontal tissues. In this study, we analyzed the interactions of P. gingivalis fimbriae with human hemoglobin, fibrinogen, and salivary components (i.e., proline-rich protein [PRP], proline-rich glycoprotein [PRG], and statherin) based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy with a biomolecular interaction analyzing system (BIAcore). The real-time observation showed that the fimbriae interacted more quickly with hemoglobin and PRG than with other proteins and more intensely with fibrinogen. The significant association constant (ka) values obtained by BIAcore demonstrated that the interactions between fimbriae and these host proteins are specific. These estimated Ka values were not too different; however, the Ka values for hemoglobin (2.43 x 10(6)) and fibrinogen (2.16 x 10(6)) were statistically greater than those for the salivary proteins (1.48 x 10(6) to 1.63 x 10(6)). The Ka value of anti-fimbriae immunoglobulin G for fimbriae was estimated to be 1. 22 x 10(7), which was 6.55-fold higher than the mean Ka value of the host proteins. Peptide PRP-C, a potent inhibitor of PRP-fimbriae interaction, dramatically inhibited fimbrial association to PRP and PRG and was also inhibitory against other host proteins by BIAcore. The binding of fimbriae to these proteins was also evaluated by other methods with hydroxyapatite beads or polystyrene microtiter plates. The estimated binding abilities differed considerably, depending on the assay method that was used. It was noted that the binding capacity of PRP was strongly diminished by immobilization on a polystyrene surface. Taken together, these findings suggest that P. gingivalis fimbriae possess a strong ability to interact with the host proteins which promote bacterial adherence to the oral cavity and that SPR spectroscopy is a useful method for analyzing specific protein-fimbriae interactions. (+info)
Blastogenic response of human lymphocytes to oral bacterial antigens: comparison of individuals with periodontal disease to normal and edentulous subjects. (5/894)Cell-mediated immunity in humans to antigens derived from oral plaque bacteria was investigated by using the lymphocyte blastogenesis assay. Subjects with varying severities of periodontal disease including normal, gingivitis, periodontitis, and edentulous were compared. Mononuclear leukocytes were separated from peripheral blood and cultured with antigens prepared by sonication of Actinomyces viscosus (AV), Actinomyces naeslundii (AN), Veillonella alcalescens (VA), Leptotrichia buccalis (LB), Bacteroides melaninogenicus (BM), and homologous dental plaque (DP). The lymphocyte response of subjects with gingivitis or periodontitis was significantly greater than that of normal subjects to antigens of AV, AN, and DP, but did not differ from the response of edentulous subjects. Periodontitis subjects were significantly more reactive than edentulous and normal subjects in response to VA, LB, and BM. These findings suggest that the tested gram-negative bacteria and the host response they evoke are associated with advanced periodontal destruction. (+info)
Environmental modulation of oral treponeme virulence in a murine model. (6/894)This investigation examined the effects of environmental alteration on the virulence of the oral treponemes Treponema denticola and Treponema pectinovorum. The environmental effects were assessed by using a model of localized inflammatory abscesses in mice. In vitro growth of T. denticola and T. pectinovorum as a function of modification of the cysteine concentration significantly enhanced abscess formation and size. In contrast, growth of T. denticola or T. pectinovorum under iron-limiting conditions (e.g., dipyridyl chelation) had no effect on abscess induction in comparison to that when the strains were grown under normal iron conditions. In vivo modulation of the microenvironment at the focus of infection with Cytodex beads demonstrated that increasing the local inflammation had no effect on lesion induction or size. In vivo studies involved the determination of the effects of increased systemic iron availability (e.g., iron dextran or phenylhydrazine) on the induction, kinetics, and size of lesions. T. denticola induced significantly larger lesions in mice with iron pretreatment and demonstrated systemic manifestations of the infectious challenge and an accompanying spreading lesion with phenylhydrazine pretreatment (e.g., increases in circulating free hemoglobin). In contrast, T. pectinovorum virulence was minimally affected by this in vivo treatment to increase iron availability. T. denticola virulence, as evaluated by lesion size, was increased additively by in vivo iron availability, and cysteine modified growth of the microorganism. Additionally, galactosamine sensitized mice to a lethal outcome following infection with both T. denticola and T. pectinovorum, suggesting an endotoxin-like activity in these treponemes. These findings demonstrated the ability to modify the virulence capacity of T. denticola and T. pectinovorum by environmental conditions which can be evaluated by using in vivo murine models. (+info)
C-telopeptide pyridinoline cross-links. Sensitive indicators of periodontal tissue destruction. (7/894)C-telopeptides and related pyridinoline cross-links of bone Type I collagen are sensitive markers of bone resorption in osteolytic diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. We have studied the release of C-telopeptide pyridinoline crosslinks of Type I collagen as measures of bone destruction in periodontal disease. Studies in preclinical animal models and humans have demonstrated the relationship between radiographic bone loss and crevicular fluid C-telopeptide levels. We have recently found that C-telopeptide levels correlate strongly with microbial pathogens associated with periodontitis and around endosseous dental implants. Host-modulation of bone-related collagen breakdown has been shown by studies in humans demonstrating that MMP inhibition blocks tissue destruction and release of C-telopeptides in patients with active periodontal disease. (+info)
Cryptobacterium curtum gen. nov., sp. nov., a new genus of gram-positive anaerobic rod isolated from human oral cavities. (8/894)Novel Eubacterium-like isolates, strains 12-3T and KV43-B, which were isolated from the periodontal pocket of an adult patient with periodontal disease and necrotic dental pulp, respectively, were studied taxonomically and phylogenetically. The morphological and differential biochemical characteristics of these organisms are also described in this paper. These organisms were Gram-positive, anaerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that were inert in most of the conventional biochemical tests and closely resembled members of asaccharolytic oral Eubacterium species. On the other hand, protein profiles of whole cells in SDS-PAGE and Western immunoblotting reaction analysis distinguished these isolates from strains of the previously described genus Eubacterium. The G+C content of the DNAs from the novel isolates was 50 and 51 mol%, respectively. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness to other asaccharolytic oral Eubacterium species, including Eubacterium brachy, Eubacterium lentum, Eubacterium nodatum, Eubacterium timidum, Eubacterium saphenum, Eubacterium minutum and Eubacterium exiguum, was less than 11%. These organisms also exhibited a very low level of reassociation with the DNA of Eubacterium limosum, the type species of the genus Eubacterium. The results of 16S rDNA sequence comparisons revealed that these organisms represent a novel lineage distinct from all previously described genera of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. On the basis of our results, it is suggested that strains 12-3T and KV43-B should be classified in a new genus and species, for which the name Cryptobacterium curtum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Cryptobacterium curtum is 12-3T (= ATCC 700683T). (+info)
Periodontal diseases are a group of inflammatory conditions that affect the gums and supporting structures of the teeth, including the bone that surrounds the roots of the teeth. These diseases are caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that forms on the teeth and gums. If plaque is not removed through regular brushing and flossing, it can harden into tartar, which can irritate the gums and cause inflammation. There are several types of periodontal diseases, including gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the mildest form of periodontal disease and is characterized by red, swollen, and tender gums that may bleed easily. If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, which is a more severe form of the disease that can cause the gums to pull away from the teeth, forming pockets that can become infected and filled with bacteria. Over time, periodontitis can lead to the loss of teeth and bone. Periodontal diseases are common and affect millions of people worldwide. Risk factors for periodontal disease include poor oral hygiene, smoking, diabetes, and certain medical conditions such as heart disease and stroke. Treatment for periodontal disease typically involves scaling and root planing, a procedure in which the dentist or periodontist removes plaque and tartar from the teeth and smooths the root surfaces to prevent further buildup. In some cases, more advanced treatments such as gum surgery or antibiotics may be necessary.
