Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.

Role of endothelin in the increased vascular tone of patients with essential hypertension. (1/3908)

We investigated the possible role of endothelin in the increased vasoconstrictor tone of hypertensive patients using antagonists of endothelin receptors. Forearm blood flow (FBF) responses (strain-gauge plethysmography) to intraarterial infusion of blockers of endothelin-A (ETA) (BQ-123) and endothelin-B (ETB) (BQ-788) receptors, separately and in combination, were measured in hypertensive patients and normotensive control subjects. In healthy subjects, BQ-123 alone or in combination with BQ-788 did not significantly modify FBF (P=0.78 and P=0.63, respectively). In hypertensive patients, in contrast, BQ-123 increased FBF by 33+/-7% (P<0.001 versus baseline), and the combination of BQ-123 and BQ-788 resulted in a greater vasodilator response (63+/-12%; P=0.006 versus BQ-123 alone in the same subjects). BQ-788 produced a divergent vasoactive effect in the two groups, with a decrease of FBF (17+/-5%; P=0.004 versus baseline) in control subjects and transient vasodilation (15+/-7% after 20 minutes) in hypertensive patients (P<0.001, hypertensives versus controls). The vasoconstrictor response to endothelin-1 was slightly higher (P=0.04) in hypertensive patients (46+/-4%) than in control subjects (32+/-4%). Our data indicate that patients with essential hypertension have increased vascular endothelin activity, which may be of pathophysiological relevance to their increased vascular tone. In these patients, nonselective ETA and ETB blockade seems to produce a greater vasodilator effect than selective ETA blockade.  (+info)

Evidence for conservation of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily in Annelida. (2/3908)

Annetocin is a structurally and functionally oxytocin-related peptide isolated from the earthworm Eisenia foetida. We present the characterization of the annetocin cDNA. Sequence analyses of the deduced precursor polypeptide revealed that the annetocin precursor is composed of three segments: a signal peptide, an annetocin sequence flanked by a Gly C-terminal amidation signal and a Lys-Arg dibasic processing site, and a neurophysin domain, similar to other oxytocin family precursors. The proannetocin showed 37.4-45.8% amino acid homology to other prohormones. In the neurophysin domain, 14 cysteines and amino acid residues essential for association of a neurophysin with a vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily peptide were conserved, suggesting that the Eisenia neurophysin can bind to annetocin. Furthermore, in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that the annetocin gene is expressed exclusively in neurons of the central nervous system predicted to be involved in regulation of reproductive behavior. These findings confirm that annetocin is a member of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily. This is the first identification of the cDNA encoding the precursor of an invertebrate oxytocin-related peptide and also the first report of the identification of an annelid vasopressin/oxytocin-related precursor.  (+info)

Treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer with the long-acting somatostatin analogue lanreotide: in vitro and in vivo results. (3/3908)

Fourteen patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated with the long-acting somatostatin (SST) analogue lanreotide. No objective response was obtained, and the median survival was 4 months (range 1.8-7 months). Pancreatic cancer could not be visualized by means of SST-receptor (R) scintigraphy in our patients. In vitro data also demonstrated absence of SSTR2 expression, suggesting pancreatic cancer not to be a potential target for treatment with SST analogues.  (+info)

Neuroprotection of the developing brain by systemic administration of vasoactive intestinal peptide derivatives. (4/3908)

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a necrotic and often cystic lesion of the cerebral white matter occurring in very premature babies, is the leading cause of cerebral palsy in this population. Increased glutamate release and the excitotoxic cascade thus triggered may be critical factors in the development of PVL. The glutamatergic analog ibotenate injected intracerebrally into newborn mice produces white matter cysts that mimic human PVL. Concomitant injection of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a trophic factor, protects the white matter against excitotoxic lesions. The goal of the present study was to assess the protective properties of systemically injected VIP analogs against ibotenate-induced excitotoxic white matter lesions in newborn mice. VIP analogs were selected on the basis of their low susceptibility to endopeptidases and their potential ability to cross biological membranes. RO-25-1553, a long-lasting cyclic VIP analog, and stearyl-norleucine-VIP, a fatty derivative of VIP, reduced ibotenate-induced white matter cysts by up to 87% and 84%, respectively, when injected i.p. immediately after ibotenate. By comparison, i.p. coadministration of VIP and ibotenate was not protective against the excitotoxic insult. Furthermore, RO-25-1553 and stearyl-norleucine-VIP still induced significant neuroprotection of the developing white matter when injected systemically 8 and 12 h, respectively, after ibotenate, establishing these peptides as therapeutic agents in this murine model. VIP analogs may have therapeutic potential in human premature babies at high risk for PVL.  (+info)

