A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.
Surgical excision (total or partial) of a portion of the pericardium. Pericardiotomy refers to incision of the pericardium.
Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.
Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM that is characterized by the fibrous scarring and adhesion of both serous layers, the VISCERAL PERICARDIUM and the PARIETAL PERICARDIUM leading to the loss of pericardial cavity. The thickened pericardium severely restricts cardiac filling. Clinical signs include FATIGUE, muscle wasting, and WEIGHT LOSS.
Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM from various origins, such as infection, neoplasm, autoimmune process, injuries, or drug-induced. Pericarditis usually leads to PERICARDIAL EFFUSION, or CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS.
Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.
Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
Surgical insertion of cylindric hydraulic devices for the treatment of organic ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.
The inferior and superior venae cavae.
Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
Presence of air or gas in the space between the heart and the PERICARDIUM. The degree of respiratory distress depends on the amount of trapped air and circulation blocked in the systemic and pulmonary veins.
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
General or unspecified injuries to the heart.
Puncture and aspiration of fluid from the PERICARDIUM.
Surgery performed on the heart.
General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.
CONNECTIVE TISSUE of the anterior compartment of the THIGH that has its origins on the anterior aspect of the iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine, and its insertion point on the iliotibial tract. It plays a role in medial rotation of the THIGH, steadying the trunk, and in KNEE extension.
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.
Making an incision in the STERNUM.
The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.
Surgical construction of an opening or window in the pericardium. It is often called subxiphoid pericardial window technique.
A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.
Devices, usually incorporating unidirectional valves, which are surgically inserted in the sclera to maintain normal intraocular pressure.
Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
A general term for a malignant neoplasm derived from muscular tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Any type of abortion, induced or spontaneous, that is associated with infection of the UTERUS and its appendages. It is characterized by FEVER, uterine tenderness, and foul discharge.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.
Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.
A tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).
Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).
Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
INFLAMMATION of the sac surrounding the heart (PERICARDIUM) due to MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS infection. Pericarditis can lead to swelling (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION), compression of the heart (CARDIAC TAMPONADE), and preventing normal beating of the heart.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images with greater access to secondary consultations and improved continuing education. (From American College of Radiology, ACR Standard for Teleradiology, 1994, p3)
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Protrusion of tissue, structure, or part of an organ through the bone, muscular tissue, or the membrane by which it is normally contained. Hernia may involve tissues such as the ABDOMINAL WALL or the respiratory DIAPHRAGM. Hernias may be internal, external, congenital, or acquired.
The tendinous cords that connect each cusp of the two atrioventricular HEART VALVES to appropriate PAPILLARY MUSCLES in the HEART VENTRICLES, preventing the valves from reversing themselves when the ventricles contract.
A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.
The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.
Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.
Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.

Coronary vasodilator effects of BNP: mechanisms of action in coronary conductance and resistance arteries. (1/1602)

Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), a hormone secreted predominantly in ventricular myocytes, may influence coronary vascular tone. We studied the coronary vasodilatory response to BNP under physiological conditions and after preconstriction with endothelin-1 (ET-1) in anesthetized pigs. Average peak-flow velocity (APV) was measured using intracoronary Doppler, and cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured using intravascular ultrasound. Coronary blood flow (CBF) was calculated. Intracoronary BNP induced dose-dependent increases in CSA, APV, and CBF similar in magnitude to those induced by nitroglycerin (NTG). The magnitude of BNP-induced vasodilation was accentuated after preconstriction with ET-1. Pretreatment with either the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin attenuated the coronary vasodilator effect of BNP in resistance arteries without influencing epicardial vasodilation. Pretreatment with the ATP-sensitive potassium-channel blocker glibenclamide enhanced epicardial vasodilation in response to BNP. We conclude that BNP exerts coronary vasodilator effects, predominantly in epicardial conductance vessels. An accentuated vasodilatory response to BNP occurs in ET-1-preconstricted arteries. BNP-induced vasodilation in coronary resistance arteries may be partially mediated via nitric oxide and/or prostaglandin release.  (+info)

Regional electrophysiological effects of hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia and hyponatraemia in isolated rabbit hearts in normal and ischaemic conditions. (2/1602)

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to establish an isolated working heart model for electrophysiological recordings from the epicardium and endocardium and to examine regional effects of changes in ion concentrations in normal and ischaemic conditions. METHODS: Monophasic action potential duration (MAPD90), effective refractory period (ERP) and conduction delay were measured simultaneously in the epicardium and endocardium of rabbit hearts paced at 3.3 Hz, subjected to 30 min of regional ischaemia and 15 min of reperfusion. The hearts were exposed before and throughout ischaemia and reperfusion to hypokalaemia (K+ = 2 mM), hypomagnesaemia (Mg2+ = 0.5 mM) or hyponatraemia (Na+ = 110 mM). RESULTS: In the control hearts, no regional electrophysiological differences were seen before ischaemia, but ischaemia-induced MAPD90 shortening and postrepolarisation refractoriness were greater in the epicardium than in the endocardium and conduction delay increased only in the epicardium. Hypokalaemia shortened ERP in the epicardium (but not endocardium) and increased conduction delay in all areas before ischaemia, but it had no effects during ischaemia. During reperfusion hypokalaemia increased the incidence of recurrent tachyarrhythmias. Hypomagnesaemia had no effect before ischaemia, increased epicardial (but not endocardial) MAPD90 shortening during ischaemia, although it had no pro-arrhythmic action. Hyponatraemia increased conduction delay in all areas before ischaemia and produced asystole or severe bradycardia in all hearts. During ischaemia, hyponatraemia decreased ERP shortening and inducibility of arrhythmias in the epicardium (but not endocardium). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the more pronounced effect of ischaemia upon the epicardium than the endocardium can be explained by the contact of the endocardium with intracavitary perfusate. We also conclude that changes in ion concentrations may have differential regional electrical effects in normal or ischaemic conditions.  (+info)

Abnormal flow-mediated epicardial vasomotion in human coronary arteries is improved by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition: a potential role of bradykinin. (3/1602)

OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to determine whether angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition improves endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation in patients with atherosclerosis or its risk factors and whether this is mediated by enhanced bradykinin activity. BACKGROUND: Abnormal coronary vasomotion due to endothelial dysfunction contributes to myocardial ischemia in patients with atherosclerosis, and its reversal may have an antiischemic action. Previous studies have shown that ACE inhibition improves coronary endothelial responses to acetylcholine, but whether this is accompanied by improved responses to shear stress remains unknown. METHODS: In 19 patients with mild atherosclerosis, metabolic vasodilation was assessed during cardiac pacing. Pacing was repeated during separate intracoronary infusions of low-dose bradykinin (BK) and enalaprilat. Endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation was estimated with intracoronary BK and sodium nitroprusside respectively. RESULTS: Enalaprilat did not alter either resting coronary vascular tone or dilation with sodium nitroprusside, but potentiated BK-mediated dilation. Epicardial segments that constricted abnormally with pacing (-5+/-1%) dilated (3+/-2%) with pacing in the presence of enalaprilat (p = 0.002). Similarly, BK at a concentration (62.5 ng/min) that did not alter resting diameter in the constricting segments also improved the abnormal response to a 6+/-1% dilation (p < 0.001). Cardiac pacing-induced reduction in coronary vascular resistance of 27+/-4% (p < 0.001) remained unchanged after enalaprilat. CONCLUSIONS: Thus ACE inhibition: A) selectively improved endothelium-dependent but not-independent dilation, and B) abolished abnormal flow-mediated epicardial vasomotion in patients with endothelial dysfunction, in part, by increasing endogenous BK activity.  (+info)

Bulbus arteriosus of the antarctic teleosts. I. The white-blooded Chionodraco hamatus. (4/1602)

The bulbus arteriosus of teleost fish is a thick-walled chamber that extends between the single ventricle and the ventral aorta. The functional importance of the bulbus resides in the fact that it maintains a steady blood flow into the gill system through heart contraction. Despite of this, a thorough study of the structure of the bulbus in teleost fish is still lacking. We have undertaken a morphologic study of the bulbus arteriosus in the stenothermal teleosts of the Antarctic sea. The structural organization of the bulbus arteriosus of the icefish Chionodraco hamatus has been studied here by conventional light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The inner surface of the bulbus shows a festooned appearance due to the presence of longitudinal, unbranched ridges that extend between the ventricle and the arterial trunk. The wall of the bulbus is divided into endocardial, subendocardial, middle, and external layers. Endocardial cells show a large number of moderately-dense bodies. The endocardium invaginates into the subendocardium forming solid epithelial cords that contain numerous secretory vacuoles. Cells in the subendocardium group into small domains, have some of the morphological characteristics of smooth muscle cells, and appear enmeshed in a three-dimensional network of matrix filaments. Cells in the middle layer are typical smooth muscle cells. They appear arranged into layers and are surrounded by a filamentous meshwork that excludes collagen fibers. Orientation of this meshwork occurs in the vicinity of the smooth muscle cells. Elastin fibers are never observed. The external layer is formed by wavy collagen bundles and fibroblast-like cells. This layer lacks blood vessels and nerve fibers. The endocardium and the endocardium-derived cords are secretory epithelia that may be involved in the formation ofmucins or glycosaminoglycans. These mucins may have a protecting effect on the endocardium. The subendocardium and the middle layer appear to be formed by the same cell type, smooth muscle, with a gradient of differentiation from the secretory (subendocardium) to the contractile (middle layer) phenotype. Despite the absence of elastin fibers, the filamentous matrix could maintain the elastic properties of the bulbus wall. Smooth muscle cells appear to be actively involved in bulbus wall dynamics. The restriction of collagen to the external layer suggests that it may control wall dilatation and bulbus compliance. When comparison was possible, structural differences between C. hamatus and temperate teleosts seemed to be not species-related, but of phenotypic adaptative significance. This is remarkable since Antarctic fishes have lived isolated in freezing waters for the last two million years.  (+info)

YAC complementation shows a requirement for Wt1 in the development of epicardium, adrenal gland and throughout nephrogenesis. (5/1602)

The Wilms' Tumour gene WT1 has important functions during development. Knock-out mice were shown to have defects in the urogenital system and to die at embryonic day E13.5, probably due to heart failure. Using a lacZ reporter gene inserted into a YAC construct, we demonstrate that WT1 is expressed in the early proepicardium, the epicardium and the subepicardial mesenchymal cells (SEMC). Lack of WT1 leads to severe defects in the epicardial layer and a concomitant absence of SEMCs, which explains the pericardial bleeding and subsequent embryonic death observed in Wt1 null embryos. We further show that a human-derived WT1 YAC construct is able to completely rescue heart defects, but only partially rescues defects in the urogenital system. Analysis of the observed hypoplastic kidneys demonstrate a continuous requirement for WT1 during nephrogenesis, in particular, in the formation of mature glomeruli. Finally, we show that the development of adrenal glands is also severely affected in partially rescued embryos. These data demonstrate a variety of new functions for WT1 and suggest a general requirement for this protein in the formation of organs derived from the intermediate mesoderm.  (+info)

Correlation of ventricular mechanosensory neurite activity with myocardial sensory field deformation. (6/1602)

The mechanosensory activity generated by ventricular epicardial sensory neurites associated with afferent axons in thoracic sympathetic nerves was correlated with sensory field deformation (long axis, short axis, and transmural dimension changes), regional intramyocardial pressure, and ventricular chamber pressure in anesthetized dogs. Ventricular mechanosensory neurites generated activity that correlated best with strain developed along either the long or short axis of their epicardial sensory fields in most instances. Activity did not correlate normally to local wall thickness or to regional wall or chamber pressure development in most cases. During premature ventricular contractions, the activity generated by these sensory neurites correlated best with maximum strain developed along at least one sensory field epicardial vector. Identified sensory neurites were also activated by local application of the chemical bradykinin (10 microM) or by local ischemia. These data indicate that the activity generated by most ischemia-sensitive ventricular epicardial sensory neurites associated with afferent axons in sympathetic nerves is dependent on not only their local chemical milieu but on local mechanical deformation along at least one epicardial vector of their sensory fields.  (+info)

Transient outward current, Ito1, is altered in cardiac memory. (7/1602)

BACKGROUND: Cardiac memory refers to an altered T-wave morphology induced by ventricular pacing or arrhythmias that persist for variable intervals after resumption of sinus rhythm. METHODS AND RESULTS: We induced long-term cardiac memory (LTM) in conscious dogs by pacing the ventricles at 120 bpm for 3 weeks. ECGs were recorded daily for 1 hour, during which time pacing was discontinued. At terminal study, the heart was removed and the electrophysiology of left ventricular epicardial myocytes was investigated. Control (C) and LTM ECG did not differ, except for T-wave amplitude, which decreased from 0.12+/-0.18 to -0.34+/-0.21 mV (+/-SEM, P<0.05), and T-wave vector, which shifted from -37+/-12 degrees to -143+/-4 degrees (P<0.05). Epicardial action potentials revealed loss of the notch and lengthening of duration at 20 days (both P<0.05). Calcium-insensitive transient outward current (Ito) was investigated by whole-cell patch clamp. No difference in capacitance was seen in C and LTM myocytes. Ito activated on membrane depolarization to -25+/-1 mV in C and -7+/-1 mV (P<0.05) in LTM myocytes, indicating a positive voltage shift of activation. Ito density was reduced in LTM myocytes, and a decreased mRNA level for Kv4.3 was observed. Recovery of Ito from inactivation was significantly prolonged: it was 531+/-80 ms (n=10) in LTM and 27+/-6 ms (n=9) in C (P<0.05) at -65 mV. CONCLUSIONS: Ito changes are associated with and can provide at least a partial explanation for action-potential and T-wave changes occurring with LTM.  (+info)

A role for serum response factor in coronary smooth muscle differentiation from proepicardial cells. (8/1602)

Coronary artery smooth muscle (SM) cells originate from proepicardial cells that migrate over the surface of the heart, undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transformation and invade the subepicardial and cardiac matrix. Prior to contact with the heart, proepicardial cells exhibit no expression of smooth muscle markers including SMalphaactin, SM22alpha, calponin, SMgammaactin or SM-myosin heavy chain detectable by RT-PCR or by immunostaining. To identify factors required for coronary smooth muscle differentiation, we excised proepicardial cells from Hamburger-Hamilton stage-17 quail embryos and examined them ex vivo. Proepicardial cells initially formed an epithelial colony that was uniformly positive for cytokeratin, an epicardial marker. Transcripts for flk-1, Nkx 2.5, GATA4 or smooth muscle markers were undetectable, indicating an absence of endothelial, myocardial or preformed smooth muscle cells. By 24 hours, cytokeratin-positive cells became SMalphaactin-positive. Moreover, serum response factor, undetectable in freshly isolated proepicardial cells, became strongly expressed in virtually all epicardial cells. By 72 hours, a subset of epicardial cells exhibited a rearrangement of cytoskeletal actin, focal adhesion formation and acquisition of a motile phenotype. Coordinately with mesenchymal transformation, calponin, SM22alpha and SMgammaactin became expressed. By 5-10 days, SM-myosin heavy chain mRNA was found, by which time nearly all cells had become mesenchymal. RT-PCR showed that large increases in serum response factor expression coincide with smooth muscle differentiation in vitro. Two different dominant-negative serum response factor constructs prevented the appearance of calponin-, SM22alpha- and SMgammaactin-positive cells. By contrast, dominant-negative serum response factor did not block mesenchymal transformation nor significantly reduce the number of cytokeratin-positive cells. These results indicate that the stepwise differentiation of coronary smooth muscle cells from proepicardial cells requires transcriptionally active serum response factor.  (+info)