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the gums and the tissues that support the teeth. It is caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that forms on the teeth and gums. Over time, plaque hardens into tartar, which can irritate the gums and cause them to become red, swollen, and tender. If left untreated, periodontitis can lead to the loss of teeth and bone. Periodontitis is typically divided into two stages: gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the mildest form of the disease and is characterized by red, swollen gums that bleed easily when brushed or flossed. Periodontitis, on the other hand, is more severe and can cause the gums to pull away from the teeth, forming pockets that can become infected with bacteria. In advanced cases, periodontitis can lead to the loss of bone that supports the teeth, causing them to become loose and eventually fall out. Treatment for periodontitis typically involves a combination of professional cleanings, antibiotics, and surgery to remove infected tissue and bone. Good oral hygiene habits, such as brushing and flossing regularly, can help prevent the development of periodontitis.
Gingivitis is a common gum disease that affects the gums, which are the tissues that surround and support the teeth. It is caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that forms on the teeth and gums. Plaque contains toxins that can irritate and inflame the gums, leading to gingivitis. Gingivitis is usually characterized by red, swollen, and tender gums that bleed easily when brushed or flossed. The gums may also feel sensitive or recede from the teeth. If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more severe form of gum disease that can cause tooth loss. Treatment for gingivitis typically involves improving oral hygiene habits, such as brushing and flossing regularly, and using an antiseptic mouthwash. In some cases, a dentist or periodontist may recommend professional cleaning or scaling and root planing to remove plaque and tartar buildup from the teeth and gums.
A periodontal pocket is a deepened space between the gums and the teeth that is caused by gum disease. It is a common complication of periodontitis, which is an inflammatory condition that affects the gums and the bone that supports the teeth. Periodontal pockets can range in depth from a few millimeters to several millimeters, and they can become infected with bacteria, leading to further damage to the gums and teeth. Treatment for periodontal pockets may include scaling and root planing, antibiotics, or surgery, depending on the severity of the condition.
Periodontal attachment loss (PAL) is a condition in which the gums pull away from the teeth, causing the supporting structures of the teeth to become damaged or destroyed. This can lead to the loss of teeth if left untreated. PAL is a common complication of periodontal disease, which is an infection of the gums and other structures that support the teeth. It is typically diagnosed through a dental examination and may be treated with scaling and root planing, antibiotics, or surgery.
Alveolar bone loss is a condition in which the bone that supports the teeth in the jaw (alveolar bone) gradually deteriorates or is lost. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including periodontal disease (gum disease), tooth loss, and certain medical conditions such as osteoporosis or diabetes. Alveolar bone loss can lead to a number of problems, including tooth sensitivity, loose teeth, and even tooth loss. It can also affect the appearance of the face, as the loss of bone can cause the teeth to shift and the jaw to become more prominent. Treatment for alveolar bone loss may include nonsurgical procedures such as scaling and root planing to remove plaque and tartar from the teeth and gums, as well as the use of antibiotics to treat any underlying infections. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to replace lost bone or to stabilize the teeth. It is important to seek treatment for alveolar bone loss as soon as possible to prevent further damage and to maintain good oral health.
Chronic periodontitis is a type of gum disease that affects the tissues and bones that support the teeth. It is a long-term (chronic) condition that can cause the gums to pull away from the teeth, forming pockets that can become infected. The infection can eventually lead to the loss of teeth if left untreated. Chronic periodontitis is caused by bacteria that live in the mouth and can be found on the teeth and gums. These bacteria can cause inflammation in the gums, which can lead to the formation of pockets around the teeth. The pockets can become infected with more bacteria, which can cause further damage to the gums and bones that support the teeth. Symptoms of chronic periodontitis may include red, swollen, or bleeding gums, bad breath, and loose teeth. If left untreated, the condition can lead to the loss of teeth and may also increase the risk of other health problems, such as heart disease and diabetes. Treatment for chronic periodontitis typically involves a combination of professional cleanings, antibiotics, and surgery to remove infected tissue and bone. It is important to practice good oral hygiene, including regular brushing and flossing, to help prevent the development of chronic periodontitis.
Dental plaque is a sticky, colorless film that forms on teeth and gums. It is made up of bacteria, food particles, saliva, and other substances. Plaque is constantly forming on teeth, but it can be removed by brushing and flossing regularly. If plaque is not removed, it can harden into tartar, which can cause gum disease and tooth decay. In the medical field, dental plaque is an important factor in maintaining oral health and preventing dental problems.
Tooth loss, also known as edentulism, is a condition in which one or more teeth are missing from the mouth. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including tooth decay, gum disease, injury, or genetics. Tooth loss can have a significant impact on a person's ability to chew and digest food, as well as their overall oral health and appearance. In some cases, tooth loss may require the use of dental implants, dentures, or other restorative treatments to replace the missing teeth.
Gingival hemorrhage is a medical condition characterized by bleeding from the gums. It is a common problem that can occur in people of all ages and is often caused by poor oral hygiene, gum disease, or injury to the gums. Gingival hemorrhage can range from mild bleeding that occurs when brushing or flossing the teeth to severe bleeding that occurs spontaneously or after minor trauma to the gums. In some cases, gingival hemorrhage may be a sign of a more serious underlying medical condition, such as a blood disorder or a vitamin deficiency. Treatment for gingival hemorrhage typically involves improving oral hygiene habits, such as brushing and flossing regularly, and using a soft-bristled toothbrush and non-abrasive toothpaste. In some cases, a dentist or periodontist may recommend scaling and root planing, a procedure that removes plaque and tartar from the teeth and gums, or prescribe medication to help reduce inflammation and bleeding. If gingival hemorrhage is caused by an underlying medical condition, such as a blood disorder or vitamin deficiency, treatment for the underlying condition may also be necessary.
Aggressive periodontitis, also known as adult periodontitis, is a type of periodontal disease that is characterized by rapid and severe destruction of the gums and supporting bone around the teeth. It typically occurs in individuals under the age of 35 and is often familial, meaning that it runs in families. The exact cause of aggressive periodontitis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors for aggressive periodontitis include smoking, poor oral hygiene, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes and HIV. Symptoms of aggressive periodontitis may include red, swollen, and bleeding gums, loose teeth, and persistent bad breath. Treatment typically involves scaling and root planing, which involves removing plaque and tartar from the teeth and smoothing the root surfaces to promote healing. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or to stabilize the teeth. Aggressive periodontitis can have serious consequences if left untreated, as it can lead to tooth loss and other complications. Early detection and treatment are important for managing this condition and preventing further damage to the teeth and gums.
Bacteroidaceae infections refer to infections caused by bacteria belonging to the family Bacteroidaceae. This family of bacteria is commonly found in the human gut and is a normal part of the gut microbiota. However, under certain circumstances, such as when the gut microbiota is disrupted or when the bacteria become pathogenic, they can cause infections in various parts of the body. Bacteroidaceae infections can occur in a variety of settings, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, and the community. They can affect different parts of the body, including the respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin, and soft tissues. Some common infections caused by Bacteroidaceae include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and wound infections. Bacteroidaceae infections can be treated with antibiotics, although the choice of antibiotic may depend on the specific bacteria involved and the location of the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or drain an abscess. It is important to note that not all Bacteroidaceae bacteria are pathogenic, and many are actually beneficial to human health. However, when these bacteria become pathogenic, they can cause serious infections that require prompt medical attention.
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium that is commonly found in the oral cavity of humans and animals. It is a member of the normal oral microbiota and is often associated with periodontal disease, particularly aggressive periodontitis, which is a severe form of periodontal disease that affects young adults. A. actinomycetemcomitans is also associated with other infections, including endocarditis, brain abscesses, and infections of the skin and soft tissues. It has been classified as a group B streptococcus and is considered a potential pathogen in certain situations. The bacterium is known for its ability to form aggregates or biofilms, which can contribute to its virulence and resistance to antibiotics. It is also capable of producing a number of virulence factors, including toxins and enzymes that can damage host tissues and evade the immune system. In the medical field, A. actinomycetemcomitans is typically identified using culture and molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. Treatment of infections caused by this bacterium typically involves antibiotics, although the effectiveness of these treatments can vary depending on the specific strain of the bacterium and the severity of the infection.
