Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM from various origins, such as infection, neoplasm, autoimmune process, injuries, or drug-induced. Pericarditis usually leads to PERICARDIAL EFFUSION, or CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS.
Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM that is characterized by the fibrous scarring and adhesion of both serous layers, the VISCERAL PERICARDIUM and the PARIETAL PERICARDIUM leading to the loss of pericardial cavity. The thickened pericardium severely restricts cardiac filling. Clinical signs include FATIGUE, muscle wasting, and WEIGHT LOSS.
INFLAMMATION of the sac surrounding the heart (PERICARDIUM) due to MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS infection. Pericarditis can lead to swelling (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION), compression of the heart (CARDIAC TAMPONADE), and preventing normal beating of the heart.
Surgical excision (total or partial) of a portion of the pericardium. Pericardiotomy refers to incision of the pericardium.
Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.
Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease in which the ventricular walls are excessively rigid, impeding ventricular filling. It is marked by reduced diastolic volume of either or both ventricles but normal or nearly normal systolic function. It may be idiopathic or associated with other diseases (ENDOMYOCARDIAL FIBROSIS or AMYLOIDOSIS) causing interstitial fibrosis.
Puncture and aspiration of fluid from the PERICARDIUM.
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
Pathological conditions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM caused by infection of MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. Tuberculosis involvement may include the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.
Pathological conditions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM caused by infections.
An acute, febrile, infectious disease generally occurring in epidemics. It is usually caused by coxsackieviruses B and sometimes by coxsackieviruses A; echoviruses; or other enteroviruses.
Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.
The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is basically a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus attached to a lactone ring at the C-17 position.
A characteristic symptom complex.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.

Carcinoid heart disease from ovarian primary presenting with acute pericarditis and biventricular failure. (1/361)

A case is described of a 54 year old woman who had acute pericarditis with large exudative effusion accompanied by severe right and left ventricular failure. The patient was finally diagnosed with carcinoid heart disease from an ovarian carcinoid teratoma. She was treated with octreotide--a somatostatin analogue--followed by radical surgical resection of the neoplasm. At one year follow up only mild carcinoid tricuspid regurgitation remained. Only 16 cases of carcinoid heart disease from an ovarian primary have been described in literature. Moreover clinically manifest acute, nonmetastatic pericarditis and left heart failure are not considered as possible presentations of carcinoid heart disease, whatever the origin. In a recent series a small pericardial effusion was considered an infrequent and unexpected echocardiographic finding in carcinoid heart patients. One case of "carcinoid pericarditis" has previously been described as a consequence of pericardial metastasis. Left sided heart involvement is usually caused by bronchial carcinoids or patency of foramen ovale; both were excluded in the case presented.  (+info)

Primary right atrial angiosarcoma mimicking acute pericarditis, pulmonary embolism, and tricuspid stenosis. (2/361)

A 29 year old white man presented to the emergency room with new onset pleuritic chest pain and shortness of breath. He was initially diagnosed as having viral pericarditis and was treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A few weeks later he developed recurrent chest pain with cough and haemoptysis. Chest radiography, cardiac examination, transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography pointed to a mass that arose from the posterior wall of the right atrium, not attached to the interatrial septum, which protruded into the lumen of the right atrium causing intermittent obstruction of inflow across the tricuspid valve. Contrast computed tomography of the chest showed a right atrial mass extending to the anterior chest wall. The lung fields were studded with numerous pulmonary nodules suggestive of metastases. A fine needle aspiration of the pulmonary nodule revealed histopathology consistent with spindle cell sarcoma thought to originate in the right atrium. Immunohistochemical stains confirmed that this was an angiosarcoma. There was no evidence of extracardiac origin of the tumour. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and radiation. This case highlights the clinical presentation, rapid and aggressive course of cardiac angiosarcomas, and the diagnostic modalities available for accurate diagnosis.  (+info)

One-step reverse transcriptase PCR method for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi mRNA in mouse Lyme arthritis tissue samples. (3/361)

A one-step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) method for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi mRNA in infected C3H mice is described. This simple procedure, less prone to nucleic acid cross-contamination than the standard method, was found to be 10-fold more sensitive than a classical two-step RT-PCR assay. By using one-step RT-PCR, flagellin mRNAs were detected in synovial and heart tissues from all seven infected mice tested.  (+info)

Intrapericardial streptokinase in purulent pericarditis. (4/361)

Six consecutive children with proven purulent pericarditis were treated with pericardial irrigation with streptokinase. Mean (SD) 861 (678) ml (range 240-2000) of thick purulent fluid was drained, and five children had complete clearance of the pus within 3-8 days. One child developed intrapericardial haemorrhage with a submitral pseudoaneurysm and underwent patch closure of the neck of the aneurysm as well as anterior pericardiectomy. Follow up of 13 to 30 months revealed no pericardial constriction.  (+info)

Restrictive pericarditis. (5/361)

BACKGROUND: Pericardial thickening is an uncommon complication of cardiac surgery. OBJECTIVES: To study pericardial thickening as the cause of severe postoperative venous congestion. SUBJECTS: Two men, one with severe aortic stenosis and single coronary artery disease, and one with coronary artery disease after an old inferior infarction. Both had coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Doppler echocardiography, and cardiac catheterisation. RESULTS: Venous pressure was raised in both patients. MRI showed mildly thickened pericardium, and cardiac catheterisation indicated diastolic equalization of pressures in the four chambers. Jugular venous pulse showed a dominant "Y" descent coinciding with early diastolic flow in the superior vena cava, and mitral and tricuspid Doppler forward flow proved restrictive physiology. The clinical background suggested pericardial disease so both patients had pericardiectomy. This proved the pericardium to be thickened; the extent of fibrosis also involved the epicardium. CONCLUSIONS: Although rare, restrictive pericarditis (restrictive ventricular physiology resulting from pericardial disease) should be considered to be a separate diagnostic entity because its pathological basis and treatment are different from intrinsic myocardial disease. This diagnosis may be confirmed by standard investigational techniques or may require diagnostic thoracotomy.  (+info)

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm complicating infective pericarditis. (6/361)

Cross sectional echocardiography demonstrated a pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricular posterolateral wall close to the atrioventricular junction in a 4 year old girl with infective pericarditis complicating lobar pneumonia. Colour flow Doppler demonstrated bidirectional flow across the communication hole. Surgical resection was successful.  (+info)

Coxiella burnetii pericarditis: report of 15 cases and review. (7/361)

Q fever is characterized by its clinical polymorphism, and pericarditis associated with Q fever has occasionally been described. Herein we report 15 cases of Coxiella burnetii pericarditis, 9 from our data bank and 6 encountered within the past 12 months. Three patients presented with life-threatening tamponade. We compare our cases with the 18 previously reported and with 60 Q fever-matched controls at our center. This study showed that Q fever pericarditis can present as acute as well as chronic disease; we describe relapse after 6 months in association with a serological profile compatible with the chronic form of disease (phase I C. burnetii IgG titer of > or = 800). Discriminant factors among patients and controls are age of > 52 years (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.66), the occurrence of general symptoms such as arthralgias or myalgias (adjusted OR, 6.54), and a normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (adjusted OR, 16.37). No specific symptoms or underlying cardiac predispositions are observed.  (+info)

