Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Depth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Time Perception: The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Touch Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of tactile stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain, such as realizing the characteristics or name of an object being touched.Size Perception: The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Olfactory Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Weight Perception: Recognition and discrimination of the heaviness of a lifted object.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Optical Illusions: An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Vision Disparity: The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Perceptual Distortion: Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Loudness Perception: The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Pitch Discrimination: The ability to differentiate tones.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Speech Acoustics: The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Patients: Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Speech Discrimination Tests: Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Color Perception Tests: Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Signal Detection, Psychological: Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Gravity Sensing: Process whereby a cell, bodily structure, or organism (animal or plant) receives or detects a gravity stimulus. Gravity sensing plays an important role in the directional growth and development of an organism (GRAVITROPISM).Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.United StatesPsychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Pattern Recognition, Physiological: The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Stereognosis: Perception of shape and form of objects by TOUCH, via tactile stimuli.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Audiometry, Speech: Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Empathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Figural Aftereffect: A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.ArtStress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Speech Intelligibility: Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Psychophysiology: The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Human Body: The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Semantic Differential: Analysis of word concepts by the association of polar adjectives, e.g., good-bad, with the concept, father. The adjectives are usually scaled in 7 steps. The subject's placement of the concept on the adjectival scale indicates the connotative meaning of the concept.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Speech Reception Threshold Test: A test to determine the lowest sound intensity level at which fifty percent or more of the spondaic test words (words of two syllables having equal stress) are repeated correctly.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Hearing Aids: Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Organizational Culture: Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Color Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Beauty: Characteristics or attributes of persons or things which elicit pleasurable feelings.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Differential Threshold: The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.

Effects of duodenal distension on antropyloroduodenal pressures and perception are modified by hyperglycemia. (1/2885)

Marked hyperglycemia (blood glucose approximately 15 mmol/l) affects gastrointestinal motor function and modulates the perception of gastrointestinal sensations. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of mild hyperglycemia on the perception of, and motor responses to, duodenal distension. Paired studies were done in nine healthy volunteers, during euglycemia ( approximately 4 mmol/l) and mild hyperglycemia ( approximately 10 mmol/l), in randomized order, using a crossover design. Antropyloroduodenal pressures were recorded with a manometric, sleeve-side hole assembly, and proximal duodenal distensions were performed with a flaccid bag. Intrabag volumes were increased at 4-ml increments from 12 to 48 ml, each distension lasting for 2.5 min and separated by 10 min. Perception of the distensions and sensations of fullness, nausea, and hunger were evaluated. Perceptions of distension (P < 0.001) and fullness (P < 0.05) were greater and hunger less (P < 0.001) during hyperglycemia compared with euglycemia. Proximal duodenal distension stimulated pyloric tone (P < 0.01), isolated pyloric pressure waves (P < 0.01), and duodenal pressure waves (P < 0.01). Compared with euglycemia, hyperglycemia was associated with increases in pyloric tone (P < 0.001), the frequency (P < 0.05) and amplitude (P < 0.01) of isolated pyloric pressure waves, and the frequency of duodenal pressure waves (P < 0.001) in response to duodenal distension. Duodenal compliance was less (P < 0.05) during hyperglycemia compared with euglycemia, but this did not account for the effects of hyperglycemia on perception. We conclude that both the perception of, and stimulation of pyloric and duodenal pressures by, duodenal distension are increased by mild hyperglycemia. These observations are consistent with the concept that the blood glucose concentration plays a role in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility and sensation.  (+info)

Physiological changes in blood glucose do not affect gastric compliance and perception in normal subjects. (2/2885)

Marked hyperglycemia (blood glucose approximately 14 mmol/l) slows gastric emptying and affects the perception of sensations arising from the gut. Elevation of blood glucose within the physiological range also slows gastric emptying. This study aimed to determine whether physiological changes in blood glucose affect proximal gastric compliance and/or the perception of gastric distension in the fasting state. Paired studies were conducted in 10 fasting healthy volunteers. On a single day, isovolumetric and isobaric distensions of the proximal stomach were performed using an electronic barostat while the blood glucose concentration was maintained at 4 and 9 mmol/l in random order. Sensations were quantified using visual analog scales. The blood glucose concentration had no effect on the pressure-volume relationship during either isovolumetric or isobaric distensions or the perception of gastric distension. At both blood glucose concentrations, the perceptions of fullness, nausea, bloating, and abdominal discomfort, but not hunger or desire to eat, were related to intrabag volume (P +info)

