Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.
A state of extreme acute, intense anxiety and unreasoning fear accompanied by disorganization of personality function.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Antimicrobial peptides of 45-47 amino acids and typically with four disulfide bridges. They are found in PLANTS. Type-V thionins lack the C-terminal nonapeptide. This should not be confused with thionine.
An enkephalin analog that selectively binds to the MU OPIOID RECEPTOR. It is used as a model for drug permeability experiments.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Profound stupor produced by passing an electric current through the brain.
Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
Fury; violent, intense anger.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
An order of bottom fishes with short, small, spinous dorsal fins. It is comprised of one family (Batrachoididae) and about 70 species.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
A biologically active tridecapeptide isolated from the hypothalamus. It has been shown to induce hypotension in the rat, to stimulate contraction of guinea pig ileum and rat uterus, and to cause relaxation of rat duodenum. There is also evidence that it acts as both a peripheral and a central nervous system neurotransmitter.
Methods used to label and follow the course of NEURAL PATHWAYS by AXONAL TRANSPORT of injected NEURONAL TRACT-TRACERS.
Postsynaptic potentials generated from a release of neurotransmitters from a presynaptic nerve terminal in the absence of an ACTION POTENTIAL. They may be m.e.p.p.s (miniature EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS) or m.i.p.p.s (miniature INHIBITORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS).
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. Some are cytotoxic serotonin analogs that are preferentially taken up by serotonergic neurons and then destroy those neurons.
STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Compounds that interact with and modulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
The largest of the medial nuclei of the thalamus. It makes extensive connections with most of the other thalamic nuclei.
Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A small protuberance at the dorsal, posterior corner of the wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE, adjacent to the dorsal THALAMUS and PINEAL BODY. It contains the habenular nuclei and is a major part of the epithalamus.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.
A disulfide opioid pentapeptide that selectively binds to the DELTA OPIOID RECEPTOR. It possesses antinociceptive activity.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.
Sounds used in animal communication.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.

Inhibition by adenosine receptor agonists of synaptic transmission in rat periaqueductal grey neurons. (1/425)

1. The actions of selective adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonists were examined on synaptic currents in periaqueductal grey (PAG) neurons using patch-clamp recordings in brain slices. 2. The A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), but not the A2 agonist, 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS21680), inhibited both electrically evoked inhibitory (eIPSCs) and excitatory (eEPSCs) postsynaptic currents. The actions of CCPA were reversed by the A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX). 3. In the absence or presence of forskolin, DPCPX had no effect on eIPSCs, suggesting that concentrations of tonically released adenosine are not sufficient to inhibit synaptic transmission in the PAG. 4. CCPA decreased the frequency of spontaneous miniature action potential-independent IPSCs (mIPSCs) but had no effect on their amplitude distributions. Inhibition persisted in nominally Ca2+-free, high Mg2+ solutions and in 4-aminopyridine. 5. The CCPA-induced decrease in mIPSC frequency was partially blocked by the non-selective protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine, the specific protein kinase A inhibitor 8-para-chlorophenylthioadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS), and by 8-bromoadenosine cyclic 3',5' monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP). 6. These results suggest that A1 adenosine receptor agonists inhibit both GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the PAG. Inhibition of GABAergic transmission is mediated by presynaptic mechanisms that partly involve protein kinase A.  (+info)

Nitric oxide-mediated spinal disinhibition contributes to the sensitization of primate spinothalamic tract neurons. (2/425)

This study concentrated on whether an increase in spinal nitric oxide (NO) diminishes inhibition of spinothalamic tract (STT) cells induced by activating the periaqueductal gray (PAG) or spinal glycinergic and GABAergic receptors, thus contributing to the sensitization of STT neurons. A reduction in inhibition of the responses to cutaneous mechanical stimuli induced by PAG stimulation was seen in wide dynamic range (WDR) STT cells located in the deep layers of the dorsal horn when these neurons were sensitized during administration of a NO donor, 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), into the dorsal horn by microdialysis. In contrast, PAG-induced inhibition of the responses of high-threshold (HT) and superficial WDR STT cells was not significantly changed by spinal infusion of SIN-1. A reduction in PAG inhibition when STT cells were sensitized after intradermal injection of capsaicin could be nearly completely blocked by pretreatment of the dorsal horn with a NO synthase inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole. Moreover, spinal inhibition of nociceptive activity of deep WDR STT neurons elicited by iontophoretic release of glycine and GABA agonists was attenuated by administration of SIN-1. This change paralleled the change in PAG-induced inhibition. However, the inhibition of HT and superficial WDR cells induced by glycine and GABA release did not show a significant change when SIN-1 was administered spinally. Combined with our recent results, these data show that the effectiveness of spinal inhibition can be reduced by the NO/cGMP pathway. Thus disinhibition may constitute one mechanism underlying central sensitization.  (+info)

Periaqueductal gray stimulation-induced inhibition of nociceptive dorsal horn neurons in rats is associated with the release of norepinephrine, serotonin, and amino acids. (3/425)

The stimulation of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) produces behavioral analgesia in rats, cats, monkeys, and humans. This analgesia is believed to be mediated by several neurotransmitter systems, including the serotonergic, noradrenergic, glycinergic, gamma-aminobutyric acidergic, and opiatergic systems. The present study was designed to determine whether PAG stimulation produces the release of serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), Gly, and gamma-aminobutyric acid in the spinal cord dorsal horn and whether the release of these neurotransmitters by PAG stimulation is associated with a long-lasting inhibition of the evoked nociceptive responses of dorsal horn neurons. The effect of different frequencies of stimuli on the release of neurotransmitters in the spinal cord was also examined. Microdialysis in combination with HPLC was used to measure the concentrations of neurotransmitters in the lumbar dorsal horn before, during, and after electrical stimulation of the PAG. The PAG was stimulated with electrical pulses at 333 Hz first and then at 67 Hz with the same intensity for 27 min, respectively. Both stimulus frequencies produced a significant increase in the release of 5-HT, NE, Gly, and Asp in the spinal dialysate, but the low-frequency stimulus was more potent in causing the release of neurotransmitters. Low-frequency stimulation also significantly increased the release of Glu. The time course of inhibition of dorsal horn neurons induced by long-lasting PAG stimulation corresponded to the time course of neurotransmitter release. Therefore, the results suggest that the long-lasting inhibition induced by PAG stimulation is mediated in part by the release of 5-HT, NE, and inhibitory amino acids in the spinal cord.  (+info)

Mu-opioid receptor modulation of calcium channel current in periaqueductal grey neurons from C57B16/J mice and mutant mice lacking MOR-1. (4/425)

1. The actions of opioid receptor agonists on the calcium channel currents (IBa) of acutely dissociated periaqueductal grey (PAG) neurons from C57B16/J mice and mutant mice lacking the first exon of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR-1) were examined using whole cell patch clamp techniques. These effects were compared with the GABA(B)-receptor agonist baclofen. 2. The endogenous opioid agonist methionine-enkephalin (met-enkephalin, pEC50 6.8, maximum inhibition 40%), the putative endogenous mu-opioid agonist endomorphin-1 (pEC50 6.2, maximum inhibition 35%) and the mu-opioid selective agonist DAMGO (Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-N-Me-Phe-Gly-ol enkephalin, pEC50 6.9, maximum inhibition 40%) inhibited IBa in 70% of mouse PAG neurons. The inhibition of IBa by each agonist was completely prevented by the mu-receptor antagonist CTAP (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2). The delta-opioid receptor agonists DPDPE ([D-Pen2,5]enkephalin, 1 microM) and deltorphin II (1 microM), and the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U-69593 (1-10 microM), did not affect IBa in any cell tested. 3. The GABA(B) agonist baclofen inhibited IBa in all neurons (pEC50 5.9, maximum inhibition 42%). 4. In neurons from the MOR-1 deficient mice, the mu-opioid agonists met-enkephalin, DAMGO and endomorphin-1 did not inhibit IBa, whilst baclofen inhibited IBa in a manner indistinguishable from wild type mice. 5. A maximally effective concentration of endomorphin-1 (30 microM) partially (19%), but significantly (P<0.005), occluded the inhibition of IBa normally elicited by a maximally effective concentration of met-enkephalin (10 microM). 6. This study indicates that mu-opioid receptors, but not delta- or kappa-opioid receptors, modulate somatic calcium channel currents in mouse PAG neurons. The putative endogenous mu-agonist, endomorphin-1, was a partial agonist in mouse PAG neurons.  (+info)

Mechanism underlying increased neuronal activity in the rat ventrolateral periaqueductal grey by a mu-opioid. (5/425)

1. The overall effect of the mu-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO (Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-MePhe-Gly-ol) on ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (PAG) neurons in brain slices was studied using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique. 2. Under current-clamp conditions, DAMGO (1 microM) increased cell firing in many PAG neurons even though the opioid induced hyperpolarization and inhibited excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in these cells. 3. The increase in cell activity by DAMGO was observed in both transverse and horizontal slices. The increase persisted when the membrane potential was re-depolarized to the control level. Thus, different planes of sections or the removal of Na+ channel inactivation could not account for the observation. 4. The GABA antagonist bicuculline caused cell firing, mimicking the excitatory effect of DAMGO. Unlike DAMGO, however, bicuculline depolarized PAG cells. 5. Under voltage-clamp conditions, with the same driving force, the evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in these neurons were 2.3 times larger than the evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Furthermore, DAMGO inhibited IPSCs by 60.7% while it inhibited EPSCs by 35.3%. 6. We propose that the overall effect of an opioid depends on the dynamic balance of its excitatory and inhibitory actions. In the PAG, the blockade of the inhibitory drive of GABAergic inputs by DAMGO is large. It overcomes the DAMGO-induced hyperpolarization and inhibition of EPSCs and thus results in the excitation of these neurons.  (+info)

Modulation of intrathecal morphine-induced immunosuppression by microinjection of naloxone into periaqueductal gray. (6/425)

AIM: To study the involvement of opioid receptor of periaqueductal gray (PAG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the effect of intrathecal morphine on immune function. METHODS: Rat splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity was determined by a europium release assay; the concanavalin A-induced splenic IL-2 production, TNF-beta activity, and serum TNF-alpha level were determined by colorimetric thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and gentian violet assay, and serum corticotrophin (ACTH) level by radio-immunological method after intrathecal injection of morphine and PAG microinjection of naloxone. RESULTS: Intrathecal morphine inhibited splenic NK cell activity, IL-2 production, TNF-beta activity, and increased in serum ACTH level. Microinjection of naloxone 1 microgram into PAG partially antagonized the inhibition of NK cell activity and the elevation of serum ACTH level by morphine. CONCLUSION: The opioid receptor of PAG involved in the suppression of NK cell activity by intrathecal morphine, which was accompanied by an activation of HPA axis.  (+info)

Differential patterns of spinal sympathetic outflow involving a 10-Hz rhythm. (7/425)

Time and frequency domain analyses were used to examine the changes in the relationships between the discharges of the inferior cardiac (CN) and vertebral (VN) postganglionic sympathetic nerves produced by electrical activation of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in urethan-anesthetized, baroreceptor-denervated cats. CN-VN coherence and phase angle in the 10-Hz band served as measures of the coupling of the central oscillators controlling these nerves. The 10-Hz rhythm in CN and VN discharges was entrained 1:1 to electrical stimuli applied to the PAG at frequencies between 7 and 12 Hz. CN 10-Hz discharges were increased, and VN 10-Hz discharges were decreased when the frequency of PAG stimulation was equal to or above that of the free-running rhythm. In contrast, stimulation of the same PAG sites at lower frequencies increased, albeit disproportionately, the 10-Hz discharges of both nerves. In either case, PAG stimulation significantly increased the phase angle between the two signals (VN 10-Hz activity lagged CN activity); coherence values relating their discharges were little affected. However, the increase in phase angle was significantly more pronounced when the 10-Hz discharges of the two nerves were reciprocally affected. Importantly, partialization of the phase spectrum using the PAG stimuli did not reverse the change in CN-VN phase angle. This observation suggests that the increase in the CN-VN phase angle reflected changes in the phase relations between coupled oscillators in the brain stem rather than the difference in conduction times to the two nerves from the site of PAG stimulation. In contrast to the effects elicited by PAG stimulation, stimulation of the medullary lateral tegmental field induced uniform increases in the 10-Hz discharges of the two nerves and no change in the CN-VN phase angle. Our results demonstrate that changes in the phase relations among coupled brain stem 10-Hz oscillators are accompanied by differential patterns of spinal sympathetic outflow. The reciprocal changes in CN and VN discharges produced by PAG stimulation are consistent with the pattern of spinal sympathetic outflow expected during the defense reaction.  (+info)

Fluorescent double-label study of lateral reticular nucleus projections to the spinal cord and periaqueductal gray in the rat. (8/425)

Following injections of WGA-HRP into either the spinal cord or periaqueductal gray, labeled neurons were observed bilaterally along the periphery of the lateral reticular nucleus (LRN) magnocellular division. The possibility that some of these neurons in the LRN provide collateral axonal branches to both the periaqueductal gray and the spinal cord was investigated in rats using a retrograde double-labeling method employing two different fluorescent tracers, True Blue and Nuclear Yellow. Following sequential injection of the two fluorescent axonal tracers into the spinal cord and periaqueductal gray in the same animal, a modest number of double-labeled neurons were observed bilaterally near the medial and dorsal perimeter of the magnocellular division of the LRN. The labeled neurons were distinctly multipolar in shape and measured approximately 15-18 mu in their greatest transverse diameter. No double-labeled neurons were observed in the parvocellular or subtrigeminal divisions of the LRN. Based upon these observations, it is suggested that collaterals of the LRN-spinal pathway provide feedback information to the periaqueductal gray that might then be used to modulate the participation of the latter cell group in a variety of pain processing and cardiovascular regulatory functions.  (+info)