New insights regarding the atrial flutter reentrant circuit : studies in the canine sterile pericarditis model. (8/361)

Background-We studied atrial activation during induced atrial flutter in the canine sterile pericarditis model to test the hypothesis that the atrial flutter reentrant circuit includes a septal component. Methods and Results-We studied 10 episodes of induced, sustained (>5 minutes) atrial flutter in 9 dogs. In all episodes, the reentrant circuit included a septal component. In 6 episodes, there were 2 reentrant circuits, one in the right atrial free wall and the second involving the atrial septum, Bachmann's bundle, and the right atrial free wall; both circuits shared a pathway in the right atrial free wall (figure-of-eight). The direction (superior or inferior) of the septal wave front of the second circuit correlated with the direction (clockwise or counterclockwise, respectively) of the right atrial free-wall circuit. A line of functional block in the right atrial free wall was part of both reentrant circuits. In the other 4 atrial flutter episodes, only 1 reentrant circuit was present, with activation in an inferior-to-superior direction in the septum and a superior-to-inferior direction in the right atrial free wall in 2 episodes and in the opposite direction in the other 2 episodes. In all atrial flutter episodes, the flutter wave polarity in ECG lead II was determined by the direction of activation in the left atrium; polarity was positive when the direction was superior to inferior and negative when the direction was inferior to superior. Conclusions-In this model of atrial flutter, the reentrant circuit (1) always included a septal component, (2) did not always require a right atrial free-wall reentrant circuit, (3) demonstrated figure-of-eight reentry when a reentrant circuit was present in the right atrial free wall, and (4) was associated with a line of functional block in the right atrial free wall.  (+info)

Pericarditis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pericardium, which is the thin sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart and contains serous fluid to reduce friction during heartbeats. The inflammation can cause symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and sometimes fever.

The pericardium has two layers: the visceral pericardium, which is tightly adhered to the heart's surface, and the parietal pericardium, which lines the inner surface of the chest cavity. Normally, there is a small amount of fluid between these two layers, allowing for smooth movement of the heart within the chest cavity.

In pericarditis, the inflammation causes the pericardial layers to become irritated and swollen, leading to an accumulation of excess fluid in the pericardial space. This can result in a condition called pericardial effusion, which can further complicate the situation by putting pressure on the heart and impairing its function.

Pericarditis may be caused by various factors, including viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, heart attacks, trauma, or cancer. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, managing symptoms, and reducing inflammation with medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), colchicine, or corticosteroids. In severe cases, pericardiocentesis (removal of excess fluid from the pericardial space) or surgical intervention may be necessary.

Constrictive pericarditis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation and thickening of the pericardium, which is the sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart. This inflammation leads to scarring and thickening of the pericardium, causing it to become stiff and inflexible. As a result, the heart's ability to fill with blood between beats is restricted, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention.

In contrastive pericarditis, the thickened and scarred pericardium restricts the normal movement of the heart within the chest cavity, leading to a characteristic pattern of hemodynamic abnormalities. These include equalization of diastolic pressures in all cardiac chambers, increased systemic venous pressure, and decreased cardiac output.

The most common causes of constrictive pericarditis include prior infection, radiation therapy, autoimmune disorders, and previous heart surgery. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as echocardiography or MRI, and sometimes invasive testing such as cardiac catheterization. Treatment may involve medications to manage symptoms and reduce inflammation, as well as surgical removal of the pericardium (pericardiectomy) in severe cases.

Tuberculous pericarditis is a specific form of pericarditis (inflammation of the pericardium, the thin sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart) that is caused by the bacterial infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This type of pericarditis is more common in areas where tuberculosis is prevalent and can lead to serious complications if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

In tuberculous pericarditis, the bacteria typically spread from the lungs (the most common site of TB infection) or other infected organs through the bloodstream to the pericardium. The infection causes an inflammatory response, leading to the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space (pericardial effusion), which can put pressure on the heart and impair its function. In some cases, the inflammation may lead to the formation of scar tissue, causing the pericardium to thicken and constrict, a condition known as constrictive pericarditis.

Symptoms of tuberculous pericarditis can include chest pain, cough, fever, fatigue, weight loss, and difficulty breathing. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging tests (such as echocardiography, CT scan, or MRI), and laboratory tests (including analysis of the pericardial fluid). Treatment usually consists of a long course of antibiotics specific to TB, along with anti-inflammatory medications and close monitoring for potential complications.

Pericardiectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of all or part of the pericardium, which is the sac-like membrane surrounding the heart. This surgery is typically performed to treat chronic or recurrent pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis, or pericardial effusions that do not respond to other treatments. Pericardiectomy can help reduce symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fluid buildup around the heart, improving the patient's quality of life and overall prognosis.

Pericardial effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space, which is the potential space between the two layers of the pericardium - the fibrous and serous layers. The pericardium is a sac that surrounds the heart to provide protection and lubrication for the heart's movement during each heartbeat. Normally, there is only a small amount of fluid (5-15 mL) in this space to ensure smooth motion of the heart. However, when an excessive amount of fluid accumulates, it can cause increased pressure on the heart, leading to various complications such as decreased cardiac output and even cardiac tamponade, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Pericardial effusion may result from several causes, including infections (viral, bacterial, or fungal), inflammatory conditions (such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or cancer), trauma, heart surgery, kidney failure, or iatrogenic causes. The symptoms of pericardial effusion can vary depending on the rate and amount of fluid accumulation. Slowly developing effusions may not cause any symptoms, while rapid accumulations can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, palpitations, or even hypotension (low blood pressure). Diagnosis is usually confirmed through imaging techniques such as echocardiography, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the effusion, ranging from close monitoring to drainage procedures or medications to address the root cause.

Cardiac tamponade is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is excessive fluid or blood accumulation in the pericardial sac, which surrounds the heart. This accumulation puts pressure on the heart, preventing it from filling properly and reducing its ability to pump blood effectively. As a result, cardiac output decreases, leading to symptoms such as low blood pressure, shortness of breath, chest pain, and a rapid pulse. If left untreated, cardiac tamponade can be life-threatening, requiring emergency medical intervention to drain the fluid and relieve the pressure on the heart.

Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a type of heart muscle disorder characterized by impaired relaxation and filling of the lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles), leading to reduced pump function. This is caused by stiffening or rigidity of the heart muscle, often due to fibrosis or scarring. The stiffness prevents the ventricles from filling properly with blood during the diastolic phase, which can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention.

RCM is a less common form of cardiomyopathy compared to dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. It can be idiopathic (no known cause) or secondary to other conditions like amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, or storage diseases. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, echocardiography, and sometimes cardiac MRI or biopsy. Treatment is focused on managing symptoms and addressing underlying causes when possible.

Pericardiocentesis is a medical procedure where a needle or a catheter is inserted into the pericardial sac, the thin fluid-filled space surrounding the heart, to remove excess fluids or air that has accumulated. This buildup can put pressure on the heart and impede its function, leading to various cardiac symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and palpitations. The procedure is often guided by echocardiography or fluoroscopy to ensure proper placement and minimize risks. Pericardiocentesis may be performed as an emergency treatment or a scheduled intervention, depending on the patient's condition.