Increased pericardial adipose tissue is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was independently associated with larger pericardial adipose tissue volume and to explore possible HIV-specific risk factors. Persons with HIV (PWH) were recruited from the Copenhagen Comorbidity in HIV Infection (COCOMO) Study and matched 1:1 on age and sex to uninfected controls. Pericardial adipose tissue volume was measured using cardiac computed tomography. A total of 587 PWH and 587 controls were included. Median age was 52 years, and 88% were male. Human immunodeficiency virus status was independently associated with 17 mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 10-23; P < .001) larger pericardial adipose tissue volume. Larger pericardial adipose tissue volume was associated with low CD4+ nadir and prior use of stavudine, didanosine, and indinavir. Among PWH without thymidine analogue or didanosine exposure, time since initiating ...
Epicardial derivatives, including vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac fibroblasts, are crucial for proper development of the coronary vasculature and cardiac fibrous matrix, both of which support myocardial integrity and function in the normal heart. Epicardial formation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and epicardium-derived cell (EPDC) differentiation are precisely regulated by complex interactions among signaling molecules and transcription factors. Here we review the roles of critical transcription factors that are required for specific aspects of epicardial development, EMT, and EPDC lineage specification in development and disease. Epicardial cells and subepicardial EPDCs express transcription factors including Wt1, Tcf21, Tbx18, and Nfatc1. As EPDCs invade the myocardium, epicardial progenitor transcription factors such as Wt1 are downregulated. EPDC differentiation into SMC and fibroblast lineages is precisely regulated by a complex network of transcription factors, including
There is great discussion about non-confluent pulmonary artery (PA) reconstruction, and several materials have been used. Autologous pericardium is considered feasible for infectious resistance, autoimmune response, extensibility, and growth potential. The patient was born at 39 weeks (body mass = 2550 g). He was diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, non-confluent PA, and bilateral patent ductus arteriosus. Right and left Blalock-Taussig shunts with patent ductus arteriosus ligations were placed on day 27 and 3 months, respectively. At 19 months (8.8 kg), definitive repair was performed with tricuspid valved conduit concurrent with PA reconstruction using an autologous pericardium roll conduit. The autologous pericardium was treated with glutaraldehyde (autologous pericardium fixed with 0.4% glutaraldehyde for 7 min and rolled as conduit - 12 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length). Following an incision on the visceral side of the PAs before the 1st branch, the autologous pericardial roll
The epicardium is derived from the proepicardial organ, a source of multipotent progenitor cells. Epicardium contribution to the developing coronary vasculature and to cardiac interstitial cells has been established. Studies over the past several years have suggested that epicardium-derived cells can adopt cardiomyocyte and vascular smooth muscle fates and can contribute to cardiac repair when activated by injury.1,2 Recently, Chong et al3 have provided a detailed characterization of a population of epicardium-derived multipotent cardiac progenitor cells (cCFU-Fs). These cells, which do not arise from the bone marrow, neural crest, or myocardium, resemble mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and may participate in cardiac development, homeostasis, and repair.3. During early cardiac development, cells derived from the proepicardial organ (a cluster of cells located dorsal and adjacent to the looped heart tube) migrate over the myocardium to form the epicardium. Subsequently, epicardium-derived ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adiponectin expression in human epicardial adipose tissue in vivo is lower in patients with coronary artery disease. AU - Iacobellis, Gianluca. AU - Pistilli, Daniela. AU - Gucciardo, Marco. AU - Leonetti, Frida. AU - Miraldi, Fabio. AU - Brancaccio, Gianluca. AU - Gallo, Pietro. AU - Tiziana Di Gioia, Cira Rosaria. PY - 2005/3/21. Y1 - 2005/3/21. N2 - Background: Intra-peritoneal adipose tissue is recognized as a predictor of metabolic syndrome and may contribute to the risk for cardiovascular disease by the production of adipocytokines, including adiponectin. Nevertheless, there is no knowledge on whether other visceral depots of adipose tissue, including the epicardial fat, have any metabolically active role, including production of adiponectin. Aim of the study: We sought to evaluate adiponectin protein expression in epicardial adipose tissue in vivo both in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) and in subjects without CAD. Methods: Twenty-two patients were ...
1. Stollerman GH. Rheumatic fever. Lancet. 1997;349(9056):935-42. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)06364-7.. 2. Fleming HA, Bailey SM. Mitral valve disease, systemic embolism and anticoagulants. Postgrad Med J. 1971;47(551):599-604. doi:10.1136/pgmj.47.551.599. [MedLine]. 3. Iacobellis G, Corradi D, Sharma AM. Epicardial adipose tissue: anatomic, biomolecular and clinical relationships with the heart. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med. 2005;2(10):536-43. doi:10.1038/ncpcardio0319.. 4. Rabkin SW. Epicardial fat: properties, function and relationship to obesity. Obes Rev. 2007;8(3):253-61. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00293.x.. 5. Sacks HS, Fain JN. Human epicardial adipose tissue: a review. Am Heart J. 2007;153(6):907-17. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2007.03.019.. 6. Seo JA, Kim BG, Cho H, Kim HS, Park J, Baik SH, et al. The cutoff values of visceral fat area and waist circumference for identifying subjects at risk for metabolic syndrome in elderly Korean: Ansan geriatric (AGE) cohort study. BMC Public Health. ...
Autologous pericardium either fixed or unfixed is harvested during cardiovascular procedures and has been used in the surgical reconstruction of many different areas. Using autologous pericardium as a patch material has multiple advantages such as ready availability, conformability, nonporosity, and lack of bleeding through needle holes. It may also be less likely to cause thrombosis or hemolysis. The unfixed autologous pericardium is a low-cost biomaterial that is free of donor-derived pathogens, does not provoke an immune response, and is easy to access. However, it has poor handling characteristics,[6] and the clinical use of fresh autologous pericardium in cardiovascular surgery is limited because of uncertain factors such as the onset of tissue shrinkage or stretching several years after implantation. The implants may become fibrotic and retracted, exhibiting progressive thinning with dilatation and aneurysm.[7] Retraction and fibrosis were observed when fresh pericardium was used as a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship of epicardial adipose tissue with atrial dimensions and diastolic function in morbidly obese subjects. AU - Iacobellis, Gianluca. AU - Leonetti, Frida. AU - Singh, Navneet. AU - M Sharma, Arya. PY - 2007/2/7. Y1 - 2007/2/7. N2 - Obesity is associated with atrial dilation and diastolic dysfunction although the causative mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study we showed for the first time that increase in epicardial fat thickness is significantly correlated with atria enlargement and impairment in diastolic filling in morbidly obese subjects.. AB - Obesity is associated with atrial dilation and diastolic dysfunction although the causative mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study we showed for the first time that increase in epicardial fat thickness is significantly correlated with atria enlargement and impairment in diastolic filling in morbidly obese subjects.. KW - Diastole. KW - Epicardial adipose tissue. KW - Epicardial fat. KW - ...
Epicardial fat is true visceral fat deposited around sub epicardial coronary vessels; it has been implicated in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. Epicardial fat has been also associated with insulin resistance. Trans thoracic echocardiography provides a reliable measurement of epicardial fat thickness. Objective: To evaluate the association between epicardial fat thickness with metabolic syndrome and anthropometric parameters of adiposity. Methods: We assessed 70 patients who underwent echocardiography; the epicardial fat thickness on the free wall of the right ventricle was measured at end-diastole from the parasternal long-axis views of 3 cardiac cycles with Aloka Alfa 6 equipment (Japan), by 2 cardiologists who were unaware of the clinical data. Metabolic syndrome was defined according with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The association between epicardial fat thicknesses with metabolic syndrome was evaluated with the fisher exact test, whereas its correlation with body
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Background and aims Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a source of a number of cytokines which could act in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The potential relationship between known cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, dyslipidaemia or diabetes mellitus and EAT humoral signalling, has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we designed and conducted a cross-sectional study to determine whether selected cardiovascular risk factors are linked to levels of cytokines in epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Methods Samples of SAT and EAT were collected from consecutive patients undergoing scheduled cardiac surgery. Tissue concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin were determined by ELISA. Results We enrolled 140 patients. TNF-alpha and IL-6 concentrations in EAT and SAT were significantly higher in current smokers (CS) than in never smokers (NS) and former ...
The name Pericardium comes from Latin Peri (around) and Cardium (heart). Often translated from Chinese as Heart Protector, Spirit Protector, or Circulation/Sex the Pericardium is associated with the Fire element and the Heart. The Pericardium protects the Heart from emotional trauma, constricts the chest to protect the Heart, and helps to express the Joy of the Heart. The pericardium helps regulate circulation in the major blood vessels running in and out of the heart. The network of the Pericardium includes the pericardial sac, the Pericardium meridian, the small intestine, and parts of the brain associated with the Pericardium channel.. Pericardium Psycho-spiritual qualities: One could say the function of the Pericardium is primarily psychological, as it rules our relationships and the emotional issues around them. Emotionally, pericardium energy is related to the loving feelings associated with sex, thereby linking the physical and emotional aspects of sexual activity. It does this by ...
The amount of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), a component of body visceral adiposity, has been linked to the presence and severity of cardiovascular disease through multiple mechanisms. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by insulin resistance and subclinical inflammation, which participate in the mechanism of atherosclerosis. We searched if the patients with PCOS have increased EAT thickness (EATT), along with its relation to the measures of adiposity and insulin sensitivity. A total of 41 subjects with PCOS and 46 age and body mass index (BMI) matched healthy controls were enrolled. EAT was measured by echocardiography above the free wall of the right ventricle. Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) formula, and plasma adiponectin level was measured by ELISA. Compared to healthy controls EATT and HOMA-IR score were significantly higher (p=0.0001 for both) while plasma adiponectin concentration was significantly lower ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantification of epicardial adipose tissue in patients undergoing hybrid ablation for atrial fibrillation. AU - Vroomen, Mindy. AU - Olsthoorn, Jules R.. AU - Maesen, Bart. AU - LEspoir, Vladimir. AU - La Meir, Mark. AU - Das, Marco. AU - Maessen, Jos G.. AU - Crijns, Harry J. G. M.. AU - Verheule, Sander. AU - Pison, Laurent. PY - 2019/7. Y1 - 2019/7. KW - Atrial fibrillation. KW - Epicardial adipose tissue. KW - Epicardial fat. KW - Hybrid ablation. KW - Outcome. KW - PERICARDIAL FAT. KW - CATHETER. U2 - 10.1093/ejcts/ezy472. DO - 10.1093/ejcts/ezy472. M3 - Article. C2 - 30753389. VL - 56. SP - 79. EP - 86. JO - European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. JF - European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. SN - 1010-7940. IS - 1. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of location of epicardial adipose tissue, measured by coronary artery calcium-scoring computed tomography on obstructive coronary artery disease. AU - Wu, Fu Zong. AU - Huang, Yi Luan. AU - Wang, Yen Chi. AU - Lin, Huey Shyan. AU - Chen, Chien Shung. AU - Ju, Yu Jen. AU - Chiou, Kuan Rau. AU - Cheng, Chin Chang. AU - Wu, Ming Ting. PY - 2013/10/1. Y1 - 2013/10/1. N2 - Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. However, whether total EAT volume or location-specific EAT thickness may be a better predictor of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) is inconclusive. We investigated whether the total volume or location-specific thickness of EAT measured on computed tomography (CT) could be a useful marker of CAD on top of clinical risk factors and Agatston score. Two hundred eight consecutive subjects with clinical suspicion of CAD receiving coronary arterial calcium (CAC)-scoring CT and CT coronary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epicardial Adipose Tissue Removal Potentiates Outward Remodeling and Arrests Coronary Atherogenesis. AU - McKenney-Drake, Mikaela L.. AU - Rodenbeck, Stacey D.. AU - Bruning, Rebecca S.. AU - Kole, Ayeeshik. AU - Yancey, Kyle W.. AU - Alloosh, Mouhamad. AU - Sacks, Harold S.. AU - Sturek, Michael. PY - 2017/5. Y1 - 2017/5. N2 - Background Pericoronary epicardial adipose tissue (cEAT) serves as a metabolic and paracrine organ that contributes to inflammation and is associated with macrovascular coronary artery disease (CAD) development. Although there is a strong correlation in humans between cEAT volume and CAD severity, there remains a paucity of experimental data demonstrating a causal link of cEAT to CAD. The current study tested the hypothesis that surgical resection of cEAT attenuates inflammation and CAD progression. Methods Female Ossabaw miniature swine (n = 12) were fed an atherogenic diet for 8 months and randomly allocated into sham (n = 5) or adipectomy (n = 7) ...
In this study there was a positive correlation between improvement of left ventricular function and decrease of pericardial fat around heart. This improvement of left ventricular function happened rapidly, after only eight weeks on VLCD. However, the mechanism behind this phenomenon is unknown.. Pericardial fat is located between visceral and parietal pericardium. The anatomical close connection between excess fat around the heart might increase the weight of the left ventricle thus increasing the effort of involved in pumping.. Epicardial fat and pericardial fat are embryologically different. Vascularization is also different between these two layers. Vascularization for the epicardial adipose tissue is supplied by branches of the coronary arteries. Pericardial adipose tissue gets its Vascularization from non-coronary sources. At least one part of epicardial fat is physiological. However, excess epicardial fat that is seen in many obese persons may be harmful on heart function.. The fat around ...
This gene is a member of the caudal-related homeobox transcription factor family. The encoded DNA-binding protein regulates intestine-specific gene expression and enterocyte differentiation. It has been shown to induce expression of the intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene, and inhibit beta-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity.[2] CDX1 has also been shown to play an important role in embryonic epicardial development. It has been demonstrated that CDX proteins suppress cardiac differentiation in both zebrafish and mouse embryonic stem cells, but the overall mechanism for how this happens is poorly understood.[5] However, CDX1 has been shown to be transiently expressed in the embryonic heart 11.5 days post coitum (dpc). This transient expression is thought to induce epicardial epithelial-to-mesynchemal transition and thus proper cardiovascular formation. It has been shown that low-dose CDX1 induction caused enhanced migration and differentiation of epicardium-derived cells into vascular ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) adipose tissues with myocardial function in type 2 diabetes (T2D). EAT and PAT were measured by ultrasound in 770 patients with T2D and 234 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic controls. Echocardiography was performed, including tissue Doppler imaging and 2D speckle tracking. Patients with T2D versus controls had increased EAT (4.6 ± 1.8 mm vs. 3.4 ± 1.2 mm, P , 0.0001) and PAT (6.3 ± 2.8 mm vs. 5.3 ± 2.4 mm, P , 0.0001). EAT and PAT were associated with structural cardiac measures both in T2D patients and controls (all P , 0.043), but only in T2D patients with functional measures: PAT was associated with impaired global longitudinal strain [beta coefficient (SE)] [0.11% (0.04), P = 0.002], while EAT was associated with reduced diastolic function by lateral early diastolic myocardial velocity (e lat ) [-0.31 (0.05) cm/s, P = 0.001], mitral inflow velocities: peak early (E)/peak atrial (A) ratio ...