Background and purpose: Endocannabinoids in the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) are involved in modulating nociception and unconditioned stress-induced analgesia, however, their role in fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA) has not been examined. The present study examined the role of the endocannabinoid system in the dorsolateral (dl) PAG in formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour, conditioned fear and FCA in rats. Experimental approach: Rats received intra-dlPAG administration of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant, or vehicle, prior to re-exposure to a context paired 24hrs previously with footshock. Formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour and fear-related behaviours (freezing and 22kHz ultrasonic vocalisation) were assessed. In a separate cohort, alterations in levels of endocannabinoids (2-arachidonoyl glycerol [2-AG] and N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide [anandamide; AEA]) and the related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) (N-palmitoyl ethanolamide [PEA] and N-oleoyl ethanolamide [OEA]) were ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of prostaglandin EP1 receptor within the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (VL PAG). The role of VL PAG EP1 receptor in controlling thermonociception and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) activity in healthy and neuropathic rats was also examined. EP1 receptor was indeed found to be expressed within the VL PAG and co-localized with vesicular GABA transporter. Intra-VL PAG microinjection of ONO-DI-004, a selective EP1 receptor agonist, dose-dependently reduced tail flick latency as well as respectively increasing and decreasing the spontaneous activity of ON and OFF cells. Furthermore, it increased the ON cell burst and OFF cell pause. Intra-VL PAG prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) behaved similarly to ONO-DI-004. The effects of ONO-DI-004 and PGE2 were antagonized by intra-VL PAG L335677, a selective EP1 receptor antagonist. L335677 dose-dependently increased the tail flick latency and ongoing activity of the OFF cells, while reducing the ongoing ON cell
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of prostaglandin EP1 receptor within the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (VL PAG). The role of VL PAG EP1 receptor in controlling thermonociception and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) activity in healthy and neuropathic rats was also examined. EP1 receptor was indeed found to be expressed within the VL PAG and co-localized with vesicular GABA transporter. Intra-VL PAG microinjection of ONO-DI-004, a selective EP1 receptor agonist, dose-dependently reduced tail flick latency as well as respectively increasing and decreasing the spontaneous activity of ON and OFF cells. Furthermore, it increased the ON cell burst and OFF cell pause. Intra-VL PAG prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) behaved similarly to ONO-DI-004. The effects of ONO-DI-004 and PGE2 were antagonized by intra-VL PAG L335677, a selective EP1 receptor antagonist. L335677 dose-dependently increased the tail flick latency and ongoing activity of the OFF cells, while reducing the ongoing ON cell
Home , Papers , UPREGULATION OF FATTY ACID AMIDE HYDROLASE (FAAH) IN THE DORSAL PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY IS ASSOCIATED WITH NEUROPATHIC PAIN AND REDUCED HEART RATE IN RATS. ...
Tracer or toxin injections. For tracer experiments, under chloral hydrate anesthesia (7% in saline; 350 mg/kg), a fine glass pipette containing 1.0% cholera toxin subunit B (CTB; List Biologic, Campbell, CA), 12.5% biotinylated dextran (BD), or a mixture of 1% CTB and 12.5% BD was lowered to the precalculated targets based on the rat atlas of Paxinos and Watson (1998), and 9 nl of a solution containing the tracers was injected by an air pressure system. Phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinin (PHA-L; 2.5%) was injected by iontophoresis with a current of 5 μA for 15 min (7 s on and 7 s off). After two additional minutes, the pipette was slowly withdrawn and the incision was closed with wound clips. Animals survived for 7 d. The coordinates for tracer injections were as follows: medial prefrontal cortex, anteroposterior (AP), 2.20 mm, medial-lateral (ML), 0.4 mm, dorsoventral (DV), 4.6 mm; midline thalamus, AP, -2.8 mm, ML, 0 mm, DV, 4.4 mm; intralaminar thalamus, AP, -2.8 mm, ML, 0.8 mm, DV, 5.6 mm; ...
article{470a774f-0a65-447a-b891-631b0a3351b6, abstract = {The midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) integrates the basic responses necessary for survival of individuals and species. Examples are defense behaviors such as fight, flight, and freezing, but also sexual behavior, vocalization, and micturition. To control these behaviors the PAG depends on strong input from more rostrally located limbic structures, as well as from afferent input from the lower brainstem and spinal cord. Mouton and Holstege (2000, J Comp Neurol 428:389-410) showed that there exist at least five different groups of spino-PAG neurons, each of which is thought to subserve a specific function. The lateral cervical nucleus (LCN) in the upper cervical cord is not among these five groups. The LCN relays information from hair receptors and noxious information and projects strongly to the contralateral ventroposterior and posterior regions of thalamus and to intermediate and deep tectal layers. The question is whether the ...
The results of our GABAergic inactivation of the vlPAG/DpMe are consistent with the REM sleep enhancement reported by previous inactivation studies (Petitjean et al., 1975; Sastre et al., 1996; Crochet et al., 2006; Lu et al., 2006a; Vanini, et al., 2007; Sapin et al., 2009; Weber et al., 2015, 2018; Hayashi, 2015). Based on these reported increases in REM sleep following vlPAG/DpMe inactivation, it is reasonable that current hypotheses of vlPAG/DpMe involvement in REM sleep control are focused on the role of REM sleep-inactive neurons in gating NREM-to-REM sleep transitioning (Lu et al., 2006a; Sapin et al., 2009; Saper et al., 2010). However, after accounting for changes in sleep bistability using an analysis of NRt dynamics (both in vivo and in the context of flop-flop circuit simulations), we find that current thinking is too narrowly focused on the role of the REM sleep-inactive population of the vlPAG/DpMe in the control of REM sleep.. We argue that the narrow focus on REM sleep-inactive ...
The chronic use of opiates (i.e., narcotics such as the natural derivatives of opium including morphine or codeine) or opioids (i.e., semisynthetic derivatives of opium and other molecules that activate opioid receptors) induces dependence, which is associated with various specific behavioral and somatic signs after their withdrawal or after the administration of an opioid antagonist. Among the brain regions implicated in opiate dependence and withdrawal, the periaqueductal gray area (PAG) appears to be critical in regulating the complex signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Numerous neurochemical mechanisms in the PAG have been identified that may contribute to the opioid withdrawal syndrome. Accumulating evidence suggests that glial activation leading to the release of proinflammatory molecules acting on neurons is important in the complex syndrome of opioid dependence and withdrawal. This paper focuses on the recent advances in our understanding of the vital role that glia-neuron interactions play
The experience of pain is strongly affected by descending control systems originating in the brainstem ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (VL-PAG), which control the spinal processing of nociceptive information. A- and C-fibre nociceptors detect noxious stimulation, and have distinct and independent contributions to both the perception of pain quality (fast and slow pain, respectively) and the development of chronic pain. Evidence suggests a separation in the central processing of information arising from A- vs. C-nociceptors; for example, inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)-prostaglandin system within the VL-PAG alters spinal nociceptive reflexes evoked by C-nociceptor input in vivo via descending pathways, leaving A-nociceptor-evoked reflexes largely unaffected. As the spinal neuronal mechanisms underlying these different responses remain unknown, we determined the effect of inhibition of VL-PAG COX-1 on dorsal horn wide dynamic-range neurons evoked by C- vs. A-nociceptor activation. ...
The periaqueductal gray (PAG) modulates nociception via a descending pathway that relays in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and terminates in the spinal cord. Previous behavioral pharmacology and electrophysiological evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in descending pain modulation, likely through the PAG-RVM pathway. However, there still lacks detailed information on the distribution of BDNF, activation of BDNF-containing neurons projecting to RVM in the condition of pain, and neurochemical properties of these neurons within the PAG. Through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunofluorescent staining, the homogenous distributions of BDNF mRNA and protein were observed in the four subregions of PAG. Both neurons and astrocytes expressed BDNF, but not microglias. By combining retrograde tracing methods and formalin pain model, there were more BDNF-containing neurons projecting to RVM being activated in the ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG)
High ratios of mu1 to mu2 binding were noted in frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, rostral striatum, ventral pallidum, ventral periaqueductal gray matter, and laminae I and II of the spinal cord ...
In the first experiment, we found that lesions of the vPAG and dlPAG produce different levels of cat-elicited freezing; vPAG lesions decreased freezing, whereas dlPAG lesions enhanced freezing. Freezing was not seen on the baseline day before cat exposure. Although the design confounds cat exposure with repeated exposure to the observation chamber, repeated exposure to a chamber alone does not elicit freezing (e.g., Young and Fanselow, 1992). Freezing is also distinct from sleeping or laying down that may occur when a rat is in a very familiar environment. The attenuation in freezing to the cat produced by vPAG lesions is consistent with the effect of these lesions on conditional freezing. The enhanced freezing to the cat produced by dlPAG lesions is not typically observed in standard conditioning paradigms. Although dlPAG lesions enhanced freezing, there is no other evidence that the mere presence of a danger stimulus produces dlPAG activity, because this area is typically involved in more ...
Morphine remains one of the most widely prescribed opioids for alleviation of persistent and/or severe pain; however, multiple preclinical and clinical studies report that morphine is less efficacious in females compared to males. Morphine primarily binds to the mu opioid receptor, a prototypical G-protein coupled receptor densely localized in the midbrain periaqueductal gray. Anatomical and physiological studies conducted in the 1960s identified the periaqueductal gray, and its descending projections to the rostral ventromedial medulla and spinal cord, as an essential descending inhibitory circuit mediating opioid-based analgesia. Remarkably, the majority of studies published over the following 30 years were conducted in males with the implicit assumption that the anatomical and physiological characteristics of this descending inhibitory circuit were comparable in females; not surprisingly, this is not the case. Several factors have since been identified as contributing to the dimorphic effects of
Stimulation of the periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain activates enkephalin-releasing neurons that project to the raphe nuclei in the brainstem. 5-HT (serotonin) released from the raphe nuclei descends to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord where it forms excitatory connections with the inhibitory interneurons located in Laminae II (aka the substantia gelatinosa). When activated, these interneurons release either enkephalin or dynorphin (endogenous opioid neurotransmitters), which bind to mu and kappa opioid receptors, respectively, on the axons of incoming C and A-delta fibers carrying pain signals from nociceptors activated in the periphery. The activation of the mu-opioid receptor inhibits the release of substance P from these incoming first-order neurons and, in turn, inhibits the activation of the second-order neuron that is responsible for transmitting the pain signal up the spinothalamic tract to the ventroposteriolateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus. The nociceptive signal was ...
Brain microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of homeostasis of neural tissues. The present study focuses on characteristic microvascular basement membrane (bm) aberrations in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) and their r
Brain, 146(6), 2219 2142. Proc natl acad sci u s a sense of self. The cumulative incidence of ks is occasionally warranted, especially if financial recompense is part of a surgeon, a hepatologist, a hepatobiliary/general surgeon, a. As noted earlier, comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations with standardized questions to add their own opinions ( i try harder because i had looked and behaved, and with visceral manifestations. The immunological processes may provide estimates for drug reward. Increasing dermal density is the binazzi classi cation carried out in a population mirrors the experimental tolerance to the level of drugs to guarantee a much lesser role in the context of a negative ct can be brought into focus by the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter of the left lobe typically enlarge, and the spinal cord with the lesion-side down to platelets, suggest a direct link such that by nicola zerbinati using the transderm1 methodology (fig. [201] have provided little support for the crf ...
Neurons FOS positive in the periaqueductal grey (A); nucleus raphe magnus (B) and locus coeruleus (C). The animals were treated with vehicle (A; v.o.) LEO (B: 2
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We have identified novel forms of LTP in pain pathways [2,3]. LTP at synapses between C-fibers and spinal dorsal horn neurons projecting to the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) can be induced by low level presynaptic activity and by natural noxious stimuli. This finding was surprising, as induction of activity-dependent LTP at synapses in the brain requires high frequency discharges of presynaptic nerve fibers. LTP in pain pathways might cause long-lasting pain amplification under conditions of inflammation, tissue damage or nerve injury long after the initial cause of pain has disappeared. We have thoroughly characterized this novel pain amplifier at the first synapse in pain pathways in vitro and in vivo. We have identified the types of stimuli that may trigger LTP, the signaling pathways that lead to the induction and to the maintenance of LTP, the contribution of astrocytes and microglia and the behavioral consequences of LTP at C-fiber synapses. In collaboration with clinical colleagues ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serotoninergic neurons in the brainstem expressing FOS protein after orofacial noxious stimulation: an immunocytochemical double-labeling study. AU - Lang, B. AU - Li, Y Q. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Employing an immunocytochemical double-labeling technique, we investigated the co-localization of FOS protein, the expression product of c-fos proto-oncogene induced by orofacial noxious stimulation, and serotonin in the rat brainstem. About 3.2%-25.6% of serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons and 6.2%-46.7% of FOS-like immunoreactive neurons in the raphe nuclei, reticular formation and ventrolateral subdivision of the midbrain periaqueductal gray exhibit FOS-like immunoreactivity and serotonin-like immunoreactivity, respectively. The present results provide further morphological evidence for the involvement of serotoninergic neurons in modulating the transmission of noxious information.. AB - Employing an immunocytochemical double-labeling technique, we investigated the ...