The pericardium is the double-walled sac that surrounds the heart. It has an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer, which further divides into two parts: the parietal layer lining the fibrous pericardium and the visceral layer (epicardium) closely adhering to the heart surface.

The space between these two layers is filled with a small amount of lubricating serous fluid, allowing for smooth movement of the heart within the pericardial cavity. The pericardium provides protection, support, and helps maintain the heart's normal position within the chest while reducing friction during heart contractions.

"Cardiovascular Tuberculosis" refers to a form of tuberculosis (TB) where the bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) infects the heart or the blood vessels. This is a less common manifestation of TB, but it can have serious consequences if left untreated.

In cardiovascular TB, the bacteria can cause inflammation and damage to the heart muscle (myocarditis), the sac surrounding the heart (pericarditis), or the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This can lead to symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, and fever. In severe cases, it can cause heart failure or life-threatening arrhythmias.

Cardiovascular TB is usually treated with a combination of antibiotics that are effective against the TB bacteria. The treatment may last for several months to ensure that all the bacteria have been eliminated. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart valves or vessels. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve outcomes in patients with cardiovascular TB.

Suppuration is the process of forming or discharging pus. It is a condition that results from infection, tissue death (necrosis), or injury, where white blood cells (leukocytes) accumulate to combat the infection and subsequently die, forming pus. The pus consists of dead leukocytes, dead tissue, debris, and microbes (bacteria, fungi, or protozoa). Suppuration can occur in various body parts such as the lungs (empyema), brain (abscess), or skin (carbuncle, furuncle). Treatment typically involves draining the pus and administering appropriate antibiotics to eliminate the infection.

Cardiovascular infections, also known as infective endocarditis, are infections that affect the inner layer of the heart, including the heart valves. These infections are usually caused by bacteria, but they can also be caused by fungi or other microorganisms. They can occur when bacteria or other germs enter the bloodstream and then settle in the heart.

There are several types of cardiovascular infections, including:

* Native Valve Endocarditis: This occurs when an infection affects the heart valves that are present at birth.
* Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: This occurs when an infection affects an artificial heart valve.
* Intracardiac Device-Related Infections: These infections can occur in people who have devices such as pacemakers or implantable defibrillators.
* Infectious Myocarditis: This is an inflammation of the heart muscle caused by an infection.

Symptoms of cardiovascular infections may include fever, chills, fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pain, and a new or changing heart murmur. Treatment typically involves several weeks of antibiotics, and in some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the infected tissue. Prevention measures include good oral hygiene, prompt treatment of skin infections, and prophylactic antibiotics for certain high-risk individuals undergoing dental or surgical procedures.

Epidemic pleurodynia, also known as Bornholm disease or devils' grip, is a self-limiting viral illness characterized by sudden onset of severe, stabbing chest or upper abdominal pain. It is caused most commonly by an enterovirus, often Coxsackie A or B.

The hallmark of epidemic pleurodynia is the pleuritic nature of the pain, which is aggravated by deep breathing, coughing, or movement. The muscle spasms can be so intense that they cause the patient to assume a fetal position in order to minimize the discomfort. Other symptoms may include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and generalized weakness.

The term "epidemic" refers to the fact that this disease tends to occur in outbreaks, particularly during the summer and fall months. However, sporadic cases can also occur throughout the year. The illness typically lasts for 5-10 days but may rarely persist for several weeks.

Treatment is generally supportive and includes rest, hydration, and analgesics for pain relief. Antiviral medications are not usually recommended, as they have not been shown to significantly affect the course of the illness.

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, which is the middle layer of the heart wall. The myocardium is composed of cardiac muscle cells and is responsible for the heart's pumping function. Myocarditis can be caused by various infectious and non-infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and drugs.

In myocarditis, the inflammation can damage the cardiac muscle cells, leading to decreased heart function, arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms), and in severe cases, heart failure or even sudden death. Symptoms of myocarditis may include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations, and swelling in the legs, ankles, or abdomen.

The diagnosis of myocarditis is often based on a combination of clinical presentation, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endomyocardial biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications to support heart function, reduce inflammation, control arrhythmias, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. In some cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary.

Cardanolides are a type of steroid compound that are found in certain plants, particularly in the family Apocynaceae. These compounds have a characteristic structure that includes a five-membered lactone ring attached to a steroid nucleus, and they are known for their ability to inhibit the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase) in animal cells. This property makes cardanolides toxic to many organisms, including humans, and they have been used as heart poisons and insecticides.

One of the most well-known cardanolides is ouabain, which is found in the seeds of several African plants and has been used traditionally as a medicine for various purposes, including as a heart stimulant and a poison for hunting. Other examples of cardanolides include digoxin and digitoxin, which are derived from the foxglove plant (Digitalis purpurea) and are used in modern medicine to treat heart failure and atrial arrhythmias.

It's worth noting that while cardanolides have important medical uses, they can also be highly toxic if ingested or otherwise introduced into the body in large amounts. Therefore, it's essential to use these compounds only under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is characterized by intellectual and developmental disabilities, distinctive facial features, and sometimes physical growth delays and health problems. The condition affects approximately one in every 700 babies born in the United States.

Individuals with Down syndrome have varying degrees of cognitive impairment, ranging from mild to moderate or severe. They may also have delayed development, including late walking and talking, and may require additional support and education services throughout their lives.

People with Down syndrome are at increased risk for certain health conditions, such as congenital heart defects, respiratory infections, hearing loss, vision problems, gastrointestinal issues, and thyroid disorders. However, many individuals with Down syndrome live healthy and fulfilling lives with appropriate medical care and support.

The condition is named after John Langdon Down, an English physician who first described the syndrome in 1866.

Metabolic syndrome, also known as Syndrome X, is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. It is not a single disease but a group of risk factors that often co-occur. According to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, a person has metabolic syndrome if they have any three of the following five conditions:

1. Abdominal obesity (waist circumference of 40 inches or more in men, and 35 inches or more in women)
2. Triglyceride level of 150 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) or greater
3. HDL cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dL in men or less than 50 mg/dL in women
4. Systolic blood pressure of 130 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or greater, or diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or greater
5. Fasting glucose level of 100 mg/dL or greater

Metabolic syndrome is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as physical inactivity and a diet high in refined carbohydrates and unhealthy fats. Treatment typically involves making lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and losing weight if necessary. In some cases, medication may also be needed to manage individual components of the syndrome, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