Surface of the heart pericardium, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). The pericardium is a double-walled, membranous sac surrounding the heart. The pericardium has a tough outer fibrous layer (fibrous pericardium) and a delicate serous layer (serous pericardium). Shown here is the outer surface of the fibrous pericardium that is composed of connective tissue (fibronectin, collagen and laminin). Flattened squamous epithelial cells (from the upper serous layer) can be seen protruding through the fibrous pericardial layer. The inner serous pericardial layer is the wall adjacent to the heart (not seen). It is split into two layers, the epicardium (just above the heart) and the parietal layer. Between the two layers is the pericardial cavity, which contains serous fluid. The serous pericardium lubricates the heart, preventing friction. Magnification: x5,000 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/0593
The death of cardiac myocytes resulting from myocardial infarction is a major cause of heart failure worldwide. Effective therapies for regenerating lost cardiac myocytes are lacking. Recently, the epicardium has been implicated as a source of inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and progenitor cells that modulate the response to myocardial injury. During embryonic development, epicardially-derived cells have the potential to differentiate into multiple cardiac lineages, including fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle and potentially other cell types. In the healthy adult heart, epicardial cells are thought to be generally quiescent. However, injury of the adult heart results in reactivation of a developmental gene program in the epicardium, which leads to increased epicardial cell proliferation and differentiation of epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs) into various cardiac lineages. Recent work suggests that epicardial reactivation after injury is accompanied by, and contributes to, a robust inflammatory
Epicardial adipose tissue is a source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and has been linked to the development of coronary artery disease. No study has systematically assessed the relationship between local epicardial fat volume (EFV) and myocardial perf
A method for treating the heart and associated vessels and tissues, by controlling the temperature of the pericardial space and/or introducing therapeutic agents, drugs or the like thereto, includes providing a fluid, liquid(s), gas(es) or mixtures thereof, with or without therapeutic agents, drugs or the like, and heating and/or cooling, this fluid. At a time proximate to the heating and/or cooling of the fluid, the pericardial space is accessed by pericardiocentesis, such that the pericardium is punctured and the pericardial space is instrumentized at a location, and in particular, a location where treatment is desired. The heated and/or cooled fluid is then delivered to the pericardial space. At a time after delivery, the fluid is withdrawn from the pericardium, through either the same catheter, or through another catheter at different point along the pericardium, that was also instrumentized (catheterized) by standard pericardiocentesis procedures. This delivery and withdrawal of the fluid may be
BACKGROUND: Exercise reduces the amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these exercise-induced adaptations are unclear, but they may involve lipolytic actions of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Contracting skeletal muscles secrete IL-6, leading to increased circulating IL-6 levels in response to exercise. The aim of this study is to investigate whether IL-6 is involved in mediating the effects of exercise on visceral and epicardial adipose tissue volume and glycaemic control.. METHODS/DESIGN: Seventy-five physically inactive males and females aged , 18 years with a waist-to-height ratio , 0.5 and/or waist circumference ≥ 88 cm (females) or ≥ 102 cm (males) are being recruited to participate in a 12-week intervention study. Participants are randomly allocated to one of five groups (1:1:1:1:1). Two groups consist of supervised endurance exercise training combined with the IL-6 blocker tocilizumab (ET) or saline used as ...
Background Hypertension, identifiable by elevated blood pressure (BP), is a heterogeneous multifactorial disorder. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), a special fat depot that is related to visceral fat rather than total adiposity, shares the same microcirculation with myocardial tissue and coronary vessels. Recent studies have identified EAT as an active organ, which secretes several mediators, called adipokines, affecting the vascular system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential association between EAT and BP, endothelial function, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and pulse wave velocity (PWV) independent of conventional and novel metabolic risk factors in patients with previously untreated hypertension. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phenol topically applied to canine left ventricular epicardium interrupts sympathetic but not vagal afferents. AU - Barber, M. J.. AU - Mueller, T. M.. AU - Davies, B. G.. AU - Zipes, D. P.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - The intracardiac pathways carrying the cardiovascular reflex responses mediated by cardiac sympathetic and vagal afferent fibers were examined in this study. We investigated the response to epicardial applications of bradykinin (5 μg) and nicotine (50 μg) before and after regional epicardial applications of 85% phenol in chloralose anesthetized open-chest dogs. Bradykinin stimulated sympathetic afferents, while nicotine stimulated vagal afferents. Topical applications of phenol were used to interrupt these pathways. Before phenol encircling, bradykinin significantly increased - whereas nicotine significantly decreased - mean arterial blood pressure when applied at the same sites. After phenol, nicotine applied to all sites within and outside the phenol ...
The oral cavity is a demanding and dynamic environment for healing, which is why pericardium products are considered the gold standard in protecting the delicate tissues of the teeth, gums and jaw following oral surgery.. Pericardium is a pliant, sterile membrane which naturally weathers the moisture and mechanical stresses of the mouth as dental surgery heals. A variety of dental implant procedures indicate the use of pericardium as a cornerstone of aftercare, and leading surgeons rely on its strength and versatility in a variety of settings.. At Surgikor, our pericardium products are easy to use and vetted against the most stringent standards in medical production. Click here or here to see pericardium in different sizes and price points, and feel free to contact us with any questions about other dental surgery materials... ...
What is the difference between Visceral and Parietal Pericardium? Pericardium is the inner layer of serous pericardium; parietal pericardium is the outer layer
An augmented cardiovascular risk is present in adrenal incidentalomas (AI), as in overt hypercortisolism. Recent studies recommended epicardial fat (EF) thickness as a new marker of visceral adiposity and an indicator of cardiometabolic risk.. In this study, we evaluated the possible relationship between EF thickness, indices of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and adipocytokines levels in AI.. We studied 26 patients with AI (62.3±10.3 years, BMI 27.2±3.3 kg/m2, mean±S.D.) and 21 controls matched for age and BMI (59.9±6.7 years, BMI 25.3±3.6 kg/m2). In all patients basal ACTH, cortisol, urinary free cortisol, IL-6 and resistin levels were measured. One mg dexamethasone test was performed. EF thickness and indices of LV hypertrophy were assessed by transthoracic echocardiography.. Four patients had a subclinical Cushing s syndrome (SCS) and 22 had non functioning masses. Overall, the prevalence of arterial hypertension was 69.2%, type 2 diabetes was 19.2%, dyslipidemia 26.9%, overweight 50% ...
For patients with interrupted aortic arches, distal aortic arch dysplasia, long coarctation segments, or obvious vascular calcification and older children and adults, we adopted a Gore-Tex vascular graft bypass (Figure 1). First, we performed end-to-side anastomosis between the Gore-Tex vascular graft and normal descending aorta distal from the coarctation, and the anastomosis was continuously sutured with 5/0 prolene line, tightened and lined with strips of autologous pericardium. Next, we restored the cardiopulmonary bypass, allowed perfusion, and warmed up the blood. After expelling gas from the vascular graft and clamping the said graft, we performed end-to-side anastomosis between the Gore-Tex vascular graft and normal ascending aorta. We only performed end-to-side anastomosis between the vascular graft and normal descending aorta with circulatory arrest. This can decrease the total surgical time and facilitate good anastomosis. Lining with stripped autologous pericardium can prevent vessel ...
Recently proposed concepts of pericardial surface pressure, as opposed to liquid pressure, have advanced our understanding of the relationship between pericardial and heart chamber pressures. However, the subsequent suggestion that right heart intracavitary pressure equals, or nearly equals, pericardial surface pressure is not strictly consistent with the physiology of pericardial constraint. If right heart pressure equals pericardial surface pressure, then transmural right heart pressure equals zero. Because of the difficulty in measuring pericardial pressure directly in the beating heart we designed an experiment in the recently arrested canine heart in situ to measure pericardial pressure indirectly and to test the hypothesis that right heart transmural pressure is zero under reasonably physiologic, static equilibrium conditions. According to a static equilibrium analysis of the pressures acting across the walls of the heart, at a given volume the change in right heart pressure caused by ...
What happens when the pericardium of the heart is removed - How does the pericardium improve the efficiency of the heart? By not interfering. A healthy pericardium is a very flexible, thin tissue that is just there. it generally serves little purpose, other than to allow the chambers of the heart to expand outwards in a normal fashion, without resistance, as they fill with blood. If pericardium becomes inflamed, thickened or hardened, the heart loses this outward mobility, and pressure rises greatly as the heart tries to fill.
The regional distribution of adipose tissue (AT) is a major determinant of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The mass of fat in the visceral area associates independently of obesity with the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases in a series of clinical and epidemiological studies.1 This led to the concept of a pathophysiological link between abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. More recently, fat depots localized around the heart, highly variable among individuals, were proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of coronaropathy independently of other visceral depots (ie, in the omental and mesenteric area).2,3 The study by Greif et al3a in this issue of Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology highlights the association between pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) and the number of atherosclerotic plaques evaluated concomitantly by Dual source CT scan. This measurement was qualitatively interpretable in 264 consecutive patients with a large range of age, a ...
Given the complexity of Notch receptor and ligand expression during development of the epicardium and the coronary system, we assumed that redundancy between receptors and ligands, respectively, may necessitate the simultaneous removal of 2 or more genes to assign a Notch signaling requirement to these processes. We therefore decided to analyze the phenotypic consequences of removal of Rbpj that encodes a unique intracellular mediator of (canonical) Notch signaling.14 Because Rbpj-deficiency results in early embryonic lethality in mice,15 we used a tissue-specific inactivation approach using a Tbx18cre line generated in our laboratory and a floxed Rbpj allele to analyze Notch signaling function in the PEO and epicardium.10,12 The T-box transcription factor gene Tbx18 is strongly expressed in the PEO at E9.5, and in the epicardium until E16.5. Other cardiac expression domains include the sinus horn mesenchyme/myocardium, and the myocardium of the left ventricle and the interventricular septum ...
Dr. John Jeffrey Carr is the Cornelius Vanderbilt Professor of Radiology and Radiological Sciences and Professor of Biomedical Informatics and Cardiovascular Medicine. Clinically, he specializes in non-invasive cardiovascular imaging computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). He is a physician-scientist using non-invasive imaging to not only identify and predict disease before it becomes clinical evident. Dr. Carrs research is focused on developing quantitative imaging phenotypes and biomarkers applicable to population-based and personalized medicine. His current research is using advanced computed tomography (CT) techniques to measure coronary blood vessels, coronary plaque and the surrounding pericardial adipose tissue (fat cells) as a means to better understand who is at highest risk for myocardial infarction (heart attacks) and heart failure later in life (NIH-NHLBI 7R01HL098445-05). This project is part of the NHLBI Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study
The epidemiologic data having established a sound correlation between obesity and risk of atrial fibrillation , the electrophysiologic (EP) cardiologists began to speculate on possible mechanistic explanations. These so far have included activation of pro-fibrotic pathways,atrial fibrosis, abnormal connexin, ( gap junction proteins necessary for heart cell action potential propagation) diastolic dysfunction , paracrine effect due to proximity of epicardial fat to myocytes, and more recently detailed scrutiny of the role or roles of epicardial fat to which has been assigned the ironic designation, of EAT (epicardial adipose tissue) in deleterious remodeling of the left atrium ...
Resorbable Membranes Pericardium Pericardium membrane comes from the sac surrounding the heart. Pericardium functions as a thin pliable membrane that will lay flat on the grafting site. Select from dropdown. Choose from: DP101 | Size 1.0 x 1.0cm DP152 | Size 1.5 x 2.0cm DP203 | Size 2.0 x 3.0cm
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Our mathematical simulation and experimental data complement each other and provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that intrinsic heterogeneity exists within the ventricular myocardium and that this electrical heterogeneity is amplified when the normal direction of activation of the ventricular wall is reversed. Epicardial activation augments TDR because the epicardial action potential activates and repolarizes earlier and the M cells with the longest APD located in the deep subendocardium activate and repolarize later compared with endocardial activation of the ventricular wall. The additional conduction delay encountered between epicardial and M regions during epicardial stimulation contributes to the amplification of TDR. The extra delay in conduction between epicardium and the M region is likely due to the increased tissue resistivity in the deep subepicardium of the canine heart previously described by our group.15 Conduction time is briefer in the endocardial to epicardial ...
Context: Visceral adipose tissue (AT) is known to confer a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Epicardial AT has been shown to be related to cardiovascular disease and myocardial function through unidentified mechanisms. Epicardial AT expresses an inflammatory profile of proteins; however, the mechanisms responsible are yet to be elucidated. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to: 1) examine key mediators of the nuclear factor-B (NFB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways in paired epicardial and gluteofemoral (thigh) AT from coronary artery disease (CAD) and control patients and 2) investigate circulating endotoxin levels in CAD and control subjects. Design: Serums and AT biopsies (epicardial and thigh) were obtained from CAD (n = 16) and non-CAD (n = 18) patients. Inflammation was assessed in tissue and serum samples through Western blot, real-time PCR, ELISAs, and activity studies. Results: Western blotting showed epicardial AT had ...
Although Patel et al. (13) have discovered an important role for epicardial adipose tissue and ACE2/Ang 1-7 deficiency in obesity-related cardiomyopathy, there are some aspects that warrant further consideration. First, although it is clearly shown that in the absence of ACE2, epicardial adipose tissue differentiates into a proinflammatory phenotype, the authors do not reveal whether other adipose depots and organs also become inflamed in the model studied. This is important because it may be possible that ubiquitous ACE2 knockout leads to a generalized inflammatory response, including in the myocardium, which could directly impact on cardiac dysfunction independently of epicardial inflammation. However, cross talk between inflamed epicardial adipocytes and cardiomyocytes/fibroblasts may amplify underlying cardiac injury in ACE2 knockout mice. Such cross talk is evidenced by the findings that epicardial inflammation is linked to aberrant myocardial AMPK signaling and insulin resistance (13). To ...
Thin cap fibroatheromas (TCFAs) are thought to be the most common underlying substrate in patients suffering acute coronary thrombotic events. Recently, an interesting association between TCFAs and a particular depot of visceral fat called epicardial