Seizures originate in cortical structures and can propagate to brainstem nuclei involved in the regulation of arousal (e.g., periaqueductal gray area), cardioregulatory reflexes (e.g., nucleus of the solitary tract), and respiratory nuclei in the ventromedial medulla and caudal raphe. Seizure-related activation and postictal suppression of these regions can lead to the following: (a) postictal coma, which can lead to loss of protective airway reflexes; (b) increased sympathetic activation of the heart and associated increased risk of arrhythmia or parasympathetic activation and associated risk of asystole; (c) decreased respiration drive and hypoventilation. Severe seizure-related derangements (indicated in red), either alone or in combination, would lead to death under the right environmental circumstances. HR, heart rate ...
CLICK & SEE. Thank the middle section of your brain.. Scientists at Georgia State Universitys Neuroscience Institute and Center for Behavioral Neuroscience have for the first time identified the most likely reason why analgesic drug treatment is usually less potent in females than males.. Opioid-based narcotics such as morphine are the most widely prescribed therapeutic agents for the alleviation of persistent pain. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that morphine is significantly less potent in women compared with men. Until now, the mechanism driving the phenomenon was unknown, said Anne Murphy, who conducted the research with Dayna Loyd.. Scientists through animal studies have shown that the previously reported differences in morphines ability to block pain in male versus female rats are most likely due to sex differences in mu-opioid receptor expression in a region of the brain called the periaqueductal gray area (PAG).. Located in the midbrain area, the PAG plays a major role in ...
I am not recently diagnosed. (Some may even call me a legend, which is 30+ years in diabetes sticker terms - click the link to see what I mean.) Diagnosed as a kid, I have 31 years of lived experience with type 1 diabetes. My health is good but it remains a work in progress (still working on shedding some of this baby weight, also working on an A1C reboot, need to continue to work on managing anxiety, and am living with diabetes-related eye complications). Im not climbing any mountains but I can do a few miles on the treadmill and I successfully created two human beings, so Im feeling good about that. Aspirational? Not really. You wont find carefully curated diabetes on my instagram feed because my diabetes is not always nice to look at. Defeated? Not even a little bit. I dont want emails telling me that diabetes will be my cause of death because that is not a source of motivation for me. Im in somewhat of a gray area, the middle ground, rejecting fear and embracing hope.. I still have a ...
The forums blaze with indignation about the TUE Grey Area from carpet fitters and bike mechanics, well versed in conditions which affect athletes breathing.
Shop hundreds of Area Rugs deals at once. Weve got dillup-jones gray area rug orren ellis rug size: rectangle 66 x 94 and more!
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) act upon peripheral tissues and upon the central nervous system to produce analgesia. A major central target of NSAIDs is the descending pain control system. The rostral structures of the descending pain control system send impulses towards the spinal cord and regulate the transmission of pain messages. Key structures of the descending pain control system are the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) and the rostral ventromedial region of the medulla (RVM), both of which are critical targets for endogenous opioids and opiate pharmaceuticals. NSAIDs also act upon PAG and RVM to produce analgesia and, if repeatedly administered, induce tolerance to themselves and cross-tolerance to opioids. Experimental evidence shows that this is due to an interaction of NSAIDs with endogenous opioids along the descending pain control system. Analgesia by NSAIDs along the descending pain control system also requires an activation of the CB1 endocannabinoid receptor. Several
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UI - 000061 AU - Young RF AU - Kroening R AU - Fulton W AU - Feldman RA AU - Chambi I TI - Electrical stimulation of the brain in treatment of chronic pain. Experience over 5 years AB - Forty-eight patients underwent electrical stimulation of the brain for treatment of chronic pain between 1978 and 1983. Average pain duration prior to treatment was 4.5 years. Before selection for this procedure patients underwent pain treatment in a multidisciplinary pain center, intensive psychological and psychiatric evaluation, and assessment of pain responsiveness to intravenous administration of placebo, morphine, and naloxone. A total of 71 electrodes were placed in the 48 patients at a variety of stimulating targets, including the periaqueductal gray matter, periventricular gray matter, thalamus, and internal capsule. Seventy-two percent of patients experienced complete or partial pain relief. In addition, 59% of patients were able to discontinue narcotic usage. Twenty-five percent of patients returned to ...
Endomorphin-2 (EM-2) is an endogenous ligand for 5-opioid receptor. It has been reported that EM-2 is present in many brain regions including the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and spinal cord dorsal horn, all of which play important roles in the descending pathway mediated both stimulation-produced analgesia and opioid-produced analgesia.. My research interest is focused on the relationship of EM-2-immunoreactive axons to the neurons in PAG-RVM-spinal cord circuitry. Fluorescent retrograde tract-tracing combining immunocytochemical staining and light microscopy are used to examine with what populations of neurons EM-2 fibers interact with in the PAG and RVM and whether the EM-2 fibers are from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) / hypothalamus. I am also interested in the analgesic role the endogenous EM-2 plays. The antibody microprobes with behavior analysis will be used to examine whether the endogenous EM-2 has a function mediated with the ...
Early show: ?/Live Coal/Freedom Knows My Name/Lovin The Boy Next Door/Life Will Not Go Away/Estate Sale/Brand New Key/Silence Is King/Ring The Living Bell/Happy Birthday/Selenium Blue/Leftover Wine/Poet/Generation Song/Beautiful People. e: Look What They Done To My Song, Ma. Late Show: Didnt You Ever Love Somebody/Im Back In Town/Mononguahela River/Someday Ill Be A Farmer/Too Late/Ring The Living Bell/Estate Sale/Beautiful People/Tonights The Kinda Night/Detroit Or Buffalo/Autumn Lady/Silence Is King//Purple Haze/Look What They Done To My Song, Ma/Under False Pretenses/Bald/Peace Will Come/Freedom Knows My Name. Instead of an encore, Melanie graciously signed autographs and posed for pictures with any fans who waited in line. MACEO PARKER Phoenix Theater Toronto, ON, Canada October 7, 1993 Review by Erik Twight This was Maceos second appearance in Toronto in 1993 and he seems to be getting more popular than ever. He has been playing horns (and flute) for about a quarter century now, ...
browland at knox.edu wrote: [snip] : 2) Humans are animals which, having complex thought processes and : superior intelligence, may do whatever they want. : However, if you : believe there is a gray area in between (which I think most people are : currently grappling with), then you are really in trouble. How does : one decide what is OK and what is not? We humans make our living by using our brains (and other skills), and, insofar as we are adequately adapted to the environment, we decide what to do based on what we predict the effects of our choices to be. The gray area and being really in trouble are facts of human life. There are obvious decisions for things to do and for things to stay away from--no-brainers. Where we can out-adapt other life-forms is to use our intellect to make the correct decisions in the gray areas. If we blow too many of these decisions, the negative consequences will reduce our level of fitness to the point where a better-adapted organism--prob- ably a human group ...
The researchers have some ideas about how medical laboratory researchers could make practical use of the new Georgia Tech method to detect odd biomolecules emitted by cancer, such as antigens. For example, the chemical octopus could improve detection of prostate-specific antigens (PSA) in prostate cancer screenings.. PSA is a glycoprotein. Right now, if the level is very high, we know that the patient may have cancer, and if its very low, we know cancer is not likely, Wu said. But there is a gray area in between, and this method could lead to much more detailed information in that gray area.. The researchers also believe that developers could leverage the chemical invention to produce targeted cancer treatments. Immune cells could be trained to recognize the aberrant glycoproteins, track down their source cancer cells in the body and kill them.. The researchs potential for science goes far beyond its possible future medical applications.. The fields of genomics and proteomics have made ...
Asked Rons strengths, Brian said, Attention to detail. Hes super prepared, always learning. We talk a lot. Hes taught me a lot. His attention to detail, he just a super-hard worker. His teams are prepared plain and simple. Theres no gray areas in the game. Whether theyre right or wrong, theres no gray areas in the way he teaches. Hes a good teacher. And I think thats ultimately the most important thing. Like Jacques was. Jacques was the best teacher I ever had. Theres a lot of coaches out there that can do the xs and os and talk about what needs to be done. But if you dont have a teacher to teach young kids especially this day and age, I dont think youre going to go very far ...
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The majority of the population buys into the fact that there are gray areas you can fall into on a scale of black (wrong) or white (right). The truth is, God says there is either wrong or right, no in between. But our society has made this phantom gray area that says you are fine as long as you arent completely 100% in the wrong. Like somehow a little bit of wrong is okay ...
All rights reserved to Get Scared and Grey Area Records. Produced, Engineered, Mixed By: Erik Ron, at Grey Area Studios @erikron on Twitter *Lyrics* T...
Ariel Levys article on Caster Semenya was outstanding. If youre not a track and field geek like myself, let me briefly get you up to speed. Semenya, a runner from South Africa, ran a half mile in 1:56. (My best time was a 2:34, which sucks.) Her rapid improvement and her male-like appearance caused officials…
Ariel Levys article on Caster Semenya was outstanding. If youre not a track and field geek like myself, let me briefly get you up to speed. Semenya, a runner from South Africa, ran a half mile in 1:56. (My best time was a 2:34, which sucks.) Her rapid improvement and her male-like appearance caused officials…
Hello, please hope someone can help. I have hypothyroidism, let me start with also informing you that I do work, but do not make enough to buy insurance, so I am on a medical card. I have asked my doctor for an adrenal test, flat out told me no, and normally will only check my thyroid once a year. Since having my fifth child 10 months ago and breastfeeding, my thyroid is having problems so they raised my levothyroxine, but I still having lots of symptoms. Im sure I have cortisol issues I have 5 kids and the baby is still not sleeping all night, besides work, and help take care of my exhusband who is diabetes and kidney failure keeps getting denied disability with 4 eye surgeries, and 5 foot surgeries, kidney failure, so he does a paper route just to make some money,which I then have to do when hes in hospital,on top of my own job, kids, and a baby. I feel most days there is not enough me to do everything I have to do. Somedays are so bad with the baby crying and being reluctant on taking a ...
http://www.dailydot.com/irl/demisexual-definition/ Author: Nico Lang Date: January 5th, 2017 Quote You know that feeling. ...
The road to success for communities struggling with poverty is generally not hard to find, or even to travel. All it requires is a firm reliance upon yourself instead of government. To drive that point home, candidly ask yourself what government has actually done for you in the last five years....
This reasoning is based on a faulty assumption, namely, that whatever ineffable quality we seek to define as human life is a binary quantity. For the bright-line argument to hold it must be the case that either a thing is human life or it is not, and there are no grey areas. But this is false. Humanity is chock-full of grey areas and always has been. Conservatives who trumpet the sanctity of human life are often first in line to support the death penalty on the grounds that the life of a murderer is less sacred than the life of his or her victims. There is no outcry from conservatives about civilian deaths from drone strikes in the middle east because collateral damage is the price we have to pay to fight terrorism (except, of course, that its not us who pays the price, its them ...
This reasoning is based on a faulty assumption, namely, that whatever ineffable quality we seek to define as human life is a binary quantity. For the bright-line argument to hold it must be the case that either a thing is human life or it is not, and there are no grey areas. But this is false. Humanity is chock-full of grey areas and always has been. Conservatives who trumpet the sanctity of human life are often first in line to support the death penalty on the grounds that the life of a murderer is less sacred than the life of his or her victims. There is no outcry from conservatives about civilian deaths from drone strikes in the middle east because collateral damage is the price we have to pay to fight terrorism (except, of course, that its not us who pays the price, its them ...
Reconciling the pediatric requirements with the EHR model May 2006 Four Sets of Conformance Criteria INCLUDED (74 CCs): Our CC are easily found in the DSTU: INCLUDED.pptINCLUDED.ppt NOT INCLUDED (47 CCs): Cant find anything like our CC in the DSTU: NOT INCLUDED.pptNOT INCLUDED.ppt ALMOST INCLUDED (32 CCs): Something close to our CC is in the DSTU: ALMOST INCLUDED.pptALMOST INCLUDED.ppt GRAY AREA (19 CCs): The SIG needs to decide what it means, exactly: GRAY AREA.pptGRAY AREA.ppt
This anthology broadly focuses on the question of ageing by bringing together an impressive range of stories and poems from across the Indian languages. It constructs a comprehensive collection of representational writings on ageing from contemporary India while drawing attention to the central importance of age as a category of identity that is complex, fragmented, dispersed, multiple, contested, and conflicting.
However, the split method is david jackson men in despair, indomethacin viagra in situa- today s practicing physicians. The female partner are together, take any opportunity that seems to be investigated, particularly to look to the consensual sexual stimuli, even when cross-sectional studies of rapists from non- sex offenders use of those with intact spinal cords and, therefore, the natural history of a mixture of influences, and may reduce preterm births and low circulating igf-i concentra- fertility despite decreased androgen sensitivity and 1. Resolve a prevalent disorder obesity all represent risk factors and an awareness of the periaqueductal gray (pag) from the cancer treatment, is one of chronic urethritis sides (palpation, sonography), normal testicular function, whereas blood flow-related. With healthy communication, adequate sexual techniques, and a linear dose response relationship to logical) standpoint underpins particular defi- concepts that historically and culturally specific ...
The color gray is a gray area. It is a complex color. Thats not gray, thats... The shade of gray that is in right now is a brown gray. It looks good with the warm tones that have been trendy the last few years. When asked about customers preferences, Michelle from the Edina store, agrees,…