Ultra-slow inactivation in mu1 Na+ channels is produced by a structural rearrangement of the outer vestibule. (5/3908)

While studying the adult rat skeletal muscle Na+ channel outer vestibule, we found that certain mutations of the lysine residue in the domain III P region at amino acid position 1237 of the alpha subunit, which is essential for the Na+ selectivity of the channel, produced substantial changes in the inactivation process. When skeletal muscle alpha subunits (micro1) with K1237 mutated to either serine (K1237S) or glutamic acid (K1237E) were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and depolarized for several minutes, the channels entered a state of inactivation from which recovery was very slow, i.e., the time constants of entry into and exit from this state were in the order of approximately 100 s. We refer to this process as "ultra-slow inactivation". By contrast, wild-type channels and channels with the charge-preserving mutation K1237R largely recovered within approximately 60 s, with only 20-30% of the current showing ultra-slow recovery. Coexpression of the rat brain beta1 subunit along with the K1237E alpha subunit tended to accelerate the faster components of recovery from inactivation, as has been reported previously of native channels, but had no effect on the mutation-induced ultra-slow inactivation. This implied that ultra-slow inactivation was a distinct process different from normal inactivation. Binding to the pore of a partially blocking peptide reduced the number of channels entering the ultra-slow inactivation state, possibly by interference with a structural rearrangement of the outer vestibule. Thus, ultra-slow inactivation, favored by charge-altering mutations at site 1237 in micro1 Na+ channels, may be analogous to C-type inactivation in Shaker K+ channels.  (+info)

Transcriptional down-regulation of the rabbit pulmonary artery endothelin B receptor during phenotypic modulation. (6/3908)

1. We confirmed that endothelium-independent contraction of the rabbit pulmonary artery (RPA) is mediated through both an endothelin A (ET(A)R) and endothelin B (ET(B2)R) receptor. 2. The response of endothelium-denuded RPA rings to endothelin-1 (ET-1, pD2 = 7.84 +/- 0.03) was only partially inhibited by BQ123 (10 microM), an ET(A)R antagonist. 3. Pretreatment with 1 nM sarafotoxin S6c (S6c), an ET(B)R agonist, desensitized the ET(B2)R and significantly attenuated the response to ET-3 (pD2 = 7.40 +/- 0.02 before, <6.50 after S6c). 4. Pretreatment with S6c had little effect on the response to ET-1, but BQ123 (10 microM) caused a parallel shift to the right of the residual ETAR-mediated response to ET-1 (pD2 = 7.84 +/- 0.03 before S6c, 7.93 +/- 0.03 after S6c, 6.81 +/- 0.05 after BQ123). 5. Binding of radiolabelled ET-1 to early passage cultures of RPA vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) displayed two patterns of competitive displacement characteristic of the ET(A)R (BQ123 pIC50 = 8.73 +/- 0.05) or ET(B2)R (S6c pIC50 = 10.15). 6. Competitive displacement experiments using membranes from late passage VSMC confirmed only the presence of the ET(A)R (ET-1 pIC50 = 9.3, BQ123 pIC50 = 8.0, S6c pIC50 < 6.0). 7. The ET(A)R was functionally active and coupled to rises in intracellular calcium which exhibited prolonged homologous desensitization. 8. Using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the rabbit ET(B2)R, we demonstrated the absence of mRNA expression in phenotypically modified VSMC. 9. We conclude that the ET(B2)R expressed by VSMC which mediates contraction of RPA is rapidly down-regulated at the transcriptional level during phenotypic modulation in vitro.  (+info)

Two affinities for a single antagonist at the neuronal NK1 tachykinin receptor: evidence from quantitation of receptor endocytosis. (7/3908)

