A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.
Surgical excision (total or partial) of a portion of the pericardium. Pericardiotomy refers to incision of the pericardium.
Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.
Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM that is characterized by the fibrous scarring and adhesion of both serous layers, the VISCERAL PERICARDIUM and the PARIETAL PERICARDIUM leading to the loss of pericardial cavity. The thickened pericardium severely restricts cardiac filling. Clinical signs include FATIGUE, muscle wasting, and WEIGHT LOSS.
Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM from various origins, such as infection, neoplasm, autoimmune process, injuries, or drug-induced. Pericarditis usually leads to PERICARDIAL EFFUSION, or CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS.
Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.
Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
Surgical insertion of cylindric hydraulic devices for the treatment of organic ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.
The inferior and superior venae cavae.
Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
Presence of air or gas in the space between the heart and the PERICARDIUM. The degree of respiratory distress depends on the amount of trapped air and circulation blocked in the systemic and pulmonary veins.
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
General or unspecified injuries to the heart.
Puncture and aspiration of fluid from the PERICARDIUM.
Surgery performed on the heart.
General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.
CONNECTIVE TISSUE of the anterior compartment of the THIGH that has its origins on the anterior aspect of the iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine, and its insertion point on the iliotibial tract. It plays a role in medial rotation of the THIGH, steadying the trunk, and in KNEE extension.
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.
Making an incision in the STERNUM.
The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.
Surgical construction of an opening or window in the pericardium. It is often called subxiphoid pericardial window technique.
A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.
Devices, usually incorporating unidirectional valves, which are surgically inserted in the sclera to maintain normal intraocular pressure.
Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
A general term for a malignant neoplasm derived from muscular tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Any type of abortion, induced or spontaneous, that is associated with infection of the UTERUS and its appendages. It is characterized by FEVER, uterine tenderness, and foul discharge.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.
Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.
A tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).
Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).
Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
INFLAMMATION of the sac surrounding the heart (PERICARDIUM) due to MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS infection. Pericarditis can lead to swelling (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION), compression of the heart (CARDIAC TAMPONADE), and preventing normal beating of the heart.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images with greater access to secondary consultations and improved continuing education. (From American College of Radiology, ACR Standard for Teleradiology, 1994, p3)
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Protrusion of tissue, structure, or part of an organ through the bone, muscular tissue, or the membrane by which it is normally contained. Hernia may involve tissues such as the ABDOMINAL WALL or the respiratory DIAPHRAGM. Hernias may be internal, external, congenital, or acquired.
The tendinous cords that connect each cusp of the two atrioventricular HEART VALVES to appropriate PAPILLARY MUSCLES in the HEART VENTRICLES, preventing the valves from reversing themselves when the ventricles contract.
A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.
The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.
Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.
Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.

Coronary vasodilator effects of BNP: mechanisms of action in coronary conductance and resistance arteries. (1/1602)

Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), a hormone secreted predominantly in ventricular myocytes, may influence coronary vascular tone. We studied the coronary vasodilatory response to BNP under physiological conditions and after preconstriction with endothelin-1 (ET-1) in anesthetized pigs. Average peak-flow velocity (APV) was measured using intracoronary Doppler, and cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured using intravascular ultrasound. Coronary blood flow (CBF) was calculated. Intracoronary BNP induced dose-dependent increases in CSA, APV, and CBF similar in magnitude to those induced by nitroglycerin (NTG). The magnitude of BNP-induced vasodilation was accentuated after preconstriction with ET-1. Pretreatment with either the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin attenuated the coronary vasodilator effect of BNP in resistance arteries without influencing epicardial vasodilation. Pretreatment with the ATP-sensitive potassium-channel blocker glibenclamide enhanced epicardial vasodilation in response to BNP. We conclude that BNP exerts coronary vasodilator effects, predominantly in epicardial conductance vessels. An accentuated vasodilatory response to BNP occurs in ET-1-preconstricted arteries. BNP-induced vasodilation in coronary resistance arteries may be partially mediated via nitric oxide and/or prostaglandin release.  (+info)

Regional electrophysiological effects of hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia and hyponatraemia in isolated rabbit hearts in normal and ischaemic conditions. (2/1602)

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to establish an isolated working heart model for electrophysiological recordings from the epicardium and endocardium and to examine regional effects of changes in ion concentrations in normal and ischaemic conditions. METHODS: Monophasic action potential duration (MAPD90), effective refractory period (ERP) and conduction delay were measured simultaneously in the epicardium and endocardium of rabbit hearts paced at 3.3 Hz, subjected to 30 min of regional ischaemia and 15 min of reperfusion. The hearts were exposed before and throughout ischaemia and reperfusion to hypokalaemia (K+ = 2 mM), hypomagnesaemia (Mg2+ = 0.5 mM) or hyponatraemia (Na+ = 110 mM). RESULTS: In the control hearts, no regional electrophysiological differences were seen before ischaemia, but ischaemia-induced MAPD90 shortening and postrepolarisation refractoriness were greater in the epicardium than in the endocardium and conduction delay increased only in the epicardium. Hypokalaemia shortened ERP in the epicardium (but not endocardium) and increased conduction delay in all areas before ischaemia, but it had no effects during ischaemia. During reperfusion hypokalaemia increased the incidence of recurrent tachyarrhythmias. Hypomagnesaemia had no effect before ischaemia, increased epicardial (but not endocardial) MAPD90 shortening during ischaemia, although it had no pro-arrhythmic action. Hyponatraemia increased conduction delay in all areas before ischaemia and produced asystole or severe bradycardia in all hearts. During ischaemia, hyponatraemia decreased ERP shortening and inducibility of arrhythmias in the epicardium (but not endocardium). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the more pronounced effect of ischaemia upon the epicardium than the endocardium can be explained by the contact of the endocardium with intracavitary perfusate. We also conclude that changes in ion concentrations may have differential regional electrical effects in normal or ischaemic conditions.  (+info)

Abnormal flow-mediated epicardial vasomotion in human coronary arteries is improved by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition: a potential role of bradykinin. (3/1602)

OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to determine whether angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition improves endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation in patients with atherosclerosis or its risk factors and whether this is mediated by enhanced bradykinin activity. BACKGROUND: Abnormal coronary vasomotion due to endothelial dysfunction contributes to myocardial ischemia in patients with atherosclerosis, and its reversal may have an antiischemic action. Previous studies have shown that ACE inhibition improves coronary endothelial responses to acetylcholine, but whether this is accompanied by improved responses to shear stress remains unknown. METHODS: In 19 patients with mild atherosclerosis, metabolic vasodilation was assessed during cardiac pacing. Pacing was repeated during separate intracoronary infusions of low-dose bradykinin (BK) and enalaprilat. Endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation was estimated with intracoronary BK and sodium nitroprusside respectively. RESULTS: Enalaprilat did not alter either resting coronary vascular tone or dilation with sodium nitroprusside, but potentiated BK-mediated dilation. Epicardial segments that constricted abnormally with pacing (-5+/-1%) dilated (3+/-2%) with pacing in the presence of enalaprilat (p = 0.002). Similarly, BK at a concentration (62.5 ng/min) that did not alter resting diameter in the constricting segments also improved the abnormal response to a 6+/-1% dilation (p < 0.001). Cardiac pacing-induced reduction in coronary vascular resistance of 27+/-4% (p < 0.001) remained unchanged after enalaprilat. CONCLUSIONS: Thus ACE inhibition: A) selectively improved endothelium-dependent but not-independent dilation, and B) abolished abnormal flow-mediated epicardial vasomotion in patients with endothelial dysfunction, in part, by increasing endogenous BK activity.  (+info)

Bulbus arteriosus of the antarctic teleosts. I. The white-blooded Chionodraco hamatus. (4/1602)

The bulbus arteriosus of teleost fish is a thick-walled chamber that extends between the single ventricle and the ventral aorta. The functional importance of the bulbus resides in the fact that it maintains a steady blood flow into the gill system through heart contraction. Despite of this, a thorough study of the structure of the bulbus in teleost fish is still lacking. We have undertaken a morphologic study of the bulbus arteriosus in the stenothermal teleosts of the Antarctic sea. The structural organization of the bulbus arteriosus of the icefish Chionodraco hamatus has been studied here by conventional light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The inner surface of the bulbus shows a festooned appearance due to the presence of longitudinal, unbranched ridges that extend between the ventricle and the arterial trunk. The wall of the bulbus is divided into endocardial, subendocardial, middle, and external layers. Endocardial cells show a large number of moderately-dense bodies. The endocardium invaginates into the subendocardium forming solid epithelial cords that contain numerous secretory vacuoles. Cells in the subendocardium group into small domains, have some of the morphological characteristics of smooth muscle cells, and appear enmeshed in a three-dimensional network of matrix filaments. Cells in the middle layer are typical smooth muscle cells. They appear arranged into layers and are surrounded by a filamentous meshwork that excludes collagen fibers. Orientation of this meshwork occurs in the vicinity of the smooth muscle cells. Elastin fibers are never observed. The external layer is formed by wavy collagen bundles and fibroblast-like cells. This layer lacks blood vessels and nerve fibers. The endocardium and the endocardium-derived cords are secretory epithelia that may be involved in the formation ofmucins or glycosaminoglycans. These mucins may have a protecting effect on the endocardium. The subendocardium and the middle layer appear to be formed by the same cell type, smooth muscle, with a gradient of differentiation from the secretory (subendocardium) to the contractile (middle layer) phenotype. Despite the absence of elastin fibers, the filamentous matrix could maintain the elastic properties of the bulbus wall. Smooth muscle cells appear to be actively involved in bulbus wall dynamics. The restriction of collagen to the external layer suggests that it may control wall dilatation and bulbus compliance. When comparison was possible, structural differences between C. hamatus and temperate teleosts seemed to be not species-related, but of phenotypic adaptative significance. This is remarkable since Antarctic fishes have lived isolated in freezing waters for the last two million years.  (+info)

YAC complementation shows a requirement for Wt1 in the development of epicardium, adrenal gland and throughout nephrogenesis. (5/1602)

The Wilms' Tumour gene WT1 has important functions during development. Knock-out mice were shown to have defects in the urogenital system and to die at embryonic day E13.5, probably due to heart failure. Using a lacZ reporter gene inserted into a YAC construct, we demonstrate that WT1 is expressed in the early proepicardium, the epicardium and the subepicardial mesenchymal cells (SEMC). Lack of WT1 leads to severe defects in the epicardial layer and a concomitant absence of SEMCs, which explains the pericardial bleeding and subsequent embryonic death observed in Wt1 null embryos. We further show that a human-derived WT1 YAC construct is able to completely rescue heart defects, but only partially rescues defects in the urogenital system. Analysis of the observed hypoplastic kidneys demonstrate a continuous requirement for WT1 during nephrogenesis, in particular, in the formation of mature glomeruli. Finally, we show that the development of adrenal glands is also severely affected in partially rescued embryos. These data demonstrate a variety of new functions for WT1 and suggest a general requirement for this protein in the formation of organs derived from the intermediate mesoderm.  (+info)