The impact of genetic counselling on risk perception and mental health in women with a family history of breast cancer. (3/2885)

The present study investigated: (1) perception of genetic risk and, (2) the psychological effects of genetic counselling in women with a family history of breast cancer. Using a prospective design, with assessment pre- and post-genetic counselling at clinics and by postal follow-up at 1, 6 and 12 months, attenders at four South London genetic clinics were assessed. Participants included 282 women with a family history of breast cancer. Outcome was measured in terms of mental health, cancer-specific distress and risk perception. High levels of cancer-specific distress were found pre-genetic counselling, with 28% of participants reporting that they worried about breast cancer 'frequently or constantly' and 18% that worry about breast cancer was 'a severe or definite problem'. Following genetic counselling, levels of cancer-specific distress were unchanged. General mental health remained unchanged over time (33% psychiatric cases detected pre-genetic counselling, 27% at 12 months after genetic counselling). Prior to their genetics consultation, participants showed poor knowledge of their lifetime risk of breast cancer since there was no association between their perceived lifetime risk (when they were asked to express this as a 1 in x odds ratio) and their actual risk, when the latter was calculated by the geneticist at the clinic using the CASH model. In contrast, women were more accurate about their risk of breast cancer pre-genetic counselling when this was assessed in broad categorical terms (i.e. very much lower/very much higher than the average woman) with a significant association between this rating and the subsequently calculated CASH risk figure (P = 0.001). Genetic counselling produced a modest shift in the accuracy of perceived lifetime risk, expressed as an odds ratio, which was maintained at 12 months' follow-up. A significant minority failed to benefit from genetic counselling; 77 women continued to over-estimate their risk and maintain high levels of cancer-related worry. Most clinic attenders were inaccurate in their estimates of the population risk of breast cancer with only 24% able to give the correct figure prior to genetic counselling and 36% over-estimating this risk. There was some improvement following genetic counselling with 62% able to give the correct figure, but this information was poorly retained and this figure had dropped to 34% by the 1-year follow-up. The study showed that women attending for genetic counselling are worried about breast cancer, with 34% indicating that they had initiated the referral to the genetic clinic themselves. This anxiety is not alleviated by genetic counselling, although women reported that it was less of a problem at follow-up. Women who continue to over-estimate their risk and worry about breast cancer are likely to go on seeking unnecessary screening if they are not reassured.  (+info)

Teenage mothers and their peers: a research challenge. (4/2885)

Recent reports have highlighted the adverse health experience of teenage mothers. The question of how these mothers' perceptions of their own health status and social networks differ from those of their nulliparous peers is explored in this pilot study, which highlights some practical problems associated with research in this important field.  (+info)

Abbreviated measures of food sufficiency validly estimate the food security level of poor households: measuring household food security. (5/2885)

This study was designed to develop an abbreviated method that captures both the qualitative and quantitative dimensions of household food security (HFS). Women in poor and very poor households (n = 238) in a peri-urban barrio in Caracas, Venezuela, provided data on food availability and their perception of food resource constraints and hunger experiences within the home. Socioeconomic data and food-related behavior that may predict HFS levels were gathered. On average, the top 12 food contributors of energy provided 81% and predicted more than 90% of the variation in households' total energy availability using stepwise regression analysis. On the other hand, a 4-point 12-item scale was shown to have face, content and construct validity with reiterative testing, factor analysis and a Chronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.92. Assessing predictors of energy availability together with a self-perceived HFS scale may provide a valid and reliable method for identifying and monitoring food security levels among poor urban households.  (+info)

Subjective perception of body sway. (6/2885)