41044-12-6 manufacture only pack-years (B?=?0.6, 95% CI: 0.5C1.3), BMI (B?=?7.8, 95% CI: 5.7C9.9) and 6 MWD (B?=??0.2, 95% CI: ?0.3C?0.1), predicted EAT volume. Conclusions EAT volume is usually increased in COPD patients and is independently associated with smoking history, BMI and exercise capacity, all modifiable risk factors of future cardiovascular events. EAT volume could be a non-invasive marker of COPD patients at high risk for future cardiovascular events. Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are two of the top causes of death worldwide [1]. COPD has been described as an independent risk factor for CVD (2) and the latter is a major cause of mortality in COPD, particularly in patients with moderate to moderate disease [3]C[5]. Non-invasive CVD markers may be important to identify COPD patients who are at high risk to develop future cardiovascular events. Beyond the traditional non-invasive CVD risk factors, several other have been ...
Among participants without MS, the prevalence of EAT ≥ 5mm significantly increased with age (OR , 65 years vs 45-54 years=8.22; 95%CI, 3.90-17.35; P for trend,.001). Increasing EAT quintiles were significantly associated with MS (OR fifth quintile vs first quintile=3.26; 95%CI, 1.59-6.71; P for trend=.001).. Considering the different MS criteria, increasing quintiles of EAT were independently associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR fifth quintile vs first quintile=2.65; 95%CI, 1.16-6.05; P for trend=.028), high triglycerides (OR fifth quintile vs first quintile=2.22; 95%CI, 1.26-3.90; P for trend=.003), and elevated waist circumference (OR fifth quintile vs first quintile=6.85; 95%CI, 2.91-16.11; P for trend,.001).. CONCLUSIONS: ...
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Primary Mesothelioma of the Pericardium BY JOHN THOMAS, M.Dl., AND JAMES M. IPHYTHYO,1X, M.D. MIesotheliomas of the pericardium are one of the causes of sanguineous pericardial effusion. C(linical and
Epicardium describes the outer layer of heart tissue (from Greek; epi- outer, cardium heart). When considered as a part of the pericardium, it is the inner layer, or visceral pericardium. Its largest constituent is connective tissue and functions as a protective layer. The visceral pericardium apparently produces the pericardial fluid, which lubricates motion between the inner and outer layers of the pericardium. During ventricular contraction, the wave of depolarization moves from endocardial to epicardial surface. ...
Email , Print SKU: PC0404SNBIO. SUPPLE PERI-GUARD Pericardium Patch is prepared from bovine pericardium which is cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. SUPPLE PERI-GUARD Pericardium Patch is chemically sterilized using ethanol and propylene oxide. SUPPLE PERI-GUARD Pericardium Patch is packaged in a container filled with sterile, non-pyrogenic water containing propylene oxide. The contents of the unopened, undamaged container are sterile. SUPPLE PERI-GUARD Pericardium Patch is available in four sizes. ...
Background: Cardiac syndrome X (CSX) is defined as normal coronary arteries with angina pectoris and a positive stress test. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) plays an important role in inflammatory process in cardiovascular system, therefore EAT may affect the pathogenesis of different cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the EAT thickness in patients with CSX and compare normal subjects. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 30 consecutive patients with CSX. The control group consisted of 30 age and sex-matched individuals with anginal chest pain and a negative treadmill or myocardial perfusion scan test. EAT thickness was measured by transthoracic echocardiography. Results: There were no differences in baseline clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic characteristics between CSX patients and the control group. Patients with CSX had significantly increased EAT thickness than those of the controls (3.43 +/- 0.88 vs. 2.34 +/- 0.89 mm, p=0.0001). Conclusion: We found ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lack of Association between Epicardial Fat Volume and Extent of Coronary Artery Calcification, Severity of Coronary Artery Disease, or Presence of Myocardial Perfusion Abnormalities in a Diverse, Symptomatic Patient Population. T2 - Results from the CORE320 Multicenter Study. AU - Tanami, Yutaka. AU - Jinzaki, Masahiro. AU - Kishi, Satoru. AU - Matheson, Matthew. AU - Vavere, Andrea L.. AU - Rochitte, Carlos E.. AU - Dewey, Marc. AU - Chen, Marcus Y.. AU - Clouse, Melvin E.. AU - Cox, Christopher. AU - Kuribayashi, Sachio. AU - Lima, Joao A.C.. AU - Arbab-Zadeh, Armin. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2015/3/21. Y1 - 2015/3/21. N2 - Background-Epicardial fat may play a role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). We explored the relationship of epicardial fat volume (EFV) with the presence and severity of CAD or myocardial perfusion abnormalities in a diverse, ...
Intrapericardial diaphragmatic hernias are reported very rarely. Those of congenital origin are most often diagnosed in neonates, and those caused by indirect blunt trauma occur chiefly in adults. The latter type can be asymptomatic; however, the results of a computed tomographic scan can yield a definitive diagnosis. Once discovered, these hernias should be corrected to avoid severe sequelae such as bowel strangulation and necrosis, peritonitis, mediastinitis, and cardiac tamponade.. We report the case of a 78-year-old woman who presented for elective ascending aortic aneurysm repair. Computed tomographic angiograms incidentally revealed a large intrapericardial diaphragmatic hernia, which had probably developed years earlier, after a traffic accident. The patient underwent a median sternotomy and repair of the intrapericardial diaphragmatic hernia with use of a bovine pericardial patch, followed by ascending aortic and hemiarch repair, aortic valve repair, and aorto-right coronary artery ...
A case of herniation of the left atrial appendage, through a defect in the pericardium, is described in a 16-year-old boy who was below the third percentile for height and weight. The clinical presentation was an acute pericarditis. Widespread inversion of T waves on the electrocardiogram and collapse of the lower lobe of the left lung with pleural effusion developed. Thoracotomy showed strangulation of the atrial appendage which was excised, and the pericardial defect repaired. After operation there was a striking improvement in the electrocardiogram and a rapid gain in weight. Syndromes caused by pericardial defects are reviewed. ...
Acute Myocardial infarction (AMI) at a young age (below 45 years) is rare and difficult to predict. We reported a fatal myocardial infarction from advanced atherosclerosis in a healthy young man who had no other major coronary risk factors except mild hypercholesterolemia. Thus, all available systemic risk scores identified him as a low risk candidate for developing a cardiovascular event. Autopsy revealed advanced atherosclerosis in all three major coronary arteries causing acute and old myocardial infarction. Thick epicardial adipose tissue and myocardial bridging of the mid left anterior descending artery were also noted. He frequently used etoricoxib to treat knee and back pain for consecutive five years. Potential mechanisms of sudden death from atherosclerosis, myo- cardial bridging, epicardial adipose tissue and selective COXIB are discussed in more detail below.. ...
Formation of the coronary arteries consists of a precisely orchestrated series of morphogenetic and molecular events which can be divided into three distinct processes: vasculogenesis, angiogenesis and arteriogenesis (Risau 1997; Carmeliet 2000). Even subtle perturbations in this process may lead to congenital coronary artery anomalies, as occur in 0.2-1.2% of the general population (von Kodolitsch et al. 2004). Contrary to the previously held dogma, the process of vasculogenesis is not limited to prenatal development. Both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are now known to actively occur within the adult heart. When the need for regeneration arises, for example in the setting of coronary artery disease, a reactivation of embryonic processes ensues, redeploying many of the same molecular regulators. Thus, an understanding of the mechanisms of embryonic coronary vasculogenesis and angiogenesis may prove invaluable in developing novel strategies for cardiovascular regeneration and therapeutic coronary
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BACKGROUND: Delayed ventricular arrhythmias during acute myocardial ischemia (1B arrhythmias) are associated with an increase in tissue impedance and are most likely sustained in a thin subepicardial layer. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that heterogeneous uncoupling between depolarized midmyocardium and surviving subepicardium results in heterogeneous refractoriness in the latter, providing the reentry substrate after a premature beat. METHODS: A 3-dimensional bidomain slab was constructed comprising a normal subepicardial layer coupled to a slightly depolarized (-80 to -60 mV) but inexcitable midmyocardium. Experimentally measured tissue impedance served as input for the model. Four stages of heterogeneous uncoupling between the 2 layers were simulated, each corresponding to an experimental ischemic impedance value. Effective refractory periods (ERP), conduction velocities, and inducibility of reentry were examined. RESULTS: Heterogeneous uncoupling resulted in
The Wilms Tumour gene WT1 has important functions during development. Knock-out mice were shown to have defects in the urogenital system and to die at embryonic day E13.5, probably due to heart failure. Using a lacZ reporter gene inserted into a YAC construct, we demonstrate that WT1 is expressed in the early proepicardium, the epicardium and the subepicardial mesenchymal cells (SEMC). Lack of WT1 leads to severe defects in the epicardial layer and a concomitant absence of SEMCs, which explains the pericardial bleeding and subsequent embryonic death observed in Wt1 null embryos. We further show that a human-derived WT1 YAC construct is able to completely rescue heart defects, but only partially rescues defects in the urogenital system. Analysis of the observed hypoplastic kidneys demonstrate a continuous requirement for WT1 during nephrogenesis, in particular, in the formation of mature glomeruli. Finally, we show that the development of adrenal glands is also severely affected in partially ...
Olivey H.E., Svensson E.C.. The establishment of the coronary circulation is critical for the development of the embryonic heart. Over the last several years, there has been tremendous progress in elucidating the pathways that control coronary development. Interestingly, many of the pathways that regulate the development of the coronary vasculature are distinct from those governing vasculogenesis in the rest of the embryo. It is becoming increasingly clear that coronary development depends on a complex communication between the epicardium, the subepicardial mesenchyme, and the myocardium mediated in part by secreted growth factors. This communication coordinates the growth of the myocardium with the formation of the coronary vasculature. This review summarizes our present understanding of the role of these growth factors in the regulation of coronary development. Continued progress in this field holds the potential to lead to novel therapeutics for the treatment of patients with coronary artery ...
The pericardium envelops the heart and portions of the great vessels as a protective capsule. When incised longitudinally and transversely along the diaphragm it can be suspended from a chest retractor to present the heart for surgical procedures. The surgical importance of the pericardium stems from its involvement in alterations of cardiac filling. When the limited space between the noncompliant pericardium and heart acutely fills with blood or fluid, cardiac compression and tamponade may ensue. Constrictive disorders arise when inflammation and scarring cause the pericardium to shrink and densely adhere to the surface of the heart. This chapter discusses pericardial anatomy and function and describes the conditions that commonly give rise to the surgical problems of pericardial constriction and tamponade. The chapter also describes the diagnosis and therapy of these entities, the management of tamponade early and late after cardiac surgery, and the rationale for and against pericardial ...
Figure 20.2). The inner surface of the pericardial sac and the surface of the heart are covered by a serous membrane called the pericardium. It is a continuous membrane that forms a closed space called the pericardial cavity. Study the parts of the pericardium. The fibrous parietal pericardium [probe] is the rough outer layer of the pericardial sac. It is continuous with the external walls of the great vessels superiorly and blends with the fascia of the diaphragm inferiorly. ...
Primary malignant pericardial mesothelioma (PMPM) is a rare tumor of the pericardium. The cause of this tumor is unknown and it has a very poor prognosis. Exposure to asbestos is correlated with the onset of pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma; however, the role of asbestos in pericardial mesothelioma is unclear. Here we highlight the radiological features of this rare tumor and its correlative pathological confirmation with the help of new immunohistochemical (IHC) markers.
A method of implanting a cardiac device featuring the insertion of an inner seal member through an opening in a pericardium about a living human heart. The inner seal member has a first sealing lip disposed inside the pericardium and surrounding an aperture through the inner seal member. An outer seal member is aligned with the inner seal member. The outer seal member has a second sealing lip disposed outside the pericardium, surrounding an aperture through the outer seal member. The inner seal member is secured to the outer seal member. The firsts sealing lip is engaged against an inner surface of the pericardium. The second sealing lip is engaged against an outer surface of the pericardium. A cardiac device is inserted into the pericardium through the apertures of the inner and outer seal members.
The sustained coronary vasodilator effect of intrapericardial delivery of nitroglycerin suggests that the drug is contained within the pericardial space, prolonging the time of action and exposure to perivascular tissue, and is not diffused rapidly into the systemic circulation. In contrast, intracoronary or intravenous administration of nitroglycerin is limited by a relatively short duration of action, with minimal or no organ selectivity, and is associated with systemic effects such as hypotension. These limitations may be particularly important when considering administration of vascular or myocardial growth factors, viral vectors or other proteins to induce angiogenesis or improve contractility, whose possible side effects include intimal hyperplasia, mitogenesis and systemic toxicity (12-15). For such agents, exposure to myocardial tissue needs to be maximized while minimizing availability to other organs. Lazarous and coworkers (16)demonstrated that intrapericardial administration of basic ...
When and how is surgery performed on the pericardium? Find out more about the risks, complications, success rates and follow-up treatment involved in pericardium operations.
Cardiac failure has a principal underlying aetiology of ischaemic damage arising from vascular insufficiency. Molecules that regulate collateral growth in the ischaemic heart also regulate coronary vasculature formation during embryogenesis. Here we identify thymosin beta4 (Tbeta4) as essential for …
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been reported to produce differential electrophysiological effects in isolated epicardial and endocardial cells. This study aimed to examine regional electrophysiological effects of LVH in normal and ischaemic conditions in the whole heart. LVH was secondary to perinephritis-induced hypertension. Monophasic action potential duration (MAPD(90)), effective refractory period (ERP) and conduction delay were measured in paced, isolated working rabbit hearts either at one right ventricular and two left ventricular sites (apical and basal epicardium) or at three left ventricular sites (apical and basal epicardium, apical: endocardium). The hearts were subjected to 30 min of regional ischaemia and 15 min of reperfusion. In non-ischaemic conditions, LVH produced uniform prolongation of MAPD(90) and ERP in the left ventricular epicardium, but not in the endocardium. After coronary artery occlusion, LVH significantly increased ischaemia-induced transepicardial ...
A 31-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of progressing fatigue and effort dyspnea. Echocardiography depicted a tumor within the free wall of the right ventricle and right atrium, located on both sides of the tricuspid annulus. Computed tomography showed disseminated circular shadows sized up to 7 mm-most likely metastatic lesions-in both lungs. The diagnosis of low-grade mesothelioma bifasicum was confirmed with histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies of the samples taken by thoracoscopy from parietal pleura, lung tumor, and diaphragm region. Chemotherapy, which included gemcitabine and carboplatin, resulted in transient improvement of the clinical status of the patient and reduction of the tumor mass lasting several months followed by progression of the disease. Significant amounts of pleural fluid and huge tumors within both pleural cavities emerged. The patient died due to respiratory and circulatory insufficiency 11 months following the diagnosis.. ...