Dental calculus, also known as tartar, is a hard, calcified deposit that forms on the teeth. It is composed of bacteria, minerals, and food debris that accumulate on the teeth over time. Dental calculus can form on both the tops and bottoms of the teeth, as well as in between the teeth. Dental calculus can cause a number of oral health problems, including gum disease, tooth decay, and tooth loss. It can also contribute to bad breath and tooth sensitivity. To prevent the formation of dental calculus, it is important to practice good oral hygiene, including brushing and flossing regularly, and to visit the dentist for regular cleanings.
Bacteroides is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the human gut microbiota. They are one of the most abundant bacterial groups in the human colon and play an important role in the digestion of complex carbohydrates. Bacteroides are known for their ability to break down complex polysaccharides, such as cellulose and pectin, into simpler sugars that can be absorbed by the body. They also produce short-chain fatty acids, such as butyrate, propionate, and acetate, which are important for maintaining gut health and regulating the immune system. In the medical field, Bacteroides are sometimes associated with certain diseases, such as periodontitis (gum disease) and colorectal cancer. However, most strains of Bacteroides are considered to be harmless or even beneficial to human health. In fact, some strains of Bacteroides are being studied for their potential use in probiotics and other therapeutic applications.
In the medical field, "Mouth, Edentulous" refers to a condition where an individual has lost all of their natural teeth. This can occur due to various reasons such as tooth decay, gum disease, injury, or aging. An edentulous mouth can affect an individual's ability to chew, speak, and maintain good oral hygiene. Treatment options for an edentulous mouth may include dentures, dental implants, or other prosthetic devices to replace missing teeth and restore function and aesthetics.
Dental caries, also known as tooth decay, is a common dental disease that affects the hard tissues of the teeth, including the enamel, dentin, and pulp. It is caused by the demineralization of tooth enamel due to the production of acid by bacteria in the mouth. The bacteria in the mouth feed on sugars and starches in the food we eat, producing acid as a byproduct. This acid can erode the enamel on the teeth, leading to the formation of cavities. If left untreated, dental caries can progress and cause damage to the underlying dentin and pulp, leading to pain, infection, and tooth loss. Dental caries is a preventable disease through good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing and flossing regularly, using fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash, and limiting sugary and acidic foods and drinks. Early detection and treatment of dental caries can help prevent more serious complications and maintain good oral health.
Mouth diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the oral cavity, including the teeth, gums, tongue, and other structures in the mouth. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Some common mouth diseases include: 1. Dental caries (cavities): A bacterial infection that causes tooth decay and leads to the formation of cavities. 2. Periodontal disease: A group of infections that affect the gums, supporting structures of the teeth, and bone. 3. Oral cancer: A type of cancer that starts in the mouth, including the lips, tongue, gums, and throat. 4. Oral thrush: A fungal infection that affects the mouth and throat. 5. Leukoplakia: A white or gray patch on the inside of the mouth that can be a sign of cancer or other mouth diseases. 6. Oral lichen planus: A chronic inflammatory condition that affects the mouth and can cause painful sores. 7. Oral pemphigus: A rare autoimmune disorder that causes blistering in the mouth and other parts of the body. 8. Oral candidiasis (thrush): A fungal infection that affects the mouth and throat, often seen in people with weakened immune systems. Treatment for mouth diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medications, surgery, lifestyle changes, and other interventions. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent many mouth diseases.
Focal infection, dental refers to a localized infection that originates in the teeth or surrounding structures of the mouth. It is commonly caused by dental caries (cavities), gum disease, or dental trauma. Symptoms of a focal infection in the dental area may include pain, swelling, redness, and difficulty chewing or speaking. If left untreated, a focal infection can spread to other parts of the body and cause more serious health problems. Treatment typically involves removing the infected tooth or treating the underlying cause of the infection, such as gum disease. Antibiotics may also be prescribed to help fight the infection.
Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative, also known as trench mouth or Vincent's disease, is a severe form of gum disease that affects the gums and other soft tissues in the mouth. It is characterized by the development of painful ulcers and sores on the gums, tongue, and other areas of the mouth, as well as redness, swelling, and bleeding of the gums. The exact cause of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to a combination of factors, including poor oral hygiene, stress, smoking, and a weakened immune system. The condition can also be associated with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and cancer. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. Treatment typically involves a combination of oral hygiene measures, such as brushing and flossing, and the use of antibiotics to help control the infection. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide intravenous antibiotics and supportive care.
Gingival diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the gums, which are the tissues that surround and support the teeth. These diseases can range from mild inflammation to severe infections that can lead to tooth loss. Some common types of gingival diseases include: 1. Gingivitis: This is the mildest form of gum disease and is caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that forms on the teeth. If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis. 2. Periodontitis: This is a more severe form of gum disease that involves the destruction of the gums and the bone that supports the teeth. It is caused by the same bacteria that cause gingivitis, but it is more difficult to treat. 3. Receding gums: This is a condition in which the gums pull away from the teeth, exposing more of the tooth surface. It can be caused by gum disease, brushing too hard, or genetics. 4. Gingival hyperplasia: This is a condition in which the gums become abnormally thick and may overgrow the teeth. It can be caused by certain medications, hormonal changes, or genetic factors. 5. Gingival recession: This is a condition in which the gums pull away from the teeth, exposing more of the tooth surface. It can be caused by gum disease, brushing too hard, or genetics. Gingival diseases can be treated with good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing and flossing regularly, and by seeing a dentist or periodontist for regular cleanings and check-ups. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or to reshape the gums.
Treponemal infections are a group of bacterial infections caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. These infections are primarily sexually transmitted and can also be transmitted through direct contact with open sores or through the placenta during pregnancy. The most well-known treponemal infection is syphilis, which can be divided into four stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. Other treponemal infections include yaws, pinta, and bejel. These infections can cause a range of symptoms, including skin rashes, ulcers, fever, and joint pain. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, although some forms of the infection may be resistant to certain antibiotics.
Dental deposits, also known as dental plaque or calculus, are accumulations of bacteria, food particles, and minerals that form on the teeth and gums. These deposits can harden over time and become tartar, which is a yellow or brown substance that can only be removed by a dental professional. Dental deposits can cause a variety of oral health problems, including gum disease, tooth decay, and bad breath. They can also contribute to the development of cavities and other dental problems if left untreated. To prevent dental deposits, it is important to practice good oral hygiene habits, such as brushing and flossing regularly, using mouthwash, and visiting the dentist for regular cleanings. If dental deposits do form, they can be removed by a dental professional through a process called scaling and root planing.
Actinobacillus is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria that are commonly found in the environment and in the upper respiratory tract of animals, including humans. Some species of Actinobacillus are pathogenic and can cause infections in humans and animals, particularly in the respiratory and urinary tracts. The most well-known species of Actinobacillus is Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which is a major cause of respiratory disease in pigs. Other species of Actinobacillus that can cause infections in humans include Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, which can cause periodontal disease, and Actinobacillus suis, which can cause respiratory and systemic infections in pigs. Actinobacillus bacteria are typically identified using microbiological techniques such as culture and biochemical testing. Treatment of Actinobacillus infections typically involves the use of antibiotics, although the choice of antibiotic may depend on the specific species of Actinobacillus involved and the severity of the infection.
Matrix Metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) is a type of protein that belongs to the matrix metalloproteinase family. It is also known as collagenase 2 or neutrophil collagenase. MMP-8 is primarily produced by neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, and is involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen and elastin. In the medical field, MMP-8 plays a role in various physiological and pathological processes. For example, it is involved in the normal process of tissue remodeling and wound healing. However, increased levels of MMP-8 have been associated with several diseases, including periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain types of cancer. MMP-8 is also used as a diagnostic marker in some medical conditions. For example, increased levels of MMP-8 in the blood or saliva have been associated with periodontitis, and MMP-8 levels have been used to monitor the progression of the disease and the effectiveness of treatment. Overall, MMP-8 is an important protein in the body that plays a role in various physiological and pathological processes, and its levels can be used as a diagnostic marker in certain medical conditions.