OBJECTIVES AND METHOD: The relation between body sway recorded through a stabilometric platform and the subjective report of steadiness was studied in 20 young and 20 elderly subjects and 20 neuropathic and 20 parkinsonian patients standing upright. The trials were performed under two stances (feet apart, feet together) and two visual conditions (eyes open, eyes closed). At the end of each trial, subjects scored their performance on a scale from 10 (complete steadiness) to 0 (fall). RESULTS: In all subjects, independently of the stance conditions, the larger the body sway the smaller the reported score. The function best fitting this relation was linear when sway was expressed on a logarithmic scale. The scoring reproducibility proved high both within and across subjects. Despite the different body sways and scores recorded under the different visual and postural conditions (eyes closed>eyes open, feet together>feet apart) in all groups of subjects and patients, the slopes of the relations between sway and score were broadly superimposable. In the normal subjects, the scores were slightly higher during eyes open than eyes closed trials for corresponding body sways. This was interpreted as a sign of perception of greater stability when vision was allowed. Parkinsonian patients swayed to a similar extent as normal subjects, and their scores were accordingly similar, both with eyes open and eyes closed. Neuropathic patients swayed to a larger extent than normal subjects, and their scores were matched appropriately. Although the slope of their relation with eyes closed was not different from that of normal subjects, with eyes open it was steeper and similar to that with eyes closed, suggesting that these patients did not feel more stable when they could take advantage of vision. CONCLUSIONS: The subjective evaluation of body sway, irrespective of stance condition, age, neuropathy, and basal ganglia disease, reflects the actual sway, and is inversely proportional to the logarithm of the sway value. The remarkable similarity of the relation between score and sway across the various groups of subjects with eyes closed indicates a common mode of sway evaluation, possibly based on integration of several sensory inputs. All groups except neuropathic patients seem to take advantage of the redundancy of the inputs. Basal ganglia integrity does not seem to have a role in the evaluation of sway.  (+info)

Understanding lay perspectives: care options for STD treatment in Lusaka, Zambia. (7/2885)

Understanding lay persons' perceptions of STD care is critical in the design and implementation of appropriate health services. Using 20 unstructured group interviews, 10 focus group discussions and 4 STD case simulations in selected sub-populations in Lusaka, we investigated lay person perspectives of STD services. The study revealed a large diversity of care options for STD in the communities, including self-care, traditional healers, medicine sold in the markets and streets, injections administered in the compounds, private clinics, health centres and hospital. The factors identified as influencing care seeking behaviour are: lay referral mechanisms, social cost, availability of care options, economics, beliefs, stigma and quality of care as perceived by the users.  (+info)

Planning with PRA: HIV and STD in a Nepalese mountain community. (8/2885)

The application of Participatory Rural Appraisal methods (PRA) to the topic of sexual health enabled us to explore key factors concerning local people's perceptions regarding HIV/AIDS and STDs and to plan collectively to address the emerging issues. Conducting the process in a gender sensitive way enabled people to feel safe enough to express their own opinions, and having gained confidence in their peer groups, to share ideas later with the whole community in a joint planning exercise. Nevertheless one group was identified as difficult to reach and whose needs could not be met in a group for reasons of confidentiality. While the methodology itself clearly has great potential in planning around specific health issues, there are, nevertheless, limitations. Although the approach and the tools used are simple and accessible, the skills needed to analyze the information are more complex and demanding. The training given did not manage to equip facilitators adequately with these analytical skills and in the future will be more experience based and geared towards developing analysis and the ability to formulate questions. In addition, since the project is not permanently resident in the area, intensive support within the District is necessary to increase the chances of sustainability.  (+info)