... pericarditis is divided into "acute" and "chronic" forms. Acute pericarditis is more common than chronic pericarditis, and can ... Chronic pericarditis however is less common, a form of which is constrictive pericarditis. The following is the clinical ... It carries a risk of death between 5 and 10%. About 30% of people with viral pericarditis or pericarditis of an unknown cause ... Pericarditis - National Library of Medicine Pericarditis - National Heart Lung Blood Institute (Articles with short description ...
... is a type of pericarditis (inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart, the pericardium) usually lasting ... There are several causes of acute pericarditis. In developed nations, the cause of most (80-90%) cases of acute pericarditis is ... Troponin levels increase in 35-50% of people with pericarditis. Electrocardiogram (ECG) changes in acute pericarditis mainly ... hemodynamic compromise Cardiac tamponade Constrictive pericarditis Effusive-constrictive pericarditis For acute pericarditis to ...
... is a form of pericarditis. Pericarditis caused by tuberculosis is difficult to diagnose, because ... The Tygerberg scoring system helps the clinician to decide whether pericarditis is due to tuberculosis or whether it is due to ...
Related conditions are bacterial pericarditis, pericarditis and pericarditis after a heart attack. The cause of constrictive ... Causes of constrictive pericarditis include: Tuberculosis Incomplete drainage of purulent pericarditis Fungal and parasitic ... "Restrictive pericarditis". eMedicine. MedScape. Retrieved 21 September 2015. "Imaging in Constrictive pericarditis". eMedicine ... Constrictive pericarditis is a medical condition characterized by a thickened, fibrotic pericardium, limiting the heart's ...
... is a form of pericarditis. It causes fibrinous pericarditis. The main cause of the disease is poorly ... Uremic pericarditis is effectively treated with hemodialysis and can resolve the symptoms and decrease the size of any ... BUN is normally >60 mg/dL (normal is 7-20 mg/dL). However, the degree of pericarditis does not correlate with the degree of ... Fibrinous pericarditis is an exudative inflammation. The pericardium is infiltrated by the fibrinous exudate. This consists of ...
Pericarditis may be a presenting feature or may occur later in the course of the disease. Coxa vara occurs in 50-90% of cases ... and is a syndrome of camptodactyly, arthropathy, coxa vara, and pericarditis. It may also include congenital cataracts. The ... Bulutlar G, Yazici H, Ozdogan H, Schreuder I (1986) A familial syndrome of pericarditis, arthritis, camptodactyly and coxa vara ... Camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genetic medical condition due to a ...
Constrictive pericarditis is a rare cause. Masses can grow to press on major blood vessels causing shock. A pneumothorax occurs ... January 2020). "Management of Acute and Recurrent Pericarditis: JACC State-of-the-Art Review". Journal of the American College ... Imazio M, Gaita F, LeWinter M (October 2015). "Evaluation and Treatment of Pericarditis: A Systematic Review". JAMA. 314 (14): ... Inflammation of the pericardium is called pericarditis. This is caused by infection, renal failure or autoimmune disease. ...
"Pericarditis". Lecturio. 23 July 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2021. Sharma AN, Stultz JR, Bellamkonda N, Amsterdam EA (December ... But other findings that may be seen in perimyocarditis (a combination of pericarditis and myocarditis) include PR segment ... Additionally, myocarditis is often associated with pericarditis, and many people with myocarditis present with signs and ... Myocarditis and pericarditis can be a rare side effect of some vaccines like the smallpox vaccine. Myocarditis can be a rare ...
his research interests included rheumatic fever, tuberculous pericarditis and cardiomyopathy. He was a member of the Academy of ... Bongani M Mayosi; Lesley J Burgess; Anton F Doubell (1 December 2005). "Tuberculous pericarditis". Circulation. 112 (23): 3608- ...
Bedford, D. Evan (May 1928). "Tuberculous Pericarditis". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 21 (7): 1162-1164. doi: ...
Pericarditis: III. Pericarditis with Effusion. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1932;50(2):192-202. ---. Pericarditis: IV. Fibrinous ... Pericarditis: I. Chronic Adherent Pericarditis. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1932;50(2):171-183. ---. Pericarditis: II. ... Pericarditis: V. Terminal Pericarditis. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1932;50(3):415-418. ---. Adiposity of the Heart: A Clinical and ... Adhesive Pericarditis. CHEST Journal. 1969;55(4):331. Physicians of the Mayo Clinic and the Mayo Foundation. Minneapolis: The ...
PR segment depression is highly suggestive of pericarditis. R wave in most cases will be unaltered. In two weeks after ... ST elevation only occurs in full thickness infarction Prinzmetal's angina Acute pericarditis ST elevation in all leads (diffuse ... ISBN 978-1-60547-140-2.[page needed] Tingle LE, Molina D, Calvert CW (November 2007). "Acute pericarditis". American Family ... ST elevation: is this an infarct? Pericarditis" (PDF). Singapore Medical Journal. 46 (11): 656-660. PMID 16228101. Victor F. ...
A three-component rub distinguishes a pericardial rub and indicates the presence of pericarditis. Also, a pleural rub can only ... A pericardial friction rub, also pericardial rub, is an audible medical sign used in the diagnosis of pericarditis. Upon ... Pericardial friction rubs can also be heard in pericarditis that is associated with uremia or post-myocardial infarction. ... Tingle LE, Molina D, Calvert CW (November 2007). "Acute pericarditis". Am Fam Physician. 76 (10): 1509-14. PMID 18052017. ...
Alabed S, Cabello JB, Irving GJ, Qintar M, Burls A, Nelson L (August 2014). "Colchicine for pericarditis". The Cochrane ... Other uses for colchicine include the management of pericarditis and familial Mediterranean fever. Colchicine is taken by mouth ... It is a component of therapy for several other conditions, including pericarditis, pulmonary fibrosis, biliary cirrhosis, ...
... is the first drug approved by the FDA to treat recurrent pericarditis. Rilonacept was approved for medical use in ... and recurrent pericarditis. Rilonacept is an interleukin 1 inhibitor. Rilonacept is a dimeric fusion protein consisting of the ...
Similar pericarditis can be associated with any pericardiotomy or trauma to the pericardium or heart surgery which is called a ... Dressler syndrome is a secondary form of pericarditis that occurs in the setting of injury to the heart or the pericardium (the ... The only time heparin could be used with pericarditis is with coexisting acute MI, in order to prevent further thrombus ... The disease consists of persistent low-grade fever, chest pain (usually pleuritic), pericarditis (usually evidenced by a ...
Cardiac: constrictive pericarditis. One study found that pulsus paradoxus occurs in less than 20% of patients with constrictive ... Talreja, DR; Nishimura, RA; Oh, JK; Holmes, DR (22 January 2008). "Constrictive pericarditis in the modern era: novel criteria ... This mechanism is also likely with pericarditis, where diastolic function is chastened.[citation needed] Pulse pressure is ... pericarditis. pericardial effusion, including cardiac tamponade cardiogenic shock Pulmonary: pulmonary embolism tension ...
Movitt, Eli R.; Lennette, Edwin H.; Mangum, Jack F.; Berk, Morris; Bowman, Murdock S. (1958). "Acute Benign Pericarditis". New ...
This is called pericarditis. In Dressler's syndrome, this occurs several weeks after the initial event. If pericarditis were to ... A major complication during this period is fibrinous pericarditis, particularly in transmural ventricular wall damage (an ...
It is also used for pericarditis and patent ductus arteriosus. In some countries, ibuprofen lysine (the lysine salt of ... ISBN 978-0-9805790-9-3. Alabed S, Cabello JB, Irving GJ, Qintar M, Burls A (August 2014). "Colchicine for pericarditis" (PDF). ...
Urriola B., Patricia (March 2000). "Pericarditis y endocarditis infecciosa". Revista chilena de pediatría. 71 (2): 142-146. doi ...
Champion GD, Robertson MR, Robinson RG (1968). "Rheumatoid pleurisy and pericarditis". Ann Rheum Dis. 27 (6): 521-30. doi: ...