In the medical field, the alveolar process refers to the bony structure that forms the roof of the alveolar sockets, which are the depressions in the maxilla and mandible where the teeth are anchored. The alveolar process is composed of two parts: the alveolar crest, which is the highest point of the alveolar process, and the alveolar base, which is the bottom part of the alveolar process. The alveolar process plays an important role in the support and retention of the teeth. It provides a stable foundation for the teeth to anchor to, and it also helps to distribute the forces generated by chewing and biting. In addition, the alveolar process is involved in the formation of the periodontal ligament, which connects the teeth to the bone and helps to maintain the stability of the teeth. In some cases, the alveolar process may be damaged or lost due to injury, infection, or other factors. In such cases, dental implants or other forms of tooth replacement may be necessary to restore the function and appearance of the teeth.
Dental care refers to the maintenance and treatment of the teeth and gums to promote oral health and prevent or treat dental problems. It includes regular check-ups, cleaning, and fluoride treatments to prevent tooth decay and gum disease. Dental care also involves the diagnosis and treatment of oral health problems such as cavities, gum disease, toothaches, and oral infections. In some cases, dental care may also involve the placement of dental implants, bridges, crowns, or dentures to restore or replace missing teeth. Overall, dental care is an essential part of maintaining good overall health and well-being.
In the medical field, a gingival pocket is a term used to describe a deepening of the sulcus, which is the naturally occurring space between the gums and the teeth. When the sulcus becomes deeper than 3 millimeters, it is considered a gingival pocket. Gingival pockets can be caused by a variety of factors, including periodontal disease, which is an infection of the gums and supporting structures of the teeth. Other factors that can contribute to the development of gingival pockets include poor oral hygiene, smoking, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes. Gingival pockets can be a sign of more serious dental problems, such as periodontitis, which is a more advanced form of gum disease that can lead to tooth loss if left untreated. Treatment for gingival pockets may include scaling and root planing, which is a deep cleaning procedure that removes plaque and tartar from the teeth and gums, or surgery to remove infected tissue.
In the medical field, tooth mobility refers to the ability of a tooth to move in response to gentle pressure. It is a measure of the degree to which a tooth can be moved by applying a small force with the fingers or a dental instrument. Tooth mobility is an important diagnostic tool for dentists and oral surgeons, as it can indicate the presence of periodontal disease, which is an infection of the gums and supporting structures of the teeth. Tooth mobility can also be affected by other factors, such as tooth decay, injury, or the presence of a loose filling or crown. In general, the greater the tooth mobility, the more likely it is that the tooth will require treatment to prevent further damage or loss.
Actinomyces is a genus of gram-positive bacteria that are commonly found in the human mouth, gut, and skin. They are known to be part of the normal flora of the oral cavity and are often present in dental plaque. However, some species of Actinomyces can cause infections, particularly in the oral cavity and respiratory tract. Actinomyces infections are typically chronic and can be difficult to diagnose and treat. They can cause a range of symptoms, including swelling, pain, and discharge from the affected area. Infections can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the brain, bones, and joints. Actinomyces infections are usually treated with antibiotics, although the specific treatment depends on the type and severity of the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or drain abscesses. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have an Actinomyces infection, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Campylobacter rectus is a type of bacteria that is commonly found in the rectum and colon of humans and animals. It is a member of the Campylobacter genus, which includes several species that can cause illness in humans and animals. Campylobacter rectus is typically not considered a pathogen, meaning it does not cause disease in healthy individuals. However, it can sometimes cause illness in people with weakened immune systems or those who have had recent surgery or other medical procedures. In some cases, Campylobacter rectus can be transmitted from animals to humans through the consumption of contaminated food or water, or through contact with infected animals or their feces. Symptoms of illness caused by Campylobacter rectus may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and fever. Treatment for Campylobacter rectus infections typically involves the use of antibiotics to kill the bacteria. In most cases, the illness is self-limiting and resolves on its own within a few days to a week. However, in severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Pasteurellaceae infections are a group of bacterial infections caused by members of the Pasteurellaceae family of bacteria. These bacteria are commonly found in the respiratory and digestive tracts of animals, particularly birds and mammals, and can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids. Pasteurellaceae infections can affect various parts of the body, including the respiratory system, skin, and eyes. Common symptoms of Pasteurellaceae infections include fever, chills, cough, sore throat, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause sepsis. Treatment for Pasteurellaceae infections typically involves antibiotics, which are effective against most strains of these bacteria. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care and monitor the patient's condition. Prevention of Pasteurellaceae infections involves avoiding contact with infected animals and their bodily fluids, practicing good hygiene, and wearing appropriate protective gear when working with animals. Vaccination may also be available for some types of Pasteurellaceae infections in certain populations, such as veterinarians and animal handlers.
Fusobacterium infections are a type of bacterial infection caused by Fusobacterium species. These bacteria are anaerobic, meaning they cannot grow in the presence of oxygen, and are commonly found in the oral cavity, gut, and female reproductive tract. Fusobacterium infections can cause a variety of diseases, including periodontitis (inflammation of the gums), Lemierre's syndrome (a severe infection of the throat and neck), and necrotizing fasciitis (a rare but life-threatening infection of the skin and underlying tissue). Fusobacterium infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, although the specific antibiotics used may depend on the type and severity of the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue.
Adhesins are proteins found on the surface of certain bacteria that allow them to adhere to and colonize host cells or tissues. These proteins play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many bacterial infections, as they enable bacteria to attach to and invade host cells, resist phagocytosis by immune cells, and form biofilms that can protect bacteria from antibiotics and the host immune system. Adhesins are typically classified based on their function and the type of host cell or tissue they bind to. For example, some adhesins are involved in the attachment of bacteria to epithelial cells lining the respiratory, gastrointestinal, or urinary tracts, while others bind to blood cells or the extracellular matrix. The study of adhesins is an important area of research in the medical field, as it can help identify new targets for the development of antibiotics and vaccines, as well as provide insights into the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis and the development of antibiotic resistance.
Dental cementum is a hard, dense, and fibrous connective tissue that covers the root surface of a tooth. It is a specialized type of connective tissue that is unique to teeth and is responsible for anchoring the tooth to the surrounding bone. Dental cementum is produced by specialized cells called cementoblasts, which are located in the periodontal ligament that surrounds the tooth. The cementum forms a layer of hard tissue that covers the root surface of the tooth and extends into the periodontal ligament. The function of dental cementum is to provide a strong and stable attachment between the tooth and the surrounding bone. It also plays a role in the transmission of forces from the tooth to the bone, which helps to protect the tooth from damage. Additionally, dental cementum contains blood vessels and nerves that help to nourish and innervate the tooth.
Tooth diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the teeth and gums. These diseases can range from mild to severe and can cause pain, discomfort, and other symptoms. Some common tooth diseases include: 1. Dental caries (cavities): This is a bacterial infection that causes tooth decay and can lead to the formation of cavities. 2. Gum disease (periodontal disease): This is an infection of the gums that can cause inflammation, bleeding, and eventually tooth loss. 3. Tooth sensitivity: This is a condition where the teeth become sensitive to hot, cold, sweet, or sour foods and drinks. 4. Tooth erosion: This is the gradual wearing away of tooth enamel due to acid erosion from foods and drinks or acid reflux. 5. Tooth abscess: This is an infection that forms in the pulp of a tooth and can cause severe pain and swelling. 6. Tooth fracture: This is a break or crack in the tooth that can occur due to trauma or decay. 7. Tooth decay: This is the breakdown of tooth enamel and dentin caused by bacteria in the mouth. 8. Tooth discoloration: This is a change in the color of the tooth due to stains, aging, or other factors. 9. Tooth wear: This is the gradual wearing down of tooth enamel and dentin due to normal wear and tear or habits such as grinding or clenching. 10. Tooth loss: This is the complete or partial loss of one or more teeth due to decay, gum disease, injury, or other factors.
Furcation defects are a type of periodontal disease that affects the supporting structures of the teeth, specifically the area where two or more roots of a tooth meet, known as the furcation. These defects can occur when the gums become infected and start to pull away from the teeth, exposing the roots and allowing bacteria to enter the area. Furcation defects can be classified into three types: Type I, Type II, and Type III. Type I defects involve only one root, while Type II defects involve two roots, and Type III defects involve three or more roots. Treatment for furcation defects typically involves a combination of scaling and root planing, which involves removing plaque and tartar from the teeth and roots, and surgery to remove infected tissue and reshape the bone around the roots. In some cases, dental implants may be necessary to replace missing teeth.