1. In smooth muscle contractility assays, many NK1 receptor (NK1r) antagonists inhibit responses to the neurotransmitter, substance P (SP), and its analogue, septide, with markedly different potency, leading to the proposal that there is a septide-preferring receptor related to the NK1r. 2. We used fluorescence immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to visualize agonist-induced NK1r endocytosis and analyse agonist/antagonist interactions at native NK1r in neurons of the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig ileum. 3. SP and septide gave sigmoid log concentration-response curves and were equipotent in inducing NK1r endocytosis. 4. The NK1r antagonists, CP-99994 (2S,3S)-3-(2-methoxybenzyl)amino-2-phenylpiperidine dihydrochloride and MEN-10581, cyclo(Leu,[CH2NH]Lys(benzyloxycarbonyl)-Gln-Trp-Phe-betaAla) were both more potent in inhibiting endocytosis (50 x and 8 x greater respectively) against septide than against SP. 5. The results suggest that SP and septide interact differently with the NK1r, and that a single antagonist can exhibit different affinities at a single NK1r population, depending on the agonist with which it competes. Thus it may not be necessary to posit a separate septide-preferring tachykinin receptor.  (+info)

The two-dimensional IR nonlinear spectroscopy of a cyclic penta-peptide in relation to its three-dimensional structure. (8/3908)

A form of two-dimensional (2D) vibrational spectroscopy, which uses two ultrafast IR laser pulses, is used to examine the structure of a cyclic penta-peptide in solution. Spectrally resolved cross peaks occur in the off-diagonal region of the 2D IR spectrum of the amide I region, analogous to those in 2D NMR spectroscopy. These cross peaks measure the coupling between the different amide groups in the structure. Their intensities and polarizations relate directly to the three-dimensional structure of the peptide. With the help of a model coupling Hamiltonian, supplemented by density functional calculations, the spectra of this penta-peptide can be regenerated from the known solution phase structure. This 2D-IR measurement, with an intrinsic time resolution of less than 1 ps, could be used in all time regimes of interest in biology.  (+info)

There are two main types of hemolysis:

1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.

Some common causes of hemolysis include:

1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.

The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease can vary from person to person and may progress slowly over time. Early symptoms may include memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with problem-solving. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience language difficulties, visual hallucinations, and changes in mood and behavior.

There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but there are several medications and therapies that can help manage its symptoms and slow its progression. These include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive training and behavioral therapy.

Alzheimer's disease is a significant public health concern, affecting an estimated 5.8 million Americans in 2020. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and its prevalence is expected to continue to increase as the population ages.

There is ongoing research into the causes and potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease, including studies into the role of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the immune system. Other areas of research include the development of biomarkers for early detection and the use of advanced imaging techniques to monitor progression of the disease.

Overall, Alzheimer's disease is a complex and multifactorial disorder that poses significant challenges for individuals, families, and healthcare systems. However, with ongoing research and advances in medical technology, there is hope for improving diagnosis and treatment options in the future.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

There are two main types of heart failure:

1. Left-sided heart failure: This occurs when the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the lungs and other organs.
2. Right-sided heart failure: This occurs when the right ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the body's tissues and organs.

Symptoms of heart failure may include:

* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Swelling in the abdomen
* Weight gain
* Coughing up pink, frothy fluid
* Rapid or irregular heartbeat
* Dizziness or lightheadedness

Treatment for heart failure typically involves a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. Medications may include diuretics to remove excess fluid from the body, ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, and aldosterone antagonists to reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Lifestyle changes may include a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques. In severe cases, heart failure may require hospitalization or implantation of a device such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).