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Computational biology is a powerful tool for elucidating arrhythmogenic mechanisms at the cellular level, where complex interactions between ionic processes determine behavior. A novel theoretical model of the canine ventricular epicardial action potential and calcium cycling was developed and used to investigate ionic mechanisms underlying Ca2+ transient (CaT) and action potential duration (APD) rate dependence. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) regulatory pathway was integrated into the model, which included a novel Ca2+-release formulation, Ca2+ subspace, dynamic chloride handling, and formulations for major ion currents based on canine ventricular data. Decreasing pacing cycle length from 8000 to 300 ms shortened APD primarily because of I(Ca(L)) reduction, with additional contributions from I(to1), I(NaK), and late I(Na). CaT amplitude increased as cycle length decreased from 8000 to 500 ms. This positive rate-dependent property ...
We have analyzed cardiac ischemia-reperfusion in an animal model using epicardial electropotential mapping. We investigated the relationship between ischemia and variability of multifractality in epicardial electrograms. We present a new parameter called the singularity spectrum area reference dispersion (SARD) that clearly demonstrates the change in multifractility with the extent of myocardiaischemia. By contrasting the 3D ventricular epicardial SARD map with the activation map, we conclude that myocardial ischemia significantly influences the variety of multifractality of ventricular epicardium electrograms and the SARD parameter is useful in correlating multifractality of epicardial electrograms with location of ischemia closely. © Science in China Press 2006.
I am pure Life Energy, experiencing matter on Earth, in this body called Montserrat.. How did I become involved with the Pericardium?. Since I was little, I always wanted to understand the meaning of what we refer to as just life (well, thats just life…). To get a better picture, I studied extensively. I attended teaching college, completed nursing studies, studied four years of medicine, taught Morphopsychology, Neurology and Osteopathy and gained more than 30 years of experience in hospitals in different countries throughout the world. More importantly, I have lived to the full, passionately experiencing each stage of my life in a quest to understand its deeper meaning, to understand the deeper meaning of each learning stage. My children Oriol, Marc and Nina have been and still are, lights on my path that have enabled me to see my noblesse in their eyes, my dis-ease in their sicknesses, my freedom in their smiles, my responsibility in their autonomy and my lightness of being in their ...
The cellular mechanisms believed to underlie Brugada syndrome evolved on a parallel but separate track from that of the clinical syndrome. The concepts of all-or-none repolarization of the ventricular epicardial action potential and of phase 2 reentry were developed in the early 1990s (25-27). It was on a bus ride to the airport following a meeting of the International Society of Computerized Electrocardiography (ISCE) in Florida that Dr. Antzelevitch, fortuitously seated next to Dr. Phillipe Coumel, expressed surprise that there was apparently no clinical counterpart to phase 2 reentry as a mechanism of arrhythmogenesis. After some discussion, Dr. Coumel suggested that Dr. Antzelevitch contact the Brugada brothers, who had recently described a syndrome with somewhat similar characteristics. The rest, as they say, is history. Drs. Antzelevitch, Pedro, Josep, and Ramon Brugada, Jeffrey Towbin, and Kolawanee Nademanee have worked as a cohesive team since the mid 1990s.. Basic studies conducted ...
The vascular system consists of networks of blood and lymphatic vessels that interact with their target tissues in intricate and often surprising ways. The Majesky Laboratory uses molecular biological and developmental genetic approaches to address fundamental questions in development and differentiation of blood vessels.. We currently have two major areas of research focus. One concerns the molecular mechanisms that control formation and differentiation of coronary vessels during heart development. The other is on vascular stem and progenitor cells that reside in the adventitial layer of artery wall.. Developmental fate mapping studies show that progenitor cells in the proepicardium (PE) give rise to coronary vessels. Formation of coronary vessels occurs by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of epicardial cells followed by vasculogenesis in the subepicardial space, assembly and remodeling of a primitive coronary plexus, and investment by pericytes and coronary smooth muscle cells ...
Mammalian cardiomyocytes undergo cell division only during embryonic development. This process can be disturbed by many gene mutations, resulting in myocardial hypoplasia Retinoic acid (RA), the biologically active derivative of vitamin A, is an important morphogen during development. Deficiency in vitamin A by dietary deprivation and mutation in Rxra, a nuclear receptor for retinoic acid, will lead to embryonic myocardial hypoplasia. It has been demonstrated that Rxra acts in the epicardium, a thin layer of cells enveloping the myocardium, to influence myocardium proliferation. Previous studies suggested that RXRA induces the secretion of mitogenic factors from the epicardium. In this study, we found that AGN193109, an RA antagonist, and retinoic acid have no effect on the production of mitogenic activity from a rat epicardial cell line, EMC, a mouse epicardial cell line, MEC1, or primary epicardial cells from chick embryos. Rxra knockdown via adenovirus-mediated RNAi does not reduce the ...
The main function of the pericardium and its fluid is to lubricate the moving surfaces of the heart. The pericardium also helps to retard ventricular dilation, helps to hold the heart in position, and forms a barrier to the spread of infections and neoplasia. Pathophysiological conditions such as cardiac bleeding or an exudate-producing pericarditis may lead to a sudden or large accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac. This may impede ventricular filling. From 50 to 300 mL of pericardial fluid may accumulate without serious ventricular impairment. Qxd 6 11/21/11 PA R T I 10:30 AM Page 6 / Anatomy and Physiology in an anterior, leftward, and inferior direction. Blood flows out of the ventricle from the apex toward the aorta in a superior and rightward direction (Fig. 1-8). Thus, blood flows from posterior orifices into both ventricles in a leftward direction and is ejected superiorly toward the center of the heart. The right ventricular outflow tract is more tubular; the left ventricular ...
Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is an established method for ruling out coronary artery stenoses in symptomatic patients with low to intermediate risk for cardiovascular events. Patients with inflammatory joint diseases and type 1 diabetes have an increased risk for coronary events, but cardiovascular disease prevention is clinically challenging as chest pain often may be absent or unspecific in these patients.. The overall aim of the thesis was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of CCTA-verified plaques in patients with inflammatory joint diseases and type 1 diabetes, and further to assess associations between CCTA findings and clinical variables. Additionally, the long-term effect of statins on plaque morphology was evaluated in the patients with inflammatory joint diseases, and the associations between coronary atherosclerosis and epicardial adipose tissue were assessed in the patients with type 1 diabetes.. This thesis shows a high prevalence of coronary plaques in both cohorts. ...
Nakajima T, Yokota T, Shingu Y, Yamada A, Iba Y, Ujihira K, Wakasa S, Ooka T, Takada S, Shirakawa R, Katayama T, Furihata T, Fukushima A, Matsuoka R, Nishihara H, Dela F, Nakanishi K, Matsui Y, Kinugawa S (2019) Impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in epicardial adipose tissue is associated with decreased concentration of adiponectin and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Sci Rep 9:3535 ...
The problem they have here is now they have a hole in the heart and it starts to bleed. That in and of itself isnt great, but the main problem is that the heart sits in a little sac of tissue called the pericardium (literally around the heart). Once its full of blood, if you have continued bleeding it starts to compress the heart and the compressed heart can no longer fill and pump blood. This causes low blood pressure and eventally cardiac arrest. This is called cardiac tamponade. The way to fix this is to open up the pericardial sac and let the blood from around the heart out, then it can again fill and pump blood. The problem with this is that you still have bleeding and now its not just limited to the pericardium, but can continue to bleed ...
Implantable cardiac monitoring and stimulation methods and devices with epicardial leads having sensor feedback. A fixed or extendable/retractable sensor may be displaceable within the leads lumen and configured to sense the presence of an anatomical feature or physiological parameter of cardiac tissue in proximity with the lead bodys distal end. The sensor may include an ultrasonic sensing element, a perfusion sensor, a photoplethysmographic sensor, or a blood oximetry sensor. Methods of determining suitability for implanting a lead involve the steps of accessing an epicardial surface of the heart, and moving the cardiac lead to an implant site at the epicardial surface. A transmitted signal is directed at the implant site. A reflected signal is received, indicative of the presence of a blood vessel at the implant site. A determination may be made to determine whether the implant site is suitable or unsuitable based on the reflected signal.
The specimen is of a markedly enlarged, pale heart with some subepicardial blood-staining and nodularity. The paleness and increase in size of heart is mostly due to increase in epicardial fat. Externally the region of the right ventricle is distorted and posteriorly there is narrowing of the right ventricular cavity. Again, posteriorly, the left ventricle has been sectioned and white tumour tissue may be seen invading the epicardial fat. There is associated patchy haemorrhage. Tumour tissue can also be seen in the myocardium. Although this specimen is not very satisfactory from the demonstration point of view, it shows secondary anaplastic carcinoma of the pericardium and myocardium. The origin of the carcinoma is unknown. ...
On the internet Process help provides information about the work and structure of center which is very important in biochemistry. Learners can understand better through online Process help the value of center.. Study of center and its function:. In your personal program, the center is usually in the center of the thorax. The center is usually thought to be on the staying aspect because the staying center i.e., staying ventricle is more highly effective it forces program to all places of the personal body system. The center is fed by the coronary activity and is covered by a sac known as pericardium. The pericardium contains two places the pericardium -made of hefty sailing floating fibrous structures and a twice structure - containing a serous fluid to decrease massaging during center contractions.. The top is the boring point situated in an ineffective route. Stethoscope can be straight placed over the top, so that the exceeds can be described. In regular grownups the huge of the center ...
We have provided evidence that MK specifically binds to α4β1- and α6β1-integrins. The ligands of α4β1-integrin are fibronectin, a major component of the ECM, and VCAM, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. α4β1-Integrin recognizes LDV in the alternatively spliced III CS domain of fibronectin (Guan and Hynes, 1990; Kleiman and Mosher, 2002). α4β1-Integrin plays important roles in cell migration - it governs lymphocyte migration (Rose et al., 2001), is involved in recruitment of neutrophils to inflammatory sites (Burns et al., 2001; Henderson et al., 2001) and is essential for the migration of epicardial progenitor cells to the surface of the heart to form the epicardium (Sengbusch et al., 2002). MK also promotes the migration of neutrophils, macrophages, UMR-106 osteoblastic cells and neurons (Takada et al., 1997; Maeda et al., 1999; Horiba et al., 2000; Qi et al., 2001). Therefore, we postulated that MK-induced migration of UMR-106 cells might be mediated by α4β1-integrin. ...
Im just going to link you to another post here, which I believe answers the same question. Its because the facilitation of the transient outward current if much more prominent in epicardial regions than in endocardial regions.. And the following citation, Transient outward potassium current, Ito, phenotypes in the mammalian left ventricle: underlying molecular, cellular and biophysical mechanisms, provides some mechanistic insight.. To answer the rest of the question:. So in an ECG you have leads that record whether a charge is moving toward, or away from the lead. These net charges are reflected on the ECG as either positive or negative deflections. You have a signal from the sinoatrial node that causes a depolarization in the right atrium, then the left atrium (biphasic p wave). In each case, however, we see the positive p wave because in this depolarization the net charge is moving toward the electrodes. Studies on atrial repolarization note that yes, the atrial repolarization is ...
Results Compared with normal subjects, peak subendocardial LV twist was significantly impaired in patients with STEMI (11.2±6.0° vs 15.3±2.7°, p,0.001). In patients with chronic HF, peak subendocardial LV twist was even more impaired (4.6±3.4°, p,0.001 vs normal subjects and patients with STEMI). Conversely, peak subepicardial LV twist was not statistically different between normal subjects and patients with STEMI (8.9±1.9° vs 8.4±4.4°, p=0.98), whereas it was significantly impaired in patients with chronic HF (2.6±2.5°, p,0.001 vs normal subjects and patients with STEMI). Peak subendocardial LV twist was not statistically different between large and small STEMI, whereas peak subepicardial LV twist was significantly lower in large STEMI than in small STEMI (7.1±4.8° vs 9.6±3.6°, p=0.025). ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Responses and afferent pathways of superficial and deeper C,sub,1,/sub,-C,sub,2,/sub, spinal cells to intrapericardial algogenic chemicals in rats. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Cardiomyopathies are disorders of the myocardium of unknown cause that are not associated with other disorders (figure 9-1). Specific heart muscle diseases, once known as secondary cardiomyopathies,...
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The Pericardium is a crucial muscular part of the heart, resulting in heart disease and even failure if it works improperly. Most common symptom is rapid distention of the abdomen. Rapid treatment is required and includes surgery.
Tissue and Eye banks across Australia provide data for cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, skin tissue and amnion donations.. Musculoskeletal donations can be in the form of bone, tendon and ligaments and are utilised for knee and hip replacements, reconstructive orthopaedic surgery following trauma or disease and spinal deformities and can aid in prevention of limb loss following tumour removal. Just one musculoskeletal donation can aid many recipients and greatly improve their quality of life.. Cardiovascular tissue incorporates donations of heart valves, pericardium and thoracic aorta. Heart valves are necessary to regulate the flow of blood to and from the heart, whereas pericardium can be used during neurosurgery or, like the thoracic aorta, can also be used for vascular repair of defects or injury.. Donated skin contributes to saving lives and improving long term outcomes for patients who suffer severe burns. Donated skin is essential when a patients own skin cannot be used for grafting. ...
Clinical History: A 71-year-old male with a previous history of working-exposure to glass components was admitted to our hospital with persistent complaints of chest tightness, shortness of breath and edema in the lower limbs that started 3 months prior to his admission. An echocardiogram from a local hospital identified a nodule on the right-sided of the pericardium and large pericardial and pleural effusions. Percutaneous drainage was performed and 30 mL were obtained from the pericardium and 500 mL from the pleurae, both of hemorrhagic appearance. Biochemical analysis of pericardial and pleural fluids was not performed and cytological analysis was negative for malignant cells. Medical treatment was initiated and the patient remained asymptomatic for the following 3 days. The patients symptoms recurred and rapidly worsened so he was admitted to our institution for further examination and treatment. ...
Diagnosis Code I31.8 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Film instructs at the speed of thought with the language of dreams. Too often forgotten in this equation is the heart. The pericardium protects the heart, deciding what goes in or out of the vital organ. Films can heal when people see themselves and their experiences on screen. Our society heals when stories teach empathy and we leave the theater with a little more understanding and perspective. This sounds lofty, but I believe in the impact of showing up with integrity and respect for the people and stories that move the needle towards love. Pericardium Productions aims to accomplish this by conscientiously representing people of color, queer folks, and other marginalized communities.. As of December 2016, we have two dramatic shorts on the festival circuit:. ...
How to maintain good health without taking medicine.Generally in all families one of the member is affected by any one of the disease and taking treatment and medications. Many of the illness we face because of no walking , no exercise, no water, no proper diet in proper time. Not Drinking sufficient water, no proper sleeping habits in time, and unnecessary stress ...