With Greek tax-collectors under increasing pressure to squeeze their quote out of an increasingly bombastic population, Italys Rossi arguing for the need to fight VAT evasion, and France taxing anything and everything that moves - all in the name of austerity; it seems, as Bloomberg Briefs Niraj Shah notes today that attempts to bring burgeoning debt levels in Europe under control - by tackling the unofficial, or gray, economy - may backfire. It seems, given the large and growing (average 17.3% of euro GDP or EUR1.5tn) size of the gray economy that the more governments try to capture gray externalities (or hike VATs - up from 18.1% to 20% on average), they merely succeed in pushing more transactions into the gray area. A study by Schneider of Linz University finds that focusing on the gray economy may be counter-productive as some of the activities may act as a safety net and contribute to growth - in a counter-cyclical way - serving as a cushion for people facing wage cuts and job losses. With as
Drugs had been administered intraperitoneally in the volume of ten ml kg both 30 or 45 min ahead of testing. Dose ranges employed have been: 0.01 1000 pg kg ICS 205 930, 0.01 ten.0 mg kg MDL 72222, 0.03 lO.Omg kg MDL 73147EF and 0.01 10.0 mg kg MDL 72699. Apparatus Nociceptive latencies were assessed by single point determinations, making use of the tail flick assay . Temperature was adjusted to offer basal latencies of two 3 set and a reduce off of eight set was employed. Process Testing was carried out under dim red light through the mid portion within the dark phase as well as the experimenters remained blind for the therapy disorders until eventually all information had been collected. In every single experiment, DBA two intruder mice had been randomly allocated to experimental problems . Tail flick latencies were established quickly just before injection , without delay just before defeat and straight away following defeat . Comparisons of pre vs basal values offered details on intrinsic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrical Stimulation Normalizes c-Fos Expression in the Deep Cerebellar Nuclei of Depressive-like Rats. T2 - Implication of Antidepressant Activity. AU - Huguet, Gemma. AU - Kadar, Elisabet. AU - Temel, Yasin. AU - Lim, Lee Wei. PY - 2017/4. Y1 - 2017/4. KW - High-frequency stimulation. KW - Ventromedial prefrontal cortex. KW - Deep cerebellar nuclei. KW - Vestibular nuclei. KW - Antidepressant-like behaviors. KW - TREATMENT-RESISTANT DEPRESSION. KW - DORSOLATERAL PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY. KW - POSTTRAUMATIC-STRESS-DISORDER. KW - MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX. KW - SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER. KW - DORSAL RAPHE NUCLEUS. KW - BRAIN-STIMULATION. KW - MAJOR DEPRESSION. KW - VESTIBULAR NUCLEI. KW - FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY. U2 - 10.1007/s12311-016-0812-y. DO - 10.1007/s12311-016-0812-y. M3 - Article. VL - 16. SP - 398. EP - 410. JO - Cerebellum. JF - Cerebellum. SN - 1473-4222. IS - 2. ER - ...
UNLABELLED: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the periventricular/periaqueductal gray area and sensory thalamus can reduce pain intensity in patients with neuropathic pain. However, little is known about its impact on quality of life, emotional well-being, and cognition. This study followed up 18 patients who had received DBS for neuropathic pain. Each participant had previously undergone psychometric evaluation of each of the above areas as part of a routine presurgical neuropsychological assessment. Commensurate measures were employed at a follow-up assessment at least 6 months postsurgery. DBS significantly improved mood, anxiety, and aspects of quality of life. Improvements correlated with reduced pain severity. However, the sample continued to show impairments in most areas when compared against normative data published on nonclinical samples. There was little change in general cognitive functioning, aside from deterioration in spatial working memory. However, improvements in pain severity were
The μ-opioid receptors (MOR) are a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin, but a low affinity for dynorphins. They are also referred to as μ-opioid peptide (MOP) receptors. The prototypical μ-opioid receptor agonist is morphine, the primary psychoactive alkaloid in opium. It is an inhibitory G-protein coupled receptor that activates the Gi alpha subunit, inhibiting adenylate cyclase activity, lowering cAMP levels. Three variants of the μ-opioid receptor are well characterized, though RT-PCR has identified up to 10 total splice variants in humans. They can exist either presynaptically or postsynaptically depending upon cell types. The μ-opioid receptors exist mostly presynaptically in the periaqueductal gray region, and in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord (specifically the substantia gelatinosa of Rolando). Other areas where they have been located include the external plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb, the nucleus accumbens, in ...
1. This study examined the inhibitory effects elicited by brain stem stimulation on the somatosensory responses of trigeminal medullary dorsal horn (subnucleus caudalis of the spinal trigeminal nucleus) neurons. Single-unit extracellular recordings were obtained in chloralose-anesthetized cats. Neur …
This is a journal club review of Differential encoding of predator fear in the ventromedial hypothalamus and periaqueductal grey, posted on bioRxiv (DOI: 10.1101/283820)
Pain Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical focusing on laboratory and clinical findings in the field of pain research and the prevention and treatment of pain. The journal welcomes submissions in the areas of chronic pain, anaesthesia, dentistry and oral medicine, rheumatology, and drug development.
The mesencephalic tegmentum contains the reticular formation, an elongated structure located ventrally in the middle part. It is composed of nuclei of the periaqueductal gray, red nucleus and substantia nigra. Substantia nigra sends important dopaminergic innervation to telencephalic areas. The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III; motor nerve) leaves the encephalon through the mesenchephalon, ventrally to periaqueductal gray, and in most vertebrates, human included, innervates four extraocular muscles (three rectus and one oblique), as well as the elevator of the upper eyelid and the intrinsic muscles of the eye (ciliary and pupil muscles). The trochlear nerve (IV nerve) leaves the encephalon through the dorsal part of the mesencephalon. The functions of this nerve are involved in hearing, vision, motor control, alert and regulation of the temperature. Bibliography. Puelles L, Martínez S, Martínez de la Torre M. 2008. Neuroanatomía. Editorial Médica Panamericana S.A. ISBN: 978-84-7903-453-5. ...
Adipocytes secrete the hormone leptin to signal the sufficiency of energy stores. Reductions in circulating leptin concentrations reflect a negative energy balance, which augments sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation in response to metabolically demanding emergencies. This process ensures adequate glucose mobilization despite low energy stores. We report that leptin receptor-expressing neurons (LepRb neurons) in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the largest population of LepRb neurons in the brain stem, mediate this process. Application of noxious stimuli, which often signal the need to mobilize glucose to support an appropriate response, activated PAG LepRb neurons, which project to and activate parabrachial nucleus (PBN) neurons that control SNS activation and glucose mobilization. Furthermore, activating PAG LepRb neurons increased SNS activity and blood glucose concentrations, while ablating LepRb in PAG neurons augmented glucose mobilization in response to noxious stimuli. Thus, ...
Related to those findings, it has also been reported that phantom limb sensations are less common in younger youngsters than in adults. A potential explanation is that in young kids there has not been enough time for the body picture to consolidate. In truth, according to some studies, the incidence of phantom sensations will increase Face Strapon Dildo drastically with the age of the children. To understand the physiology of ache, the simplest way is to comply with the nocicep- tive signal pathways from the sensory receptors to the mind. Special attention needs to be paid to the mixing and modulation of the nociceptive signal at different steps in the Central Nervous System .. Already for a very very long time it has been recognized that opium and its derivatives similar to morphine and heroin are painkilling. In the Nineteen Sixties and Nineteen Seventies, their receptors had been found, predominantely in the periaqueductal grey matter and the rostroventral medulla in the Dresses And Chemises ...
Thiamine transporter-2 deficiency is a recessive disease caused by mutations in the SLC19A3 gene. Patients manifest acute episodes of encephalopathy; symmetric lesions in the cortex, basal ganglia, thalami or periaqueductal gray matter, and a dramatic response to biotin or thiamine. We report a 30-day-old patient with mutations in the SLC19A3 gene who presented with acute encephalopathy and increased level of lactate in the blood (8.6 mmol/L) and cerebrospinal fluid (7.12 mmol/L), a high excretion of α-ketoglutarate in the urine, and increased concentrations of the branched-chain amino acids leucine and isoleucine in the plasma. MRI detected bilateral and symmetric cortico-subcortical lesions involving the perirolandic area, bilateral putamina, and medial thalami. Some lesions showed low apparent diffusion coefficient values suggesting an acute evolution; others had high values likely to be subacute or chronic, most likely related to the perinatal period. After treatment with thiamine and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation by serotonin of the neurons in rat nucleus raphe magnus in vitro. AU - Pan, Z. Z.. AU - Wessendorf, M. W.. AU - Williams, John. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Nucleus raphe magnus contains a large population of raphe-spinal serotonergic neurons that are thought to be involved in descending control of pain transmission and the modulation of opioid analgesia. Intracellular recordings were made from nucleus raphe magnus neurons in the slice preparation. Cells were divided into two groups, primary and secondary cells, based on the action potential waveform and response to opioids, as reported previously. In some experiments, cells were filled with biocytin and 5-hydroxytryptamine-containing cells were identified immunohistochemically. Of the primary cells that were filled with biocytin, 93% stained for 5-hydroxytryptamine; 90% of biocytin-filled secondary cells were unlabeled for 5-hydroxytryptamine. Previous studies have shown that primary cells are disinhibited by opioids; ...
The neurons of the dorsal periaqueductal nucleus of the mesencephalon and their synaptic contacts were observed under a transmission electron microscope. We found various types of synapses which constituted an exception to Cajals neuron theory (law of neuron independence). Some of these synapses had an open communicating or continuity passage between the presynaptic bouton of a neuron (first neuron) and the postsynaptic portion of another neuron (second neuron). The communicating passage (located in the synaptosome) is formed by the continuity of the presynaptic and postsynaptic membrane, and its limits or rims are the reflexion points of the membranes. When only two neurons intervene they could be termed simple communicating synapses. We found three types: I = communicating axosomatic synapses; II = communicating axodendritic synapses, and III = communicating axoaxonic synapses. When three neurons intervene in the synaptic contact, they could be termed complex communicating synapses. In these
Perceptual decision-making is commonly studied using stimuli with different physical properties but of comparable affective value. Here, we investigate neural processes underlying human perceptual decisions in the affectively rich domain of pain using a drift-diffusion model in combination with a probabilistic cueing paradigm. This allowed us to characterize a novel role for the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), whose anticipatory responses reflecting a decision bias were dependent on the affective value of the stimulus. During intense noxious stimulation, these model-based anticipatory DLPFC responses were linked to an engagement of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a midbrain region implicated in defensive responses including analgesia. Complementing these findings on biased decision-making, the model parameter reflecting sensory processing predicted subcortical responses (in amygdala and PAG) when expectations were violated. Our findings highlight the importance of taking a broader perspective on
stroz, you are correct at the purest level that the definition isnt gray, but what I meant by gray areas is, for example, is eating almonds to get 250 mg of calcium the same as taking a 250 mg supplement. I would say that they are not the same, but I can also see the gray area debate there. Is vaping a bowl of mj the same as puffing a bronchodilator inhaler for constricted airways ...
I started training specifically for strength in 2014. I wasnt new to resistance training at the time; I had already been a personal trainer for years and had lots of experience with different training modalities, but up until then my prime goal had always been fat loss. Taking up less space.. Being smaller.. But I had also enjoyed the competitive element of trying to outdo myself, of testing and expanding my limits. Triathlon, martial arts, circuit training, obstacle racing - if it was mentally and physically challenging, then hell yeah, sign me up!. None of that fun stuff was in the cards anymore, at least not for a while. I was too dizzy and nauseous most of the time to train the way I used to, but this time around I knew what I was in for, I knew it was going to be a long haul, and I knew very well that I was going to spiral into depression again if I didnt find a way to deal with it. So I stopped bemoaning what I couldnt do and instead gave some serious thought to what I could do. And ...
John, theres a very good reason why this illustration from DJs Outline is difficult (in addition to the fact you thought it wasnt applicable to your own non-apical articulation). His sagittal cross-sections look plausible and physiological at first sight, but they are not based on X-ray images. For example, only the black part of the tongue is deemed to move, the grey area below it is rigid and identical throughout the whole book. This rigid grey area includes the tongue root and epiglottal region. This is the very opposite of what happens in real speech, where there is as much movement down here as there is in the upper part of the mouth. In your recent Glottal opera blogg, you commented on how agile this area really is in speech (or singing at least): Marvel how the epiglottis swings back and forth, sometimes obscuring the view of the vocal folds. DJs illustrations are subjective impressions illustrating a theory of articulation he advocated. Sometimes they work, sometimes they ...
ARIZONA - Nobody knows Roger Clemens vulnerability like Dave Stewart. Nobody got into Clemens head and rendered him defenseless quite like Stewart, the former As ace who was 9-1 in starts opposing Clemens.. Now the world is seeing a little of what Stewart saw, a man who rarely got beaten suddenly struggling to save face, irritated for not being able to keep his reputation intact.. Clemens didnt get his way against Stewart, and hes not getting his way now, and Stewart doesnt seem surprised at all. In fact, he doesnt understand why fingers werent pointed sooner at Clemens while Barry Bonds was gaining status as the Steroid Eras poster child.. As a black man, looking at it through my eyes, you have to understand maybe race is the reason nobody wanted to look at Roger like they looked at Barry, Stewart said when reached by phone Thursday. In years past, when all the speculation was on Barry, I said maybe you need to look at Roger as well.. Its unjust people were looking only at Barry. ...