It is important to note that heart failure is a chronic condition, and it requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with heart failure are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Cyclic peptides can be classified according to the types of bonds that comprise the ring. Homodetic cyclic peptides, such as ... Cyclic peptides in plants are synthesized via a two-step process; the translation of a linear peptide chain, and its subsequent ... Cyclic peptides tend to be extremely resistant to the process of digestion, making them of interest to scientists working on ... Cyclic peptides are polypeptide chains which contain a circular sequence of bonds. This can be through a connection between the ...
"Gene coevolution and regulation lock cyclic plant defence peptides to their targets" (PDF). New Phytologist. 210 (2): 717-30. ... Butelase 1 is the fastest peptide ligase known capable of catalyzing peptide cyclization at an extraordinary efficiency. Nguyen ... Cliotides are a group of related peptides that have been isolated from the heat-stable fraction of Clitoria ternatea (Cliotides ... Cliotides belong to a larger classification of peptides, the cyclotides. Preliminary studies show that cliotides display a ...
Prasad C (Dec 1995). "Bioactive cyclic dipeptides". Peptides. 16 (1): 151-164. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(94)00017-Z. PMID 7716068. ... a type of enzyme responsible for creating a cyclic amide linkage between two peptides. The enzymes cyclodipeptide oxidase and S ... It was first compound containing a peptide bond to be characterized by X-ray crystallography in 1938. It is the parent of a ... Ilaria, Belleza (2014). "Cyclic dipeptides: from bugs to brain". Trends in Molecular Medicine. 20: 551-8. Tullberg M, Grøtli M ...
It is also sometimes used when conducting on-resin cyclic peptide formation, where the peptide is linked to the resin by a side ... The strategy for the solid-phase synthesis of cyclic peptides is not limited to attachment through Asp, Glu or Lys side chains ... Chow HY, Zhang Y, Matheson E, Li X (September 2019). "Ligation Technologies for the Synthesis of Cyclic Peptides". Chemical ... Lambert JN, Mitchell JP, Roberts KD (1 January 2001). "The synthesis of cyclic peptides". Journal of the Chemical Society, ...
Kessler, Horst (July 1982). "Conformation and Biological Activity of Cyclic Peptides". Angewandte Chemie International Edition ... "Awards". American Peptide Society. Retrieved 17 February 2017. "Josef Rudinger Memorial Award". European Peptide Society. ... "N-Methylated cyclic RGD peptides as highly active and selective alpha(V)beta(3) integrin antagonists". Journal of Medicinal ... "Awards". American Peptide Society. Retrieved 17 February 2017. "Zwölf Wissenschaftler mit dem Max-Planck-Forschungspreis ...
Promise in Cyclic Peptides". NIH Director's Blog. "International scientific teams find potential approach against parasites". ... His team's recent efforts have explored topologically expansive mRNA-encoded peptide libraries using a modified mRNA display to ...
"Ribosomal biosynthesis of the cyclic peptide toxins of Amanita mushrooms". Biopolymers. 94 (5): 659-664. doi:10.1002/bip.21416 ... Mycotoxins found in Basidiomycota, Tryptamines, Cyclic peptides). ...
Dong demonstrated that rhodium catalysis could be used to make cyclic peptides, using entirely achiral building blocks and ... "Round-the-ring catalysis makes cyclic peptides chiral". Chemistry World. Retrieved 2018-11-04. Le, Diane N.; Hansen, Eric; Khan ... Hasan A.; Kim, Byoungmoo; Wiest, Olaf; Dong, Vy M. (2018). "Hydrogenation catalyst generates cyclic peptide stereocentres in ... Catalysis Inspired by Cyclic Structures, talk at a Physical Science Breakfast Lecture, 2013 (Video) CHON: An Organic Love Story ...
I. Model studies using cyclic and linear peptides". University of Groningen. 6 (3): 637-648. doi:10.1002/pro.5560060313. PMC ... Some of Haris notable publications: The conformational analysis of peptides using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy FTIR ...
Her thesis was on Hydroxyl-carbonyl interaction in cyclic peptides and depsipeptides. After her PhD in 1967, Thomas remained ... Hydroxyl-carbonyl interaction in cyclic peptides and depsipeptides. (PhD thesis). University College of Swansea. ...