Premature birth is a medical condition in which a baby is born before the 37th week of pregnancy. This is considered to be a premature birth if the baby is born before 37 weeks of gestation, regardless of the baby's weight or health. Premature babies are at a higher risk of health problems, such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, infections, and developmental delays. They may also require special medical care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to help them grow and develop properly. Premature birth is a common complication of pregnancy, and it can be caused by a variety of factors, including maternal health problems, infections, and complications during pregnancy.
Halitosis, also known as bad breath, is a condition characterized by an unpleasant odor emanating from the mouth. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including poor oral hygiene, gum disease, tooth decay, certain foods and beverages, smoking, and medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, and liver disease. In the medical field, halitosis is considered a symptom rather than a disease. It can be a sign of an underlying health issue, and it is important to identify and treat the underlying cause in order to effectively manage the condition. A dentist or other healthcare provider may perform a thorough examination of the mouth and throat to identify any potential causes of halitosis, and may recommend treatments such as improved oral hygiene, medication, or lifestyle changes to help manage the condition.
Actinobacillus infections are bacterial infections caused by species of the genus Actinobacillus. These bacteria are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment and in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts of animals, including humans. Actinobacillus infections can affect a variety of organs and tissues in the body, including the lungs, urinary tract, skin, and joints. Some common types of Actinobacillus infections include: * Actinobacillosis: a severe infection that can affect the lungs, liver, and other organs, and is often seen in cattle and sheep. * Actinomycosis: a chronic infection that can affect the skin, bones, and other tissues, and is often seen in people with weakened immune systems. * Actinobacillary dysentery: a type of diarrhea that is caused by the bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and is commonly seen in children in developing countries. Actinobacillus infections are typically treated with antibiotics, although the specific antibiotic used will depend on the type of infection and the location of the infection in the body. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary for intravenous antibiotics and supportive care.
Benzoylarginine-2-Naphthylamide (BAN) is a synthetic compound that is used as a diagnostic tool in the medical field. It is a fluorescent probe that is used to detect and measure the activity of the enzyme angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the body. ACE is an enzyme that plays a key role in the regulation of blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. It converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which is a potent vasoconstrictor that helps to raise blood pressure. BAN is a competitive inhibitor of ACE, meaning that it binds to the active site of the enzyme and prevents it from converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II. When BAN is administered to a patient, it is taken up by the body and distributed to the tissues where ACE is present. The enzyme then converts BAN to a fluorescent product, which can be detected and measured using a fluorescent spectrophotometer. The amount of fluorescence produced is proportional to the activity of ACE in the tissue, allowing doctors to determine the level of ACE activity in the body and diagnose conditions such as hypertension and heart failure. Overall, BAN is a useful tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of conditions related to ACE activity, and it has been widely used in clinical research and practice.
Pericoronitis is an inflammation of the tissues surrounding a partially erupted wisdom tooth (also known as third molars). It is a common condition that can cause pain, swelling, and redness in the gums around the affected tooth. Pericoronitis can occur when the wisdom tooth is not properly aligned or when there is food debris trapped around the tooth. It can also occur as a result of an infection or injury to the gum tissue. Treatment for pericoronitis typically involves antibiotics to treat the infection and pain relievers to manage the discomfort. In some cases, the wisdom tooth may need to be removed surgically.
Diabetes complications refer to the various health problems that can arise as a result of having diabetes. These complications can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the eyes, kidneys, heart, blood vessels, nerves, and feet. Some common diabetes complications include: 1. Diabetic retinopathy: Damage to the blood vessels in the retina, which can lead to vision loss or blindness. 2. Diabetic nephropathy: Damage to the kidneys, which can lead to kidney failure. 3. Cardiovascular disease: Increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and other heart problems. 4. Peripheral artery disease: Narrowing or blockage of blood vessels in the legs and feet, which can lead to pain, numbness, and even amputation. 5. Neuropathy: Damage to the nerves, which can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the hands and feet. 6. Foot ulcers: Sores or wounds on the feet that can become infected and lead to serious complications. 7. Gum disease: Increased risk of gum disease, which can lead to tooth loss. 8. Sexual dysfunction: Impaired sexual function in men and women. It is important for people with diabetes to manage their blood sugar levels and receive regular medical check-ups to prevent or delay the onset of these complications.
Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms that adhere to surfaces and are embedded in a self-produced extracellular matrix. In the medical field, biofilms are often associated with chronic infections that are difficult to treat with antibiotics. Biofilms can form on medical devices such as catheters, prosthetic joints, and dental implants, as well as on the surfaces of the human body. The bacteria in a biofilm are more resistant to antibiotics and the immune system than bacteria in a planktonic state, making them a significant challenge in the treatment of infections.
Capnocytophaga is a genus of bacteria that belongs to the family of Bacteroidaceae. These bacteria are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, and rod-shaped. They are commonly found in the oral cavity of humans and animals, and can also be isolated from soil, water, and sewage. In the medical field, Capnocytophaga can cause a variety of infections, including sepsis, meningitis, and pneumonia. These infections are typically more common in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as the elderly, infants, and those with chronic illnesses. Capnocytophaga infections can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as the bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and supportive care.
Papillon-Lefevre Disease (PLD) is a rare, inherited genetic disorder that affects the skin and nails. It is caused by mutations in the genes that produce enzymes involved in the synthesis of a protein called proteoglycan-4 (PRG4). The main symptoms of PLD are the development of thick, yellowish-brown, scaly skin on the palms and soles of the feet, as well as the loss of nails. The skin may also become thickened and leathery, and may crack and bleed. In severe cases, the skin may become infected and cause pain and discomfort. PLD is usually diagnosed in childhood, and there is currently no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on managing the symptoms, such as using moisturizers to keep the skin hydrated and using antibiotics to treat infections. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove thickened or infected skin. PLD is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) in order to develop the disease.
Gingival recession is a common dental condition in which the gum tissue that surrounds the teeth becomes detached or pulled away from the teeth, exposing more of the tooth structure. This can cause sensitivity to hot and cold, pain when chewing, and an increased risk of tooth decay and gum disease. Recession can occur due to a variety of factors, including brushing too hard, genetics, periodontal disease, and orthodontic treatment. Treatment options for gingival recession may include gum grafts, scaling and root planing, and the use of special toothpaste and mouthwashes.
Cross-sectional studies are a type of observational research design used in the medical field to examine the prevalence or distribution of a particular health outcome or risk factor in a population at a specific point in time. In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of individuals who are all measured at the same time, rather than following them over time. Cross-sectional studies are useful for identifying associations between health outcomes and risk factors, but they cannot establish causality. For example, a cross-sectional study may find that people who smoke are more likely to have lung cancer than non-smokers, but it cannot determine whether smoking causes lung cancer or if people with lung cancer are more likely to smoke. Cross-sectional studies are often used in public health research to estimate the prevalence of diseases or conditions in a population, to identify risk factors for certain health outcomes, and to compare the health status of different groups of people. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions or to identify potential risk factors for disease outbreaks.
Case-control studies are a type of observational study used in the medical field to investigate the relationship between an exposure and an outcome. In a case-control study, researchers identify individuals who have experienced a particular outcome (cases) and compare their exposure history to a group of individuals who have not experienced the outcome (controls). The main goal of a case-control study is to determine whether the exposure was a risk factor for the outcome. To do this, researchers collect information about the exposure history of both the cases and the controls and compare the two groups to see if there is a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the exposure between the two groups. Case-control studies are often used when the outcome of interest is rare, and it is difficult or unethical to conduct a prospective cohort study. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to recall bias, where participants may not accurately remember their exposure history. Additionally, because case-control studies only provide information about the association between an exposure and an outcome, they cannot establish causality.
Inflammation is a complex biological response of the body to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective mechanism that helps to eliminate the cause of injury, remove damaged tissue, and initiate the healing process. Inflammation involves the activation of immune cells, such as white blood cells, and the release of chemical mediators, such as cytokines and prostaglandins. This leads to the characteristic signs and symptoms of inflammation, including redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function. Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response that lasts for a few days to a few weeks and is usually beneficial. Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, is a prolonged response that lasts for months or years and can be harmful if it persists. Chronic inflammation is associated with many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disorders.