Pericardium. The chamber containing the heart. Periostracum. The epidermal covering of some shells. Pervious. Very narrowly ...
The Pericardium. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-4419-9137-9. "Chevers, Norman - Biographical entry - ...
... the anterior mediastinum being in front of the pericardium, the middle mediastinum contains the pericardium and its contents, ... Anterior mediastinum Is bounded: laterally by the pleurae; posteriorly by the pericardium; anteriorly by the sternum , the left ... Thoracic Wall, Pleura, and Pericardium - Dissector Answers Archived 2012-09-01 at the Wayback Machine "Cell Biology and Anatomy ... This lower part is subdivided into three regions, all relative to the pericardium - ...
Meridians: Gallbladder, Liver, Pericardium, San Jiao. Cinnamon (肉桂; 桂枝), mostly gui zhi and rou gui, is the twigs and bark from ... Meridians: Heart, Pericardium, Liver. In Chinese herbology, there are 50 "fundamental" herbs, as given in the reference text, ...
Functions for the Pericardium. J.L. Duomarco; C.E. Giambruno; R. Rimini; Cardiovascular Functions Ed. A. A. Luisada McGraw Hill ... Cardiac retropulsion and zonal pressure of the pericardium. J.L. Duomarco; R. Rimini C.E. Giambruno Acta Physiologica Latino ...
Pericardium attached to diaphragm. More rounded apex of the heart. No pouches in the chaps (unclear). Much larger brain than in ...
The pericardium is light golden. Many individuals from the Sierra de Perijá have a number of irregular black flecks on the ...
Serous pericardium is thin and it covers the heart- it is also called epicardium. Fibrous pericardium is much thicker. Together ... Pericardium is a thick membrane that covers heart. It consists of two layers, the fibrous pericardium and the serous ... pericardium. It forms two recesses, transverse recess and oblique recess. Transverse recess lies behind the aorta and pulmonary ...
Hamman's syndrome Shabetai, Ralph (2003-10-31). The Pericardium - Google Book Search. ISBN 9781402076398. Retrieved 2008-11-26 ...
The other Yin, or Zang, organs are the lungs (Fei), liver (Gan), spleen (Pi), and heart (Xin). Sometimes the pericardium (Xin ...
Conjoined by their sternum, pericardium, and liver. In 2014, they were separated in Shanghai, China, at the Shanghai Children's ...
Pericardium Superficial fascia[edit]. Superficial fascia is the lowermost layer of the skin in nearly all of the regions of the ... In the brain, they are known as meninges; in the heart they are known as pericardia; in the lungs, they are known as pleurae; ...
1833). "Rupture of the Aorta within the Pericardium". The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 8 (7): 103-105. doi:10.1056/ ...
His doctoral thesis On adherent pericardium of rheumatic origin, with cases was written in 1883. Barrs was married to Alice ... George, Barrs, Alfred (1883). "On adherent pericardium of rheumatic origin: with cases". hdl:1842/23706. Cite journal requires ...
The pericardium is infiltrated by the fibrinous exudate. This consists of fibrin strands and leukocytes. Fibrin describes an ...
Late gadolinium contrast will show uptake of contrast by the inflamed pericardium. Normal pericardium will not show any ... Surgical removal of the pericardium, pericardiectomy, may be used in severe cases and where the pericarditis is causing ... Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium (the fibrous sac surrounding the heart). Symptoms typically include sudden ... EKG or Holter monitor will then depict electrical alternans indicating wobbling of the heart in the fluid filled pericardium, ...
ISBN 978-0-443-06612-2. Skandalakis, editor in chief John E. (2004). "Chapter 7. Pericardium, Heart, and Great Vessels in the ...
The pericardium contained the usual amount of serosity; the heart was pale, but in its natural state. The brain and its ... The lungs adhered to the entire surface of the pleura, diaphragm and pericardium. Their substance was healthy and free of ...
... pericardium; g, septum transversum; h, rectus abdominis; i, abdominal cavity; j, pubis; k, esophagus; l, trachea; m, cervical ... around the pericardium, finally to innervate the diaphragm. ...
The pericardium was open below and the heart absent. In the abdominal cavity there was some partly digested food of fish and ...
However this larva has a pericardium and a kidney. Randall & Heath, 1912. Warén A. & Lewis L.M. (1994) Tho new species of ...
Mesothelial pericardium forms the outer lining of the heart. The inner lining of the heart - the endocardium, lymphatic and ... Then mesothelial cells form the pericardium and migrate to form most of the epicardium. Then the heart tube is formed by the ...
with Solomon Solis-Cohen: "Spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumo-pericardium". The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. ...
Ctenidium is positioned a little in front of pericardium. There are 24-25 ctenidial filaments, that are broadly triangular with ...
He died unexpectedly, from an inflammation of the pericardium. Gustav took care of his wife and daughter and completed his ...
The pericardium is the sac that surrounds the heart. The tough outer surface of the pericardium is called the fibrous membrane ... while the part of the serous membrane attached to the heart is known as the visceral pericardium. The pericardium is present in ... The heart is enclosed in a protective sac, the pericardium, which also contains a small amount of fluid. The wall of the heart ... Between the third and fourth week, the heart tube lengthens, and begins to fold to form an S-shape within the pericardium. This ...
Jueyin Pericardium Channel of Hand (手厥阴心包经) or Hand's Absolute Yin Heart Protector Meridian. Faint Yin (jueyin - 厥阴). Hand (手) ... The Yin meridians of the arm are Lung, Heart, and Pericardium. The Yang meridians of the arm are Large Intestine, Small ... Pericardium (心包). 戌 [xū] 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. ...
A scan reveals masses in her lungs, spine and pericardium. Later, her heart also stops and she bleeds into her pericardium. ...
Nevertheless, the involvement of pericardium and heart valves are uncommon. The frequency of cardiac involvement varies and is ...
The reason behind this is the elasticity of the pericardium. When fluid fills the cavity rapidly, the pericardium cannot ... The pericardium is a two-part membrane surrounding the heart: the outer fibrous connective membrane and an inner two-layered ... The pericardium, specifically the pericardial fluid provides lubrication, maintains the anatomic position of the heart in the ... This is most often done by cutting through the pericardium and creating a pericardial window This window provides a path for ...
Fibrous pericardium[edit]. The fibrous pericardium is the most superficial layer of the pericardium. It is made up of dense and ... Serous pericardium[edit]. The serous pericardium, in turn, is divided into two layers, the parietal pericardium, which is fused ... The right phrenic nerve passes to the right of the pericardium.. *The left phrenic nerve passes over the pericardium of the ... There are two layers to the pericardial sac: the outermost fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. ...
most superficial part of pericardium; continuous with the outer adventitial layer of the neighboring great blood vessels. [ ... fibrous pericardium. Go to external page http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0002359 Copy ...
The pericardium is a thin double-layered sac which encloses the heart. Fluid is contained within the layers and lubricates the ... The pericardium is a thin double-layered sac which encloses the heart. Fluid is contained within the layers and lubricates the ...
The pericardial sac surrounds and protects the heart within the chest cavity.
The fibrous pericardium is the outside layer of the pericardium, made up of dense and loose connective tissue. While capable of ... The serous pericardium, in turn, is divided into two parts: The parietal serous pericardium, which lines the interior of the ... The visceral serous pericardium extends to the root of the great vessels and joins the parietal serous pericardium at the ... The right phrenic nerve passes to the right of the pericardium. The left phrenic nerve passes over the pericardium of the left ...
A prosthetic pericardium comprises a sheathing (1) made of a biologically neutral elastic material and sized to suit the ... The known prosthetic pericardium is employed as patches for closure of a defect of the natural pericardium after surgery on the ... As a result, the prosthetic pericardium assumes the position shown in FIG. 2. The natural pericardium is then sutured tightly ... 10 to 12 days later a skin incision 5 to 6 mm long is made above the reed 4 of the prosthetic pericardium and the ends of the ...
The Pericardium has a meridian named for it, which reflects the health of the organ. In terms of the Five Elements, these ... In general theory, the Pericardium is not distinguished from the Heart. It is also the first line of defence against the Heart ... In treatment, it is often best to approach heart problems via the Pericardium, rather than directly. The peak time for the ... As distinct from the Western medical concept of pericardium, this concept from traditional Chinese medicine is more a way of ...
pericardium synonyms, pericardium pronunciation, pericardium translation, English dictionary definition of pericardium. n. pl. ... Related to pericardium: pericarditis, parietal pericardium, Fibrous pericardium, Serous pericardium. per·i·car·di·um. (pĕr′ĭ- ... pericardium. [ˌperɪˈkɑːdɪəm] N (pericardia (pl)) [ˌperɪˈkɑːdɪə] → pericardio m. per·i·car·di·um. n. pericardio, membrana ... pericardium - a serous membrane with two layers that surrounds the heart. epicardium, visceral pericardium - the innermost of ...
Angiosarcoma of the Pericardium. A Fatal Disease. Stijn L. Brinckman, Poll van der Wouw ... In the pericardium, a homogenous mass was seen surrounding the heart, but mainly posterolaterally, and there was minimal ...
Oakley C.M. (1984) Diseases of the Myocardium, Pericardium, and Endocardium. In: Messerli F.H. (eds) Cardiovascular Disease in ...
Austin Peay State University indicates the pericardium envelopes the heart to protect the organ from infection, to prevent ... The pericardium anchors the heart and its major blood vessels to the chest wall. Cleveland Clinic explains the pericardium ... The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute states the pericardium is a two-layered sac that has fluid in between the layers ... MedicineNet.com explains the outer portion of the pericardium features a tough, thick wall of tissue that attaches to the ...
Two Pericardium Covered Stents Get HUD Designation. April 27th, 2009 Editors Cardiology ... The pericardium covered stents include the AneuGraft (pictured), already approved in Europe, which is designed for tortuous ... Flashbacks: AneuGraft Stent from ITGI Medical Wins Approval in Europe ; Over and Under Pericardium Covered Stent from ITGI ...
The "sac that surrounds the heart" is called the pericardium. The pericardium is a fibroelastic sac that contains 15 to 50 cc ... Pericarditis, or an inflammation of the pericardium, is not rare. True infections that require specific treatment are very ...
... J. S. Foo,1 C. H. Koh,1 ... J. S. Foo, C. H. Koh, A. Sahlén, H. C. Tang, and C. P. Lim, "Congenital Partial Absence of Pericardium: A Mimic of ...
... success rates and follow-up treatment involved in pericardium operations. ... When and how is surgery performed on the pericardium? Find out more about the risks, complications, ... Pericardium: operations and procedures Pericardium operations are a type of heart surgery. They are necessary if the ... Then the surgeon removes part or all of the pericardium, depending on how thick and calloused it has become. The pericardium ...
pericardium: fibrous pericardium • serous pericardium (pericardial cavity, epicardium/visceral layer) • pericardial sinus. ... The serous pericardium is deeper than the fibrous pericardium. It contains two layers, both of which function in lubricating ... The layer next to the fibrous pericardium is the parietal layer.. *The layer deep to the fibrous pericardium is the visceral ... Atlas of anatomy at UMich ht_pericard1 - "Chest X-ray showing pericardium, posteroanterior view" ...
Figure 4: H and E staining of native bovine pericardium (a); TriCol-decellularized bovine pericardium before (b) and after 7 ... In pericardium, the GAG class present in the greatest proportion was dermatan sulfate (DS), with very low amounts of hyaluronan ... Seeding was performed on 1.77 cm2 of circle-shaped TriCol-treated pericardium samples in 24-well flat bottom-culture plate (BD ... Since the relative proportion of HS in sinuses and leaflets of native cardiac valves and in pericardium was very low, we ...
LLC announces completion of a novel process for decellularization of a bovine pericardium surgical patch that takes less time ... CollaFirm, LLC Announces a Novel Process for Decellularization of Bovine Pericardium. Monmouth Junction, NJ, June 25, 2018 --( ... PR.com)-- CollaFirm, LLC announces completion of a novel process for decellularization of a bovine pericardium surgical patch ...
Review the functions and anatomy of the pericardium in this interactive tutorial. ... The pericardium is a fibrous sack that that surrounds the heart. ... visceral pericardium, and the outer layer of the heart wall, ... Pericardium - Structure & Function. Click here to go to the Pericardium quiz.. Tutorial:. Surrounding the heart is a fibrous ... Under the fibrous pericardium is a thin layer of serous membrane known as the parietal pericardium. ...
Isolated rupture of the parietal pericardium with herniation of the heart may occur following closed injury of the chest. Such ... Traumatic rupture of the pericardium with dislocation of the heart Injury. 1984 Sep;16(2):123-5. doi: 10.1016/s0020-1383(84) ... Isolated rupture of the parietal pericardium with herniation of the heart may occur following closed injury of the chest. Such ...
Pericardium Surgery for free online at Gamesgames.com! ,p,Get down to the OR, Doc! This young patient is experiencing chest ...
Home Product Categories Implants & Edentulous Solutions Tissue Regeneration , Bone Grafting CopiOs Pericardium Membrane ... Sourced from bovine pericardial tissue, the CopiOs Pericardium Membrane from Zimmer provides the characteristics of natural ...
... pericardium? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or reduce ... the symptoms of inflammation+of+the+covering+of+the+heart+or+pericardium ... Considering taking medication to treat inflammation+of+the+covering+of+the+heart+or+pericardium? Below is a list of common ... 158 medications found for inflammation+of+the+covering+of+the+heart+or+pericardium ...
It is composed of an outer fibrous pericardium and an inner two-layer... ... The pericardium is the fibroelastic sac that encases the heart separating it from the surrounding structures in the mediastinum ... It is composed of an outer fibrous pericardium and an inner two-layer serous pericardium consisting of the visceral ( ... Pericardial disease Pericardium Pericarditis Pericardial rub Effusion Tamponade Constriction Electrical alternans This is a ...
... code range for Endoscopy Procedures on the Heart and Pericardium 33508 is a medical code set maintained by th ...
The pericardium has a tough outer fibrous layer (fibrous pericardium) and a delicate serous layer (serous pericardium). Shown ... The serous pericardium lubricates the heart, preventing friction. Magnification: x5,000 when shortest axis printed at 25 ... The pericardium is a double-walled, membranous sac surrounding the heart. ... here is the outer surface of the fibrous pericardium that is composed of connective tissue (fibronectin, collagen and laminin ...
Bovine pericardium is an inert material with a low probability of retraction. It has a lower cost than cadaveric pericardium, ... Also, our material was not human cadaveric pericardium as used by Palese and Burnett (7), but bovine pericardium (heterologous ... Bovine pericardium grafts are not subject to rejection, and provoke only a mild inflammatory reaction, if any. It also serves ... Medium-thick bovine pericardium grafts were fixed to the albuginea using continuous polyglactic acid 2-0 sutures (Figure-3). ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in visceral serous pericardium development pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... Antibodies for proteins involved in visceral serous pericardium development pathways; according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ...
The inner visceral pericardium, or epicardium, adheres to the heart and the parietal pericardium makes up the outer fibrous ...
Pericardium. two mesothelial layersvisceral: epicardium (monocellular serosal layer)parietal: tough fibrous structure15-50 ml ... fibrous pericardium. parietal layer of serous pericardium. pericardium. pericardial cavity. myocardium. epicardium (visceral ... the pericardium. two-layered sac that encircles the heart inner serosal layer ( visceral pericardium ) adhering to the outer ... Diseases of the Pericardium -Normal pericardium. two layers: visceral: thin, inner serosal layerparietal: tough, fibrous outer ...
  • The same mesothelium that constitutes the serous pericardium also covers the heart as the epicardium, resulting in a continuous serous membrane invaginated onto itself as two opposing surfaces (over the fibrous pericardium and over the heart). (wikipedia.org)