Correlation of ventricular mechanosensory neurite activity with myocardial sensory field deformation. (6/1602)

The mechanosensory activity generated by ventricular epicardial sensory neurites associated with afferent axons in thoracic sympathetic nerves was correlated with sensory field deformation (long axis, short axis, and transmural dimension changes), regional intramyocardial pressure, and ventricular chamber pressure in anesthetized dogs. Ventricular mechanosensory neurites generated activity that correlated best with strain developed along either the long or short axis of their epicardial sensory fields in most instances. Activity did not correlate normally to local wall thickness or to regional wall or chamber pressure development in most cases. During premature ventricular contractions, the activity generated by these sensory neurites correlated best with maximum strain developed along at least one sensory field epicardial vector. Identified sensory neurites were also activated by local application of the chemical bradykinin (10 microM) or by local ischemia. These data indicate that the activity generated by most ischemia-sensitive ventricular epicardial sensory neurites associated with afferent axons in sympathetic nerves is dependent on not only their local chemical milieu but on local mechanical deformation along at least one epicardial vector of their sensory fields.  (+info)

Transient outward current, Ito1, is altered in cardiac memory. (7/1602)

BACKGROUND: Cardiac memory refers to an altered T-wave morphology induced by ventricular pacing or arrhythmias that persist for variable intervals after resumption of sinus rhythm. METHODS AND RESULTS: We induced long-term cardiac memory (LTM) in conscious dogs by pacing the ventricles at 120 bpm for 3 weeks. ECGs were recorded daily for 1 hour, during which time pacing was discontinued. At terminal study, the heart was removed and the electrophysiology of left ventricular epicardial myocytes was investigated. Control (C) and LTM ECG did not differ, except for T-wave amplitude, which decreased from 0.12+/-0.18 to -0.34+/-0.21 mV (+/-SEM, P<0.05), and T-wave vector, which shifted from -37+/-12 degrees to -143+/-4 degrees (P<0.05). Epicardial action potentials revealed loss of the notch and lengthening of duration at 20 days (both P<0.05). Calcium-insensitive transient outward current (Ito) was investigated by whole-cell patch clamp. No difference in capacitance was seen in C and LTM myocytes. Ito activated on membrane depolarization to -25+/-1 mV in C and -7+/-1 mV (P<0.05) in LTM myocytes, indicating a positive voltage shift of activation. Ito density was reduced in LTM myocytes, and a decreased mRNA level for Kv4.3 was observed. Recovery of Ito from inactivation was significantly prolonged: it was 531+/-80 ms (n=10) in LTM and 27+/-6 ms (n=9) in C (P<0.05) at -65 mV. CONCLUSIONS: Ito changes are associated with and can provide at least a partial explanation for action-potential and T-wave changes occurring with LTM.  (+info)

A role for serum response factor in coronary smooth muscle differentiation from proepicardial cells. (8/1602)

Coronary artery smooth muscle (SM) cells originate from proepicardial cells that migrate over the surface of the heart, undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transformation and invade the subepicardial and cardiac matrix. Prior to contact with the heart, proepicardial cells exhibit no expression of smooth muscle markers including SMalphaactin, SM22alpha, calponin, SMgammaactin or SM-myosin heavy chain detectable by RT-PCR or by immunostaining. To identify factors required for coronary smooth muscle differentiation, we excised proepicardial cells from Hamburger-Hamilton stage-17 quail embryos and examined them ex vivo. Proepicardial cells initially formed an epithelial colony that was uniformly positive for cytokeratin, an epicardial marker. Transcripts for flk-1, Nkx 2.5, GATA4 or smooth muscle markers were undetectable, indicating an absence of endothelial, myocardial or preformed smooth muscle cells. By 24 hours, cytokeratin-positive cells became SMalphaactin-positive. Moreover, serum response factor, undetectable in freshly isolated proepicardial cells, became strongly expressed in virtually all epicardial cells. By 72 hours, a subset of epicardial cells exhibited a rearrangement of cytoskeletal actin, focal adhesion formation and acquisition of a motile phenotype. Coordinately with mesenchymal transformation, calponin, SM22alpha and SMgammaactin became expressed. By 5-10 days, SM-myosin heavy chain mRNA was found, by which time nearly all cells had become mesenchymal. RT-PCR showed that large increases in serum response factor expression coincide with smooth muscle differentiation in vitro. Two different dominant-negative serum response factor constructs prevented the appearance of calponin-, SM22alpha- and SMgammaactin-positive cells. By contrast, dominant-negative serum response factor did not block mesenchymal transformation nor significantly reduce the number of cytokeratin-positive cells. These results indicate that the stepwise differentiation of coronary smooth muscle cells from proepicardial cells requires transcriptionally active serum response factor.  (+info)

The pericardium is the double-walled sac that surrounds the heart. It has an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer, which further divides into two parts: the parietal layer lining the fibrous pericardium and the visceral layer (epicardium) closely adhering to the heart surface.

The space between these two layers is filled with a small amount of lubricating serous fluid, allowing for smooth movement of the heart within the pericardial cavity. The pericardium provides protection, support, and helps maintain the heart's normal position within the chest while reducing friction during heart contractions.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Glutaral" does not seem to be a recognized medical term or abbreviation in healthcare and biomedical sciences. It is possible that you may be looking for information on "glutaraldehyde," which is a disinfectant and sterilizing agent used in medical settings.

Glutaraldehyde is a chemical compound with the formula C5H8O2, and it's often used as a 2% solution. It's an effective agent against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, making it useful for sterilizing medical equipment. However, glutaraldehyde can cause respiratory issues and skin irritation in some individuals, so proper handling and use are essential to minimize exposure.

If you meant to ask about a different term or if this answer does not address your question, please provide more context or clarify your request, and I will be happy to help further.

Pericardial effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space, which is the potential space between the two layers of the pericardium - the fibrous and serous layers. The pericardium is a sac that surrounds the heart to provide protection and lubrication for the heart's movement during each heartbeat. Normally, there is only a small amount of fluid (5-15 mL) in this space to ensure smooth motion of the heart. However, when an excessive amount of fluid accumulates, it can cause increased pressure on the heart, leading to various complications such as decreased cardiac output and even cardiac tamponade, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Pericardial effusion may result from several causes, including infections (viral, bacterial, or fungal), inflammatory conditions (such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or cancer), trauma, heart surgery, kidney failure, or iatrogenic causes. The symptoms of pericardial effusion can vary depending on the rate and amount of fluid accumulation. Slowly developing effusions may not cause any symptoms, while rapid accumulations can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, palpitations, or even hypotension (low blood pressure). Diagnosis is usually confirmed through imaging techniques such as echocardiography, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the effusion, ranging from close monitoring to drainage procedures or medications to address the root cause.

Pericardiectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of all or part of the pericardium, which is the sac-like membrane surrounding the heart. This surgery is typically performed to treat chronic or recurrent pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis, or pericardial effusions that do not respond to other treatments. Pericardiectomy can help reduce symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fluid buildup around the heart, improving the patient's quality of life and overall prognosis.

A bioprosthesis is a type of medical implant that is made from biological materials, such as heart valves or tendons taken from animals (xenografts) or humans (allografts). These materials are processed and sterilized to be used in surgical procedures to replace damaged or diseased tissues in the body.

Bioprosthetic implants are often used in cardiac surgery, such as heart valve replacement, because they are less likely to cause an immune response than synthetic materials. However, they may have a limited lifespan due to calcification and degeneration of the biological tissue over time. Therefore, bioprosthetic implants may need to be replaced after several years.

Bioprostheses can also be used in other types of surgical procedures, such as ligament or tendon repair, where natural tissue is needed to restore function and mobility. These prostheses are designed to mimic the properties of native tissues and provide a more physiological solution than synthetic materials.

Constrictive pericarditis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation and thickening of the pericardium, which is the sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart. This inflammation leads to scarring and thickening of the pericardium, causing it to become stiff and inflexible. As a result, the heart's ability to fill with blood between beats is restricted, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention.

In contrastive pericarditis, the thickened and scarred pericardium restricts the normal movement of the heart within the chest cavity, leading to a characteristic pattern of hemodynamic abnormalities. These include equalization of diastolic pressures in all cardiac chambers, increased systemic venous pressure, and decreased cardiac output.

The most common causes of constrictive pericarditis include prior infection, radiation therapy, autoimmune disorders, and previous heart surgery. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as echocardiography or MRI, and sometimes invasive testing such as cardiac catheterization. Treatment may involve medications to manage symptoms and reduce inflammation, as well as surgical removal of the pericardium (pericardiectomy) in severe cases.

Pericarditis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pericardium, which is the thin sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart and contains serous fluid to reduce friction during heartbeats. The inflammation can cause symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and sometimes fever.

The pericardium has two layers: the visceral pericardium, which is tightly adhered to the heart's surface, and the parietal pericardium, which lines the inner surface of the chest cavity. Normally, there is a small amount of fluid between these two layers, allowing for smooth movement of the heart within the chest cavity.

In pericarditis, the inflammation causes the pericardial layers to become irritated and swollen, leading to an accumulation of excess fluid in the pericardial space. This can result in a condition called pericardial effusion, which can further complicate the situation by putting pressure on the heart and impairing its function.

Pericarditis may be caused by various factors, including viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, heart attacks, trauma, or cancer. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, managing symptoms, and reducing inflammation with medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), colchicine, or corticosteroids. In severe cases, pericardiocentesis (removal of excess fluid from the pericardial space) or surgical intervention may be necessary.

Cardiac tamponade is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is excessive fluid or blood accumulation in the pericardial sac, which surrounds the heart. This accumulation puts pressure on the heart, preventing it from filling properly and reducing its ability to pump blood effectively. As a result, cardiac output decreases, leading to symptoms such as low blood pressure, shortness of breath, chest pain, and a rapid pulse. If left untreated, cardiac tamponade can be life-threatening, requiring emergency medical intervention to drain the fluid and relieve the pressure on the heart.