Myocarditis and pericarditis are rare. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome Chronic fatigue syndrome Cancers associated ...
Smedema, J; Katjitae, I; Reuter, H; Doubell, A.F (November 2000). "Ewart's sign in tuberculous pericarditis". South African ...
Garcia, Mario J. (2016-05-03). "Constrictive Pericarditis Versus Restrictive Cardiomyopathy?". Journal of the American College ...
Barrett, A. M.; Cole, L. (1944). "A Case of Tuberculous Pericarditis". Heart. 6 (4): 185-90. doi:10.1136/hrt.6.4.185. PMC ...
Paul D. White, for the treatment of constrictive pericarditis, and developed this treatment subsequently. In 1929 he and Oliver ... ISBN 978-1-85070-681-6. Churchill ED (October 1936). "Pericardial Resection in Chronic Constrictive Pericarditis". Ann. Surg. ...
... in the establishment of pericardectomy for the treatment of constrictive pericarditis. Historically this procedure was referred ... First complete pericardectomy for constrictive pericarditis. Die theoretischen Grundlagen der Hyperaemiebehandlung; In: ...
Eur Heart, J. (2009). Colchicine for pericarditis: hype or hope? Oxford Journal. Vol 30. 532-539. Eur Heart, J. (2010) ... During medical doctor examination, a pericardial friction rub can be auscultated indicating pericarditis. Auscultation of the ... The typical signs of post-pericardiotomy syndrome include fever, pleuritis (with possible pleural effusion), pericarditis (with ... Other signs include arthritis, together with petechiae on the skin and palate.: 827 Complications include pericarditis, ...
"Pathogenesis of edema in constrictive pericarditis. Studies of body water and sodium, renal function, hemodynamics, and plasma ... "Pathogenesis of edema in constrictive pericarditis". Circulation. 85 (4): 1634-1635. doi:10.1161/circ.85.4.1555304. ISSN 0009- ...
... pericarditis is divided into "acute" and "chronic" forms. Acute pericarditis is more common than chronic pericarditis, and can ... Chronic pericarditis however is less common, a form of which is constrictive pericarditis. The following is the clinical ... It carries a risk of death between 5 and 10%. About 30% of people with viral pericarditis or pericarditis of an unknown cause ... Pericarditis - National Library of Medicine Pericarditis - National Heart Lung Blood Institute (Articles with short description ...
Find out about pericarditis, including symptoms, when to get help, treatment and causes. ... Tests for pericarditis. A GP will listen to your heart to check for pericarditis. This is because it can change the sound your ... Treatment for pericarditis. Treatment for pericarditis will depend on whats causing it. You may be given anti-inflammatory ... Check if you have pericarditis. The main symptom of pericarditis is chest pain. ...
Pericardial disorders include pericarditis, pericardial effusion, and cardiac tamponade. ... Pericarditis - after heart attack (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Pericarditis - constrictive (Medical Encyclopedia) ... Chronic Pericarditis (Merck & Co., Inc.) Also in Spanish * Dressler Syndrome (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and ... Myocarditis and Pericarditis after mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Also in Spanish ...
Acute pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium that typically develops suddenly and does not last for long. Learn more ... Other forms of pericarditis. Other forms of pericarditis include:. *Incessant pericarditis: This form lasts more than 4-6 weeks ... Recurrent pericarditis: This describes when a person has a new onset of pericarditis after having no symptoms for 4-6 weeks. ... Chronic pericarditis: This form lasts for more than 3 months.. Potential complications. Acute pericarditis is typically self- ...
Constrictive pericarditis symptoms overlap those of diseases as diverse as myocardial infarction (MI), aortic dissection, ... Constrictive Pericarditis. The image depicts a left ventricular volume curve in constrictive pericarditis. View Media Gallery ... Risk of constrictive pericarditis after acute pericarditis. Circulation. 2011 Sep 13. 124(11):1270-5. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... 9] The true frequency is dependent on the incidence of the specific causes of pericarditis, but given that acute pericarditis ...
Learn about myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination. CDC still recommends that everyone aged 5 years and older ... Myocarditis and Pericarditis After mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination. Myocarditis and Pericarditis After mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination ... Myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination are rare. Myocarditis is inflammation of the heart muscle, and ... Most patients with myocarditis or pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination responded well to medicine and rest and felt better ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Pericarditis. Site Map Pericarditis. Pericarditis is a condition in which the sac-like covering around the heart (pericardium) ... The outcome is good if pericarditis is treated right away. Most people recover in 2 weeks to 3 months. However, pericarditis ... Pericarditis can range from mild illness that gets better on its own, to a life-threatening condition. Fluid buildup around the ... The cause of pericarditis is unknown or unproven in many cases. It mostly affects men ages 20 to 50 years. ...
Pericarditis Articles Case Reports Symptoms Treatment, Mexico. ...
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The current case definitions for myocarditis and pericarditis as an AEFI were developed building on experience and lessons ...
Acute pericarditis occurs when the bilayered pericardial sac becomes inflamed. In most cases, the cause of pericarditis is ... MedicineNet [website]. Pericarditis. New York, NY: WebMD; 2012. Available from: www.medicinenet.com/pericarditis/article.htm. ... 3 There are several less common infectious and noninfectious causes of pericarditis, but most patients with acute pericarditis ... Acute pericarditis, myocarditis, and worse!. Nadder Sharif and Payam Dehghani. Canadian Family Physician January 2013, 59 (1) ...
Background and aims: Tuberculous (TB) pericarditis (TBP), a TB of the heart, is linked to significant morbidity and mortality ... Methods: The data used in this study were obtained from the investigation of the Management of Pericarditis trial, a ... Assessing the hazard of death, cardiac tamponade, and pericardial constriction among HIV and tuberculosis pericarditis patients ...
Discover the rare presentation of acute pericarditis in bacterial endocarditis. Learn about risk factors, common features, and ... Acute pericarditis as presenting symptom of staphylococcal endocarditis: Mitral valve involvement with fistulous tract from LV ... Acute pericarditis is an unusual presentation of bacterial endocarditis [1]. It is most commonly associated with staphylococcal ... Katz, L.H., Pitlik, S., Porat, E., Biderman, P. and Bishara, J. (2008) Pericarditis as a presenting sign of infective ...
Chronic pericarditis in a naturally Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi infected dog. Silva, Bruno C; Rachid, Milene A; Vieira, ... The most significant histological change was an intense, non-specific, chronic pericarditis associated with intracytoplasmatic ...
Bacterial pericarditis, secondary pericarditis, acute mediastinitis, pericardiocentesis. Subjects:. 600 Tecnologia - Scienze ... should raise the suspicion of bacterial pericarditis and prompt its timely diagnosis and treatment. Purulent pericarditis can ... Costa, Laura and Carvalho, Diana and Coelho, Elisabete and Leal, Dina and Lencastre, Luís (2021) Purulent Pericarditis: Is It ... The authors present a case of purulent pericarditis probably secondary to respiratory infection, a rare entity in the ...
... is the swelling and inflammation of the tissue that surrounds your heart. In severe cases of ... If your case of pericarditis is not severe, your doctor may prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce the amount of swelling ... In more severe cases, pericarditis may lead to pericardial effusion, which is the buildup of fluid around the heart. In this ... pericarditis, too much swelling reduces the hearts ability to expand and pump blood around the body effectively. Some symptoms ...