Bacteroides infections are a type of bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Bacteroides fragilis or other species of the Bacteroides genus. These bacteria are commonly found in the human gut and are usually harmless, but in some cases, they can cause infections in other parts of the body. Bacteroides infections can occur in a variety of locations, including the respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin, and soft tissues. They can also cause infections in the bloodstream, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Symptoms of Bacteroides infections can vary depending on the location of the infection, but may include fever, chills, fatigue, pain, and swelling. In some cases, the infection may be asymptomatic and only discovered through routine medical testing. Diagnosis of Bacteroides infections typically involves culture and identification of the bacteria from a sample of the infected tissue or fluid. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, although the specific antibiotic used may depend on the location and severity of the infection. It is important to note that Bacteroides infections are relatively uncommon and are usually only seen in people with weakened immune systems or other underlying medical conditions. However, they can be serious and should be treated promptly by a healthcare professional.
Antimitotic agents are a class of drugs that inhibit the growth and division of cells, particularly cancer cells. They work by targeting the mitotic spindle, a structure that helps to separate chromosomes during cell division. By disrupting the spindle, antimitotic agents prevent the cell from dividing and can cause it to die. There are several different types of antimitotic agents, including microtubule inhibitors, which prevent the formation of the mitotic spindle, and tubulin antagonists, which interfere with the function of tubulin, a protein that is essential for the formation and function of the mitotic spindle. Antimitotic agents are commonly used in cancer treatment, particularly in chemotherapy. They are often used in combination with other drugs to increase their effectiveness and reduce the risk of resistance. Some examples of antimitotic agents include paclitaxel, docetaxel, vinblastine, and vincristine.
Necrotizing periodontal diseases
Epidemiology of periodontal diseases
List of periodontal diseases
Bone destruction patterns in periodontal disease
Gingival and periodontal pocket
Dental health diets for dogs
Interspecies quorum sensing
Combined periodontic-endodontic lesions
Marsh rice rat
Clinical attachment loss
Periodontal Disease | Oral Health Conditions | Division of Oral Health | CDC
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16130 - The New Periodontal Disease: Inflammatory and Risky - Samuel Low, DDS [ ] - Fleetwood Onsite Conference Recording
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- Periodontal diseases are mainly the result of infections and inflammation of the gums and bone that surround and support the teeth. (cdc.gov)
- Gum disease laser therapy gently disinfects your gums and removes diseased tissue. (santarosadentist.com)
- Since laser periodontal surgery doesn't cause trauma to your gums the way invasive surgery does, the whole treatment process goes by much faster. (santarosadentist.com)
- One of the worst progressions of this disease is called periodontitis, the inflammation of the gums which can lead to bleeding gums and even bone and tooth loss. (animalwised.com)
- It occurs when the deeper periodontal structures and gums become inflamed. (hpsdental.com)
- With more than 80% of adults in the United States suffering from some level of periodontal disease, it's become increasingly important to find alternative and effective ways of treating bacterial growth and infection in the mouth and gums. (hpsdental.com)
- Periodontal (gum) disease is an infection of the teeth, gums and bone. (drfalciano.com)
- Periodontal disease is a serious infection of the gums. (markhamackdental.com)
- Poor diet or malnutrition can also lower the body's ability to fight periodontal infections, as well as negatively affecting the health of the gums. (premierfamilydentalcare.com)
- Periodontal treatment is necessary when various conditions affect the health of your gums and the regions of your jawbone that hold your teeth in place. (tsaiperio.com)
- Periodontal diseases are ongoing infections of the gums that gradually destroy the support of your natural teeth. (tsaiperio.com)
- This can include the gums, the periodontal ligaments, and bone. (medlineplus.gov)
- When gingivitis is not treated quickly, the bacteria reaches the tissues and bones which support the teeth eventually leading to periodontal disease. (animalwised.com)
- PDF-1.7 1 Gingivitis is a mild form of periodontal disease that causes redness and swelling (inflammation) of the gingiva. (inceleris.com)
- While there are many diseases which affect the tooth-supporting structures, plaque-induced inflammatory lesions make up the majority of periodontal issues, and are divided into two categories: gingivitis and periodontitis. (tsaiperio.com)
- While gingivitis, the less serious of the diseases, may never progress into periodontitis, it always precedes periodontitis. (tsaiperio.com)
- The accurate diagnosis is extremely difficult, because the clinical signs of different autoimmune diseases are similar, e.g. necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. (bvsalud.org)
- The autoimmune diseases behind desquamative gingivitis involve the formation of antibodies targeted to particular tissue elements of the skin and mucosae. (bvsalud.org)
- Gingivitis is an early form of periodontal disease . (medlineplus.gov)
- Periodontal disease is irreversible, dentures are expensive, and they will never truly replace your real teeth. (nbjcoalition.org)
- In addition, certain foods have both beneficial and disease-causing capacity, potentially affecting the teeth, periodontal structures, and mucosa. (medscape.com)
- Periodontal disease is an inflammation caused by plaque that forms on your teeth. (smileinla.com)
- Using laser periodontal surgery , we may even be able to save more of your natural teeth than we could with using more invasive measures. (santarosadentist.com)
- The good news is, we can effectively treat moderate cases of periodontal disease and help save your teeth! (santarosadentist.com)
- Periodontal disease includes various infectious conditions which generate progressive inflammation in the skeletal and muscle structures which support the teeth. (animalwised.com)
- This disease is the main cause of tooth loss in adult cats and can severely threaten their teeth. (animalwised.com)
- Remember that teeth falling out in cats and the consequences of periodontal disease in cats can compromise their well-being and seriously affect their lifestyle. (animalwised.com)
- If we diagnose gum disease early, we can stop the destruction and save your teeth. (drfalciano.com)
- Periodontal disease is an infection of the structures around the teeth. (drrauschfamilydental.com)
- In more severe forms of the disease, such as periodontitis , it can destroy the structures that support your teeth in your jawbone leading, consequently, to tooth loss. (drrauschfamilydental.com)
- If you have any questions about pocket irrigation, cleaning your teeth, periodontal disease and treatment, please ask your dentist. (peyserdentistry.com)
- Gum disease begins with the inflammation and irritation of the gingival tissues which surround and support the teeth. (premierfamilydentalcare.com)
- Retaining your teeth is directly dependent on proper periodontal care and maintenance. (tsaiperio.com)
- Periodontal specialists are experts in providing surgical solutions to conditions affecting the gum tissues and bone surrounding the teeth. (periodontalzone.com)
- Periodontitis, also called gum disease or periodontal disease, is a serious gum infection that damages and destroys the soft tissue and bone supporting your teeth. (beckfamilydental.com)
- Periodontal disease is inflammation and infection that destroys the tissues that support the teeth. (medlineplus.gov)
- However, dental x-rays may be done to see if the disease has spread to the supporting structures of the teeth. (medlineplus.gov)
- Eke PI, Thornton-Evans G, Dye BA, Genco R. Advances in Surveillance of Periodontitis: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project. (cdc.gov)
- Periodontitis has moved into a new frontier as an infection and a disease of inflammation, with a definite perio-systemic link. (fleetwoodonsite.com)
- The imbalance of the host immune system commonly detected among obese individuals could explain the observed association of obesity with certain diseases including periodontitis . (who.int)
- Periodontitis is a gum disease that is one of the most common oral problems among people. (hpsdental.com)
- Gum disease (known as periodontitis) is a silent disease. (hpsdental.com)
- Periodontal disease, including periodontitis, has been reported to be a rare cause of septic pulmonary embolism (SPE). (inceleris.com)
- Periodontitis is an inflammatory infectious disease process that causes destruction of the supporting structures of the tooth, bone support, and overlying gum tissues. (inceleris.com)
- In this case study Mr Antony Visocchi, Dental Surgeon, discusses a case of chronic periodontitis, a common disease and the cause of many claims involving dentists. (inceleris.com)
- This study determines which are the most common chronic periodontitis case definitions as well as confounding variables that have been reported worldwide in periodontal literature. (inceleris.com)
- Periodontal (gum) disease, which is also known as periodontal disease and periodontitis, is a progressive disease which if left untreated may result in tooth loss. (premierfamilydentalcare.com)