Fixatives are substances used in histology and pathology to preserve tissue specimens for microscopic examination. They work by stabilizing the structural components of cells and tissues, preventing decomposition and autolysis. This helps to maintain the original structure and composition of the specimen as closely as possible, allowing for accurate diagnosis and research. Commonly used fixatives include formalin, glutaraldehyde, methanol, and ethanol. The choice of fixative depends on the specific type of tissue being preserved and the intended use of the specimen.

Heart neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the heart tissue. They can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors, such as myxomas and rhabdomyomas, are typically slower growing and less likely to spread, but they can still cause serious complications if they obstruct blood flow or damage heart valves. Malignant tumors, such as angiosarcomas and rhabdomyosarcomas, are fast-growing and have a higher risk of spreading to other parts of the body. Symptoms of heart neoplasms can include shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue, and irregular heart rhythms. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

Penile implantation, also known as a prosthetic penis or penile prosthesis, is a surgical procedure to place devices into the penis to help a person with erectile dysfunction (ED) achieve an erection. The two main types of penile implants are inflatable and semi-rigid rods.

The inflatable implant consists of a fluid-filled reservoir, a pump, and two or three inflatable cylinders in the penis. The semi-rigid rod implant is a pair of flexible rods that are bent into an erect position for sexual intercourse and can be straightened when not in use.

Penile implantation is typically considered as a last resort treatment option for ED, when other treatments such as medications, vacuum constriction devices, or penile injections have failed or are not suitable. The procedure is typically performed by a urologist under general or spinal anesthesia and requires a hospital stay of one to two days.

It's important to note that like any surgical procedure, penile implantation also has risks such as infection, bleeding, mechanical failure, and device malfunction. It is essential for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks with their healthcare provider before making a decision about this treatment option.

A heart valve prosthesis is a medical device that is implanted in the heart to replace a damaged or malfunctioning heart valve. The prosthetic valve can be made of biological tissue (such as from a pig or cow) or artificial materials (such as carbon or polyester). Its function is to allow for the proper directional flow of blood through the heart, opening and closing with each heartbeat to prevent backflow of blood.

There are several types of heart valve prostheses, including:

1. Mechanical valves: These are made entirely of artificial materials and have a longer lifespan than biological valves. However, they require the patient to take blood-thinning medication for the rest of their life to prevent blood clots from forming on the valve.
2. Bioprosthetic valves: These are made of biological tissue and typically last 10-15 years before needing replacement. They do not require the patient to take blood-thinning medication, but there is a higher risk of reoperation due to degeneration of the tissue over time.
3. Homografts or allografts: These are human heart valves that have been donated and preserved for transplantation. They have similar longevity to bioprosthetic valves and do not require blood-thinning medication.
4. Autografts: In this case, the patient's own pulmonary valve is removed and used to replace the damaged aortic valve. This procedure is called the Ross procedure and has excellent long-term results, but it requires advanced surgical skills and is not widely available.

The choice of heart valve prosthesis depends on various factors, including the patient's age, overall health, lifestyle, and personal preferences.

"Venae Cavae" is a term that refers to the two large veins in the human body that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.

The "Superior Vena Cava" receives blood from the upper half of the body, including the head, neck, upper limbs, and chest, while the "Inferior Vena Cava" collects blood from the lower half of the body, including the abdomen and lower limbs.

Together, these veins play a crucial role in the circulatory system by ensuring that oxygen-depleted blood is efficiently returned to the heart for reoxygenation in the lungs.

A mediastinal cyst is a rare, abnormal fluid-filled sac located in the mediastinum, which is the central part of the chest cavity that separates the lungs and contains various organs such as the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland, and lymph nodes. Mediastinal cysts can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life). They are usually asymptomatic but can cause symptoms depending on their size and location. Symptoms may include chest pain, cough, difficulty breathing, or swallowing. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cyst to prevent complications such as infection, bleeding, or pressure on surrounding structures.

Suture techniques refer to the various methods used by surgeons to sew or stitch together tissues in the body after an injury, trauma, or surgical incision. The main goal of suturing is to approximate and hold the edges of the wound together, allowing for proper healing and minimizing scar formation.

There are several types of suture techniques, including:

1. Simple Interrupted Suture: This is one of the most basic suture techniques where the needle is passed through the tissue at a right angle, creating a loop that is then tightened to approximate the wound edges. Multiple stitches are placed along the length of the incision or wound.
2. Continuous Locking Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed continuously through the tissue in a zigzag pattern, with each stitch locking into the previous one. This creates a continuous line of sutures that provides strong tension and support to the wound edges.
3. Running Suture: Similar to the continuous locking suture, this technique involves passing the needle continuously through the tissue in a straight line. However, instead of locking each stitch, the needle is simply passed through the previous loop before being tightened. This creates a smooth and uninterrupted line of sutures that can be easily removed after healing.
4. Horizontal Mattress Suture: In this technique, two parallel stitches are placed horizontally across the wound edges, creating a "mattress" effect that provides additional support and tension to the wound. This is particularly useful in deep or irregularly shaped wounds.
5. Vertical Mattress Suture: Similar to the horizontal mattress suture, this technique involves placing two parallel stitches vertically across the wound edges. This creates a more pronounced "mattress" effect that can help reduce tension and minimize scarring.
6. Subcuticular Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed just below the surface of the skin, creating a smooth and barely visible line of sutures. This is particularly useful in cosmetic surgery or areas where minimizing scarring is important.

The choice of suture technique depends on various factors such as the location and size of the wound, the type of tissue involved, and the patient's individual needs and preferences. Proper suture placement and tension are crucial for optimal healing and aesthetic outcomes.

Pneumopericardium is a medical condition characterized by the presence of air or gas within the pericardial sac, which surrounds and protects the heart. This accumulation of air can cause the pericardium to become tense and inflamed, potentially leading to complications such as cardiac tamponade, a life-threatening situation in which the excess pressure around the heart impairs its ability to fill with blood and pump effectively.

Pneumopericardium may result from various causes, including trauma, medical procedures (such as central line placement or surgery), infection, or underlying lung diseases that allow air to leak into the pericardial space. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the severity of the condition and may include chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, and palpitations. Imaging tests such as chest X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans are typically used to diagnose Pneumopericardium, and treatment may involve drainage of the accumulated air and management of any underlying conditions.

Tissue fixation is a process in histology (the study of the microscopic structure of tissues) where fixed tissue samples are prepared for further examination, typically through microscopy. The goal of tissue fixation is to preserve the original three-dimensional structure and biochemical composition of tissues and cells as much as possible, making them stable and suitable for various analyses.

The most common method for tissue fixation involves immersing the sample in a chemical fixative, such as formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde. These fixatives cross-link proteins within the tissue, creating a stable matrix that maintains the original structure and prevents decay. Other methods of tissue fixation may include freezing or embedding samples in various media to preserve their integrity.

Properly fixed tissue samples can be sectioned, stained, and examined under a microscope, allowing pathologists and researchers to study cellular structures, diagnose diseases, and understand biological processes at the molecular level.

Heart injuries, also known as cardiac injuries, refer to any damage or harm caused to the heart muscle, valves, or surrounding structures. This can result from various causes such as blunt trauma (e.g., car accidents, falls), penetrating trauma (e.g., gunshot wounds, stabbing), or medical conditions like heart attacks (myocardial infarction) and infections (e.g., myocarditis, endocarditis).

Some common types of heart injuries include:

1. Contusions: Bruising of the heart muscle due to blunt trauma.
2. Myocardial infarctions: Damage to the heart muscle caused by insufficient blood supply, often due to blocked coronary arteries.
3. Cardiac rupture: A rare but life-threatening condition where the heart muscle tears or breaks open, usually resulting from severe trauma or complications from a myocardial infarction.
4. Valvular damage: Disruption of the heart valves' function due to injury or infection, leading to leakage (regurgitation) or narrowing (stenosis).
5. Pericardial injuries: Damage to the pericardium, the sac surrounding the heart, which can result in fluid accumulation (pericardial effusion), inflammation (pericarditis), or tamponade (compression of the heart by excess fluid).
6. Arrhythmias: Irregular heart rhythms caused by damage to the heart's electrical conduction system.

Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing heart injuries, as they can lead to severe complications or even be fatal if left untreated.

Pericardiocentesis is a medical procedure where a needle or a catheter is inserted into the pericardial sac, the thin fluid-filled space surrounding the heart, to remove excess fluids or air that has accumulated. This buildup can put pressure on the heart and impede its function, leading to various cardiac symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and palpitations. The procedure is often guided by echocardiography or fluoroscopy to ensure proper placement and minimize risks. Pericardiocentesis may be performed as an emergency treatment or a scheduled intervention, depending on the patient's condition.

Cardiac surgical procedures are operations that are performed on the heart or great vessels (the aorta and vena cava) by cardiothoracic surgeons. These surgeries are often complex and require a high level of skill and expertise. Some common reasons for cardiac surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgery to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with coronary artery disease. During the procedure, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery.
2. Valve repair or replacement: The heart has four valves that control blood flow through and out of the heart. If one or more of these valves become damaged or diseased, they may need to be repaired or replaced. This can be done using artificial valves or valves from animal or human donors.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge out and potentially rupture. If an aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it may require surgical repair to prevent rupture.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, heart failure may be so severe that a heart transplant is necessary. This involves removing the diseased heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Arrhythmia surgery: Certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) may require surgical treatment. One such procedure is called the Maze procedure, which involves creating a pattern of scar tissue in the heart to disrupt the abnormal electrical signals that cause the arrhythmia.
6. Congenital heart defect repair: Some people are born with structural problems in their hearts that require surgical correction. These may include holes between the chambers of the heart or abnormal blood vessels.

Cardiac surgical procedures carry risks, including bleeding, infection, stroke, and death. However, for many patients, these surgeries can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Scleral diseases refer to conditions that affect the sclera, which is the tough, white outer coating of the eye. The sclera helps to maintain the shape of the eye and provides protection for the internal structures. Scleral diseases can cause inflammation, degeneration, or thinning of the sclera, leading to potential vision loss or other complications. Some examples of scleral diseases include:

1. Scleritis: an inflammatory condition that causes pain, redness, and sensitivity in the affected area of the sclera. It can be associated with autoimmune disorders, infections, or trauma.
2. Episcleritis: a less severe form of inflammation that affects only the episclera, a thin layer of tissue overlying the sclera. Symptoms include redness and mild discomfort but typically no pain.
3. Pinguecula: a yellowish, raised deposit of protein and fat that forms on the conjunctiva, the clear membrane covering the sclera. While not a disease itself, a pinguecula can cause irritation or discomfort and may progress to a more severe condition called a pterygium.
4. Pterygium: a fleshy growth that extends from the conjunctiva onto the cornea, potentially obstructing vision. It is often associated with prolonged sun exposure and can be removed surgically if it becomes problematic.
5. Scleral thinning or melting: a rare but serious condition where the sclera degenerates or liquefies, leading to potential perforation of the eye. This can occur due to autoimmune disorders, infections, or as a complication of certain surgical procedures.
6. Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (OHS): a condition caused by the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus, which can lead to scarring and vision loss if it involves the macula, the central part of the retina responsible for sharp, detailed vision.