Diagnostic value and clincial role of MRI in pericarditis. Session: Clinical application of Cardiac MRI - What the clinician ...
Acute pericarditis requires immediate attention for treatment to rule out further complication. The patient is advised to take ... The acute pericarditis may show two major complications; these are cardiac tamponade and constrictive pericarditis. ... How is Acute Pericarditis Treated?. Acute pancreatitis may be present for few days to 3 weeks. The main aims of the treatment ... Treatment of Acute pericarditis is based on the cause of the disease. It can be understood by following points- ...
... suggesting pericarditis may be the first sign of a malignancy. ... An observational study shows a link between pericarditis and ... "It is not known, however, whether this is a frequent cause of pericarditis. We wanted to investigate how often pericarditis is ... Among the pericarditis patients, 376 cancers were diagnosed within 3 months of their incident pericarditis diagnosis, which ... and that the risk of having a cancer diagnosed is most pronounced with wet pericarditis, although seen with dry pericarditis," ...
... pericarditis), although viral pericarditis is more common than bacterial pericarditis in both children and adults. Awareness of ... Colchicine in addition to conventional therapy for acute pericarditis: results of the COlchicine for acute PEricarditis (COPE) ... encoded search term (Pediatric Infective Pericarditis) and Pediatric Infective Pericarditis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Pediatric Infective Pericarditis Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Jun 25, 2013 * Author: Poothirikovil Venugopalan, MBBS, MD, ...
Pericarditis: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments. *Reducing Your Risk of Infective Endocarditis Due to HCM. These are tips and ...
Pericarditis. Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium. This is the multilayered tissue that surrounds the heart and ... Infections and autoimmune diseases can cause pericarditis.. With pericarditis, youll feel the pain in the middle or left side ... Because the symptoms of pericarditis are similar to those of a heart attack, you should seek immediate medical attention if ... Symptoms anddiagnosis of pericarditis. (2017).. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/Symptoms-and-Diagnosis-of- ...
... the first and only FDA approved therapy for Recurrent Pericarditis. ... Treatment of Recurrent Pericarditis (RP) and reduction in risk of recurrence in adults and pediatric patients 12 years and ... ARCALYST® (rilonacept) is the first and only FDA-approved therapy to treat recurrent pericarditis and reduce risk of flares in ...
Acute pericarditis usually lasts up to three weeks. ... Pericarditis or inflammation of the pericardium may present as ... Pericarditis or inflammation of the pericardium may present as acute or chronic pericarditis. If inflammation also affects the ... acute or chronic pericarditis. If inflammation also affects the heart... ... What causes pericarditis and how is it diagnosed?. The cause of pericarditis is usually unexplained. However, in most patients ...
Pericarditis tuberculosa: presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura Tuberculous pericarditis: a case report and ... Pericarditis Purulenta en un postoperado de Colecistectomía .Presentación de caso Purulent pericarditis in a postoperative ... Chronic Effusive Pericarditis and Chronic Constrictive Pericarditis by: C. Richard Conti, MD Published: (2020-07-01) ... Pericarditis tuberculosa by: Daniel Echeverri, et al. Published: (2014-12-01) * Pericarditis tuberculosa: presentación de un ...
Myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium with necrosis of cardiac myocytes. Myocarditis may be caused by many disorders (eg, infection, cardiotoxins, drugs, and systemic disorders such as sarcoidosis) but is often idiopathic. Symptoms can vary and can include fatigue, dyspnea, edema, palpitations, and sudden death. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and clinical findings of abnormal electrocardiography (ECG), cardiac biomarkers, and cardiac imaging in the absence of cardiovascular risk factors. Endomyocardial biopsy confirms clinical diagnosis of myocarditis. Treatment depends on the cause, but general measures include drugs to treat heart failure and arrhythmias and rarely surgery (eg, intra-aortic balloon pump, left ventricular assist device, transplantation). Immunosuppression is of use in certain types of myocarditis (eg, hypersensitivity myocarditis, giant cell myocarditis, myocarditis caused by sarcoidosis)..
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CAMPTODACTYLY-ARTHROPATHY-COXA VARA-PERICARDITIS SYNDROME; CACP description, symptoms and related genes. Get the complete ... Top most frequent phenotypes and symptoms related to Camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa-vara-pericarditis Syndrome *Pain ... Camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa-vara-pericarditis (CACP) syndrome is a rare, genetic, rheumatologic disease characterized by ... Camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa-vara-pericarditis Syndrome Is also known as fibrosing serositis, familial, hypertrophic ...
  • Complications can include cardiac tamponade, myocarditis, and constrictive pericarditis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Constrictive pericarditis occurs when a thickened fibrotic pericardium, of whatever cause, impedes normal diastolic filling. (medscape.com)
  • Constrictive pericarditis symptoms overlap those of diseases as diverse as myocardial infarction (MI), aortic dissection, pneumonia, influenza, and connective tissue disorders. (medscape.com)
  • An increased suspicion of constriction helps move constrictive pericarditis to the top of a lengthy differential diagnosis list and facilitates correct diagnosis and timely therapy. (medscape.com)
  • The classic diagnostic conundrum associated with constrictive pericarditis is the difficulty distinguishing this condition from restrictive cardiomyopathy (see Restrictive Cardiomyopathy ) and other syndromes associated with elevated right-sided pressure that all share similar symptoms, physical findings, and hemodynamics. (medscape.com)
  • The preservation of myocardial function in early diastole aids in distinguishing constrictive pericarditis from restrictive cardiomyopathy . (medscape.com)
  • This is called constrictive pericarditis . (limamemorial.org)
  • these are cardiac tamponade and constrictive pericarditis. (epainassist.com)
  • The only treatment for chronic constrictive pericarditis is the surgical removal of the membranous sac i.e. pericardium. (epainassist.com)
  • Early operative outcome of pericardiectomy for symptomatic chronic tuberculous constrictive pericarditis by: Azam Jan, et al. (uitm.edu.my)
  • Constrictive Pericarditis Presenting as Bilateral Pleural Effusion: A Report of Two Cases. (bvsalud.org)
  • Constrictive pericarditis is a rare presentation. (bvsalud.org)
  • In hospital settings, constrictive pericarditis is not usually considered as a differential in patients presenting with pleural effusion . (bvsalud.org)
  • According to the literature , associated pleural effusions in cases of constrictive pericarditis could be left-sided. (bvsalud.org)
  • One of our cases developed constrictive pericarditis with concurrent active tuberculosis . (bvsalud.org)
  • This is a rare presentation because, normally, constrictive pericarditis is a late complication of tuberculosis . (bvsalud.org)
  • We suggest that when dealing with cases of bilateral pleural effusion , the etiology of constrictive pericarditis should be considered. (bvsalud.org)
  • CDC and its partners are actively monitoring reports of myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination are rare. (cdc.gov)
  • Myocarditis is inflammation of the heart muscle, and pericarditis is inflammation of the outer lining of the heart. (cdc.gov)
  • Most patients with myocarditis or pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination responded well to medicine and rest and felt better quickly. (cdc.gov)
  • Seek medical care if you or your child have any symptoms of myocarditis or pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Myocarditis and pericarditis. (limamemorial.org)
  • The current case definitions for myocarditis and pericarditis as an AEFI were developed building on experience and lessons learnt, as well as a comprehensive literature review. (brightoncollaboration.org)