- There are genetic and environmental factors involved in the onset of gum disease, and in many cases the risk of developing periodontitis can be significantly lowered by taking preventative measures. (premierfamilydentalcare.com)
- Non-surgical periodontal therapy (known as scaling and root planing or deep cleaning) is often the first step in treating periodontitis (gum disease) or sometimes is the only treatment needed. (mygumdoc.com)
- PURPOSE OF REVIEW This review aims to discuss the existing evidence on the link between atherosclerosis and periodontitis by particularly presenting new findings that link the pathology and therapy of these diseases . (bvsalud.org)
- Statistically significant excess risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease has been reported in persons with periodontitis independent of established risk factors . (bvsalud.org)
- New studies show that certain lipid mediators, including lipoxins and resolvins, are potent in preventing and possibly treating a number of inflammation -associated diseases , including periodontitis and vascular inflammation . (bvsalud.org)
Form of periodontal disease2
Level of periodontal disease1
- We'll assess your level of periodontal disease and come up with the perfect treatment plan for you. (santarosadentist.com)
- Your dentist will be able to identify any signs of early periodontal disease before it becomes more severe. (nbjcoalition.org)
- Study Limitations: Women self-reported their periodontal disease status, after being asked whether a dentist had ever told them they had it. (medicalxpress.com)
- If it is that you have gum disease, a dentist will go over a treatment option that is right for you. (markhamackdental.com)
- The dentist/hygienist will use several methods to prevent/treat perio disease. (drrauschfamilydental.com)
- Addressing the causes of gum disease and discussing them with your dentist will help prevent the onset, progression, and recurrence of periodontal disease. (premierfamilydentalcare.com)
- It is important to maintain proper home oral care and regular dentist visits to reduce the risk of obtaining this disease. (tsaiperio.com)
- A dentist or periodontist may recommend one or more of these surgical procedures to restore health to periodontal tissues. (periodontalzone.com)
- A consultation and examination with your dentist can determine if you are a candidate for periodontal surgery procedures. (periodontalzone.com)
- The dentist should be aware to diagnose early and correctly prior to perform root scaling and polishing or to prescribe antimicrobials incompatible with this disease. (bvsalud.org)
- The dentist plays an important role in the early diagnosis and treatment of oral manifestations of systemic diseases, taking into account the importance of the histopathologic examination and referral for multidisciplinary treatment of severe, generalized lesions resistant to topical therapy. (bvsalud.org)
- Postmenopausal women with periodontal disease were more likely to develop breast cancer than women who did not have the chronic inflammatory disease. (medicalxpress.com)
- In cholesterol -fed rabbits with periodontal disease , circulating inflammatory mediators were also significantly elevated thereby contributing to "vulnerable blood ," a systemic characteristic of high risk for cardiovascular events. (bvsalud.org)
- Periodontal disease affects one or more of the periodontal tissues: alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, cementum, or gingiva. (tsaiperio.com)
- ABSTRACT To assess overall and abdominal obesity and their relation to periodontal disease among young adults, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured and clinical attachment loss (CAL), gingival index (GI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) were estimated. (who.int)
- Analysing the effect of nutritional variables on gingival and periodontal health questions the role of obesity and overweight in periodontal disease pathogenesis . (who.int)
- Hyperglycemia results in increased gingival crevicular fluid glucose levels, which may significantly alter periodontal wound-healing events by changing the interaction between cells and their extracellular matrix within the periodontium. (health.am)
- Oral manifestations include severe gingival inflammation and … Further investigations are needed to determine the mechanism for bevacizumab-induced periodontal disease. (inceleris.com)
- When an individual is suffering from gum disease, the additional destruction of gingival tissue due to grinding can accelerate the progression of the disease. (premierfamilydentalcare.com)
- From dental bone graft procedures to periodontal plastic surgery, periodontists offer a range of procedures aimed at restoring health to oral tissues. (periodontalzone.com)
- The periodontist performs this periodontal disease treatment by retracting gum tissues, removing tartar deposits from root surfaces and smoothing rough boney areas. (periodontalzone.com)
- Esthetic enhancement of the smile line and improvement of gum tissue health can be achieved through periodontal plastic surgery procedures, which involve the removal and reshaping of gum and bone tissues. (periodontalzone.com)
- endobj According to the American Academy of Periodontology, 1 acute periodontal diseases are rapid‐onset clinical conditions that involve the periodontium or associated structures and may be characterized by pain or discomfort, tissue destruction, and infection. (inceleris.com)
- Periodontal disease progresses rapidly and silently, so it is essential to recognize its early symptoms to allow for an early diagnosis . (animalwised.com)
- If a diagnosis of periodontal disease is confirmed, the treatment will depend on the severity of the infection and its progress in an individual animal. (animalwised.com)
- All inpatient encounters from patients aged ≤18 years with a primary or secondary discharge diagnosis of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification code G06.0 (intracranial abscess and granuloma) or G06.2 (extradural and subdural abscess, unspecified) during the study period were included. (medscape.com)
- Concurrent COVID-19 diagnosis was defined as having International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes U07.1 or B97.29 on the discharge diagnosis list. (medscape.com)
- Periodontal disease is a common condition that has been associated with heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. (medicalxpress.com)
- Diabetes: People with diabetes are more likely to develop a periodontal disease because of increased sugar levels in the body which make infections more difficult to control. (smileinla.com)
- This lack of significant differences in the primary bacteriologic agents of periodontal disease suggests that differences in host response may play a role in the increased prevalence and severity of periodontal destruction seen in patients with diabetes. (health.am)
- Cardiovascular disease risk is increased in patients with type 1 diabetes. (health.am)
- Diabetes and underlying medical issues - Many medical conditions can intensify or accelerate the onset and progression of gum disease including respiratory disease, heart disease, arthritis and osteoporosis. (premierfamilydentalcare.com)
- Equally and perhaps more important, recent research highly suggests the correlation between the bacteria of periodontal disease and systemic risks such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, pre-term deliveries for expecting mothers, Alzheimer's Disease, and most recently pancreatic cancer. (mygumdoc.com)
- Most oral diseases and conditions share modifiable risk factors with the leading noncommunicable diseases (diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and mental disorders). (who.int)
- In addition to the scientific objective of identifying the genetics behind diabetes, Project SuGAR (Sea Island Genetic African American Family Registry) had an important second objective: to provide community outreach to promote health education and health screenings relative to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. (cdc.gov)
- Periodontal disease status in Gullah African Americans with type 2 diabetes living in South Carolina. (cdc.gov)
- People suffering from periodontal disease are at increased risk of heart attack due to the bacterial infection spreading into the blood stream via inflamed gum tissue surrounding infected tooth roots. (nbjcoalition.org)
- A periodontist can perform effective cleaning procedures in deep pockets such as scaling and root planing, and also prescribe antibiotic and antifungal medications to treat infection and halt the progression of the disease. (premierfamilydentalcare.com)
- Periodontal disease is a serious infection under your gum line. (willowickfamilydentistry.com)
- Following this initial gum infection treatment, regular visits are essential in order to prevent recurrence of active periodontal disease. (beckfamilydental.com)
- The numerator is the number of persons who experienced complications in the disease-free population and the denominator is the number of persons who did not have a history of the selected complication within a 3-y period before COVID-19 or influenza infection. (cdc.gov)
- Oral diseases encompass a range of diseases and conditions, notably dental caries, periodontal (gum) disease, oral cancer, orofacial trauma, oral manifestations of HIV infection, birth defects, and noma in the WHO African Region. (who.int)
- Periodontal disease and tooth decay are the two biggest threats to dental health. (cdc.gov)
Bacteria that cause2
- Brush and floss every day to remove the bacteria that cause gum disease. (cdc.gov)
- Specific genetic markers from certain oral bacteria that cause periodontal or gum disease have been found in the plaque from the brains of patients who were afflicted with this debilitating disease. (sanpablodentalcare.com)