  • Perception refers to the way sensory information is organized, interpreted, and consciously experienced. (urbandictionary.com)
  • Bottom-up processing refers to the fact that perceptions are built from sensory input. (urbandictionary.com)
  • This formulation suggests that perception has an inherent tendency to induce dynamical instabilities (critical slowing) that enable the brain to respond sensitively to sensory perturbations. (nih.gov)
  • Prepare to pass your hazard perception test first time, or simply sharpen up your driving skills, with the only official fully interactive DVD-ROM for PC and Mac. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • Develop your hazard perception skills, explore a variety of environments and road conditions, and create your own practice tests. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • The objective of this study was to describe and evaluate the effects of a pilot intervention on perceived stress, knowledge about hypertension, and illness perception among hypertensive and normotensive workers. (springeropen.com)
  • Workers from a petrochemical industry (19 hypertensive and 14 normotensive) participated in the study by answering a biosociodemographic questionnaire, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale, and a quiz with questions about hypertension. (springeropen.com)
  • The common theory of perception is based on the philosophy that there is an external world that is real to which we react - however that is an Aristotlean (look him up you stupid lazy kids) dictatorship which is imposed on the masses who reside inside the educational system and have come wired up to it like humans wired up to the matrix. (urbandictionary.com)
  • The Computational Perception Laboratory (CPL) was developed to explore and develop the next generation of intelligent machines, interfaces, and environments for modeling, perceiving, recognizing, and interacting with humans. (gatech.edu)
  • The Transactional Stress Model supports that there are two processes acting as key mediators between events experienced by an individual and the perception that they are stressors: cognitive assessment (thought processes that sustain how events are interpreted and the cause attributed to them) and coping (efforts made by an individual to face a stressful event) (Wallbank & Robertson, 2013 ). (springeropen.com)
  • The overall effect is an especially readable, authoritative text on Sensation, Perception and Action that really brings this fascinating topic to life. (platekompaniet.no)
  • Normotensive workers also increased their knowledge about hypertension, while hypertensive patients increased the perception that treatment could control the illness. (springeropen.com)
  • The intervention consisted of two group sessions performed in the workplace aiming to reduce stress, increase knowledge about hypertension, and explore the effect on illness perception. (springeropen.com)
  • In particular, it considers the formal basis of self-organized instabilities that enable perceptual transitions during Bayes-optimal perception. (nih.gov)
  • We briefly review the dynamics of perception, in terms of generalized Bayesian filtering and free energy minimization, present a formal conjecture about self-organized instability and then test this conjecture, using neuronal (numerical) simulations of perceptual categorization. (nih.gov)
  • My perspective on perception, at least in the context of the two examples below, is that it's an observation or a belief of something that appears to the observer as real but, without knowing the facts, more often isn't. (wordpress.com)
  • The primary distinction here is that direct perception is simpler and more direct, and does not rely on computation or inference. (wordpress.com)
  • I suggested that, in this second incident, those people having this perception of me should think that if I didn't want to be involved, I wouldn't have spent a lot of time writing a few emails, asking questions about the project. (wordpress.com)
  • A July 2020 study found that experiencing lockdown during the coronavirus pandemic changed people's perception of how slowly - or quickly - time is passed. (yahoo.com)
  • Categorical perception is a mechanism by which perceptual systems categorize continuously varying stimuli, making specific predictions about discrimination relative to category boundaries. (nature.com)
  • Both predictions of categorical perception 5 were supported: females (1) categorized colour stimuli that varied along a continuum and (2) showed increased discrimination between colours from opposite sides of a category boundary compared to equally different colours from within a category. (nature.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of categorical perception of signal-based colouration in a bird, with implications for understanding avian colour perception and signal evolution in general. (nature.com)
  • Baugh, A. T., Akre, K. L. & Ryan, M. J. Categorical perception of a natural, multivariate signal: mating call recognition in túngara frogs. (nature.com)
  • Nelson, D. A. & Marler, P. Categorical perception of a natural stimulus continuum: birdsong. (nature.com)
  • The most familiar example of categorical perception (CP), is unfortunately associated with an ethnic stereotype: It has been called (by Americans) the "Chinese-Waiter" effect, but of course it might just as well have been called by the Chinese the "American-Waiter" effect! (southampton.ac.uk)
  • He emphasizes the importance of nurturing their products and making sure their marketing is up-to-date, so that the positive perception will be maintained. (angelfire.com)
  • Without denying that learning can play some role in perception, many theorists took the position that perceptual organization reflects innate properties of the brain itself. (britannica.com)
  • and 3) to help in designing devices to restore perception to those who have lost some (or all) and also to devise treatments for other perceptual problems. (slideshare.net)
  • Many psychologists who deal with perceptual function hold that the study of space perception is rapidly becoming a distinct branch of psychology in its own right. (britannica.com)