  • The lack of a true criterion standard for diagnosing pericarditis and myocarditis makes it challenging to differentiate these diseases from AMI. (cfp.ca)
  • Therefore, having a systematic approach to differentiating pericarditis and myocarditis from AMI can help the clinician initiate the appropriate management without delay. (cfp.ca)
  • The purpose of this article is to review basic features of acute pericarditis and myocarditis and to provide an approach to help clinicians make a timely diagnosis. (cfp.ca)
  • Management of acute and recurrent pericarditis: JACC State-of-the-art Review. (limamemorial.org)
  • ARCALYST ® (rilonacept) is the first and only FDA-approved therapy to treat recurrent pericarditis and reduce risk of flares in people 12 years and older. (arcalyst.com)
  • Treatment of Recurrent Pericarditis (RP) and reduction in risk of recurrence in adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older. (arcalyst.com)
  • Colchicine treatment for recurrent pericarditis. (medscape.com)
  • Colchicine for recurrent pericarditis in children. (medscape.com)
  • citation needed] Pericarditis can progress to pericardial effusion and eventually cardiac tamponade. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute and subacute forms of pericarditis (which may or may not be symptomatic) may deposit fibrin, which, in turn, can evoke a pericardial effusion. (medscape.com)
  • This often leads to pericardial organization, chronic fibrotic scarring, and calcification, most often involving the parietal pericardium (see Constrictive-Effusive Pericarditis for visceral pericardial disease). (medscape.com)
  • Acute pericarditis occurs when the bilayered pericardial sac becomes inflamed. (cfp.ca)
  • Pericardial effusion, particularly in the setting of concomitant respiratory infection and immunocompromise or other risk factors, should raise the suspicion of bacterial pericarditis and prompt its timely diagnosis and treatment. (cnr.it)
  • In more severe cases, pericarditis may lead to pericardial effusion, which is the buildup of fluid around the heart. (cmhvi406.com)
  • While this is most pronounced when pericarditis manifests with pericardial effusion , it is also important to note that the increased risk is not restricted to wet pericarditis," Bøtker said. (medscape.com)
  • Pericarditis may be "wet" or "dry," depending on whether or not there is pericardial effusion in the cardiac sac, he noted. (medscape.com)
  • Pericarditis with massive pericardial effusion in a cytomegalovirus-infected infant. (medscape.com)
  • Plain chest radiograph in a 2-year-old boy with viral pericarditis and massive pericardial effusion. (medscape.com)
  • It becomes undetectable as soon as a pericardial effusion form-that is, when the dry form of pericarditis changes into the wet, oozing form. (kalstein.co.nz)
  • It is not prominent in most patients with acute pericarditis as long as no pericardial effusion has formed. (kalstein.co.nz)
  • Tuberculous Pericarditis Causing Severe Pericardial Effusion: A Case Study by: Ahmad Amouzeshi, et al. (uitm.edu.my)
  • Acute myocardial infarction can also cause pericarditis, but the presenting symptoms often differ enough to warrant diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In case of uremic pericarditis, the frequency of dialysis is increased, a systemic or local steroidal therapy and aspiration therapy may be indicated. (epainassist.com)
  • Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium, the fibrous sac surrounding the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium that lasts fewer than 4-6 weeks . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pericarditis or inflammation of the pericardium may present as acute or chronic pericarditis. (kalstein.co.nz)
  • The most significant histological change was an intense, non-specific, chronic pericarditis associated with intracytoplasmatic amastigotes within macrophages. (bvsalud.org)
  • chronic pericarditis occurs when the symptoms develop more gradually and persist for long duration of weeks to months. (feedsfloor.com)
  • Most of the pericarditis cases are acute and they improve on their own but treatments for chronic cases include medication and sometimes a surgery. (feedsfloor.com)
  • They cite previous studies that indicate that, in under-resourced countries, tuberculosis is the leading cause of acute pericarditis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • tuberculosis pericarditis. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to viral pathogens, bacteria (especially mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis) as well as fungi and parasites (very rarely) are also possible causes of infectious pericarditis. (kalstein.co.nz)
  • Other tests, such as a chest x-ray, may also be used to detect or exclude lung disease (for example, tuberculosis, lung tumor) as a possible cause of effusive pericarditis. (kalstein.co.nz)
  • Tuberculous pericarditis is a serious form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in which diagnosis is often difficult. (uitm.edu.my)
  • In pericarditis, the pericardium gets inflamed, and blood or fluid can leak into it. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Acute pericarditis is a condition in which inflammation occurs in the pericardium, the fluid-filled sac that surrounds the heart. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • [ 1 ] This usually involves the parietal pericardium, although it can involve the visceral pericardium (see Constrictive-Effusive Pericarditis ). (medscape.com)
  • Pericarditis is a condition in which the sac-like covering around the heart (pericardium) becomes inflamed. (limamemorial.org)
  • Pericarditis is a condition of swelling and irritation of the pericardium sac. (feedsfloor.com)
  • The severe chest pain with pericarditis occurs when the irritated layers of the pericardium rub against each other. (feedsfloor.com)
  • This acute viral pericarditis is usually caused by enteroviruses, herpesviruses, adenoviruses, and parvoviruses B 19. (kalstein.co.nz)
  • In case the cause of pericarditis is acute myocardial infarction, then anticoagulants should be restricted. (epainassist.com)
  • The main symptom of pericarditis is chest pain. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Fever is a common symptom of acute pericarditis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The researchers cross-linked Danish hospital registries to identify patients without a history of cancer who were admitted to the hospital with a first-time diagnosis of pericarditis between 1994 and 2013. (medscape.com)
  • They then followed patients for a subsequent cancer diagnosis for up to 10 years (mean 6.4 years) after their admission for pericarditis. (medscape.com)
  • Between 3 and 12 months following an incident pericarditis diagnosis, 123 cancers were diagnosed. (medscape.com)
  • When the researchers compared survival among 1550 patients who had pericarditis before their cancer diagnosis and 7664 cancer patients with no antecedent pericarditis, they found that the 3-month survival was 80% among those with pericarditis and 86% among those without (hazard ratio [HR] 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8). (medscape.com)
  • Differential diagnosis of acute pericarditis from normal variant early repolarization and left ventricular hypertrophy with early repolarization: an electrocardiographic study. (medscape.com)
  • The electrocardiogram (ECG) is a very important examination method for the diagnosis of acute pericarditis. (kalstein.co.nz)
  • Diagnosis of pericarditis is often difficult, but it often relies on obtaining electrocardiograms to establish some of the forms of this disease. (kalstein.co.nz)
  • citation needed] Pericarditis may be caused by viral, bacterial, or fungal infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pericarditis is an uncommon cause of chest pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substernal or left precordial pleuritic chest pain with radiation to the trapezius ridge (the bottom portion of scapula on the back) is the characteristic pain of pericarditis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the patients with acute pericarditis experience acute chest pain and confuse with a heart attack, driving them to bend forward to fetch relief. (epainassist.com)