It is essential to consult an ophthalmologist or eye care professional if you experience any symptoms related to scleral diseases to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

Fascia lata is a medical term that refers to the thick, fibrous sheath of connective tissue that envelops and surrounds the thigh muscles (specifically, the quadriceps femoris and hamstrings). It is a type of fascia, which is the soft tissue component of the deep (internal) fascial system.

The fascia lata is continuous with the fascia of the hip and knee joints and plays an important role in providing stability, support, and protection to the muscles and other structures within the thigh. It also helps to facilitate the gliding and movement of muscles and tendons during physical activity.

Injuries or inflammation of the fascia lata can cause pain and discomfort, and may limit mobility and range of motion in the thigh and lower extremity. Conditions such as fascia lata strain, tears, or myofascial pain syndrome may require medical treatment, including physical therapy, medication, or in some cases, surgery.

The aortic valve is the valve located between the left ventricle (the lower left chamber of the heart) and the aorta (the largest artery in the body, which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body). It is made up of three thin flaps or leaflets that open and close to regulate blood flow. During a heartbeat, the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta, and then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricle when it relaxes. Any abnormality or damage to this valve can lead to various cardiovascular conditions such as aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, or infective endocarditis.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Calcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in various tissues of the body, commonly under the skin or in the muscles and tendons. These calcium deposits can form hard lumps or nodules that can cause pain, inflammation, and restricted mobility. Calcinosis can occur as a complication of other medical conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, kidney disease, and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood). In some cases, the cause of calcinosis may be unknown. Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to manage calcium levels, physical therapy, and surgical removal of large deposits.

The heart septum is the thick, muscular wall that divides the right and left sides of the heart. It consists of two main parts: the atrial septum, which separates the right and left atria (the upper chambers of the heart), and the ventricular septum, which separates the right and left ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). A normal heart septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood from the lungs does not mix with oxygen-poor blood from the body. Any defect or abnormality in the heart septum is called a septal defect, which can lead to various congenital heart diseases.

A sternotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision through the sternum, also known as the breastbone. This type of incision allows surgeons to access the thoracic cavity, which contains the heart and lungs. Sternotomies are often performed during open-heart surgery or other procedures that require access to the heart or major blood vessels. After the procedure, the sternum is typically wired or stapled back together to allow for proper healing.

The pleura is the medical term for the double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest cavity. The two layers of the pleura are called the parietal pleura, which lines the chest cavity, and the visceral pleura, which covers the surface of the lungs.

The space between these two layers is called the pleural cavity, which contains a small amount of lubricating fluid that allows the lungs to move smoothly within the chest during breathing. The main function of the pleura is to protect the lungs and facilitate their movement during respiration.

A pericardial window technique is a surgical procedure that creates an opening or window in the pericardium, which is the sac-like membrane surrounding the heart. This procedure is typically performed to relieve excessive pressure on the heart caused by excess fluid accumulation in the pericardial space (pericardial effusion) or to obtain tissue samples for diagnostic purposes.

There are two primary approaches to creating a pericardial window:

1. Surgical Pericardial Window: This is an open surgical procedure, usually performed under general anesthesia. The surgeon makes an incision in the chest wall and then opens the pericardium to create a window. Excess fluid is drained from the pericardial space, and the pericardial edges are sutured together to keep the window open. This technique allows for continuous drainage of any future fluid accumulation.

2. Percutaneous Pericardial Window: This is a minimally invasive procedure that involves inserting a needle or catheter through the skin and into the pericardial space under local anesthesia and image guidance (fluoroscopy, echocardiography, or CT scan). A guidewire is then passed through the needle, followed by a dilator and sheath. A drainage catheter is placed through the sheath into the pericardial space to remove excess fluid. The catheter may be left in place for several days to allow for continued drainage.

Pericardial window techniques are used to treat various conditions, including cardiac tamponade (life-threatening compression of the heart due to pericardial effusion), infectious pericarditis, malignant pericardial effusions, and inflammatory disorders affecting the pericardium.

A heart aneurysm, also known as a ventricular aneurysm, is a localized bulging or ballooning of the heart muscle in the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart. This condition typically occurs following a myocardial infarction (heart attack), where blood flow to a portion of the heart muscle is blocked, leading to tissue death and weakness in the heart wall. As a result, the weakened area may stretch and form a sac-like bulge or aneurysm.

Heart aneurysms can vary in size and may cause complications such as blood clots, arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats), or heart failure. In some cases, they may be asymptomatic and discovered during routine imaging tests. The diagnosis of a heart aneurysm is typically made through echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or cardiac CT scans. Treatment options depend on the size, location, and symptoms of the aneurysm and may include medications, surgical repair, or implantation of a device to support heart function.

A glaucoma drainage implant is a medical device used in the surgical management of glaucoma, a group of eye conditions that can lead to optic nerve damage and vision loss. The implant provides an alternative drainage pathway for the aqueous humor, the clear fluid inside the eye, to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) when other treatment methods have been unsuccessful.

The glaucoma drainage implant typically consists of a small silicone or polypropylene plate with a tube attached. During surgery, the tube is carefully inserted into the anterior chamber of the eye, allowing the aqueous humor to flow through the tube and collect on the plate. The plate is placed underneath the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye, where the fluid gets absorbed by the body.

There are various types of glaucoma drainage implants available, such as the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve, Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant, and Molteno Glaucoma Implant. Each type has its unique design features and may be more suitable for specific cases depending on the severity of glaucoma, previous surgical history, and individual patient factors.

Glaucoma drainage implant surgery is usually considered when other treatment options, such as medication or laser therapy, have failed to control IOP effectively. The procedure aims to prevent further optic nerve damage and preserve the patient's remaining vision. Potential complications of glaucoma drainage implant surgery include infection, bleeding, hypotony (abnormally low IOP), exposure of the tube, and failure of the device. Regular postoperative follow-up with an eye care professional is essential to monitor the implant's performance and manage any potential complications.

Subcutaneous tissue, also known as the subcutis or hypodermis, is the layer of fatty connective tissue found beneath the dermis (the inner layer of the skin) and above the muscle fascia. It is composed mainly of adipose tissue, which serves as a energy storage reservoir and provides insulation and cushioning to the body. The subcutaneous tissue also contains blood vessels, nerves, and immune cells that support the skin's functions. This layer varies in thickness depending on the location in the body and can differ significantly between individuals based on factors such as age, genetics, and weight.

Freeze-drying, also known as lyophilization, is a method of preservation that involves the removal of water from a frozen product by sublimation, which is the direct transition of a solid to a gas. This process allows for the preservation of the original shape and structure of the material while significantly extending its shelf life. In medical contexts, freeze-drying can be used for various purposes, including the long-term storage of pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and diagnostic samples. The process helps maintain the efficacy and integrity of these materials until they are ready to be reconstituted with water and used.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

Heterophile antigens are a type of antigen that can induce an immune response in multiple species, not just the one they originate from. They are called "heterophile" because they exhibit cross-reactivity with antibodies produced against different antigens from other species. A common example of heterophile antigens is the Forssman antigen, which can be found in various animals such as guinea pigs, rabbits, and humans.

Heterophile antibody tests are often used in diagnostic medicine to detect certain infections or autoimmune disorders. One well-known example is the Paul-Bunnell test, which was historically used to diagnose infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The test detects heterophile antibodies produced against EBV antigens that cross-react with sheep red blood cells. However, this test has been largely replaced by more specific and sensitive EBV antibody tests.

It is important to note that heterophile antibody tests can sometimes produce false positive results due to the presence of these cross-reactive antibodies in individuals who have not been infected with the targeted pathogen. Therefore, it is crucial to interpret test results cautiously and consider them alongside clinical symptoms, medical history, and other diagnostic findings.

Myosarcoma is a type of cancer that arises from the muscle tissue. It's a subtype of sarcoma, which is a broader category of malignancies that develop in the body's connective tissues (such as bones, muscles, tendons, cartilages, nerves, and blood vessels).

Myosarcomas specifically originate from the muscle cells, and they can occur in both smooth muscles (those we cannot consciously control, like the ones in the walls of our digestive system) and skeletal muscles (the ones we can voluntarily control). They are relatively rare tumors, accounting for about 1% of all adult malignancies.

The symptoms of myosarcoma depend on the location and size of the tumor. A common sign is a painless mass or swelling that grows over time. As the tumor advances, it may cause pain, limit movement, and eventually affect nearby organs and tissues. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, often followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells and reduce the risk of recurrence. The prognosis for myosarcoma varies depending on the stage at diagnosis, the patient's overall health, and other factors.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve, is a two-leaflet valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart. Its function is to ensure unidirectional flow of blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle during the cardiac cycle. The mitral valve consists of two leaflets (anterior and posterior), the chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, and the left atrial and ventricular myocardium. Dysfunction of the mitral valve can lead to various heart conditions such as mitral regurgitation or mitral stenosis.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

The tricuspid valve is the heart valve that separates the right atrium and the right ventricle in the human heart. It is called "tricuspid" because it has three leaflets or cusps, which are also referred to as flaps or segments. These cusps are named anterior, posterior, and septal. The tricuspid valve's function is to prevent the backflow of blood from the ventricle into the atrium during systole, ensuring unidirectional flow of blood through the heart.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyethylene Terephthalates" is not a medical term. It is a type of polymer used in the manufacturing of various products, such as plastic bottles and textile fibers. Medically, you might encounter the abbreviation "PET" or "PET scan," which stands for "Positron Emission Tomography." A PET scan is a type of medical imaging that provides detailed pictures of the body's interior. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Ventricular function, in the context of cardiac medicine, refers to the ability of the heart's ventricles (the lower chambers) to fill with blood during the diastole phase and eject blood during the systole phase. The ventricles are primarily responsible for pumping oxygenated blood out to the body (left ventricle) and deoxygenated blood to the lungs (right ventricle).