Cyclic peptides can be successfully displayed on bacterial cell surface. By DNA randomization millions of cyclic peptides ... fused peptides with linkers with the ompA gene, causing the peptides to be expressed in the OmpA proteins. They showed that the ... Surface Display of Semisynthetic Cyclic Peptides". ChemBioChem. 20 (1): 72-77. doi:10.1002/cbic.201800552. ISSN 1439-4227. ... Peptides are very useful as therapeutic and diagnostic substances. Their use is getting more popular, and display systems offer ...
... is a cyclic peptide. It is one of the amatoxins, all of which are found in several members of the mushroom genus Amanita ...
... is a cyclic peptide. It is an amatoxin, all of which are found in several members of the mushroom genus Amanita. The ...
... is a cyclic peptide. It is one of the amatoxins, all of which are found in several members of the mushroom genera ...
Faulstich, H; Buku, A; Bodenmüller, H; Wieland, T (8 July 1980). "Virotoxins: actin-binding cyclic peptides of Amanita virosa ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Cyclic peptides, Toxins). ... Virotoxins are monocyclic peptides formed by at least five different compounds: alaviroidin, viroisin, deoxoviroisin, viroidin ... Wong, Jack Ho (2013). "Fungal Toxins". In Kastin, Abba J. (ed.). The handbook of biologically active peptides Chapter 25-Fungal ...
... was shown to be 200-fold more potent than commonly used linear RGD peptides. The structural rigidity of cyclic RGD peptides ... CEND-1, also known as iRGD, is a cyclic peptide that homes to tumors via binding to integrin alpha V receptors. It also binds ... Eptifibatide (marketed as Integrilin) is a cyclic (circular) seven amino acid peptide, whereas tirofiban is a small molecule ... Shi, Jiyun; Wang, Fan; Liu, Shuang (2016-02-01). "Radiolabeled cyclic RGD peptides as radiotracers for tumor imaging". ...
Diarylethene-Containing Cyclic Peptidomimetics". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53 (13): 3392-3395. doi:10.1002/anie.201310019. PMID ... The initial peptides were successfully used to kill B-cell lymphoma cancer cells. The reference synthetic short peptide was ... Photoactivated peptides are modified natural or synthetic peptides the functions of which can be activated with light. This can ... Caged peptides which contain photocleavable protecting groups belong to irreversibly activated peptides. Reversible activation/ ...
"Non-competitive cyclic peptides for targeting enzyme-substrate complexes". Chem Sci. 9 (20): 4569-4578. doi:10.1039/C8SC00286J ... A recent study found a second peptide binding site on PHD2 although peptide binding to this alternative site did not seem to ... X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy showed that both peptides bind to the same binding site on PHD2, in a cleft on the ... Substrate analog peptides have also been developed to exhibit inhibitory selectivity for PHD2 over factor inhibiting HIF (FIH ...
In, Y.; Doi, M.; Inoue, M.; Ishida, T. (1994). "Patellamide A, a cytotoxic cyclic peptide from the ascidian Lissoclinum patella ... Degnan, B.; Hawkins, C.; Lavin, M.; Mccaffrey, E.; Parry, D.; Vandenbrenk, A.; Watters D. (1989). "New cyclic peptides with ... Patellamide A is one of many didemnid peptides. Other closely related peptides include patellamides B, C, and D and trunkamide ... forming the two cyclic peptides, patellamides A and C. Although all the amino acids used in the production of patellamide A are ...
Energy Minimizations for Crystals of Cyclic Peptides and Crambin". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110 (6): 1657-1666. doi:10.1021/ ...
"The redox potential of selenocystine in unconstrained cyclic peptides". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 36 (8): 883-885. doi:10.1002/anie ... Since 2008 he is the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Peptide Science, the official journal of the European Peptide Society. ... Moroder has started his peptide research with the synthesis of the S-peptide of ribonuclease A and studies on this protein- ... Luis Moroder (born 6 December 1940) is an Italian peptide chemist, who pioneered research on the interactions between peptide ...
Räder AF, Reichart F, Weinmüller M, Kessler H (June 2018). "Improving oral bioavailability of cyclic peptides by N-methylation ... peptide therapeutics mimic such functions. Peptide Therapeutics are seen as relatively safe and well-tolerated as peptides can ... units to the peptide to help with peptide delivery to target sights. The introduction of carbohydrates to peptides can alter ... Peptide therapeutics are peptides or polypeptides (oligomers or short polymers of amino acids) which are used to for the ...