  • The serous pericardium, in turn, is divided into two parts: The parietal serous pericardium, which lines the interior of the pericardial sac, is fused to and inseparable from the fibrous pericardium The visceral serous pericardium, also known as the epicardium, covers the myocardium of the heart and can be considered its serosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The serous pericardium , in turn, is divided into two layers, the parietal pericardium , which is fused to and inseparable from the fibrous pericardium, and the visceral pericardium , which is part of, or in some textbooks synonymous with, the epicardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the visceral layer of serous pericardium comes into contact with heart (not the great vessels) it is known as the epicardium . (wikipedia.org)
  • visceral pericardium , and the outer layer of the heart wall, which is called the epicardium . (getbodysmart.com)
  • The inner visceral pericardium, or epicardium, adheres to the heart and the parietal pericardium makes up the outer fibrous layer. (blausen.com)
  • The virtual space between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is commonly called the pericardial cavity. (imedecin.com)
  • and the visceral pericardium (epicardium), a serous membrane on the surface of the myocardium. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Its inner coat (the visceral pericardium or epicardium) is double, with one layer closely adherent to the heart and the other lining the inner surface of the outer coat. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Visceral Pericardium - This inner layer of the pericardium also forms the epicardium, or outer layer of the wall of the heart. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • The epicardium is the outermost layer of the heart wall and is just another name for the visceral layer of the pericardium. (innerbody.com)
  • Its two surfaces are the parietal pericardium, which contacts the fibrous pericardium, and the epicardium, which covers the MYOCARDIUM somewhat like a wet tissue. (beltina.org)
  • Known in the present state of the art is pery-guard the prosthetic pericardium which is in effect a rectangular flap made of the tissue of a bovine pericardium treated appropriately to eliminate the antigenic properties. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Moreover, the heterotransplant of a bovine pericardium is rejected by the organism, and calcinosis is thus developed. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Successive supply of bovine pericardium patch of 5 x 10 cm (approximate measurement). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As a whole, data suggest that both decellularized porcine heart valves and bovine pericardium represent promising materials bearing the potential for future development of tissue engineered heart valve scaffolds. (hindawi.com)
  • Monmouth Junction, NJ, June 25, 2018 --( PR.com )-- CollaFirm, LLC announces completion of a novel process for decellularization of a bovine pericardium surgical patch that takes less time than conventional protocols, is less expensive, and uses only safe, non-toxic chemical agents. (pr.com)
  • This paper is the first, to our knowledge, to propose the use of a bovine pericardium graft in corporoplasty for penile prosthesis implantation. (scielo.br)
  • The advantages of bovine pericardium graft have been demonstrated by its use in cardiac surgery, including low cost, biocompatibility, impermeability, resistance to dilatation, flexibility, low likelihood of retraction, absence of antigenic reaction and natural absorption of the tissue. (scielo.br)
  • Bovine pericardium was used to cover large areas of implanted penile prostheses when use of the tunica albuginea was unfeasible. (scielo.br)
  • Bovine pericardium may substitute synthetic and autologous material with the additional advantages of lower cost and greater availability. (scielo.br)
  • This paper reports the first use of bovine pericardium grafts in penile prosthesis implantation in a small series of cases of extreme complexity in which there was insufficient space for implantation of the prosthesis due to intense fibrosis (13-16). (scielo.br)
  • Five patients with a previous medical history of erosion, infection and fibrosis were submitted to implantation of penile prosthesis lined by bovine pericardium. (scielo.br)
  • Due to the intense fibrosis and the small space within the corpus cavernosum, the pair of implanted prosthesis was lined with 10 cm segment of bovine pericardium sutured to the albuginea. (scielo.br)
  • It was shown that bovine pericardium (bp) was effective to correct those large defects with many positive outcomes when compared with syntactic materials. (scirp.org)
  • 1982) published an experimental study using bovine pericardium (BP) preserved in 4% glutaraldehyde solution to correct diaphragmatic defects in 15 dogs. (scirp.org)
  • Bovine pericardium was treated either with chondroitinase ABC to remove natural cross links or with glutaraldehyde to form synthetic cross links. (rsc.org)
  • How is Glutaraldehyde Pretreated Bovine Pericardium abbreviated? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Background and aim of study: Assessment of decellularization of xenogeneic biological scaffolds for tissue engineering has relied primarily on histological cellularity, though this may not ensure the removal of known xenogeneic antigens such as galactose-α1,3-galactose (α-gal) and MHC I. Methods: Bovine pericardium (BP) underwent standard (Std) decellularization consisting of hypotonic lysis and treatment with DNAse/RNAse. (elsevier.com)
  • It has two layers, an outer layer made of strong connective tissue (fibrous pericardium), and an inner layer made of serous membrane (serous pericardium). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sourced from bovine pericardial tissue, the CopiOs Pericardium Membrane from Zimmer provides the characteristics of natural tissue coupled with ease-of-manipulation, conformability, and strength. (dentalproductshopper.com)
  • Pericardium, a double layered membrane (outer fibrous layer and dual inner serous sac), extends from the roots of the great vessels to the central tendon of the diaphragm. (acc.org)
  • Vitala® porcine pericardium collagen membrane is often preferred for its advanced handling characteristics, including pliability, drapability, and defect adaptability. (osteogenics.com)
  • Bone Morphometric Evaluation around Immediately Placed Implants Covered with Porcine-Derived Pericardium Membrane: An Experimental Study in Dogs. (osteogenics.com)
  • Vertical ridge augmentation procedure in the posterior maxilla by means of a porcine pericardium collagen membrane and a porcine particulate xenograft mixed with autogenous particulate bone. (osteogenics.com)
  • fibrous pericardium → membrane formed by dense connective tissue. (brainyresort.com)
  • The pericardium, properly speaking, is a specimen of what Bichat calls a fibro-serous membrane, consisting of two layers of membrane, an external or fibrous, and an internal or serous layer. (bookdome.com)
  • that lining the fibrous layer of the pericardium, and that lining the exterior of the heart itself, are perfectly continuous with each other, thus constituting a completely shut sac, so that the vessels going to, or issuing from, the heart, do not perforate the serous membrane, but receive coverings more or less perfect from it. (bookdome.com)
  • Pericardium is the membrane sac that encloses the heart in vertebrate animals. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Pericardium membrane comes from the sac surrounding the heart. (omssupply.com)
  • Pericardium functions as a thin pliable membrane that will lay flat on the grafting site. (omssupply.com)
  • The walls and lining of the pericardial cavity are a special membrane known as the pericardium. (innerbody.com)
  • Pericardium is a type of serous membrane that produces serous fluid to lubricate the heart and prevent friction between the ever beating heart and its surrounding organs. (innerbody.com)
  • The pericardium is a thin membrane that envelopes and protects the heart. (melbourneheartsurgeon.com.au)
  • In fetal life the common cardinal veins are responsible for blood supply to the pleuropericardial membrane wich eventually forms the pericardium. (bcm.edu)
  • Pericardium is a pliant, sterile membrane which naturally weathers the moisture and mechanical stresses of the mouth as dental surgery heals. (surgikor.com)
  • Sets heart in mediastinum and limits its motion Protects it from infections coming from other organs Prevents excessive dilation of the heart in cases of acute volume overload Lubricates the heart Inflammation of the pericardium is called pericarditis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, pericarditis can become a long-term condition causing scarring of the pericardium which restricts the heart's movement, known as constrictive pericarditis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Constrictive pericarditis is sometimes treated by surgically removing the pericardium in a procedure called a pericardiectomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation of the pericardium is called pericarditis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflamed and thickened parts of the pericardium rub against each other and cause chest pain with a condition known as pericarditis. (reference.com)
  • Pericarditis, or an inflammation of the pericardium, is not rare. (sutterhealth.org)
  • If fluid builds up in the pericardium due to inflammation in this area (pericarditis), cancer or an injury/haemorrhage, this is called pericardial effusion. (hirslanden.ch)
  • This condition, which results from an inflammation of the pericardium, is called pericarditis. (brainyresort.com)
  • Pericarditis is an inflammatory condition of the pericardium. (wikidoc.org)
  • Inflammation of the pericardium is called pericarditis, and may be detected by the medical sign pericardial friction rub. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • However, acute pericarditis due to bacterial infection may cause pericardial effusion (accumulation of fluid in the space between heart and pericardium). (melbourneheartsurgeon.com.au)
  • In chronic pericarditis, the inflammation increases and thickens the pericardium. (melbourneheartsurgeon.com.au)
  • It is also called constrictive pericarditis as the thick pericardium constricts and restricts the functioning of the heart. (melbourneheartsurgeon.com.au)
  • Pericarditis is a condition in which there is inflammation of the sac-like covering of the heart (the pericardium). (heart.org)
  • Pericarditis is one of the two pathologies of the pericardium (the other being pericardial effusion). (greek.doctor)
  • The reflection of the serous layer from the heart to the fibrous layer of the pericardium occurs at both the arterial and venous attachments of the heart. (imedecin.com)
  • Nine openings have been enumerated in the fibrous layer of the pericardium, viz. (bookdome.com)
  • Strictly speaking, these are not openings in the fibrous layer of the pericardium, for this structure becomes incorporated with the external tunic of the vessels where they come in contact with it. (bookdome.com)
  • The pericardium is a tough fibroelastic sac which covers the heart from all sides except at the cardiac root (where the great vessels joins the heart) the bottom (where only the serous pericardium exists to cover the upper surface of the central tendon of diaphragm). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pericardium is also known as cardiac epidermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the aforesaid manipulations have been completed the sheath of the prosthetic pericardium is reliably fixed on the heart so as to cover the entire surface thereof and establish an interposition between the outer cardiac surface and the inner surface of the natural pericardium, thus preventing formation of any adhesions therebetween. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • As the first centre for cardiac surgery in Europe, we started performing aortic valve replacement with autologous pericardium in September 2015 after CE certification. (smw.ch)
  • Many of these applications are commonly employed in clinical practice-for example, in the evaluation of congenital heart disease, cardiac masses, the pericardium, right ventricular dysplasia, and hibernating myocardium. (medscape.com)
  • As the serous pericardium reflects off various cardiac structures, it forms two sinuses: the Transverse Sinus and the Oblique Sinus . (statpearls.com)
  • The pericardium prevents the excessive dilatation of the heart, and in pathological states, can limit the overfilling of the heart, which would result in a low cardiac out. (statpearls.com)
  • The pericardium also influences the pressure-volume relationships of cardiac chambers by providing a limited space for the heart as a whole. (statpearls.com)
  • During cardiac surgery, the pericardium needs to be incised to access the heart. (statpearls.com)
  • MedicineNet.com explains the outer portion of the pericardium features a tough, thick wall of tissue that attaches to the diaphragm and sternum. (reference.com)
  • In front of the pericardium are found the thymus gland or its remains, areolar tissue, the sterno-pericardial ligaments, the left transversus thoracic muscle, the internal mammary vessels, the anterior margins of the pleural sac and' lungs, and the sternum. (imedecin.com)
  • anterior aspect → mediastinal pleura, sternum (between the pericardium and the sternum is connective present at the level of which the sterno-pericardial ligaments are located). (brainyresort.com)
  • Fibrous Pericardium - It provides an outer protective layer that is attached to the sternum by sternopericardial ligaments. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Weak sterno-pericardial ligaments connect the anterior aspect of the fibrous pericardium to the sternum. (statpearls.com)
  • This may cause the pericardium to become attached to the back of the sternum around the incision site, making repeat surgery difficult. (statpearls.com)
  • The pericardium's fibrous outer layer, called the fibrous pericardium, protects the heart from contact with the chest wall and other structures in the chest, including the LUNGS and the sternum. (beltina.org)
  • Two ligaments attach the top of the pericardium to the back of the sternum. (beltina.org)
  • Shown here is the outer surface of the fibrous pericardium that is composed of connective tissue (fibronectin, collagen and laminin). (sciencephoto.com)
  • parietal sheet: leaning against the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium. (brainyresort.com)
  • 59 features are number coded and identified in an accompanying key including: the coronary arteries, circumflex artery, coronary veins and coronary sinus, segments of the esophagus and trachea, lower portion of the pericardium, diaphragm section, flexible tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, mitral valve and aortic valve. (cpr-savers.com)
  • In the foetus the pericardium is but loosely connected with the tendon and fleshy fibres of the diaphragm. (bookdome.com)
  • The pericardium's outer coat (the parietal pericardium) is tough and thickened, loosely cloaks the heart, and is attached to the central part of the diaphragm and the back of the breastbone. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Both the diaphragm and the pericardium, among other structures, develop from it. (statpearls.com)
  • Oakley C.M. (1984) Diseases of the Myocardium, Pericardium, and Endocardium. (springer.com)
  • It is composed of an outer fibrous pericardium and an inner two-layer serous pericardium consisting of the visceral (epipericardium) that is adherent to the myocardium and then layers back on itself forming the parietal layer that lines the outer fibrous sac. (springer.com)
  • The inner part of the pericardium that lies adjacent to the myocardium. (oup.com)
  • To assess the clinical implementation and report preliminary results of a novel technique called the Ozaki procedure for stentless aortic valve replacement through reconstruction of the valve leaflets from autologous pericardium. (smw.ch)
  • The glutaraldehyde-treated autologous pericardium was intraoperatively customised and tailored according to individual sinus measurements and appropriate Ozaki templates (CE marked). (smw.ch)
  • The use of autologous pericardium in combination with excellent haemodynamics may have the potential to overcome the structural disadvantages of biological aortic valves, to be beneficial in infective endocarditis, and to represent an alternative for patients with small annuli. (smw.ch)
  • published their technique, which involves the use of autologous pericardium and was studied in a large patient cohort with excellent long-term follow-up [ 5 , 6 ]. (smw.ch)
  • Aortic valve replacement with autologous pericardium: long-term follow-up of 15 patients and in vivo histopathological changes of autologous pericardium. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: From 1996 to 1997, 15 patients (mean age, 34 years) underwent aortic valve replacement with the glutaraldehyde-treated autologous pericardium. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The known prosthetic pericardium is employed as patches for closure of a defect of the natural pericardium after surgery on the heart. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Once the surgery on the heart has been completed the heart is placed in the hollow space formed by the sheath of the prosthetic pericardium, the aortic arch is encompassed by the straps passed through the transverse sinus, and the ends of the straps are stitched to the edge of the sheath. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Pericardium operations are a type of heart surgery. (hirslanden.ch)
  • Significance of pericardium in relation to the surgery of the heart. (springer.com)
  • Patients who received calf pericardium covered implants have been followed for 7-20 months following surgery. (bmj.com)
  • The diseases treatment is sub-segmented into anti-inflammatory drugs, pericardium patches, surgery, and others. (abnewswire.com)