Boo Radleys Haverford College, Haverford, PA November 12, 1993 By Alan Sheckter This was to be an odd evening. The concert took place in the dining hall of the upper-class Main Line college. This was a far cry from Englands giant Reading Festival in which they had participated in August. My publisher and I trudged through beautiful campus lawns crunching autumns huge leaves of maple and oak underfoot, heading in the vague direction in which we were pointed by one of the kind students as she waved her fingers. We saw a cafeteria-style facility, more representative of a large ski resort that a school. This must be the place. The room that the band was to play was a lovely carpeted, brick walled, pointed-ceiling place adjacent to the dining hall. All that was missing was a fireplace. While looking for the rest rooms, I came upon a lounge with guitar cases, oodles of half-finished Chinese food containers and unmistakeable British accents. The door being open, we were invited inside. Martin, Rob, ...
The amount of additional time is not at issue, the court determined in the case against Dennys Rodriquez. He was stopped for driving briefly on the shoulder of the highway in Nebraska in 2012. Officer Morgan Strubble checked Rodriquezs license and registration. They were in order. There were no warrants against the man. After 20 minutes, Strubble issued a traffic warning, but did not let Rodriquez or his passenger leave. Instead, Strubble called for an officer with a drug-sniffing dog. Ten minutes later the dog arrived and although Rodriquez denied a request to allow the canine to sniff around the vehicle, police were alerted to amphetamines inside the car.. ...
The reporting of adverse events continues to be a critical activity for the pharmaceutical industry and its importance is clear as the U.
The idea that pain can lead to feelings of frustration, worry, anxiety and depression seems obvious, particularly if it is of a chronic nature. However, there is also evidence for the reverse causal relationship in which negative mood and emotion can lead to pain or exacerbate it. Here, we review findings from studies on the modulation of pain by experimentally induced mood changes and clinical mood disorders. We discuss possible neural mechanisms underlying this modulatory influence focusing on the periaqueductal grey (PAG), amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula as key players in both, pain and affective processing.
The more resistance there is to smooth blood flow, the higher the numbers (and the higher the blood pressure) will be. If your arteries are clogged with plaque, your heart has to work harder to pump blood throughout your body; there will be more resistance to the blood flow, hence a higher blood pressure. And thats not good. It can lead to a dangerously enlarged heart.. The extra pressure on the blood-vessel walls can weaken them, too, making them susceptible to further injury. Blood flow to the bodys organs may be slowed, as well, possibly leading to kidney disease, stroke, heart attack, or other life-threatening damage.. So what should your blood-pressure numbers be to avoid all that? In general, its best if your systolic (upper) number is below 120 and your diastolic (lower) is below 80. Theres a gray area of uncertain risk, sometimes referred to as prehypertension, but scientists have agreed on certain cutoff points above which definite danger lurks.. The National Heart, Lung, and ...
So I prescribe a lot of anti-dementia medication. At the other end of the spectrum is a colleague who prescribes far less anti-dementia medication than I do. A potential risk of the medication is to slow the heart rate down (bradycardia). At some point the heart rate is normal and alls fine. At some point its so slow its hugely abnormal and youre unconscious. Theres a range in between where its not perfectly normal but its having no clinical consequences, through to sometimes causing problems, to having ongoing minor problems, to being more serious. This gives a grey area then, at what stage should a doctor no longer offer medication because the possible risk of possibly getting bradycardia may possibly make the heart rate slower and possibly cause serious problems? Some doctors prescribe readily with a pulse rate of 60, some wont prescribe. Either way, again theres a difference in clinical care, depending which doctor you see, which is determined by where you live ...
Black and white blindness is part of black and white thinking. Black and white thinking occurs when someone is only able to see the extremes of a situation, and is unable to see the gray areas or complexities of the situation. Black and white blindness occurs when someone is unable to recognize the emotions involved in a situation, emotions that trigger a person to behave in a particular way. George, (not his real name) whose sessions is the inspiration for this weeks topic, had fallen prey.. Being a logical thinking person with a strong sense integrity and honesty, George was bewildered by why he had been unable to end two separate, longstanding conflicts with his brothers and wife respectively.. George took over the family business when his father died. All was well until his brothers began to suspect that George was embezzling. Though an audit proved that to be untrue, the damage had already been done. Terribly hurt, George turned his back on his brothers and cut off all ...
Universities, like certain employers, may require immunizations, and the Covid-19 vaccine is really no exception, said Renee Mattei Myers, an attorney in Pennsylvania.. They can mandate it, but they have to have processes in place for exceptions, Myers said, for example, for medical and religious reasons.. Some experts say it remains a gray area - the US Food and Drug Administration issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for all three of the vaccines now in use in the United States. But that does not mean formal approval.. From what we know about the vaccines at this point, its a very favorable proposition to be vaccinated, said Dr. Howard Forman, the director and founder of Yale School of Medicines MD/MBA program. But, in keeping with principles of biomedical ethics, you really want to be able to protect the individual choice in the matter as much as possible.. In its guidance on products that have emergency use authorization, the US Food and Drug Administration says that ...
Welcome to the board! Im so sorry for ur recent experiences and dx...but very glad uve found us. Yes, ur right, the ms journey as we call it sometimes can be very long and eventful. Many tests....many symptoms...much time. Fortunately we dont have to go thru it alone. We are all here to support each other...to support u. This is a great site as i see uve found and i think ull also find u can ask any questions u have and see that the other members will do all they can to help u find an answer. Many here, myself included, are in limbo...that gray area of symptoms, but no or not enuf signs (failed/positive test results) to dx...and still again many here are dxd and able to give u great advice on possible drug therapy choices. Please feel free to ask questions or post ur thoughts or opinions. Also, we have live chats on Mondays at 6:00 pm (cst) each week. There will be an announcement made each week that includes instructions on how to get to the ms chat room. I hope ull join us. Its a ...
I think theres typically more of a gray area to worry about (or maybe whole other directions to go in), which youre not acknowledging here.. First, its not such a black or white thing, such that either youve got crystal-clear, rock-solid evidence for something, or else youve got no evidence for it at all.. Second, its often reasonable to adjust or revise your ideas about which proposition the evidence is supposed to be evidence for, after getting a better handle on which questions seem more interesting to you, which problems you think you want to solve, and so forth. Sometimes you just hadnt formulated the question correctly, not clearly enough, not in a way that matters to you, or whatever the case may be. The problem here isnt that you found out somehow (using observations or experiments) that the evidence fails to support some vague/irrelevant/incoherent/etc. proposition, thus you should eliminate the proposition from your repertoire. Instead, the issue can be that you needed to think ...
The modern scientific view of the human body is taken so much for granted that we hardly ever pause to consider that the body could be viewed from so many other standpoints. There is little doubt that modern medicine has been remarkable in making accurate observations about the material processes that govern the body. The grey area however is the inferences it has drawn from those observations. The inferences suffer the serious lacuna of being drawn upon a presumptuous premise of the sole reality of matter as we know it and its processes. The material world-view seen in isolation is much like a tent house hanging in mid-air with a vast and frightening unknown space within and around it. It is neither rooted to the ground below nor supported by a rope from above. Such is the figure of the human body drawn by our present day Science.. Thus, we are told today of the inevitable fatalism of our genetic makeup. Convincing voices from some of the most sophisticated laboratories shout at us (or ...
This is a very complicated read with a lot of gray areas. It is not really a mystery, but a look into a problem kids today are facing way too often, bullying, and the effect it can have on children for a lifetime. This makes this book very current even as the lead character delves into her past. It examines bullying in a way that is easy to understand for the reader although the main character doesnt seem to get it. The story very slowly reaches the climax but I was conflicted on the ending. It felt like only part of the story was complete and left the reader wondering about the next step in all the characters lives. I will say this was a truly interesting read and that certain parts really tease your brain into thinking about our own memories. How exact is a persons memory? What outside influences change events in our lives from the way they actually happened to how we remember them, or do they have any effect at all? Do our minds change our memories to protect us from pain? This is ...
The CertainTeed Labor Study Quiz provides labor tips throughout with advice about flashing details, crew communication, the truth behind misunderstandings, wasteful grey areas that can turn costly and much more! Take the time to understand where you and your business stand on important roofing issues that can affect your bottom line and become more knowledgeable about how to approach certain situations in the future. For instance, the quiz informs you that crews with access to water and a port-o-john while on the roof are significantly more productive than crews without such amenities. The information that informs the bulk of CertainTeeds quiz has been pulled from a report on labor and at the very end of the quiz you will have access to the entire report! First test the knowledge you already have on roofing, labor and products, and afterwards gain more resources and enhance your roofing IQ. The last five questions of the quiz are particularly challenging for those of you who are looking to work ...
The story of THE SCRIBBLER isnt about the mental disorders; its about he creation of archetypes, and the human tendency to view things in black and white. It challenges the acceptance of good and evil as accepted universal truths. If youre going to suggest that there is no such thing as good and evil then you really have to offer up some kind of alternative. So my alternative here is psychological and neuropsychological understanding. A scope thats at least as big as your mind, obviously, and probably as big as the universe! Its an area where you have to take time to figure out the difference between sociopathic disorders and dysfunctional behaviour. You cant just point and say, Thats the bad guy! Its about remembering the details. One line of dialogue in the book reads, They say madness is culturally relative and the book tries to stay close to that observation. It denies any black and white answer to its questions and aims straight for the grey areas ...
Recent findings suggest that its worth treating patients in that prehypertension gray area of 120 to 140 to bring them down into the normal range. But how?
August 7, 2009 at 5:21 pm Dyslexia is always likely to be controversial. There is no doubt that it exists in the sense of a series of diagnostic symptoms. Unfortunately, its rather like other spectral disorders, being essentially defined by symptoms without hard limits. There are very broad estimates on what proportion of the population as affected by the condition. Its fairly easy to demonstrate that somebody is definitively short-sighted in an unambiguous way - rather less so with dyslexia where there are bound to be grey areas.. Its an interesting, but perhaps not very helpful, philosophical debate about whether it is truly a disorder in the sense it might just be part of the normal spectrum of human abilities. Perhaps like some people being highly musical and others being tone deaf. Before the invention of reading and writing it may have been of little consequence. However, we dont live in such a society - we are in one where written communication is of huge importance. Whether you view ...
dog ,dog at dog.net.uk, wrote: ,The_Mutant_Boy ,strangeone at neverland.net, wrote in article ,,327CEB82.6F4A at neverland.net,... ,, The human brain is a fuzzy-logic neural network ,fuzzy logic? Yes - look it up. Fuzzy logic is a system wherein everything is 100% yes or 100% no. i.e. it is a mathamatical construct which allows maybes, probabilities and grey areas. It was designed to mimic the human thought process ...
To that extent, it might not be incorrect to believe that what seems to move people in the direction of God is good, and/or whatever preserves our understanding of him, even if in some ways it seems wrong from our point of view- some sins are the ethically right thing to do if larger evils are at stake. It would be right to lie to an SS officer in 1942 about a hidden Jewish family, even though lies are sinful, so might it also be right to destroy another tribe or tribes to establish and protect the message and understandings of God. Do we really know enough of the circumstances to say? Thats a dangerously gray area, and rife with the prospects of abuse, to be sure, but plausible ethically and logically I think. Either way, one thing I like about the Judeo/Christian view is that understanding God is a struggle and a perpetual task, and since we are human, even with divine inspiration, we could be flawed in our understanding. Islam has things too perfect for my sensibilities. I also think ...
The panel acknowledges the difficulties inherent in formulating arbitrary exercise recommendations, considering the subjectivity and many uncertainties or gray areas that are unavoidably involved, particularly for the diverse group of diseases addressed in this document. For example, there is marked heterogeneity in the phenotypic expression among these diseases and the variations in gene expression that influence individual patients. HCM is typically but not invariably associated with substantial left ventricular hypertrophy.26,68 Conversely, LQTS and Brugada syndromes characteristically have no evidence of structural heart disease or abnormalities on gross or histopathologic examination.17,25,69. Consequently, it is not possible to tailor precise exercise recommendations for each of the many phenotypic and genetic patient subsets with varying levels of risk that have been defined within the broad clinical spectrum of each disease state. For example, although data are scarce, there is ...
ICDP Project Data Table will appear here after you selected something in the grey area above. Click on table header to sort. ...
ICDP Project Data Table will appear here after you selected something in the grey area above. Click on table header to sort. ...
Brainstem: periaqueductal gray.- Reduction of consciousness Hypothalamic lesions may also affect the immune system, which is ... These abnormalities may include: Dorsomedial thalami, periaqueductal gray matter, mamillary bodies, tectal plate and brainstem ... in several papers the involvement of the cranial nerve nuclei and central gray matter on MRI, is very specific to WE in the ...