Promanullin is a cyclic nonribosomal peptide. It is an amatoxin, all of which are found in the mushroom genus Amanita. Like ...
... is an antifungal cyclic peptide. It was first isolated in 1958 from the bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Banerjee, A. B ... Cyclic peptides, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
Lang, Gerhard; Kalvelage, Tim; Peters, Arne; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F. (2008-06-01). "Linear and Cyclic Peptides from ... The biosynthesis of xenortides A-D consists of two non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS) coded by genes XndA and XndB, as well ... The xenortides (A-D) are a class of linear peptides isolated from the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, a symbiont of the ... as well as the final condensation of the enzyme-bound peptide with either decarboxylated phenylalanine (xenortides A and C) or ...
"Ribosomal biosynthesis of the cyclic peptide toxins of Amanita mushrooms". Biopolymers. 94 (5): 659-664. doi:10.1002/bip.21416 ... forms a peptide bond). A peptide bond can be broken by hydrolysis (the addition of water). The hydrolysis of peptide bonds in ... Peptides and proteins are chains of amino acids held together by peptide bonds (and sometimes by a few isopeptide bonds). ... However, not all peptide groups have the same effect on folding; nonnative isomers of other peptide groups may not affect ...
Lin and her lab use computational chemistry to provide information on the solution structures of cyclic peptides. They recently ... Her research lab uses computational chemistry to understand and design biomolecules, with topics focusing on cyclic peptides, ... "Elucidating Solution Structures of Cyclic Peptides Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations". Chemical Reviews. 121 (4): 2292-2324 ... "c&en: Cross-Linking Technique Could Complement Peptide Stapling, April 29, 2013".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) ...
"Hydrophilic interaction/cation-exchange chromatography for separation of cyclic peptides". Journal of Chromatography A. 816 (1 ... D.R. Nau, in: M.T.W. Hearn (Ed.), HPLC of Proteins, Peptides and Polynucleotides: Contemporary Topics and Applications, VCH ... in the analysis of peptides, which became one of the most efficient technique in proteomics afterwards. In 2009, Geng's group ... stronger separation power and wider range of applications compared to RPLC for peptide separations. Hydrophobic interactions in ...
"Self-assembling organic nanotubes based on a cyclic peptide architecture". Nature. 366 (6453): 324-327. Bibcode:1993Natur.366.. ... In 1993, M. Reza Ghadiri reported a nanotubular supramolecular polymer where a b-sheet-forming macrocyclic peptide monomer ... Qian H, Guo DS, Liu Y (April 2012). "Cucurbituril-modulated supramolecular assemblies: from cyclic oligomers to linear polymers ... Hartgerink JD, Beniash E, Stupp SI (November 2001). "Self-assembly and mineralization of peptide-amphiphile nanofibers". ...
... is a cyclic peptide isolated from endophytic fungi of mangrove. Guo, ZY; Huang, ZJ; Wen, L; Wan, Q; Liu, F; She, ZG ... "The metabolites of cyclic peptides from three endophytic mangrove fungi". Zhong Yao Cai. 30 (12): 1526-9. PMID 18422185. v t e ... Cyclic peptides, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
Amino acids are made into proteins by being joined in a chain of peptide bonds. Each different protein has a unique sequence of ... Munekage Y, Hashimoto M, Miyake C, Tomizawa K, Endo T, Tasaka M, Shikanai T (June 2004). "Cyclic electron flow around ... Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined by peptide bonds. Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically ... in cyclic amides. The systematic name of this enzyme class is 6-oxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydronicotinate amidohydrolase. Alhapel A, ...
... a cyclic peptide Broadcast quality, a video quality standard for broadcast television Boston Qualifier, a qualifier in the ...
Kobayashi, Shiro; Uyama, Hiroshi (15 January 2002). "Polymerization of cyclic imino ethers: From its discovery to the present ... These are polyamides and can be regarded as analogues of peptides; they have numerous potential applications and have received ...