There are several ways to assess ventricular function, including:

1. Ejection Fraction (EF): This is the most commonly used measure of ventricular function. It represents the percentage of blood that is ejected from the ventricle during each heartbeat. A normal left ventricular ejection fraction is typically between 55% and 70%.
2. Fractional Shortening (FS): This is another measure of ventricular function, which calculates the change in size of the ventricle during contraction as a percentage of the original size. A normal FS for the left ventricle is typically between 25% and 45%.
3. Stroke Volume (SV): This refers to the amount of blood that is pumped out of the ventricle with each heartbeat. SV is calculated by multiplying the ejection fraction by the end-diastolic volume (the amount of blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole).
4. Cardiac Output (CO): This is the total amount of blood that the heart pumps in one minute. It is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume by the heart rate.

Impaired ventricular function can lead to various cardiovascular conditions, such as heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and valvular heart disease. Assessing ventricular function is crucial for diagnosing these conditions, monitoring treatment response, and guiding clinical decision-making.

Septic abortion is a medical term used to describe a spontaneous abortion or miscarriage that is associated with infection. This occurs when the products of conception, such as the fetal tissue and placenta, are not completely expelled from the uterus, leading to an infection of the uterine lining and potentially the pelvic cavity.

The infection can cause fever, chills, severe abdominal pain, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, and heavy bleeding. If left untreated, septic abortion can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, infertility, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect a septic abortion. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection and possibly surgical intervention to remove any remaining products of conception.

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

In medical terms, compliance refers to the degree to which a patient follows the recommendations or instructions of their healthcare provider. This may include taking prescribed medications as directed, following a treatment plan, making lifestyle changes, or attending follow-up appointments. Good compliance is essential for achieving the best possible health outcomes and can help prevent complications or worsening of medical conditions. Factors that can affect patient compliance include forgetfulness, lack of understanding of the instructions, cost of medications or treatments, and side effects of medications. Healthcare providers can take steps to improve patient compliance by providing clear and concise instructions, discussing potential barriers to compliance, and involving patients in their care plan.

Heart valve prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial heart valve is inserted to replace a damaged or malfunctioning native heart valve. This can be necessary for patients with valvular heart disease, including stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation (leaking), who do not respond to medical management and are at risk of heart failure or other complications.

There are two main types of artificial heart valves used in prosthesis implantation: mechanical valves and biological valves. Mechanical valves are made of synthetic materials, such as carbon and metal, and can last a long time but require lifelong anticoagulation therapy to prevent blood clots from forming. Biological valves, on the other hand, are made from animal or human tissue and typically do not require anticoagulation therapy but may have a limited lifespan and may need to be replaced in the future.

The decision to undergo heart valve prosthesis implantation is based on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, type and severity of valvular disease, and personal preferences. The procedure can be performed through traditional open-heart surgery or minimally invasive techniques, such as robotic-assisted surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Recovery time varies depending on the approach used and individual patient factors.

Heart valves are specialized structures in the heart that ensure unidirectional flow of blood through its chambers during the cardiac cycle. There are four heart valves: the tricuspid valve and the mitral (bicuspid) valve, located between the atria and ventricles, and the pulmonic (pulmonary) valve and aortic valve, located between the ventricles and the major blood vessels leaving the heart.

The heart valves are composed of thin flaps of tissue called leaflets or cusps, which are supported by a fibrous ring. The aortic and pulmonic valves have three cusps each, while the tricuspid and mitral valves have three and two cusps, respectively.

The heart valves open and close in response to pressure differences across them, allowing blood to flow forward into the ventricles during diastole (filling phase) and preventing backflow of blood into the atria during systole (contraction phase). A properly functioning heart valve ensures efficient pumping of blood by the heart and maintains normal blood circulation throughout the body.

Mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that develops in the mesothelial cells, which are the thin layers of tissue that cover many of the internal organs. The most common site for mesothelioma to occur is in the pleura, the membrane that surrounds the lungs. This type is called pleural mesothelioma. Other types include peritoneal mesothelioma (which occurs in the lining of the abdominal cavity) and pericardial mesothelioma (which occurs in the lining around the heart).

Mesothelioma is almost always caused by exposure to asbestos, a group of naturally occurring minerals that were widely used in construction, insulation, and other industries because of their heat resistance and insulating properties. When asbestos fibers are inhaled or ingested, they can become lodged in the mesothelium, leading to inflammation, scarring, and eventually cancerous changes in the cells.

The symptoms of mesothelioma can take many years to develop after exposure to asbestos, and they may include chest pain, coughing, shortness of breath, fatigue, and weight loss. Treatment options for mesothelioma depend on the stage and location of the cancer, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Unfortunately, the prognosis for mesothelioma is often poor, with a median survival time of around 12-18 months after diagnosis.

Heart valve diseases are a group of conditions that affect the function of one or more of the heart's four valves (tricuspid, pulmonic, mitral, and aortic). These valves are responsible for controlling the direction and flow of blood through the heart. Heart valve diseases can cause the valves to become narrowed (stenosis), leaky (regurgitation or insufficiency), or improperly closed (prolapse), leading to disrupted blood flow within the heart and potentially causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and irregular heart rhythms. The causes of heart valve diseases can include congenital defects, age-related degenerative changes, infections, rheumatic heart disease, and high blood pressure. Treatment options may include medications, surgical repair or replacement of the affected valve(s), or transcatheter procedures.

Aortic valve insufficiency, also known as aortic regurgitation or aortic incompetence, is a cardiac condition in which the aortic valve does not close properly during the contraction phase of the heart cycle. This allows blood to flow back into the left ventricle from the aorta, instead of being pumped out to the rest of the body. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to maintain adequate cardiac output, which can lead to left ventricular enlargement and heart failure over time if left untreated.

The aortic valve is a trileaflet valve that lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. During systole (the contraction phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta and then distributed to the rest of the body. During diastole (the relaxation phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the left ventricle.

Aortic valve insufficiency can be caused by various conditions, including congenital heart defects, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, Marfan syndrome, and trauma. Symptoms of aortic valve insufficiency may include shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, palpitations, and edema (swelling). Diagnosis is typically made through physical examination, echocardiography, and other imaging studies. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and may include medication, surgery to repair or replace the aortic valve, or a combination of both.

A fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two organs, vessels, or body parts that usually do not connect. It can form as a result of injury, infection, surgery, or disease. A fistula can occur anywhere in the body but commonly forms in the digestive system, genital area, or urinary system. The symptoms and treatment options for a fistula depend on its location and underlying cause.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

Tuberculous pericarditis is a specific form of pericarditis (inflammation of the pericardium, the thin sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart) that is caused by the bacterial infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This type of pericarditis is more common in areas where tuberculosis is prevalent and can lead to serious complications if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

In tuberculous pericarditis, the bacteria typically spread from the lungs (the most common site of TB infection) or other infected organs through the bloodstream to the pericardium. The infection causes an inflammatory response, leading to the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space (pericardial effusion), which can put pressure on the heart and impair its function. In some cases, the inflammation may lead to the formation of scar tissue, causing the pericardium to thicken and constrict, a condition known as constrictive pericarditis.

Symptoms of tuberculous pericarditis can include chest pain, cough, fever, fatigue, weight loss, and difficulty breathing. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging tests (such as echocardiography, CT scan, or MRI), and laboratory tests (including analysis of the pericardial fluid). Treatment usually consists of a long course of antibiotics specific to TB, along with anti-inflammatory medications and close monitoring for potential complications.

Right atrial function refers to the role and performance of the right atrium in the heart. The right atrium is one of the four chambers of the heart and is responsible for receiving deoxygenated blood from the body via the superior and inferior vena cava. It then contracts to help pump the blood into the right ventricle, which subsequently sends it to the lungs for oxygenation.

Right atrial function can be assessed through various methods, including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electrocardiogram (ECG). Abnormalities in right atrial function may indicate underlying heart conditions such as right-sided heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or other cardiovascular diseases. Proper evaluation and monitoring of right atrial function are essential for effective diagnosis, treatment, and management of these conditions.

The heart ventricles are the two lower chambers of the heart that receive blood from the atria and pump it to the lungs or the rest of the body. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs, while the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Both ventricles have thick, muscular walls to generate the pressure necessary to pump blood through the circulatory system.

Teleradiology is a subspecialty of radiology that involves the transmission of medical images from one location to another for the purpose of interpretation and diagnosis by a radiologist. This technology allows radiologists to review and report on imaging studies, such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans, remotely using secure electronic communication systems.

Teleradiology has become increasingly important in modern healthcare, particularly in emergency situations where immediate interpretation of medical images is necessary. It also enables radiologists to provide specialized expertise for complex cases, regardless of their geographic location. The use of teleradiology must comply with all relevant regulations and laws regarding patient privacy and data security.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

A hernia is a protrusion of an organ or tissue through a weakened area in the abdominal wall, often appearing as a bulge beneath the skin. This condition can occur in various parts of the body such as the groin (inguinal hernia), navel (umbilical hernia), or site of a previous surgical incision (incisional hernia). Hernias may cause discomfort or pain, especially when straining, lifting heavy objects, or during bowel movements. In some cases, they may lead to serious complications like intestinal obstruction or strangulation, requiring immediate medical attention.

The chordae tendineae are cord-like tendons that attach the heart's papillary muscles to the tricuspid and mitral valves in the heart. They play a crucial role in preventing the backflow of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction. The chordae tendineae ensure that the cusps of the atrioventricular valves close properly and maintain their shape during the cardiac cycle. Damage to these tendons can result in heart conditions such as mitral or tricuspid valve regurgitation.

The sternum, also known as the breastbone, is a long, flat bone located in the central part of the chest. It serves as the attachment point for several muscles and tendons, including those involved in breathing. The sternum has three main parts: the manubrium at the top, the body in the middle, and the xiphoid process at the bottom. The upper seven pairs of ribs connect to the sternum via costal cartilages.

Cardiac volume refers to the amount of blood contained within the heart chambers at any given point in time. It is a measure of the volume of blood that is being moved by the heart during each cardiac cycle, which includes both systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) phases.

There are several types of cardiac volumes that are commonly measured or estimated using medical imaging techniques such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These include:

1. End-diastolic volume (EDV): This is the volume of blood in the heart chambers at the end of diastole, when the heart chambers are fully filled with blood.
2. End-systolic volume (ESV): This is the volume of blood in the heart chambers at the end of systole, when the heart chambers have contracted and ejected most of the blood.
3. Stroke volume (SV): This is the difference between the EDV and ESV, and represents the amount of blood that is pumped out of the heart with each beat.
4. Cardiac output (CO): This is the product of the stroke volume and heart rate, and represents the total amount of blood that is pumped by the heart in one minute.