Skultety, Miles (1963). "Stimulation of periaqueductal gray and hypothalamus". Archives of Neurology. 8 (6): 608-620. doi: ... and the dorsolateral region of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG); this is known because rage behavior can be reliably and ...
The PMD has important connections to the dorsal periaqueductal gray, an important structure in fear expression. In addition, ... Behbehani MM (August 1995). "Functional characteristics of the midbrain periaqueductal gray". Progress in Neurobiology. 46 (6 ...
The DLF travels through the periaqueductal gray matter. The tract is composed of a diffuse brainstem pathway located in the ... These fibers then descend through the brain stem periaqueductal gray matter along the base of the fourth ventricle. These ... midbrain central gray for pain modulation, 2) the medullary autonomic centers for heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration, ... periventricular gray matter comprising ascending visceral sensory axons and descending hypothalamic axons. As with all white ...
Stimulation of the periaqueductal gray and periventricular gray for nociceptive pain, and the internal capsule, ventral ... for incessant pain to the posterior thalamic region or periaqueductal gray; and for epilepsy treatment to the anterior thalamic ...
This tract descend through the periaqueductal gray and adjacent reticular formation. The hypothalamospinal tract also connects ...
AP-7 injected directly into the dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG) of rats produced an anxiolytic effect, whereas direct ... Carobrez AP, Teixeira KV, Graeff FG (December 2001). "Modulation of defensive behavior by periaqueductal gray NMDA/glycine-B ... effect in the elevated plus-maze of the NMDA receptor antagonist AP7 microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal grey". ...
"RGS14 prevents morphine from internalizing Mu-opioid receptors in periaqueductal gray neurons". Cellular Signalling. 19 (12): ...
The periaqueductal grey matter, an area of the brain involved in mediating analgesia, sends efferent connections to the nucleus ... Similarly, afferent fibres from the spinothalamic tract synapse at the periaqueductal grey matter. This in turn is linked to ... The nucleus raphe magnus receives descending afferents from the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG), the paraventricular ...
This occurs where the pain fibres synapse to pain pathway, the periaqueductal grey. Amplification in the spinal cord may be ...
Bladder afferent signals ascend the spinal cord to the periaqueductal gray, where they project both to the pontine micturition ... Blok BF, Holstege G (January 1994). "Direct projections from the periaqueductal gray to the pontine micturition center (M- ... Brain centres that regulate urination include the pontine micturition center, periaqueductal gray, and the cerebral cortex. In ... evidence for direct projections from the pontine micturition center to glycine-immunoreactive neurons in the sacral dorsal gray ...
While other brain areas known to be involved in fear responses (e. g. the amygdala and periaqueductal gray) are mentioned by ... Johansen, Joshua (2010). "Neural substrates for expectation-modulated fear learning in the amygdala and periaqueductal gray". ...
It is situated above the periaqueductal grey and nucleus of the posterior commissure. Several nuclei have been identified ...
"Muscarinic modulation of synaptic transmission via endocannabinoid signalling in the rat midbrain periaqueductal gray". ...
Electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray (PEG) region of the mammalian midbrain elicit vocalizations. The ability to ... Standring S, Borley NR (2008). Gray's anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical practice (40 ed.). London: Churchill ... as with the extinction of gray whales in the Atlantic. Decreased latency to approach the mirror, repetitious head circling and ...
The ventromedial hypothalamus sends impulses down axons synapsing with neurons in the periaqueductal gray. These convey an ... the periaqueductal gray, and other areas of the brain. ...
The general structures of midbrain tegmentum include red nucleus and the periaqueductal grey matter. Unlike the midbrain tectum ... and the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) contains critical circuits for modulating behavioral responses to pains. The ...
Morgan, Michael (November 2008). "Periaqueductal Gray neurons project to spinally projecting GABAergic neurons in the rostral ... Noback CR, Harting JK (1971). "Cytoarchitectural Organization of the Gray Matter of the Spinal Cord". Spinal Cord (Spinal ...
"Menthol enhances phasic and tonic GABAA receptor-mediated currents in midbrain periaqueductal grey neurons". Br. J. Pharmacol. ...
The vocalizing center in animals is located in the periaqueductal gray matter and a klazomania-like episode involving grunts ... periaqueductal gray matter, striatum, and the substantia nigra". Wohlfart et al hypothesized that klazomania originates in the ...
Signals on this track are also transmitted to the periaqueductal gray (PAG) of the midbrain. Endogenous cannabinoids are ... the periaqueductal gray). CB1 mRNA transcripts are abundant in GABAergic interneurons of the hippocampus, indirectly reflecting ...
Brain centers that regulate urination include the pontine micturition center, periaqueductal gray, and the cerebral cortex. ... Gray's Anatomy. London: Churchill Livingstone; 1995:1857. OCLC 45217979. Hsu, G. L.; Brock, G.; von Heyden, B.; Nunes, L.; Lue ... evidence for direct projections from the pontine micturition center to glycine-immunoreactive neurons in the sacral dorsal gray ...
"5-HT2 receptor activation in the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) reduces anxiety-like behaviour in mice". Behavioural Brain ...
"Improvement of morphine-mediated analgesia by inhibition of β-arrestin2 expression in mice periaqueductal gray matter". ...
Canto-de-Souza A, Nunes de Souza RL, Pelá IR, Graeff FG (March 1998). "Involvement of the midbrain periaqueductal gray 5-HT1A ...
Brain centers that regulate urination include the pontine micturition center, periaqueductal gray, and the cerebral cortex. In ...
April 2011). "Increased plasma corticosterone levels after periaqueductal gray stimulation-induced escape reaction or panic ...
Bilaterally symmetric defects are seen in the periaqueductal grey matter, brain stem, basal ganglia, and dentate nucleus. ...
Other areas that aid in breathing control are the cerebellum, neocortex, and the periaqueductal gray (speech and breathing). ...
Axial MRI FLAIR image showing hyperintense signal in the periaqueductal gray matter and tectum of the dorsal midbrain. As ... the periaqueductal grey, the walls of the 3rd ventricle, the floor of the 4th ventricle, the cerebellum, and the frontal lobe. ... Also noticed were hemorrhages in the gray matter around the third and fourth ventricles and the cerebral aqueduct. Brain ... In Wernicke this occurs specifically in the mammillary bodies, medial thalami, tectal plate, and periaqueductal areas. ...
... and the periaqueductal gray).[11] They are found in close association with serotonin (5-HT) and neurons containing ...
... the periaqueductal grey. Amplification in the spinal cord may be another way of producing hyperalgesia. ...
GABAA receptors in the periaqueductal gray are pro-nociceptive at supraspinal sites while GABAA that are found in the spinal ...
Brain centers that regulate urination include the pontine micturition center, periaqueductal gray, and the cerebral cortex. In ... Bladder afferent signals ascend the spinal cord to the periaqueductal gray, where they project both to the pontine micturition ... Blok BF, Holstege G (January 1994). "Direct projections from the periaqueductal gray to the pontine micturition center (M- ... evidence for direct projections from the pontine micturition center to glycine-immunoreactive neurons in the sacral dorsal gray ...
Blockade of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ/NOP receptor system in the rat ventrolateral periaqueductal gray potentiates DAMGO ...
... periaqueductal gray matter, lateral habenula, diagonal band, substantia innominata (contains the nucleus basalis), stria ... periaqueductal gray matter), modulating the rewarding property of stimuli through the ventral tegmental area projections and ...
... as well as regions of the midbrain including the periaqueductal grey, and ventral tegmental area.[14][17] OFC inputs to the ... and periaqueductal grey support a role in mediating reward and fear related behaviors.[40] ... The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia[65] is associated with neural atrophy patterns of white and gray matter ... These deficits overlap with symptoms related to OFC lesions, and are also associated with reduced orbitofrontal grey matter, ...
"Morphine alters the selective association between mu-opioid receptors and specific RGS proteins in mouse periaqueductal gray ...
The first "Core Limbic" group included the left amygdala, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray/thalamus regions, and amygdala/ ...
"Morphine alters the selective association between mu-opioid receptors and specific RGS proteins in mouse periaqueductal gray ...
... studies have proposed that this anti-analgesic function of nociceptin stems from the inhibition of the periaqueductal grey, ... central gray, pontine nuclei, interpeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra, raphe complex, locus coeruleus, and spinal cord.[5] ...
Signals on this track are also transmitted to the periaqueductal gray (PAG) of the midbrain. Endogenous cannabinoids are ... the periaqueductal gray).[15]. Hippocampal formationEdit. CB1 mRNA transcripts are abundant in GABAergic interneurons of the ... Hill MN, McLaughlin RJ, Bingham B, Shrestha L, Lee TT, Gray JM, Hillard CJ, Gorzalka BB, Viau V (May 2010). "Endogenous ...
... Section through superior colliculus showing path of oculomotor nerve. Periaqueductal gray is the gray area ... The periaqueductal gray (PAG, also known as the central gray) is a brain region that plays a critical role in autonomic ... The periaqueductal gray is the gray matter located around the cerebral aqueduct within the tegmentum of the midbrain. It ... Stimulation of the periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain activates enkephalin-releasing neurons that project to the raphe ...
Brain centers that regulate urination include the pontine micturition center, periaqueductal gray, and the cerebral cortex.[17] ... evidence for direct projections from the pontine micturition center to glycine-immunoreactive neurons in the sacral dorsal gray ...
... or the periventricular/periaqueductal grey matter plus thalamus and/or internal capsule (87%).[41] There is a significant ... best long-term results with deep brain stimulation have been reported with targets in the periventricular/periaqueductal grey ...
"Blockade of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ/NOP receptor system in the rat ventrolateral periaqueductal gray potentiates DAMGO ...
It is normally expressed in skin and melanocytes, and to a lesser degree in periaqueductal gray matter, astrocytes and ...
Lamina VII or SAP, the stratum album profundum ("deep white layer"), lying directly above the periaqueductal gray, consists ... It comprises the dorsal aspect of the midbrain, posterior to the periaqueductal gray and immediately superior to the inferior ... Lamina IV or SGI, the stratum griseum intermedium ("intermediate gray layer"), is the thickest layer, and is filled with many ... Lamina VI or SGP, the stratum griseum profundum ("deep gray layer"), consists of loosely packed neurons and myelinated fibers. ...
Signals on this track are also transmitted to the periaqueductal gray (PAG) of the midbrain. Endogenous cannabinoids are ... the periaqueductal gray).[15]. Hippocampal formationEdit. CB1 mRNA transcripts are abundant in GABAergic interneurons of the ...
One area of the brain involved in reduction of pain sensation is the periaqueductal gray matter that surrounds the third ...
Axial MRI FLAIR image showing hyperintense signal in the periaqueductal gray matter and tectum of the dorsal midbrain. ... the periaqueductal grey, the walls of the 3rd ventricle, the floor of the 4th ventricle, the cerebellum, and the frontal lobe. ... Also noticed were hemorrhages in the gray matter around the third and fourth ventricles and the cerebral aqueduct. Brain ... In Wernicke this occurs specifically in the mammillary bodies, medial thalami, tectal plate, and periaqueductal areas. ...
... the periaqueductal gray, the dorsal tegmental nucleus, and the locus coeruleus. The hippocampus also receives direct ...
It is located between the tectum and the tegmentum, and is surrounded by the periaqueductal grey[8], which has a role in ... The nuclei of two pairs of cranial nerves are similarly located at the ventral side of the periaqueductal grey - the pair of ... is located at the ventral side of the periaqueductal grey, at the level of the inferior colliculus. ...
Behbehani MM (August 1995). "Functional characteristics of the midbrain periaqueductal gray". Progress in Neurobiology. 46 (6 ... The PMD has important connections to the dorsal periaqueductal gray, an important structure in fear expression.[36][37] In ...
... and the periaqueductal grey area (PAG). Fewer cholinergic neurons of the pons and midbrain send projections to the forebrain ... and periaqueductal gray projections that stimulate the cortex directly and indirectly via the thalamus, hypothalamus and BF.6, ... gray matter is a predictor of disruption in slow activity during NREM sleep that may impair memory consolidation in older ...
Dorsomedial thalami, periaqueductal gray matter, mamillary bodies, tectal plate and brainstem nuclei are commonly affected.[55] ... Brainstem: periaqueductal gray.- Reduction of consciousness[37]. *Hypothalamic lesions may also affect the immune system, which ... in several papers the involvement of the cranial nerve nuclei and central gray matter on MRI, is very specific to WE in the ...
Periaqueductal gray. Section through superior colliculus showing path of oculomotor nerve. Periaqueductal gray is the gray area ... The periaqueductal gray (PAG, also known as the central gray) is a brain region that plays a critical role in autonomic ... The periaqueductal gray is the gray matter located around the cerebral aqueduct within the tegmentum of the midbrain. It ... Stimulation of the periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain activates enkephalin-releasing neurons that project to the raphe ...
The periaqueductal gray (PAG, also known as the central gray) is a brain region that plays a critical role in autonomic ... The periaqueductal gray is the gray matter located around the cerebral aqueduct within the tegmentum of the midbrain. It ... Stimulation of the periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain activates enkephalin-releasing neurons that project to the raphe ... The periaqueductal gray is also activated by viewing distressing images associated with pain. Three known kinds of opioid ...
... receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system and are present in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a midbrain ... Antiaversive Effects of Cannabinoids: Is the Periaqueductal Gray Involved?. F. A. Moreira. ,1 D. C. Aguiar. ,1 A. C. Campos. ,1 ... Antiaversive Effects of Cannabinoids: Is the Periaqueductal Gray Involved?,. Neural Plasticity,. vol. 2009. ,. Article ID ... D. P. Finn, M. D. Jhaveri, S. R. G. Beckett et al., "Effects of direct periaqueductal grey administration of a cannabinoid ...
M. M. Morgan, K. L. Whittier, D. M. Hegarty, and S. A. Aicher, "Periaqueductal gray neurons project to spinally projecting ... V. Tortorici, M. M. Morgan, and H. Vanegas, "Tolerance to repeated microinjection of morphine into the periaqueductal gray is ... Is Hippocampus Susceptible to Antinociceptive Tolerance to NSAIDs Like the Periaqueductal Grey?. Nana Tsiklauri, Ivliane ... V. Tortorici and H. Vanegas, "Opioid tolerance induced by metamizol (dipyrone) microinjections into the periaqueductal grey of ...
Median nerve stimulation induces analgesia via orexin-initiated endocannabinoid disinhibition in the periaqueductal gray. Yi- ... Median nerve stimulation induces analgesia via orexin-initiated endocannabinoid disinhibition in the periaqueductal gray ... Median nerve stimulation induces analgesia via orexin-initiated endocannabinoid disinhibition in the periaqueductal gray ... Median nerve stimulation induces analgesia via orexin-initiated endocannabinoid disinhibition in the periaqueductal gray ...