  • Space perception research also offers insight into ways that perceptual behaviour helps orient the individual to the environment. (britannica.com)
  • In contemporary philosophy, the phrase 'the contents of perception' means, roughly, what is conveyed to the subject by her perceptual experience. (stanford.edu)
  • An analogous use of "the contents of perception" would pick out what is 'in the mind' when one has a perceptual experience. (stanford.edu)
  • As clarified by Fieser & Dowden, perception doesn?t only influence the way we look at- and understand ourselves. (angelfire.com)
  • Bottom-up processing refers to the fact that perceptions are built from sensory input. (urbandictionary.com)
  • Perception can be split into two processes, (1) processing the sensory input, which transforms these low-level information to higher-level information (e.g., extracts shapes for object recognition), (2) processing which is connected with a person's concepts and expectations (or knowledge), restorative and selective mechanisms (such as attention) that influence perception. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, other chapters focus on variables that affect perceptions and judgments of both individuals and groups, proving opportunities for greater recognition of the common set of factors that are central to all types of social perception. (google.com)
  • This new project will investigate how cognitive processes - in this case, visual search and attention and the perception of risk - influence hazard recognition. (cdc.gov)
  • All these events are intricately mixed, those that are given in self perception as well as those given in sense perception. (dictionary.com)
  • Is it far, far away, or just close by It all looks the same, when seen from the eye of the guy they call Mr. No-Depth Perception. (jt.org)
  • He's Mr. No-Depth Perception. (jt.org)
  • This volume focuses on social perception, the processing of information about people. (google.com)
  • The chapters in this book highlight research and theorizing about social perception, exploring the processes involved in social perception from persons to groups. (google.com)
  • Results suggest that the best methods for combating loneliness are those that change a person's perceptions and incorrect assumptions about themselves and the people around them. (psychcentral.com)
  • Behavior: The control of perception. (psu.edu)
  • The common theory of perception is based on the philosophy that there is an external world that is real to which we react - however that is an Aristotlean (look him up you stupid lazy kids) dictatorship which is imposed on the masses who reside inside the educational system and have come wired up to it like humans wired up to the matrix. (urbandictionary.com)
  • Of course, there are so many ramifications, variations, and middle points between these two main theories in the Philosophy of Mind , but almost all of them will have something to say about perception. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • The reliability of our perception has been put into dispute since ancient philosophy. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • If you don't like the story your living, then change the perception. (lifehack.org)
  • Even if it's the memory of how good everything smelled or how relaxing everything felt for a moment, knowing that you were the one that created it will be even more rewarding when you know that you are the one having the power to change the perception of living! (bellaonline.com)
  • The philosophical definition of perception becomes even more interesting if we consider that there is a ?common-sense or direct realist theory [which] maintains that the world is as it is perceived, [thereby assuming] that there is a world with objects that exists independently of human perceptions. (angelfire.com)
  • Historically, research on person perception developed quite independently from research involving perceptions of groups. (google.com)
  • The process of perception begins with an object in the real world, termed the distal stimulus or distal object . (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the rise of experimental psychology in the 19th century, psychology's understanding of perception has progressed by combining a variety of techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a scientific enterprise, however, the investigation of perception has especially developed as part of the larger discipline of psychology . (britannica.com)
  • As a student of psychology, and as someone who studies and writes about the mind, I am overwhelmed with the general perception among the lay public that "social science findings often reaffirm or echo what common sense observations tell us. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Realists believe that there is a concrete, measurable reality, irrespective of whether we are aware of it or not, and that this reality is accessed by our sense perception in a fairly accurate and truthful way. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • On the other side of the debate are those who claim that our reality is more or less a mental construct and that we can never know how reality is, or what it is, because whatever we claim to know about, our reality is always limited and mediated by our sense perception and our internal representations of 'external reality. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • Whatever we see, observe or measure is ultimately through our sense perception. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • For the 1934 book by Joseph Banks Rhine, see Extrasensory Perception (book) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Extrasensory perception , ESP or Esper , also called sixth sense or second sight , includes claimed reception of information not gained through the recognized physical senses but sensed with the mind. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1930s, at Duke University in North Carolina, J. B. Rhine and his wife Louisa E. Rhine conducted investigation into extrasensory perception. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cox concluded "There is no evidence of extrasensory perception either in the 'average man' or of the group investigated or in any particular individual of that group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scientific consensus does not view extrasensory perception as a real phenomenon. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many criticisms pertaining to experiments involving extrasensory perception, particularly surrounding methodological flaws. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feather is seeking accounts of possible extrasensory perception related to military service. (angelfire.com)