  • The following table organizes the clinical presentation of pericarditis differential to myocardial infarction: The classic sign of pericarditis is a friction rub heard with a stethoscope on the cardiovascular examination, usually on the lower left sternal border. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Due to its similarity to the pain of myocardial infarction (heart attack), pericarditis can be misdiagnosed as a heart attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 , 3 There are several less common infectious and noninfectious causes of pericarditis, but most patients with acute pericarditis present with a history suggestive of recent or concurrent viral illness. (cfp.ca)
  • Colchicine in addition to conventional therapy for acute pericarditis: results of the COlchicine for acute PEricarditis (COPE) trial. (medscape.com)
  • Surgery called pericardiectomy may be needed if the pericarditis is long-lasting, comes back after treatment, or causes scarring or tightening of the tissue around the heart. (limamemorial.org)
  • Purulent pericarditis can be lethal and has potentially severe complications, so adequate antimicrobial therapy and source control are key. (cnr.it)
  • In most cases, the cause of pericarditis is idiopathic or is assumed to be due to a viral infection. (cfp.ca)
  • Pneumococcus or tuberculous pericarditis are the most common bacterial forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tuberculous (TB) pericarditis (TBP), a TB of the heart, is linked to significant morbidity and mortality rates. (nih.gov)
  • Pericarditis tuberculosa: presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura Tuberculous pericarditis: a case report and review of the literature by: María C Florián, et al. (uitm.edu.my)
  • Tuberculous pericarditis in adolescents: A case series by: Winda Paramitha, et al. (uitm.edu.my)
  • We hope this important information will be implemented in future textbooks in cardiology and that it will increase the awareness of additional diagnostic workup in patients admitted to the hospital with pericarditis," he added. (medscape.com)
  • AARHUS, DENMARK - Pericarditis may be a sign of a hidden malignancy, a new study suggests [ 1 ] . (medscape.com)
  • In a Danish cohort study, people had a higher-than-expected risk of being diagnosed with a malignancy-specifically lung cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma , and myeloid leukemia-within the first 3 months after developing pericarditis. (medscape.com)
  • This describes when a person has a new onset of pericarditis after having no symptoms for 4-6 weeks. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa-vara-pericarditis (CACP) syndrome is a rare, genetic, rheumatologic disease characterized by congenital or early-onset camptodactyly and symmetrical, polyarticular, non-inflammatory, large joint arthropathy with synovial hyperplasia, as well as progressive coxa vara deformity and, occasionally, non-inflammatory pericarditis. (mendelian.co)
  • The cause of pericarditis often remains unknown but is believed to be most often due to a viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you get pericarditis, it often follows a viral infection like a cold or flu. (www.nhs.uk)
  • It's difficult to confirm the exact cause of pericarditis, but it's usually a viral infection, such as a cold or flu . (www.nhs.uk)
  • The authors present a case of purulent pericarditis probably secondary to respiratory infection, a rare entity in the antibiotic era. (cnr.it)
  • Tapparel C, L'Huillier AG, Rougemont AL, Beghetti M, Barazzone-Argiroffo C, Kaiser L. Pneumonia and pericarditis in a child with HRV-C infection: a case report. (medscape.com)
  • In severe cases of pericarditis, too much swelling reduces the heart's ability to expand and pump blood around the body effectively. (cmhvi406.com)
  • If your case of pericarditis is not severe, your doctor may prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce the amount of swelling around the heart. (cmhvi406.com)
  • A prolonged and complicated diagnostic and therapeutic course, which included a long stay in the intensive care unit, is described, and a review of purulent pericarditis provided. (cnr.it)
  • How are pericarditis diagnostic techniques applied? (kalstein.co.nz)
  • Use of glutaraldehyde coagulation test as an ancillary diagnostic aid for detection of severity of traumatic pericarditis in cattle. (anandpub.com)
  • The cause of pericarditis is unknown or unproven in many cases. (limamemorial.org)
  • Finding the cause of acute pericarditis usually has little bearing on its management in the emergency department, 1 , 3 , 4 and most cases resolve with no long-term sequelae. (cfp.ca)
  • These findings indicate that pericarditis may be a first clinical manifestation of a hidden cancer, most frequently lung cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, and unspecified metastatic cancer, and that the risk of having a cancer diagnosed is most pronounced with wet pericarditis, although seen with dry pericarditis," Bøtker said. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical findings in 28 cattle with traumatic pericarditis. (anandpub.com)
  • Treatment for pericarditis will depend on what's causing it. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Acute pericarditis is typically self-limiting, which means it gets better without treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A heart attack may produce similar symptoms to pericarditis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pain may resemble that of angina but differs in that pericarditis pain changes with body position, where heart attack pain is generally constant and pressure-like. (wikipedia.org)
  • A GP will listen to your heart to check for pericarditis. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The American Heart Association (AHA) notes that acute pericarditis typically develops suddenly and does not last for long. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pericarditis is the swelling and inflammation of the tissue that surrounds your heart. (cmhvi406.com)
  • Inflammation of the sac-like outer covering of the heart of short duration is termed as acute pericarditis. (epainassist.com)
  • For dry, acute pericarditis, the doctor hears the characteristic brushing sound over the heart with a stethoscope. (kalstein.co.nz)
  • Ultrasonographic examination of the heart (echocardiography) is indispensable if pericarditis is suspected. (kalstein.co.nz)
  • However, the most important tests that are positive for a heart attack (troponin and creatine kinase) may also be positive for pericarditis if it has spread to heart muscle (pericarditis). (kalstein.co.nz)
  • Cardiac troponin-I and electrocardiographic findings in buffaloes with traumatic reticulo-pericarditis. (anandpub.com)
  • Acute pericarditis is an unusual presentation of bacterial endocarditis [1]. (scirp.org)
  • An unusual case of traumatic pericarditis in a cow. (anandpub.com)
  • Nonspecific inflammatory reactions are found in blood tests when pericarditis is diagnosed. (kalstein.co.nz)
  • Traumatic pericarditis in cattle: Sonographic, echocardiographic and pathologic findings. (anandpub.com)
  • It also discusses how doctors diagnose acute pericarditis and when a person may need to speak with a healthcare professional. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Why use a Kalstein electrocardiograph to diagnose pericarditis? (kalstein.co.nz)
  • However, if pericarditis is present, ultrasonographic examination provides important information about the size of the effusion and its effects on the heart's pumping function. (kalstein.co.nz)
  • With this analysis, the researchers, led by Dr Kirstine Kobberøe Søgaard (Aarhus University Hospital Skejby), sought to determine the magnitude of cancer risk in pericarditis patients. (medscape.com)
  • Among 13,759 patients with acute pericarditis , 1550 were subsequently diagnosed with cancer. (medscape.com)
  • The risk of having a cancer diagnosed during that 3-month time period was approximately 12-fold higher among patients with pericarditis than would be expected in the general population. (medscape.com)
  • Pericarditis was also a prognostic factor for cancer patients. (medscape.com)
  • Purulent Pericarditis: Is It Really a Disease of the Past? (cnr.it)