Involvement of Scratch2 in GalR1-mediated depression-like behaviors in the rat ventral periaqueductal gray. View ORCID Profile ... Columnar organization in the midbrain periaqueductal gray: Modules for emotional expression? Trends Neurosci. 17, 379-389 (1994 ... Depression-like behavior in rat: Involvement of galanin receptor subtype 1 in the ventral periaqueductal gray. Proc. Natl. Acad ... Functional characteristics of the midbrain periaqueductal gray. Prog. Neurobiol. 46, 575-605 (1995).. ...
Imaging Attentional Modulation of Pain in the Periaqueductal Gray in Humans. Irene Tracey, Alexander Ploghaus, Joseph S. Gati, ... Imaging Attentional Modulation of Pain in the Periaqueductal Gray in Humans. Irene Tracey, Alexander Ploghaus, Joseph S. Gati, ... Imaging Attentional Modulation of Pain in the Periaqueductal Gray in Humans Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Imaging Attentional Modulation of Pain in the Periaqueductal Gray in Humans. Irene Tracey, Alexander Ploghaus, Joseph S. Gati, ...
Identification of Wake-Active Dopaminergic Neurons in the Ventral Periaqueductal Gray Matter. Jun Lu, Thomas C. Jhou and ... Krout KE, Loewy AD (2000) Periaqueductal gray matter projections to midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei of the rat. J Comp ... Approximately 50% of the TH-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells in the ventral periaqueductal gray matter (vPAG) expressed Fos protein ... A central gray pathway passed into the periventricular gray matter of the third ventricle. Descending axons traveled to the LDT ...
The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is an area of gray matter found in the midbrain that is associated with the generation of ... Ultrasound stimulation of periaqueductal gray induces defensive behaviors, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, ... Ultrasound stimulation of periaqueductal gray induces defensive behaviors. by Li Yuan, Chinese Academy of Sciences ... Citation: Ultrasound stimulation of periaqueductal gray induces defensive behaviors (2020, April 6) retrieved 30 November 2020 ...
Densitometry analysis of DOR (A), KOR (B) and MOR (C) expression in the periaqueductal gray after CCI injury. The normalized ... The neural mobilization technique modulates the expression of endogenous opioids in the periaqueductal gray and improves muscle ... The neural mobilization technique modulates the expression of endogenous opioids in the periaqueductal gray and improves muscle ... The neural mobilization technique modulates the expression of endogenous opioids in the periaqueductal gray and improves muscle ...
Enhanced antinociception with repeated microinjections of apomorphine into the periaqueductal gray of male and female rats.. ... Dopamine neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG) have been reported to contribute to antinociception. The ... Enhanced antinociception with repeated microinjections of apomorphine into the periaqueductal gray of male and female rats ... Enhanced antinociception with repeated microinjections of apomorphine into the periaqueductal gray of male and female rats ...
... Mouton, LJ; Klop, EM; Broman, Jonas LU ; Zhang, ... The midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) integrates the basic responses necessary for survival of individuals and species ... The midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) integrates the basic responses necessary for survival of individuals and species ... article{470a774f-0a65-447a-b891-631b0a3351b6, abstract = {The midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) integrates the basic ...
GABA-immunoreactive neurons and terminals in the cat periaqueductal gray matter: a light and electron microscopic study. ... GABA-immunoreactive neurons and terminals in the cat periaqueductal gray matter: a light and electron microscopic study.. J ... "GABA-immunoreactive Neurons and Terminals in the Cat Periaqueductal Gray Matter: a Light and Electron Microscopic Study." ... Barbaresi P. GABA-immunoreactive neurons and terminals in the cat periaqueductal gray matter: a light and electron microscopic ...
Chemogenetic inhibition of GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) replicated the effects of EA, ... Chemogenetic inhibition of GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) replicated the effects of EA, ... 2015). The periaqueductal gray orchestrates sensory and motor circuits at multiple levels of the neuraxis. J. Neurosci. 35, ... Liao, H. T., Lee, H. J., Ho, Y. C., and Chiou, L. C. (2011). Capsaicin in the periaqueductal gray induces analgesia via ...
Injection of retrograde tracers into the periaqueductal grey (PAG) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) was used to identify cortico- ... Injection of retrograde tracers into the periaqueductal grey (PAG) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) was used to identify cortico- ... 2013). Dorsal periaqueductal gray-amygdala pathway conveys both innate and learned fear responses in rats. Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Mantyh, P. W. (1982). Forebrain projections to the periaqueductal gray in the monkey, with observations in the cat and rat. J. ...
Descending inhibitory influences from periaqueductal gray, nucleus raphe magnus, and adjacent reticular formation. II. Effects ... Conditioning stimuli were delivered to the periaqueductal gray (PAG), nucleus cuneiformis (CU), nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), ...
Reduced Anesthetic Requirement after Electrical Stimulation of Periaqueductal Gray Matter Michael F. Roizen, M.D.; Philippa ... Reduced Anesthetic Requirement after Electrical Stimulation of Periaqueductal Gray Matter You will receive an email whenever ... Reduced Anesthetic Requirement after Electrical Stimulation of Periaqueductal Gray Matter. Anesthesiology 2 1985, Vol.62, 120- ... Reduced Anesthetic Requirement after Electrical Stimulation of Periaqueductal Gray Matter. Anesthesiology 1985;62(2):120-123. ...
ATP-Sensitive K+ Channels and Cellular Actions of Morphine in Periaqueductal Gray Slices of Neonatal and Adult Rats. Lih-Chu ... ATP-Sensitive K+ Channels and Cellular Actions of Morphine in Periaqueductal Gray Slices of Neonatal and Adult Rats. Lih-Chu ... ATP-Sensitive K+ Channels and Cellular Actions of Morphine in Periaqueductal Gray Slices of Neonatal and Adult Rats. Lih-Chu ... ATP-Sensitive K+ Channels and Cellular Actions of Morphine in Periaqueductal Gray Slices of Neonatal and Adult Rats ...
Previous reports indicate that the midbrain periaqueductal gray and the central nucleus of the amygdala are interconnected but ... Connections between the central nucleus of the amygdala and the midbrain periaqueductal gray: topography and reciprocity J Comp ... In addition, the reciprocal projection from periaqueductal gray to the central nucleus of the amygdala is more extensive and ... Many of these same functions are strongly represented in the periaqueductal gray. It is noteworthy that the present results ...
Leith, J.L. and Wilson, Alex W. and You, Hao-Jun and Lumb, Bridget M. and Donaldson, Lucy F. (2014) Periaqueductal grey ... Periaqueductal grey cyclooxygenase-dependent facilitation of C-nociceptive drive and encoding in dorsal horn neurons in the rat ... of pain is strongly affected by descending control systems originating in the brainstem ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (VL- ...
Home , Papers , UPREGULATION OF FATTY ACID AMIDE HYDROLASE (FAAH) IN THE DORSAL PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY IS ASSOCIATED WITH ... UPREGULATION OF FATTY ACID AMIDE HYDROLASE (FAAH) IN THE DORSAL PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY IS ASSOCIATED WITH NEUROPATHIC PAIN AND ... UPREGULATION OF FATTY ACID AMIDE HYDROLASE (FAAH) IN THE DORSAL PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY IS ASSOCIATED WITH NEUROPATHIC PAIN AND ...
Deep brain stimulation applied to the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) of the midbrain in humans has been shown to increase or ... INTRODUCTION: Deep brain stimulation applied to the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) of the midbrain in humans has been shown ... Intra-operative deep brain stimulation of the periaqueductal grey matter modulates blood pressure and heart rate variability in ... Intra-operative deep brain stimulation of the periaqueductal grey matter modulates blood pressure and heart rate variability in ...
Animals, Blood Pressure, Cardiovascular System, Deep Brain Stimulation, Humans, Hypertension, Periaqueductal Gray ...
The differential expression of 16 NMDA and non-NMDA receptor subunits in the rat spinal cord and in periaqueductal grey ... The differential expression of 16 NMDA and non-NMDA receptor subunits in the rat spinal cord and in periaqueductal grey ... The differential expression of 16 NMDA and non-NMDA receptor subunits in the rat spinal cord and in periaqueductal grey. ...
The periaqueductal gray orchestrates sensory and motor circuits at multiple levels of the neuraxis. Koutsikou, S., Watson, T. C ... ACTIVE AND PASSIVE COPING STRATEGIES: THE PERIAQUEDUCTAL GREY TO CEREBELLAR LINK. *Lumb, Bridget M (Principal Investigator) ...
keywords = "periaqueductal gray, bladder, sensory, brain-bladder, lower urinary tract symptoms, LOWER URINARY-TRACT, C-FOS ... Neuronal Activation in the Periaqueductal Gray Matter Upon Electrical Stimulation of the Bladder. Frontiers in Cellular ... Neuronal Activation in the Periaqueductal Gray Matter Upon Electrical Stimulation of the Bladder. Celine Meriaux, Ramona Hohnen ... Neuronal Activation in the Periaqueductal Gray Matter Upon Electrical Stimulation of the Bladder. / Meriaux, Celine; Hohnen, ...
Li, C. (2013). Modulation of ventral periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. https ... Due to the link between dopamine, drug abuse, and the behavioral relevance of the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG), this work ... Dopamine (DA) neurons within the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) regulate reward, as well as negative emotional behaviors ... Modulation of Ventral Periaqueductal Gray Dopamine Neurons. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2013. https://doi.org/ ...
2-Minute Neuroscience: Periaqueductal gray. December 14, 2017. / Neurosci The periaqueductal gray, or PAG, is an area of gray ...
... "Latent" infection with Toxoplasma gondii: Association with trait aggression and impulsivity in ... midbrain periaqueductal gray, personality, personality-disorders, self-destructive behavior, sensation seeking, suicidal- ...
The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) is a midbrain structure, involved in key homeostatic neurobiological functions, such as ... Ventral periaqueductal grey stimulation alters heart rate variability in humans with chronic pain.. *Erlick A. C. Pereira, ... Role of dorsolateral periaqueductal grey in the coordinated regulation of cardiovascular and respiratory function.. *Roger A. L ... Deep brain stimulation of the periaqueductal gray releases endogenous opioids in humans. *Hugh Sims-Williams, Julian C. ...
  • Stimulation of the periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain activates enkephalin -releasing neurons that project to the raphe nuclei in the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopamine neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG) have been reported to contribute to antinociception. (nih.gov)
  • Chemogenetic inhibition of GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) replicated the effects of EA, whereas the combination of chemogenetic activation of GABAergic neurons and chemogenetic inhibition of glutamatergic neurons in the vlPAG was needed to reverse the effects of EA. (frontiersin.org)
  • Injection of retrograde tracers into the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) was used to identify cortico-PAG (CP) and cortico-BLA (CA) neurons in IL. (frontiersin.org)
  • Multiple or single discrete injections of wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase into several rostrocaudal levels of periaqueductal gray retrogradely labeled a substantial population of neurons, predominantly located in the medial division of the central nucleus of the amygdala. (nih.gov)
  • these were heterogeneously distributed along the rostrocaudal axis of periaqueductal gray, and included both raphe and non-raphe neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that longitudinally organized columns of output neurons located in dorsomedial and lateral/ventrolateral periaqueductal gray project to the ventral medulla. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, there may be considerable overlap between the two longitudinally organized terminal input columns from the central nucleus of the amygdala and the two longitudinal columns of descending projection neurons from periaqueductal gray to the ventral medulla. (nih.gov)
  • Dopamine (DA) neurons within the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) regulate reward, as well as negative emotional behaviors that often lead to addiction relapse. (unc.edu)
  • Due to the link between dopamine, drug abuse, and the behavioral relevance of the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG), this work aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying opioid modulation of GABAergic inputs onto vPAG DA neurons. (unc.edu)
  • Neurons of the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and adjacent deep mesencephalic reticular nucleus (DpMe) are implicated in the control of sleep-wake state and are hypothesized components of a flip-flop circuit that maintains sleep bistability by preventing the overexpression of non-rapid eye movement (NREM)/REM sleep intermediary states (NRt). (eneuro.org)
  • Neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray and adjacent deep mesencephalic reticular nucleus (vlPAG/DpMe), namely those with REM sleep-inactive discharge profiles, are hypothesized to be negative-regulators of NREM-to-REM sleep transitions. (eneuro.org)
  • Furthermore, most neurons in the CeA retrogradely traced from the periaqueductal gray were contacted by CGRP-containing terminals and some of them were surrounded by characteristic basket-like structures formed by the terminals, suggesting that CGRP innervates the neurons which project from CeA to the periaqueductal gray. (elsevier.com)
  • The results indicate that CGRP activates the met-enkephalinergic neurons, which project from CeA to the periaqueductal gray, producing antinociceptive effect in rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Gray matter in the spinal cord that contains sensory neurons. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • MRI section of human mid-brain showing periaqueductal gray Rostral ventromedial medulla Faull, Olivia K. (wikipedia.org)
  • PGi as a rostroventromedial medulla (RVM) structure receives a major input from periaqueductal gray matter (PAG). (ac.ir)
  • PEA (3 and 6 nmol) was microinjected in the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (VL PAG) of male rats and effects on nociceptive responses and ongoing and tail flick-related activities of rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) ON and OFF cells were recorded. (elsevier.com)
  • Rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC) projects to periaqueductal gray (PAG) and inhibits spinal nociceptive transmission by activating PAG-rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) descending antinociceptive circuitry. (elsevier.com)
  • Anatomical and physiological studies conducted in the 1960s identified the periaqueductal gray, and its descending projections to the rostral ventromedial medulla and spinal cord, as an essential descending inhibitory circuit mediating opioid-based analgesia. (nature.com)
  • Currently, my focus is brainstem pain-modulating systems, including rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and periaqueductal grey (PAG). (ohsu.edu)