  • With inspiration from the Olives' story, Dr. Sally Rhine Feather, director of development for the Rhine Research Center in Durham, is seeking accounts of possible extrasensory perception related to military service. (angelfire.com)
  • The Oxford English Dictionary credits J.B. Rhine with coining the term extrasensory perception to describe the phenomenon. (angelfire.com)
  • People could not orient themselves to their environments , however, unless the environmental information reaching them through the various sense organs offered a perception of space that corresponds to their physical "reality. (britannica.com)
  • The audio was helpful, too, because it showed his perceptions of what the airplane was doing in the moment matched the reality of what was taking place where the rubber met the runway. (aopa.org)
  • Focus your perception on creating a new reality, one where you are in charge of the story. (lifehack.org)
  • Everything begins with a decision - decide now to be in charge of your own perception of reality. (lifehack.org)
  • POLITICO, in partnership with Google and the Tory Burch Foundation, kicked off the 2014 Women Rule series with How Women Run: Power, Perception and Reality. (politico.com)
  • Is our perception an accurate internal representation of our external reality? (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • For how can we 'see' reality outside of our perception of it? (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • Quantum physics has, of course, turned some tables on this when it started to be understood that our perception and observation of the universe, at least on a quantum scale, changes the reality itself. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • In other words, the weirdest thing that modern quantum and theoretical physics is telling us is that our perception changes reality ! (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system , which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sensory system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Perception is not only the passive receipt of these signals, but it's also shaped by the recipient's learning , memory , expectation , and attention . (wikipedia.org)
  • The information for perception is not transmitted, does not consist of signals, and does not entail a sender and receiver" (=-=Gibson 1986-=-, pp. 61, 63). (psu.edu)
  • Perception Point, a 360-degree Prevention as a Service company offering fast interception of any content-based attack across email and all. (prnewswire.com)
  • Perception Point, a leading cybersecurity firm preventing file, URL, and social-engineering based attacks in any content-exchange channel, today. (prnewswire.com)
  • Perception Point, a leading cybersecurity firm that protects content-exchange channels from file and URL based attacks, today announced that it has. (prnewswire.com)
  • Perception Point, a cybersecurity firm that prevents attacks in any content-exchange channel, today announced the launch of an Advanced Shared Drive. (prnewswire.com)
  • Such fundamental philosophical assertions as the existence of a physical world, however, are taken for granted among most of those who study perception from a scientific perspective. (britannica.com)
  • WASHINGTON (November 12, 2014)-A new survey by the Pew Research Center finds that Americans' perceptions of privacy are varied and reflect a wide array of concerns connected to government surveillance and commercial use of personal data. (pewinternet.org)
  • This report is the first in a series of studies that examine Americans' privacy perceptions and behaviors following the revelations about U.S. government surveillance programs by government contractor Edward Snowden that began in June of 2013. (pewinternet.org)
  • Perception™, also known as @ithinkthatway has a pretty strong presence on Twitter and is ranked by us in the 60% percentile for account strength. (twittercounter.com)
  • Active on Twitter since May 2010, Perception™ made it to having a whopping 3,784,826 Twitter followers and to being ranked 236 for number of followers among all Twitter users. (twittercounter.com)
  • It seems like Perception™ doesn't have a very wide-reaching attentiveness to their posts on Twitter, with an audience attentiveness score of 20%, which stems from being tracked on 5,413 Twitter lists and normalized to their 3,784,826 followers. (twittercounter.com)
  • You can see how many followers Perception™ lost or gained and what the prediction is for tomorrow or the next 15 days, together with all kinds of other stats like rank compared to all Twitter users, tweets etc. (twittercounter.com)
  • Or if you are Perception™ get even more feature rich & up-to-date stats with our premium Twitter Stats . (twittercounter.com)
  • b]rands, like companies, evolve continuously both in perception and presentation. (angelfire.com)
  • Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) is a cognitive disorder in which individuals continuously re-experience visual and other hallucinations first experienced while intoxicated. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The first problem is to analyze the physiological basis for this spatial perception or, as it is expressed, the projection of the retina into space. (britannica.com)
  • It's important to be conscious of your perception, because if you're not, someone else will create it for you. (lifehack.org)