  • Take an x-ray to determine the cause of your patients' problems and then perform a whole Pericardium Surgery on him. (mydoctorgames.com)
  • Operate Now Pericardium Surgery is a tough puzzle game for you to conquer. (gameskizigames.com)
  • Completing the challenge in Operate Now Pericardium Surgery in the short time will give you the high score. (gameskizigames.com)
  • The oral cavity is a demanding and dynamic environment for healing, which is why pericardium products are considered the gold standard in protecting the delicate tissues of the teeth, gums and jaw following oral surgery. (surgikor.com)
  • Click here or here to see pericardium in different sizes and price points, and feel free to contact us with any questions about other dental surgery materials. (surgikor.com)
  • Considering taking medication to treat inflammation+of+the+covering+of+the+heart+or+pericardium? (webmd.com)
  • Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of inflammation+of+the+covering+of+the+heart+or+pericardium. (webmd.com)
  • The pericardium helps maintain positioning of the heart within the thoracic cavity and provides a barrier against infection and inflammation. (springer.com)
  • Such handling of the pericardium can result in inflammation and thickening of the pericardium. (statpearls.com)
  • Pericardium imbalance can manifest as chronic damaging relationship patterns, chest discomfort due to inflammation, or liquid around the heart. (fiveseasonsmedicine.com)
  • 2017. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/757684/all/serous_pericardium. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The global pericardium diseases market is expected to grow at a CAGR of ~8.2 % during the forecast period 2017-2023. (abnewswire.com)
  • The fibrous pericardium is the outside layer of the pericardium, made up of dense and loose connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pericardium consists of connective tissue (tissue that surrounds organs or is found between organs) and forms a thin pouch around the heart. (hirslanden.ch)
  • The pericardium is a double walled sac of connective tissue that contains the physical heart organ and the roots of all of the large vessels that bring blood to and from the heart. (ascensionglossary.com)
  • Pericardium channel particularly influences the area in the center of the thorax. (sacredlotus.com)
  • This clinical case of a man who got his thorax and pericardium penetrated by a rebar is something that will definitely give you a glance at what could be waiting for you, if you decide that the ER is your calling. (kenhub.com)
  • The pericardium is a tough double layered fibroserous sac which covers the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pericardium has a tough outer fibrous layer (fibrous pericardium) and a delicate serous layer (serous pericardium). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Brauer , L. Broadbent , W.: Adherent pericardium. (springer.com)
  • The parietal pleura is densely adherent to the outside of the fibrous pericardium, except for a small, bare area in the front from the midline to the apex and posteriorly where the pericardium touches the esophagus. (statpearls.com)
  • [1] The space between the two layers of serous pericardium (see below), the pericardial cavity, is filled with serous fluid which protects the heart from any kind of external jerk or shock. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pericardial space usually contains 30 - 50 mL of serous fluid, but it can hold as much as 1000 mL if the effusion happens slowly enough to give the pericardium time to stretch. (greek.doctor)
  • The pericardium is a fibroelastic sac that contains 15 to 50 cc of fluid and surrounds and protects the heart. (sutterhealth.org)
  • The pericardium is the fibroelastic sac that encases the heart separating it from the surrounding structures in the mediastinum. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study is to demonstrate that the horse pericardium, which has the essential charasteristics of reabsorbable membranes and moreover is BSE-free, is an excellent dural substitute. (minervamedica.it)
  • A sophisticated chemical-physical process is at the base of pericardium membranes manufacturing. (bioteck.com)
  • The thickness of the outer layer of pericardium varies from 0.8-2.5mm. (acc.org)
  • The Current Procedural Terminology (CPT ® ) code 33254 as maintained by American Medical Association, is a medical procedural code under the range - Incisional Electrophysiologic Procedures on the Heart and Pericardium. (aapc.com)
  • The right phrenic nerve passes to the right of the pericardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The left phrenic nerve passes over the pericardium of the left ventricle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The arteries of the pericardium are derived from the pericardiac, esophageal, and bronchial branches of the thoracic aorta and from the internal mammary and phrenic arteries. (imedecin.com)
  • The sides of the pericardium are over-lapped by the lungs, and are covered by the pleurae, the phrenic nerve being interposed at the left, and thrown more anteriorly, so as to bend over the pericardium at a point corresponding to the apex of the heart. (bookdome.com)
  • The fibrous pericardium is supplied by the pericardio-phrenic and internal thoracic arteries. (statpearls.com)
  • The lymphatics from the ventral surface of the parietal pericardium pass along the phrenic nerves cranially. (statpearls.com)
  • The fibrous pericardium and the parietal part of the serosal pericardium are supplied by the phrenic nerve. (statpearls.com)
  • therefore, the pain from the pericardium originates in the parietal layer only and is transmitted by the phrenic nerve. (statpearls.com)
  • The pericardial stage was used to suspend the pericardium and the phrenic nerve was preserved throughout its course. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • The pericardium, also called pericardial sac, is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The visceral serous pericardium extends to the root of the great vessels and joins the parietal serous pericardium at the anatomical base of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The root of the great vessels and the associated reflections of the serous pericardium creates various smaller sacs and tunnels known as pericardial sinuses, as well as radiographically significant pericardial recesses, where pericardial fluid can pool and mimic mediastinal lymphadenopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The visceral layer extends to the beginning of the great vessels (the large blood vessels serving the heart) becoming one with the parietal layer of the serous pericardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pericardium is a fibrous sac that encloses the heart and great vessels. (statpearls.com)
  • The Serous Pericardium is a layer of serosa that lines the fibrous pericardium (parietal layer), which is reflected around the roots of the great vessels to cover the entire surface of the heart (visceral layer). (statpearls.com)
  • The pericardium wraps completely around the heart, extending around the bases of the great vessels ( AORTA , superior and inferior VENA CAVA , pulmonary ARTERY , pulmonary VEIN ) as they arise from the heart. (beltina.org)
  • The "sac that surrounds the heart" is called the pericardium. (sutterhealth.org)
  • The pericardium is a cone-shaped, fibro-serous sac which surrounds the heart and contains a small amount of fluid [liquor pericardii]. (imedecin.com)
  • Pericardium is the fluid filled sac that surrounds the heart and the proximal ends of the aorta, vena cava, and the pulmonary artery. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Moreover, withdrawal of the prosthetic pericardium upon termination of the postoperative period involves thoracotomy, which renders the procedure more traumatic and leads to the outflow of the pericardial fluid. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute states the pericardium is a two-layered sac that has fluid in between the layers to prevent friction. (reference.com)
  • They are necessary if the pericardium, or heart sac, becomes thickened or filled with fluid. (hirslanden.ch)
  • In the case of thoracoscopic pericardial fenestration, an endoscope is used to help make a hole in the pericardium, so that the fluid can be drained or removed. (hirslanden.ch)
  • Before pericardial fenestration, an attempt will firstly be made to drain the fluid by puncturing the pericardium and inserting a thin tube. (hirslanden.ch)
  • Guided by camera imaging, a hole (window) is cut into the pericardium so that the fluid can drain into the chest cavity. (hirslanden.ch)
  • Pericardial fenestration removes the fluid and the 'hole' in the pericardium does not negatively impact on the heart. (hirslanden.ch)
  • In the initial period after pericardial fenestration, ultrasound examinations are necessary to investigate how the pericardium is progressing and to ensure there is no new fluid build-up. (hirslanden.ch)
  • The pericardium isolates the heart from surrounding organs, prevents the heart from over expanding when blood volume increases, limits heart motion, and keeps a small amount of fluid around the heart that severs as a lubricant which reduces friction with surrounding tissue as the heart beats. (healthtap.com)
  • The visceral pericardium contains a small amount of fluid that reduces the friction between the two surfaces as the heart beats. (oup.com)
  • Pericardial fluid is secreted by the pericardium which is similar to the functions of the cerebral spinal fluid of the brain, it helps to protect the organ, but its spiritual function is to allow the spiritual essence to travel within its channels and open direct communication with God source. (ascensionglossary.com)
  • Abnormal fluid accumulation in the pericardium is called pericardial effusion and is the second pathology of the pericardium. (greek.doctor)
  • It is surrounded by a fluid filled sac with a double walled membranous covering called the pericardium which protects the heart from mechanical injuries, while the lubricating pericardial fluid reduces friction during heart beat. (simply.science)
  • Diseases of the pericardium are relatively common with varied clinical symptoms and features that can result from localized disease or be a manifestation of system illness. (springer.com)
  • Schneider M.D., Richeson J.F. (2018) Diseases of the Pericardium. (springer.com)
  • The global pericardium diseases market is segmented on the basis of types, treatment, and end users. (abnewswire.com)
  • The reflections of the visceral pericardium posteriorly result in formation of sinuses such as the oblique sinus that is bounded by inferior vena cava (IVC), the four pulmonary veins, left atrium anteriorly and esophagus posteriorly and the transverse sinus that is bounded by ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk anteriorly and left atrium inferiorly. (acc.org)
  • When the pericardium has been opened, the following parts will be exposed: the anterior superior surface of the heart, the two venae cavae, the aorta, the pulmonary artery, the right auricular appendix and a portion of the auricle, and the tip of the left auricular appendix. (bookdome.com)
  • Processed calf pericardium has been used in a number of clinical settings as diverse as vascular grafts and neurological surgical patches. (bmj.com)
  • Tutoplast® Pericardium processed allografts are virally safe, dehydrated, sterile human tissue grafts. (katena.com)
  • The serous pericardium lubricates the heart, preventing friction. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The pericardium protects and lubricates the heart. (blogspot.com)
  • Austin Peay State University indicates the pericardium envelopes the heart to protect the organ from infection, to prevent overfilling of the heart and to lubricate the heart while it moves in the chest cavity. (reference.com)
  • The pericardium anchors the heart and its major blood vessels to the chest wall. (reference.com)
  • The pericardium keeps other structures of the chest from touching the heart. (reference.com)
  • Isolated rupture of the parietal pericardium with herniation of the heart may occur following closed injury of the chest. (nih.gov)
  • Fibrous pericardium helps to keep the heart contained within the chest cavity. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • The Pericardium protects the Heart from emotional trauma, constricts the chest to protect the Heart, and helps to express the Joy of the Heart. (fiveseasonsmedicine.com)
  • A. PA chest radiograph demonstrates prominent dilation of the left atrial appendage secondary to partial absence of the pericardium. (bcm.edu)
  • A. PA chest readiograph demonstrates cardiomegaly with prominent left atrial appendage secondary to complete absence of pericardium. (bcm.edu)
  • One patient demonstrated multiple recurrences on the chest wall, with eventual direct extension to the pericardium, pleura, and lung. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • There are two layers to the pericardial sac: the outermost fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heart - o Outermost layer fibrous pericardium(most. (coursehero.com)
  • Pericardial arteries supply blood to the dorsal portion of the pericardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to acupressure for Pericardium, energy blockage inside pericardium causes muttering while sleeping. (sanjeevnitv.com)
  • As a result of the ego-personality being subjected to mind control, the mental distortions accumulate as negative patterns that form a thick energy blockage around the pericardium. (ascensionglossary.com)
  • A prosthetic pericardium comprises a sheathing (1) made of a biologically neutral elastic material and sized to suit the heart's size, and provided with a means for its being fixed on the heart. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • One more state-of-the-art prosthetic pericardium is known to comprise sheaths from a biologically neutral elastic material made to suit the heart's dimensins and provided with a means for its being fixed on the heart (SU, A, 1,009,457). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The prosthetic pericardium of such a construction should be selected to suit the heart's size, therefore a great number of standard sizes of the prosthetic pericardium are required to provide proper selection of an optimum variant. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Doctors cut away some part of the patient heart's pericardium , to facilitate placing the new heart. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Known as the 'King's Bodyguard', the pericardium is the heart's protective sack. (fiveseasonsmedicine.com)
  • The Pericardium has a meridian named for it, which reflects the health of the organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Acupuncture however, the Pericardium has it's own meridian and is just as important as the heart Channel itself. (sacredlotus.com)
  • Using anatomical terminology I describe the pathway of the Pericardium Meridian. (podbean.com)
  • The network of the Pericardium includes the pericardial sac, the Pericardium meridian, the small intestine, and parts of the brain associated with the Pericardium channel. (fiveseasonsmedicine.com)
  • The Source Point of the Pericardium Meridian is PC-7, Daling, Great Mound, at the inner wrist joint. (fiveseasonsmedicine.com)
  • The pericardium is the double-walled sac enveloping the heart which protects it from shock and infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Not only does the pericardium physically protect the heart, its energy also protects the heart energetically from damage and disruption by excessive emotions from other organs and external sources. (fiveseasonsmedicine.com)
  • The pleural and pericardial cavities are exaggerated since normally there is no space between parietal and visceral pleura and between pericardium and heart. (wikidoc.org)
  • Common Organization of the Pleura, Peritoneum and Pericardium. (indigo.ca)
  • My test showed rheumatic d/o mitral tricuspid valve pericardium mass. (healthtap.com)
  • In general, there are two operations available: the opening of the pericardium, which is known as pericardial fenestration, and the removal of the pericardium, which is referred to as a pericardectomy. (hirslanden.ch)
  • Together, the parietal and visceral pericardial layers are also called the serous pericardium . (getbodysmart.com)
  • The fibrous pericardium is the most superficial layer of the pericardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The layer next to the fibrous pericardium is the parietal layer. (wikidoc.org)
  • The layer deep to the fibrous pericardium is the visceral layer. (wikidoc.org)
  • Parietal Pericardium - This layer between the fibrous pericardium and visceral pericardium. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • It is continuous with fibrous pericardium and provides an additional layer of insulation for the heart. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • The pericardium has 2 layers-a visceral layer that covers the outside of the heart and a parietal layer that forms a sac around the outside of the pericardial cavity. (innerbody.com)
  • The Pericardium is also called the "heart protector", and, for clinical purposes, is considered a yin organ paired with the yang organ San Jiao. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical case: Penetration of the pericardium: want to learn more about it? (kenhub.com)
  • The pericardium is a thin double-layered sac which encloses the heart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A healthy pericardium is a very flexible, thin tissue that is "just there. (healthtap.com)
  • Accordingly, a resilient member protrudes through an incision in the pericardium and produces a positive biasing force to adjacent pericardial tissue against a side surface of an attached body structure. (google.com)