Abnormalities in cardiac volumes can indicate various heart conditions such as heart failure, valvular heart disease, or cardiomyopathy.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A lipoma is a common, benign (non-cancerous) soft tissue growth. It is composed of adipose or fatty tissue and typically found just beneath the skin, but they can also occur deeper within the body. Lipomas are usually round, moveable, and painless, although they may cause discomfort if they grow large enough to put pressure on nearby nerves or if they're located in a sensitive area. They generally grow slowly over time. Surgical removal is an option if the lipoma becomes bothersome or grows significantly in size. It's important to note that while lipomas are typically harmless, any new lumps or bumps should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other more serious conditions.

In medical terms, the heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity that functions as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body. It's responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body. The heart's rhythmic contractions and relaxations are regulated by a complex electrical conduction system.

Hemothorax is a medical condition characterized by the presence of blood in the pleural space, which is the area between the lungs and the chest wall. This accumulation of blood can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, rupture of a blood vessel, or complications from lung or heart surgery.

The buildup of blood in the pleural space can cause the affected lung to collapse, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, and cough. In severe cases, hemothorax can be life-threatening if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Treatment options may include chest tube drainage, blood transfusion, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

A surgical flap is a specialized type of surgical procedure where a section of living tissue (including skin, fat, muscle, and/or blood vessels) is lifted from its original site and moved to another location, while still maintaining a blood supply through its attached pedicle. This technique allows the surgeon to cover and reconstruct defects or wounds that cannot be closed easily with simple suturing or stapling.

Surgical flaps can be classified based on their vascularity, type of tissue involved, or method of transfer. The choice of using a specific type of surgical flap depends on the location and size of the defect, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's expertise. Some common types of surgical flaps include:

1. Random-pattern flaps: These flaps are based on random blood vessels within the tissue and are typically used for smaller defects in areas with good vascularity, such as the face or scalp.
2. Axial pattern flaps: These flaps are designed based on a known major blood vessel and its branches, allowing them to cover larger defects or reach distant sites. Examples include the radial forearm flap and the anterolateral thigh flap.
3. Local flaps: These flaps involve tissue adjacent to the wound and can be further classified into advancement, rotation, transposition, and interpolation flaps based on their movement and orientation.
4. Distant flaps: These flaps are harvested from a distant site and then transferred to the defect after being tunneled beneath the skin or through a separate incision. Examples include the groin flap and the latissimus dorsi flap.
5. Free flaps: In these flaps, the tissue is completely detached from its original blood supply and then reattached at the new site using microvascular surgical techniques. This allows for greater flexibility in terms of reach and placement but requires specialized expertise and equipment.

Surgical flaps play a crucial role in reconstructive surgery, helping to restore form and function after trauma, tumor removal, or other conditions that result in tissue loss.

Thoracotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision on the chest wall to gain access to the thoracic cavity, which contains the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, and other vital organs. The incision can be made on the side (lateral thoracotomy), back (posterolateral thoracotomy), or front (median sternotomy) of the chest wall, depending on the specific surgical indication.

Thoracotomy is performed for various indications, including lung biopsy, lung resection, esophagectomy, heart surgery, and mediastinal mass removal. The procedure allows the surgeon to directly visualize and access the organs within the thoracic cavity, perform necessary procedures, and control bleeding if needed.

After the procedure, the incision is typically closed with sutures or staples, and a chest tube may be placed to drain any accumulated fluid or air from the pleural space around the lungs. The patient will require postoperative care and monitoring in a hospital setting until their condition stabilizes.

Tissue preservation is the process of preventing decomposition or autolysis (self-digestion) of tissues after they have been removed from a living organism. This is typically achieved through the use of fixatives, such as formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde, which stabilize proteins and other cellular structures by creating cross-links between them. Other methods of tissue preservation include freezing, dehydration, and embedding in paraffin or plastic resins. Properly preserved tissues can be stored for long periods of time and used for various research and diagnostic purposes, such as histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biology studies.

The thorax is the central part of the human body, located between the neck and the abdomen. In medical terms, it refers to the portion of the body that contains the heart, lungs, and associated structures within a protective cage made up of the sternum (breastbone), ribs, and thoracic vertebrae. The thorax is enclosed by muscles and protected by the ribcage, which helps to maintain its structural integrity and protect the vital organs contained within it.

The thorax plays a crucial role in respiration, as it allows for the expansion and contraction of the lungs during breathing. This movement is facilitated by the flexible nature of the ribcage, which expands and contracts with each breath, allowing air to enter and exit the lungs. Additionally, the thorax serves as a conduit for major blood vessels, such as the aorta and vena cava, which carry blood to and from the heart and the rest of the body.

Understanding the anatomy and function of the thorax is essential for medical professionals, as many conditions and diseases can affect this region of the body. These may include respiratory disorders such as pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular conditions like heart attacks or aortic aneurysms, and musculoskeletal issues involving the ribs, spine, or surrounding muscles.

Diastole is the phase of the cardiac cycle during which the heart muscle relaxes and the chambers of the heart fill with blood. It follows systole, the phase in which the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood out to the body. In a normal resting adult, diastole lasts for approximately 0.4-0.5 seconds during each heartbeat. The period of diastole is divided into two phases: early diastole and late diastole. During early diastole, the ventricles fill with blood due to the pressure difference between the atria and ventricles. During late diastole, the atrioventricular valves close, and the ventricles continue to fill with blood due to the relaxation of the ventricular muscle and the compliance of the ventricular walls. The duration and pressure changes during diastole are important for maintaining adequate cardiac output and blood flow to the body.

Heart disease is a broad term for a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. It's often used to refer to conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease. It occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become hardened and narrowed due to the buildup of cholesterol and other substances, which can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

2. Heart failure: This condition occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.

3. Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms, which can be too fast, too slow, or irregular. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.

4. Valvular heart disease: This involves damage to one or more of the heart's four valves, which control blood flow through the heart. Damage can be caused by various conditions, including infection, rheumatic fever, and aging.

5. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, viral infections, and drug abuse.

6. Pericardial disease: This involves inflammation or other problems with the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). It can cause chest pain and other symptoms.

7. Congenital heart defects: These are heart conditions that are present at birth, such as a hole in the heart or abnormal blood vessels. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.

8. Heart infections: The heart can become infected by bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to various symptoms and complications.

It's important to note that many factors can contribute to the development of heart disease, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Regular check-ups and a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease.

Hemangiosarcoma is a type of cancer that arises from the cells that line the blood vessels (endothelial cells). It most commonly affects middle-aged to older dogs, but it can also occur in cats and other animals, as well as rarely in humans.

This cancer can develop in various parts of the body, including the skin, heart, spleen, liver, and lungs. Hemangiosarcomas of the skin tend to be more benign and have a better prognosis than those that arise internally.

Hemangiosarcomas are highly invasive and often metastasize (spread) to other organs, making them difficult to treat. The exact cause of hemangiosarcoma is not known, but exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, and viruses may increase the risk of developing this cancer. Treatment options typically include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy, depending on the location and stage of the tumor.

Prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial device or component, known as a prosthesis, is placed inside the body to replace a missing or damaged body part. The prosthesis can be made from various materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic and is designed to perform the same function as the original body part.

The implantation procedure involves making an incision in the skin to create a pocket where the prosthesis will be placed. The prosthesis is then carefully positioned and secured in place using screws, cement, or other fixation methods. In some cases, tissue from the patient's own body may be used to help anchor the prosthesis.

Once the prosthesis is in place, the incision is closed with sutures or staples, and the area is bandaged. The patient will typically need to undergo rehabilitation and physical therapy to learn how to use the new prosthesis and regain mobility and strength.

Prosthesis implantation is commonly performed for a variety of reasons, including joint replacement due to arthritis or injury, dental implants to replace missing teeth, and breast reconstruction after mastectomy. The specific procedure and recovery time will depend on the type and location of the prosthesis being implanted.

Right Ventricular Function refers to the ability of the right ventricle (RV) of the heart to receive and eject blood during the cardiac cycle. The right ventricle is one of the four chambers of the heart and is responsible for pumping deoxygenated blood from the body to the lungs for re-oxygenation.

Right ventricular function can be assessed by measuring various parameters such as:

1. Right Ventricular Ejection Fraction (RVEF): It is the percentage of blood that is ejected from the right ventricle during each heartbeat. A normal RVEF ranges from 45-75%.
2. Right Ventricular Systolic Function: It refers to the ability of the right ventricle to contract and eject blood during systole (contraction phase). This can be assessed by measuring the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) or tissue Doppler imaging.
3. Right Ventricular Diastolic Function: It refers to the ability of the right ventricle to relax and fill with blood during diastole (relaxation phase). This can be assessed by measuring the right ventricular inflow pattern, tricuspid valve E/A ratio, or deceleration time.
4. Right Ventricular Afterload: It refers to the pressure that the right ventricle must overcome to eject blood into the pulmonary artery. Increased afterload can impair right ventricular function.

Abnormalities in right ventricular function can lead to various cardiovascular conditions such as pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, and arrhythmias.

Tissue adhesives, also known as surgical glues or tissue sealants, are medical devices used to approximate and hold together tissues or wounds in place of traditional sutures or staples. They work by creating a bond between the tissue surfaces, helping to promote healing and reduce the risk of infection. Tissue adhesives can be synthetic or biologically derived and are often used in various surgical procedures, including ophthalmic, dermatological, and pediatric surgeries. Some common types of tissue adhesives include cyanoacrylate-based glues, fibrin sealants, and collagen-based sealants.