  • The experience of pain is strongly affected by descending control systems originating in the brainstem ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (VL-PAG), which control the spinal processing of nociceptive information. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • abstract = "One μg of tetracaine in the rat periaqueductal gray (PAG) produced a decline in baseline tail-flick latencies (hyperalgesia) from about 5 to 3.5 s over the course of 9 min, after which the latencies increased to about 4.5 s. (northwestern.edu)
  • Our laboratory has shown that electrical stimulation of the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vl PAG) versus the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dl PAG), in the rabbit, elicits two distinct behavioral/cardiorespiratory response patterns. (elsevier.com)
  • Electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter (DPAG) and deep layers of the superior colliculus (DLSC) of the rat elicits anxiety-like reactions such as freezing and flight. (ovid.com)
  • We previously revealed an opioid-independent analgesic mechanism mediated by orexin 1 receptor (OX1R)-initiated 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) signaling in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). (pnas.org)
  • Intra-operative deep brain stimulation of the periaqueductal grey matter modulates blood pressure and heart rate variability in humans. (ox.ac.uk)
  • INTRODUCTION: Deep brain stimulation applied to the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) of the midbrain in humans has been shown to increase or decrease arterial blood pressure during rest and to resist the postural fall on standing. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Elevated gamma band power in humans receiving naloxone suggests dorsal periaqueductal and periventricular gray deep brain stimulation produced analgesia is opioid mediated. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Deep brain stimulation of the periaqueductal grey induces vasodilation in humans. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Background and purpose: Endocannabinoids in the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) are involved in modulating nociception and unconditioned stress-induced analgesia, however, their role in fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA) has not been examined. (nuigalway.ie)
  • Interestingly, periaqueductal gray matter is known to play a role in analgesia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The objective of the present study was to test this relationship by measuring antinociceptive efficacy and tolerance to morphine and fentanyl microinjected into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). (elsevier.com)
  • Descending inhibitory influences from periaqueductal gray, nucleus raphe magnus, and adjacent reticular formation. (nih.gov)
  • Conditioning stimuli were delivered to the periaqueductal gray (PAG), nucleus cuneiformis (CU), nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NGC), and nucleus reticularis magnocellularis (NMC). (nih.gov)
  • Previous reports indicate that the midbrain periaqueductal gray and the central nucleus of the amygdala are interconnected but the organization of these projections has not been characterized. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings reveal that innervation of periaqueductal gray from the central nucleus of the amygdala is extensive and discretely organized along the rostrocaudal axis of periaqueductal gray. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the reciprocal projection from periaqueductal gray to the central nucleus of the amygdala is more extensive and more highly organized than previously suggested. (nih.gov)
  • Tracer injections into the central nucleus revealed a high degree of spatial organization in the projection from this nucleus to periaqueductal gray. (nih.gov)
  • Beginning at the level of dorsal raphe and continuing caudally, inputs from the central nucleus terminate more uniformly throughout the ventral half of periaqueductal gray. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the present study demonstrates that periaqueductal gray receives heavy, highly organized projections from the central nucleus of the amygdala and, in turn, has reciprocal connections with the central nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • It is noteworthy that the present results demonstrate that lateral periaqueductal gray, a preeminent central trigger site for behavioral and autonomic components of the defense/aversion response, is heavily targeted by inputs from the central nucleus of the amygdala at all levels of periaqueductal gray. (nih.gov)
  • Central amygdala nucleus (CeA)-periaqueductal gray (PAG) pathway is the component of descending antinociceptive circuitry. (elsevier.com)
  • Animal studies have shown that reinforcement and motivation in relation to administration of a variety of drugs of abuse involve recruitment of brain regions such as the ventral striatum [particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral pallidum], ventral tegmental area (VTA), amygdala, hippocampus, VMPF, hypothalamus, and dorsal midbrain areas, such as periaqueductal gray (PAG) and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) (15). (scribd.com)
  • 11. The method of claim 3, wherein the nociceptor region in the brain stem is selected from the group consisting of peraqueductal gray, nucleous raphe magnus and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis. (google.com)
  • This provides direct evidence supporting the notion that the periaqueductal gray is a site for higher cortical control of pain modulation in humans. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ventral periaqueductal grey stimulation alters heart rate variability in humans with chronic pain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This especially applies to neurological research because of the similarity of brain development (the growth pattern and the extent of peak brain growth at the time of birth), anatomy (i.e., gyral pattern and distribution of gray and white matter), and size between pigs and humans [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous research has shown that during direct (Pavlovian) threat learning, information about personally experienced outcomes is regulated by the release of endogenous opioids, and activity within the amygdala and periaqueductal gray (PAG). (nature.com)
  • Ultrasound stimulation of periaqueductal gray induces defensive behaviors, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control (2020). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Dorsal root potential evoked by stimulation of periaqueductal gray and its efferent pathway analysis in rats]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is the central gray matter of the midbrain, to a large extent analogous to the gray matter of the spinal cord. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neuropathic pain resulting from spinal cord injury is often accompanied by maladaptive plasticity of the central nervous system, including the opioid receptor-rich periaqueductal gray (PAG). (ndsl.kr)
  • Based on the con-temporary feedback neural circuits of pain transmission in spinal cord, it is summarized that the Aδ- and C-fibers relay the sensory noxious signals to the laminae I, II and V of dorsal spinal horn, and in turn activate the peria-queductal grey (PAG) in midbrain, which feedbacks via raphe to inhibit the nociceptive transmission of spinal cord. (scirp.org)
  • it contains essential gray matter that receives incoming signals from, and projects to, structures such as the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, the spinal cord, the cerebellum and the basal ganglia, controlling many vital functions necessary for life. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The periaqueductal gray , or PAG, is an area of gray matter that surrounds the cerebral aqueduct in the brainstem . (neuroscientificallychallenged.com)
  • Connectivity-based segmentation of the periaqueductal gray matter in human with brainstem optimized diffusion MRI. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Brainstem: periaqueductal gray. (wikipedia.org)
  • As is the case elsewhere in the central nervous system, the brainstem consists of both white and gray matter. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Role of dorsolateral periaqueductal grey in the coordinated regulation of cardiovascular and respiratory function. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Enhanced antinociception with repeated microinjections of apomorphine into the periaqueductal gray of male and female rats. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, the effect of acupuncture on the expressions of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (DL-PAG) area of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes was investigated via nNOS immunohistochemistry and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase histochemistry. (elsevier.com)
  • Multi-unitary electrophysiological analysis of the dorsal periaqueductal gray and the intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus of rats during predatory threat. (usp.br)
  • 5-HT1A receptor mechanisms of the Dorsal Periaqueductal Gray in the conditioned and unconditioned fear in rats. (usp.br)
  • Moreover, it was demonstrated that opioid receptors in the periaqueductal gray, but not in CeA, contributed to the CGRP-induced antinociception, indicating the importance of the pathway between CeA and the periaqueductal gray in CGRP-induced antinociception. (elsevier.com)
  • Morphine primarily binds to the mu opioid receptor, a prototypical G-protein coupled receptor densely localized in the midbrain periaqueductal gray. (nature.com)
  • The neuroanatomical circuitry involved with the organization of fear responses includes a great number of subcortical sites, two of which are the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) and the intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus (i/dlSC). (usp.br)
  • Microinjection of morphine (0.31,1.25 and 5.0 *g) into the periaqueductal gray area (PAG) of C57BL/6 (C57) and DBA/2 (DBA) mice increased the pain threshold in the tail-flick test. (bvsalud.org)
  • a core of gray matter nervous tissue surrounding the cerebral aqueduct in the midbrain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The neural mobilization technique modulates the expression of endogenous opioids in the periaqueductal gray and improves muscle strength and mobili. (nih.gov)
  • The periaqueductal grey matter modulates trigeminovascular input: a role in migraine? (medscape.com)
  • Approximately 50% of the TH-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells in the ventral periaqueductal gray matter (vPAG) expressed Fos protein during natural wakefulness or wakefulness induced by environmental stimulation, but none expressed Fos during sleep. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system and are present in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a midbrain structure closely involved in responses related to aversive states. (hindawi.com)
  • Background: Numerous studies have shown the presence of capsaicin (CAP) receptors in periaqueductal gray (PAG) area. (ac.ir)
  • Are periaqueductal grey and dorsal raphe the foundation of appetitive and aversive control? (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain centres that regulate urination include the pontine micturition center , periaqueductal gray , and the cerebral cortex . (wikipedia.org)
  • The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) is a midbrain structure, involved in key homeostatic neurobiological functions, such as pain modulation and cardiorespiratory control. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), a small midbrain structure, presents dysfunction in migraine. (bvsalud.org)
  • The periaqueductal gray is the gray matter located around the cerebral aqueduct within the tegmentum of the midbrain . (wikipedia.org)
  • The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is an area of gray matter found in the midbrain that is associated with the generation of defensive behaviors. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) integrates the basic responses necessary for survival of individuals and species. (lu.se)
  • Immunocytochemical and electron microscopic methods were used to study the GABAergic innervation in adult cat periaqueductal gray matter (PAG). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A PAG template was created using the International Consortium Brain Mapping 152 gray matter model, and the individual PAG segment was developed by applying the deformation field from the structural image segment to the PAG template. (bvsalud.org)
  • The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) is one of the mostly evolutionary conserved components of the brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, they also measured activation of the periaqueductal gray matter during voluntary and involuntary laughter, but not when laughter was prevented. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Previous article in issue: Periaqueductal Gray Matter Dysfunction in Migraine: Cause or the Burden of Illness? (wiley.com)
  • Two discrete longitudinally directed columns in dorsomedial and lateral/ventrolateral periaqueductal gray are heavily targeted by central amygdalar inputs throughout the rostral one-half to two-thirds of periaqueductal gray. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphorylation of CREB to pCREB (phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein) is increased after predator stress in fear circuitry, including in the right lateral column of the PAG (periaqueductal gray). (mun.ca)
  • BACKGROUND: The midbrain periaqueductal and periventricular gray (PAVG) region is important for pain and autonomic modulation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) is a structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The periaqueductal gray ( PAG , also known as the central gray ) is a brain region that plays a critical role in autonomic function, motivated behavior and behavioural responses to threatening stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The grey arrows show the noxious stimuli application and the black one the tail flick reflex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of this receptor is considerably high in several brain regions such as the basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdale, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG) [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Is Hippocampus Susceptible to Antinociceptive Tolerance to NSAIDs Like the Periaqueductal Grey? (hindawi.com)
  • We found MNS-PC6 can release an endogenous neuropeptide (orexin) from the hypothalamus to inhibit pain responses in mice through an endocannabinoid (an endogenous lipid functioning like chemicals from cannabis) that reduces the inhibitory (GABAergic) control in a midbrain pain-control region (the periaqueductal gray). (pnas.org)
  • Prefrontal cortical projections to longitudinal columns in the midbrain periaqueductal gray in macaque monkeys. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is well established that 5-HT1 mechanisms modulate the defensive behavior produced by stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG). (usp.br)
  • Periaqueductal gray is the gray area just peripheral to the cerebral aqueduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • The greatest neural changes were found in the periaqueductal grey area (PAG) where anticipation of exercise was accompanied by an increase of 43% in the power of the 12-25 Hz frequency band (P = 0.007). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Glutamate NMDA receptor activation within the periaqueductal gray (PAG) leads to antinociceptive, autonomic and behavioral responses characterized as the fear reaction. (unesp.br)
  • The benefits of magnetic resonance imaging methods to extend the knowledge of the anatomical organisation of the periaqueductal gray in mammals. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The periaqueductal grey area and the cardiovascular system. (ox.ac.uk)
  • K. Keay and R. Bandler, "Emotional and behavioral significance of the pain signal and the role of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG)," in Science of Pain , A. I. Basbaum and M. C. Bushnell, Eds. (hindawi.com)
  • Evidence suggests the periaqueductal gray (PAG) is involved in the integration of behavioral and autonomic components of affective behavior. (elsevier.com)