- These changes in the periodontium may dramatically alter the tissue response to periodontal pathogens, resulting in increased tissue destruction and diminished repair potential. (health.am)
- Then, only a dental health professional can remove the tartar and stop the periodontal disease process. (cdc.gov)
- When the disease is moderate and there is no loss of bone mass, a surgical procedure to remove tartar followed by a scale and polish are usually effective in reversing the damage. (animalwised.com)
- Chronic stress and poor diet - Stress lowers the ability of the immune system to fight off disease, which means bacterial infections may possibly beat the body's defense system. (premierfamilydentalcare.com)
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (who.int)
- Lung abscess was a devastating disease in the preantibiotic era, when one third of the patients died, another one third recovered, and the remainder developed debilitating illnesses such as recurrent abscesses, chronic empyema, bronchiectasis, or other consequences of chronic pyogenic infections. (medscape.com)
- Periodontal disease is a progressive condition which leads to gum inflammation, the recession of bone and gum tissue, and tooth loss if left untreated. (peyserdentistry.com)
- Patients suffering from periodontal disease, bone loss, gum recession and a host of other oral conditions can benefit from the skill and expertise of a periodontist. (periodontalzone.com)
- In the absence of bacterial plaque, periodontal disease does not occur. (drrauschfamilydental.com)
- If your periodontal condition is advanced, it is necessary to see a Periodontist. (smileinla.com)
- Whether you have periodontal disease requiring osseous surgery or excess gum tissue impacting the appearance of your smile, you may have a need to visit a periodontist for specialized treatment. (periodontalzone.com)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
- AnimalWised provides all the information on the causes, symptoms and methods of prevention for periodontal disease in cats . (animalwised.com)
- The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
- The concept of the vulnerable patient and the pro-resolving approach open new terrain for discovery of paradigm-changing therapies for the prevention and treatment of two of the most common diseases of man. (bvsalud.org)
- The WHO Regional Office for Africa has led the promotion of oral health as well as the prevention and control of oral diseases in the WHO African Region by providing strategic direction, such as developing the regional oral health strategy 2016-2025. (who.int)
- In line with the global strategy on oral health and its action plan, such strategic direction is meant to guide Member States in developing national plans to promote oral health, reduce health inequalities, and strengthen efforts to address oral diseases and conditions as part of noncommunicable disease (NCD) prevention and control toward universal health coverage (UHC) for oral health for all by 2030. (who.int)
- More severe forms of periodontal disease can also be treated successfully but may require more extensive treatment. (cdc.gov)
- Periodontal Disease/Dental Implants - Todd, Treatment: Implant treatment for tooth loss from periodontal disease, "Most adults over the age of 45 exhibit some degree of periodontal disease, but in the majority of cases the condition is treatable. (inceleris.com)
- Periodontists specialize in the treatment of gum disease and the placement of dental implants. (premierfamilydentalcare.com)
- With this in mind, periodontal treatment can dramatically improve and support your overall health! (mygumdoc.com)
- Atherosclerosis, Periodontal Disease, and Treatment with Resolvins. (bvsalud.org)
- It is however extremely difficult to isolate the causative pathogen of periodontal disease-associated SPE from blood cultures of these patients. (inceleris.com)
- The efforts of the CDC include (1) developing measures for use in surveillance of periodontal disease at the state and local levels, (2) improving the validity of prevalence estimates derived from the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) by improving the accuracy of the clinical examination protocols used in this national survey, and (3) developing simple measures for screening for periodontal disease in clinical settings. (cdc.gov)
- Title : Periodontal disease among youth 12-17 years, United States Personal Author(s) : Sanchez, Marcus J. Corporate Authors(s) : National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.) Published Date : June 1974 Series : Vital and health statistics. (cdc.gov)
- For many years, gum disease was thought to only impact the health of the mouth and jaw. (hpsdental.com)
- Periodontal disease is one of the quickest growing oral health concerns for Shelby Township patients. (hpsdental.com)
- If left untreated, gum disease just gets worse and can compromise your oral health and your overall health. (hpsdental.com)
- especially pediatric dentists, to prevent periodontal disease and dental caries in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome, who appear to have problems maintaining their own oral health. (inceleris.com)
- Its alterations in oral epithelium affect the periodontal health, leading to plaque accumulation and altering the periodontal parameters, including bleeding, clinical probing depth, and clinical level of insertion, resulting in misdiagnoses. (bvsalud.org)
- When oral health is compromised by disease or injury, general health is also affected. (who.int)
- Periodontal disease is mostly seen in adults. (cdc.gov)
- Periodontal disease increases with age, 70.1% of adults 65 years and older have periodontal disease. (cdc.gov)
- Periodontal disease, also called gum disease, is a fairly common condition and many adults tend to have some form of it. (santarosadentist.com)
- However, some poorly controlled diabetic patients do not develop significant periodontal destruction, just as some do not develop the classic diabetic complications. (health.am)
- 80% of Americans will be afflicted with periodontal disease by age 45, and 4 out of 5 patients with the disease are unaware they have it. (tsaiperio.com)
- Most patients who have been treated for periodontal disease benefit from being seen every 3 months. (beckfamilydental.com)
- The patients who develop lung abscess are predisposed to aspiration and commonly have periodontal disease. (medscape.com)
- The results of this study showed evidence of an association between high cariogenic risk and great severity of oral disease in the studied group of young women and low calcium intake. (medscape.com)
- We congratulate the Centers for Disease Control in its efforts to update this guide and wish it the same success as the previous edition. (cdc.gov)
- The formation of AGEs results in collagen accumulation in the periodontal capillary basement membranes, causing membrane thickening. (health.am)
- Minocycline HCl microspheres reduce red-complex bacteria in periodontal disease therapy. (willowickfamilydentistry.com)
- This is particularly an exciting arena as it allows us to restore what has been lost by gum disease. (mygumdoc.com)
- The best way to prevent periodontal disease is to practice good oral hygiene . (nbjcoalition.org)
- If you would like to know how we can assist you to treat and prevent any gum disease or condition. (smileinla.com)
- There are, however, many well documented reasons to treat gum disease if you have it and to prevent it if you don't have it! (sanpablodentalcare.com)
- It is proven that intensive oral hygiene that includes brushing and flossing regularly may prevent the occurrence of perio disease. (drrauschfamilydental.com)
- Obesity itself has been recognized as a major risk factor for a number of systemic diseases [4,5,6]. (who.int)
- This is a mild form of gum disease that can be reversed with oral hygiene habits. (santarosadentist.com)
- Previous research has found links between periodontal disease and oral, esophageal, head and neck, pancreatic, and lung cancers, so the researchers wanted to see if there was any relationship with breast cancer. (medicalxpress.com)
- This Collection Periodontal disease affects many Americans and is the major cause of adult tooth loss. (inceleris.com)
- While the food cats eat can give them a somewhat odorous breath, it is important to spot the difference between bad breath and disease. (animalwised.com)
- The researchers found that among all women, the risk of breast cancer was 14 percent higher in women who had periodontal disease. (medicalxpress.com)
- Among women who had quit smoking within the past 20 years, those with periodontal disease had a 36 percent higher risk of breast cancer. (medicalxpress.com)
- Women who were smoking at the time of this study had a 32 percent higher risk if they had periodontal disease, but the association was not statistically significant. (medicalxpress.com)
- Those who had never smoked and had quit more than 20 years ago had a 6 percent and 8 percent increased risk, respectively, if they had periodontal disease. (medicalxpress.com)
- Therefore, measurement of obesity may provide useful information about the risk of various disease states. (who.int)
- This study does not try to conclude whether periodontal disease is a risk factor for Dementia or not it merely shows this specific correlation. (sanpablodentalcare.com)
- No one wants to risk heart disease. (hpsdental.com)
- Now is the time to find out if you are at risk for gum disease. (hpsdental.com)
- Do You Know Your Risk Score for Periodontal (Gum) Disease? (hpsdental.com)
- There are many tests that help doctors predict our risk of developing certain diseases. (hpsdental.com)
- We get our cholesterol checked to assess our risk of heart disease. (hpsdental.com)