The pericardium (PL: pericardia), also called pericardial sac, is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the ... The fibrous pericardium is the outside layer of the pericardium, made up of dense and loose connective tissue. While capable of ... The serous pericardium, in turn, is divided into two parts: The parietal serous pericardium, which lines the interior side of ... The visceral serous pericardium extends to the root of the great vessels and joins the parietal serous pericardium at the ...
The Pericardium has a meridian named for it, which reflects the health of the organ. In terms of the Five Elements, these ... In general theory, the Pericardium is not distinguished from the Heart. It is also the first line of defence against the Heart ... See Zang Fu theory.) The Pericardium is also called the "heart protector", and, for clinical purposes, is considered a yin ... According to traditional Chinese medicine, it is often best to approach the treatment of heart problems via the Pericardium, ...
The Pericardium. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-4419-9137-9. "Chevers, Norman - Biographical entry - ...
Calcification of Pericardium. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1932;50(2):184-191. ---. Pericarditis: III. Pericarditis with Effusion. ...
... the anterior mediastinum being in front of the pericardium, the middle mediastinum contains the pericardium and its contents, ... Bounded: pericardial sac - It contains the vital organs and is classified into the serous and fibrous pericardium. Is bounded: ... Is bounded: laterally by the pleurae; posteriorly by the pericardium; anteriorly by the sternum, the left transversus thoracis ... "Thoracic Wall, Pleura, and Pericardium - Dissector Answers". Archived from the original on September 1, 2012. "Cell Biology and ...
Functions for the Pericardium. J.L. Duomarco; C.E. Giambruno; R. Rimini; Cardiovascular Functions Ed. A. A. Luisada McGraw Hill ... Cardiac retropulsion and zonal pressure of the pericardium. J.L. Duomarco; R. Rimini C.E. Giambruno Acta Physiologica Latino ...
Pericardium attached to diaphragm. More rounded apex of the heart. No pouches in the chaps (unclear). Much larger brain than in ...
The pericardium is light golden. Many individuals from the Sierra de Perijá have a number of irregular black flecks on the ...
Hamman's syndrome Shabetai, Ralph (2003-10-31). The Pericardium - Google Book Search. Springer. ISBN 9781402076398. Retrieved ...
Pericardium - The chamber containing the heart. Periostracum - The epidermal covering of some shells. Pervious - Very narrowly ...
The pericardium is a thick membrane that covers the heart. It consists of two layers: the fibrous pericardium and the serous ... The serous pericardium is thin and covers the heart. It is also called the epicardium. The fibrous pericardium is much thicker ... pericardium. It forms two recesses: the transverse recess and oblique recess. The transverse recess lies behind the aorta and ...
The pericardiacophrenic artery accompanies the phrenic nerve between the pleura and pericardium, to the diaphragm. This is ... The pericardiacophrenic arteries provide arterial supply to the fibrous pericardium, and (along with the musculophrenic ...
The other Yin, or Zang, organs are the lungs (Fei), liver (Gan), spleen (Pi), and heart (Xin). Sometimes the pericardium (Xin ...
Conjoined by their sternum, pericardium, and liver. In 2014, they were separated in Shanghai, China, at the Shanghai Children's ...
Inflammation of the pericardium is called pericarditis. This is caused by infection, renal failure or autoimmune disease. ... When fluid collects slowly, the pericardium can stretch. Thus, a chronic effusion can be as large as 1 liter. Acute effusions ... Trauma can cause blood to fill the pericardium. Cancer can also cause effusions. Whether an effusion causes tamponade depends ...
It is surrounded by the pericardium which holds it in place in the mediastinum and serves to protect it from blunt trauma, ... Jaworska-Wilczynska, Maria; Trzaskoma, Pawel; Szczepankiewicz, Andrzej A.; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz (2016). "Pericardium: structure ...
1833). "Rupture of the Aorta within the Pericardium". The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 8 (7): 103-105. doi:10.1056/ ...
His doctoral thesis On adherent pericardium of rheumatic origin, with cases was written in 1883. Barrs was married to Alice ... George, Barrs, Alfred (1883). "On adherent pericardium of rheumatic origin: with cases". hdl:1842/23706. {{cite journal}}: Cite ...
The pericardium is infiltrated by the fibrinous exudate. This consists of fibrin strands and leukocytes. Fibrin describes an ...
Late gadolinium contrast will show uptake of contrast by the inflamed pericardium. Normal pericardium will not show any ... Surgical removal of the pericardium, pericardiectomy, may be used in severe cases and where the pericarditis is causing ... Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium, the fibrous sac surrounding the heart. Symptoms typically include sudden onset ... EKG or Holter monitor will then depict electrical alternans indicating wobbling of the heart in the fluid filled pericardium, ...
ISBN 978-0-443-06612-2. Skandalakis, editor in chief John E. (2004). "Chapter 7. Pericardium, Heart, and Great Vessels in the ...
The pericardium contained the usual amount of serosity; the heart was pale, but in its natural state. The brain and its ... The lungs adhered to the entire surface of the pleura, diaphragm and pericardium. Their substance was healthy and free of ...
The pericardium was open below and the heart absent. In the abdominal cavity, there was some partly digested food of fish and ...
However this larva has a pericardium and a kidney. Randall & Heath, 1912. Warén A. & Lewis L.M. (1994) Tho new species of ...
Mesothelial pericardium forms the outer lining of the heart. The inner lining of the heart - the endocardium, lymphatic and ... Then mesothelial cells form the pericardium and migrate to form most of the epicardium. Then the heart tube is formed by the ...
with Solomon Solis-Cohen: "Spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumo-pericardium". The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. ...
Ctenidium is positioned a little in front of pericardium. There are 24-25 ctenidial filaments, that are broadly triangular with ...
He died unexpectedly, from an inflammation of the pericardium. Gustav took care of his wife and daughter and completed his ...
The pericardium is the sac that surrounds the heart. The tough outer surface of the pericardium is called the fibrous membrane ... while the part of the serous membrane attached to the heart is known as the visceral pericardium. The pericardium is present in ... The heart is enclosed in a protective sac, the pericardium, which also contains a small amount of fluid. The wall of the heart ... Between the third and fourth week, the heart tube lengthens, and begins to fold to form an S-shape within the pericardium. This ...
Nevertheless, the involvement of pericardium and heart valves are uncommon. The frequency of cardiac involvement varies and is ...
The pericardium (PL: pericardia), also called pericardial sac, is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the ... The fibrous pericardium is the outside layer of the pericardium, made up of dense and loose connective tissue. While capable of ... The serous pericardium, in turn, is divided into two parts: The parietal serous pericardium, which lines the interior side of ... The visceral serous pericardium extends to the root of the great vessels and joins the parietal serous pericardium at the ...
Shunting Procedures on the Heart and Pericardium - Codify by AAPC ... Under Shunting Procedures on the Heart and Pericardium. The ... Shunting Procedures on the Heart and Pericardium. ... Surgical Procedures on the Heart and Pericardium, ...
The 2015 WHO Classification of Tumors of the Heart and Pericardium.. Allen Burke, Fabio Tavora. Journal of Thoracic Oncology ... This article reviews the nomenclature of benign and malignant neoplasm of the heart and pericardium in the 4th edition of the ... with separate sections on germ cell tumours and tumors of the pericardium. There are important updates in the sarcoma ...
... the pericardium, right ventricular dysplasia, and hibernating myocardium. ... Pericardium. Pericardial disease is evaluated initially with echocardiography. The most common reason for imaging is to assess ... Evaluation of the pericardium with echocardiography is limited if no effusion exists or if effusion is complex. ... the pericardium, right ventricular dysplasia, and hibernating myocardium. [2, 3] ...
Spread the wordWestern medical science had typically discounted the TCM, Traditional Chinese Medicine, theory of acupuncture meridians because they could not find physical evidence of such channels. It turns out they were just not looking in the right places. Such … Read More. ...
Tongju Li, Bruce Qing Tang, Wei-Bo Zhang, Minyi Zhao, Qingchuan Hu, Andrew Ahn, In Vivo Visualization of the Pericardium ... and PC7 was associated with slow diffusion of the dye proximally along a path aligning closely with the pericardium meridian. ...
Chaturvedi, S., Yeap, E., & Ramsay, G. (2013). Immediate breast reconstruction using Bovine pericardium after skin sparing ... Immediate breast reconstruction using Bovine pericardium after skin sparing mastectomy. / Chaturvedi, S; Yeap, E.; Ramsay, ... Chaturvedi, S, Yeap, E & Ramsay, G 2013, Immediate breast reconstruction using Bovine pericardium after skin sparing ... title = "Immediate breast reconstruction using Bovine pericardium after skin sparing mastectomy",. author = "S Chaturvedi and E ...
parietal pericardium (anatomy). human cardiovascular system: Pericardium: …pericardium is known as the parietal serous layer ( ... human cardiovascular system: Pericardium: …pericardium is known as the parietal serous layer (parietal pericardium), that ... parietal pericardium), that covering the heart as the visceral serous layer (visceral pericardium or epicardium). ... covering the heart as the visceral serous layer (visceral pericardium or epicardium). ...
Mesothelioma of pericardium. *Mesothelioma of other sites. *Mesothelioma, unspecified. C45 Other Interstitial Pulmonary ...
Pericardium. A1. ND. ND. 13. 1237. baum.. 2001 Mar 12. Giessen. CVK. Dog. Urine. C1. ND. ND. 3. ...
Pericardium,. *Tunica vaginalis testis, and. *Outer surface of ovaries.. It is a rare neoplasm, accounting for less than 5% of ...
Pericardium / embryology * Pericardium / pathology * Phosphorylation * Physical Conditioning, Animal* * Pregnancy Substances * ...
Acute pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium that typically develops suddenly and does not last for long. Learn more ... A sack-like tissue called the pericardium surrounds the heart. Inflammation of the pericardium causes symptoms similar to a ... A chest X-ray: Doctors use these to check for signs of an enlarged heart, which may indicate excess fluid in the pericardium. ... The pericardium consists of two thin layers of tissue. Fluid separate these layers, helping prevent them from rubbing together ...
Table 2. Change in pericardium and diaphragm thickness throughout follow up.. Pericardium Thickness (mm). Pig #3. Pig #4. Pig # ... Other issues involved the measurement of the thickness of the diaphragm and pericardium. The pericardium in pigs generally ... The skin, muscle, pericardium, and lung pleura were also examined for any other collateral damage that might have occurred. ... It is unlikely that the change in pericardium thickness was caused purely by the disease model. On the other hand, the ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License and the GFDL; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details ...
The pericardium is a membrane that surrounds the heart. Pericardial disorders include pericarditis, pericardial effusion, and ... The pericardium is a membrane, or sac, that surrounds your heart. It holds the heart in place and helps it work properly. ... Problems with the pericardium include:. *Pericarditis - an inflammation of the sac. It can be from a virus or other infection, ...
The visceral layer of the pericardium is also called the epicardium. The pericardium is a double-layered sac that surrounds the ... The fibrous layer of pericardium is not part of the heart wall, but rather a separate layer that surrounds and protects the ... A. Fibrous layer of pericardium Explanation. The heart wall is composed of three layers: the epicardium, myocardium, and ...
pericardium and lungs. Ti Hem, brother of. deceased, deposed that he was a gardener, ...
Pericardium. *Valve disease. *Tricuspid valve disease. *Congenital. *Pulmonary and systemic venous anomalies ...
Cellular and Molecular Pathobiology of Cardiovascular Disease focuses on the pathophysiology of common cardiovascular disease in the context of its underlying mechanisms and molecular biology. This book has been developed from the editors experiences teaching an advanced cardiovascular pathology course for PhD trainees in the biomedical sciences, and trainees in cardiology, pathology, public health, and veterinary medicine. No other single text-reference combines clinical cardiology and cardiovascular pathology with enough molecular content for graduate students in both biomedical research and clinical departments. The text is complemented and supported by a rich variety of photomicrographs, diagrams of molecular relationships, and tables. It is uniquely useful to a wide audience of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows in areas from pathology to physiology, genetics, pharmacology, and more, as well as medical residents in pathology, laboratory medicine, internal medicine, cardiovascular ...
Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium. This is the multilayered tissue that surrounds the heart and holds it in place ...
Pericardium. Tuberculous pericarditis is uncommon, but it has a high mortality rate and, therefore, warrants early recognition ... Invasive procedures to obtain specimens from the lung, pericardium, lymph nodes, bones and joints, bowel, salpinges, and ... pericardium, liver, and peritoneum that have been identified as abnormal; biopsies and cultures of bone marrow; or even an ...
26, 28). Pericardium located between pallial cavity and visceral mass (Fig. 26: pc), close to median line and immediately ... 34). Pericardium and posterior portion of right kidney exposed on pallial cavity roof. Stomach and spiral caecum (sc) located 1 ... Left side of pericardium receiving ctenidial vein and right side receiving right pallial vein. Ventricle volume 1/3 of ... 30: ai); anterior region of visceral mass with small loop surrounding kidney and pericardium, exiting in right-posterior corner ...
Several nerves cross the arch, including the left phrenic nerve, as it travels towards the pericardium, and the left vagus ...
o Pericardium 6: It is also called the Wristhand Point, located on the palm side of the forearm, three fingerbreadths above the ...
The Pericardium Heart OEM Blend works through the energy circuits that support physical pericardium heart functions and the ... The pericardium is the physical sack around the heart. It is filled with a fluid that lubricates and protects the physical ... Use Pericardium Heart Organ Energy Meridian (OEM) Essence Blend when you have blood circulation issues or experience heartburn ... The Pericardium Heart blend encourages being fully embodied while joyfully circulating your creative gifts in the world. It ...
Some preferred the "ʇenăn′de uqȼa′ha ȼan" or pericardium(?) of the buffalo, which is like sinew. This does not smell unpleasant ...
  • Drainage: Lateral pericardium and mediastinal pleura. (elsevier.com)
  • These nodes receive afferent vessels that drain the mediastinal pleura and the lateral portion of the pericardium. (elsevier.com)
  • Bovine pericardium has been used to fabricate conduits for vascular reconstruction. (medscape.com)
  • The objective is to evaluate the functionality of the acellularized bovine pericardium in abdominal wall repairs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Method: Thirty patients underwent repair of abdominal wall defects using acellular bovine pericardium bioprostheses, making a total of 40 anatomically individualized implants. (bvsalud.org)
  • The pericardium is a tough fibroelastic sac which covers the heart from all sides except at the cardiac root (where the great vessels join the heart) and the bottom (where only the serous pericardium exists to cover the upper surface of the central tendon of diaphragm). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these are commonly employed in clinical practice-for example, evaluation of congenital heart disease, cardiac masses, the pericardium, right ventricular dysplasia, and hibernating myocardium. (medscape.com)
  • Inflammation of the pericardium is called pericarditis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, pericarditis can become a long-term condition causing scarring of the pericardium which restricts the heart's movement, known as constrictive pericarditis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Constrictive pericarditis is sometimes treated by surgically removing the pericardium in a procedure called a pericardiectomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1% of patients with pericarditis developing pyo-pericardium. (cheapebooks.org)
  • Acute pericarditis is a condition in which inflammation occurs in the pericardium, the fluid-filled sac that surrounds the heart. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Acute pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium that lasts fewer than 4-6 weeks . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The pericardium sets the heart in mediastinum and limits its motion, protects it from infection, lubricates it and prevents excessive dilation in cases of acute volume overload. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pericardium (PL: pericardia), also called pericardial sac, is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The serous pericardium, in turn, is divided into two parts: The parietal serous pericardium, which lines the interior side of the superficial portion of the pericardial sac, is fused to and inseparable from the fibrous pericardium The visceral serous pericardium, also known as the epicardium, covers the myocardium of the heart and can be considered its serosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyo-pericardium is a collection of purulent fluid in the pericardial sac. (cheapebooks.org)
  • The right phrenic nerve passes to the right of the pericardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The left phrenic nerve passes over the pericardium of the left ventricle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lateral pericardial lymph nodes are located along the lateral side of the pericardium and accompany the phrenic nerve and pericardiacophrenic vessels. (elsevier.com)
  • In Acupuncture however, the Pericardium has it's own meridian and is just as important as the heart Channel itself. (sacredlotus.com)
  • In this study, injection of fluorescein sodium into acupuncture points PC5, PC6, and PC7 was associated with slow diffusion of the dye proximally along a path aligning closely with the pericardium meridian. (phoebustian.com)
  • It has two layers, an outer layer made of strong inelastic connective tissue (fibrous pericardium), and an inner layer made of serous membrane (serous pericardium). (wikipedia.org)
  • The same mesothelium that constitutes the serous pericardium also covers the heart as the epicardium, resulting in a continuous serous membrane invaginated onto itself as two opposing surfaces (over the fibrous pericardium and over the heart). (wikipedia.org)
  • The pericardium is a membrane, or sac, that surrounds your heart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The pericardium membrane is an appropriate component for augmentation of the alveolar ridge deficiency. (teikyomedicaljournal.com)
  • To determine and explain the influence of the pericardium membrane on the adsorption rate of blood type O in chitosan powder sizes 150-355 μm. (teikyomedicaljournal.com)
  • 14 chitosan samples measuring 150-355 m were separated into two groups: the control group, which included 7 samples of chitosan with pericardium membrane and 7 samples of chitosan without pericardium membrane, and the treatment group, which included 7 samples of chitosan without pericardium membrane. (teikyomedicaljournal.com)
  • It most often affects the lungs, liver, and bone marrow but may affect any organ, including the tissues that cover the brain and spinal cord (meninges) and the two-layered membrane around the heart (pericardium). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Pericardial arteries supply blood to the dorsal portion of the pericardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The visceral serous pericardium extends to the root of the great vessels and joins the parietal serous pericardium at the anatomical base of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Current Procedural Terminology (CPT ® ) code 33762 as maintained by American Medical Association, is a medical procedural code under the range - Shunting Procedures on the Heart and Pericardium. (aapc.com)
  • The pericardium is capable of being attacked by exogenous Heat, but the Heart is not (directly). (sacredlotus.com)
  • In TCM theory and herbology, this is the only way the Pericardium is usually distinguished from the Heart. (sacredlotus.com)
  • Many points on the Pericardium Channel are used to treat the Heart, and many strongly influence the mental state. (sacredlotus.com)
  • The function of the pericardium is to hold a person's heart in place and to avoid friction as the organ beats. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The root of the great vessels and the associated reflections of the serous pericardium creates various smaller sacs and tunnels known as pericardial sinuses, as well as radiographically significant pericardial recesses, where pericardial fluid can pool and mimic mediastinal lymphadenopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fibrous pericardium is the outside layer of the pericardium, made up of dense and loose connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pericardium consists of two thin layers of tissue. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pericardial window, in addition to promoting pericardial drainage, can also provide samples of the pericardium for anatomopathological examination. (nih.gov)
  • Most of the reported cases in the literature describe the occurrence of pyo-pericardium in IV drug users that's secondary to needle fragment embolization to the pericardium diagnosed through an echocardiogram and CT scan with no evidence of bacteremia. (cheapebooks.org)
  • A fistula was detected between the liver and pericardium on computed tomography (CT) scan of the torso. (gazi.edu.tr)
  • Pericardium influences relationships with other people: Points on its channel are often used to treat emotional problems from relationship issues. (sacredlotus.com)
  • Unlike reported cases, we present a case of pyo-pericardium in a 37-year-old woman with bacteremia from a wound infection on her leg secondary to IV drug use. (cheapebooks.org)
  • Review of chest radiographs revealed calcifications in the pleura and noncircumferential calcification of the pericardium. (nih.gov)
  • Late gadolinium enhancement revealed marked enhancement of the pericardium with no enhancement of parietal or visceral pleura despite large pleural effusions (Figure 3-A), consistent with primary pericardial inflammation with secondary pleural effusions. (scmr.org)
  • Figure 3: Late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance image (Panel A) of inflamed pericardium (arrow) and noninflamed pleura, but reactive pleural effusion. (scmr.org)
  • Native bovine pericardium (BP) exhibits anisotropy of its surface ECM niches, with the serous surface (i.e., parietal pericardium) containing basement membrane components (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • Bovine pericardium (BP) is an important biomaterial used in the production of glutaraldehyde-fixed heart valves and tissue-engineering applications. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Pericardial effusion is when fluid accumulates in the pericardium of the dog. (aquaticcommunity.com)
  • Echocardiogram (Figure 2) revealed enlarged atria with normal ventricles, valves and pericardium. (scmr.org)
  • Similar to pleural thickening and plaque formation, asbestos may cause progressive fibrosis of the pericardium. (nih.gov)
  • Pericardiocentesis removes extra fluid in the pericardium. (nih.gov)
  • The complete or the partial absence of pericardium is a rare congenital malformation for which the patients are commonly asymptomatic and the diagnosis is incidental. (rbccv.org.br)
  • The absence of pericardium is a rare congenital malformation generally characterized by non-specific symptoms. (rbccv.org.br)
  • The majority of clinical cases reported in the literature showed that the congenital absence of pericardium (CAP) includes a total absence of pericardium and complete or partial absence of the left or the right side of the pericardium. (rbccv.org.br)
  • Rarely, the pericardium is missing at birth or has defects, such as weak spots or holes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The most common primary malignant tumor of the heart and pericardium is sarcoma. (medscape.com)
  • 3. Angiocardiographic demonstration of a partial defect of the pericardium with herniation of the left atrium and ventricle. (nih.gov)
  • How to play Operate Now: Pericardium Surgery? (miniplay.com)
  • Put your surgeon skills to test taking part in this pericardium surgery. (miniplay.com)
  • Doctors do surgery to fix the hole or remove the pericardium. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A high-resolution computerized tomography scan of the chest demonstrated dense calcification in the pericardium, right pleural thickening and nodularity, right pleural plaque without calcification, and density in the right middle lobe. (nih.gov)
  • The absence of the left side of the pericardium is the most common anomaly that is reported in the literature while the complete absence of pericardium or the absence of the right side of the pericardium are uncommon and their criteria are still unrecognized given their rare occurrence in clinical practice. (rbccv.org.br)
  • Pericardium: structure and function in health and disease. (nih.gov)