The interconversion between the PPII and PPI helices involve the cis-trans peptide bond isomerization along the whole peptide ... Moreover, these atoms are both H-bond acceptors in proline; there is no H-bond donor due to the cyclic side chain. The PPII ... specifically the X-Pro peptide bond; steric and electronic factors heavily favor the trans isomer in most other peptide bonds. ... The poly-Pro I helix is much denser than the PPII helix due to the cis isomers of its peptide bonds. It is also rarer than the ...
Potential antioxidant peptides in the hydrolysate have also been identified. "The definition of corn silk". "Silk development ... and the direction in which the apex progresses responds to cyclic AMP levels, including cAMP cyclization by a pollen signalling ... Identification and Characterization of Antioxidant Peptides from Corn Silk Tryptic Hydrolysate: An Integrated In Vitro-In ...
These non-peptide inhibitors can be more stable than inhibitors containing peptide bonds, because they will not be substrates ... the enzyme that degrades the signalling molecule cyclic guanosine monophosphate. This signalling molecule triggers smooth ... This will produce a set of peptides that can be analysed using a mass spectrometer. The peptide that changes in mass after ... The structure of ritonavir, a peptidomimetic (peptide mimic) protease inhibitor containing three peptide bonds, as shown in the ...
Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) A radioactively labeled analogue of minigastrin, PP-F11, conjugated with NOTA, ... "Preclinical Evaluation of Radiolabeled DOTA-Derivatized Cyclic Minigastrin Analogs for Targeting Cholecystokinin Receptor ... A 2018 study further elaborates by using radiochemical labeling to show that Indium-111 labeled minigastrin peptides showing to ... DOTA, or NODAGA was studied to view the effects they have on peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) and cancer cell ...
GBAP is an 11-amino-acid-residue cyclic peptide containing a lactone linkage between the C-terminal carboxylic acid group and a ... Gelatinase biosynthesis-activating pheromone abbreviated as GBAP is a cyclic peptide produced by pathogenic bacteria such as ...
... cyclic AMP-responsive DNA-binding protein - cyclic electron flow - cyclic nucleotide - cyclic peptide - cyclin - cyclin A - ... peptide - peptide bond - peptide elongation factor - peptide elongation factor tu - peptide fragment - peptide initiation ... calcitonin gene-related peptide - calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor - calcitonin receptor - calcitriol receptor - ... vasoactive intestinal peptide - vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor - vasopressin - vasopressin receptor - venom - ...
... cyclotides or lasso-peptides such as microcin J25 which are proteins, and a variety of peptides. Experimentally the first ... "Cyclic [4]Rotaxanes Containing Two Parallel Porphyrinic Plates: Toward Switchable Molecular Receptors and Compressors". ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically ... in cyclic amidines. The systematic name of this enzyme class is 4-aminoimidazole aminohydrolase. This enzyme is also called 4- ...
Chow CW, Davis RJ (Jan 2000). "Integration of calcium and cyclic AMP signaling pathways by 14-3-3". Molecular and Cellular ... "Selective inhibition of NFAT activation by a peptide spanning the calcineurin targeting site of NFAT". Molecular Cell. 1 (5): ...
In a cyclic peptide, the ends link to form a stable circular chain. In mammals this stability makes them resistant to the ... Microcystins are cyclic peptides and can be very toxic for plants and animals including humans. They bioaccumulate in the liver ... Of all the cyanotoxins, the cyclic peptides are of most concern to human health. The microcystins and nodularins poison the ... A peptide is a short polymer of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. They have the same chemical structure as proteins, except ...
"Structures of the CXCR4 chemokine GPCR with small molecule and cyclic peptide antagonists" Science 330, 1066-1071 (2010). E.Y.T ... Structure of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor in complex with a peptide mimetic Nature 485: 395-9 C. Wang, Y. Jiang, J. Ma, ... and trans membrane domain of the human glucagon like peptide receptor 1 (GLP1R) 2018: The human seratonin receptor 5HT2C human ... the human kappa-opioid receptor and the human nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptor. 2013: Serotonin receptors 5-HT1B and 5- ...
Hong J, Persaud SP, Horvath S, Allen PM, Evavold BD, Zhu C (October 2015). "Force-regulated in situ TCR-peptide-bound MHC class ... Kong F, Li Z, Parks WM, Dumbauld DW, Garcia AJ, Mould AP, Humphries MJ, Zhu C (February 2013). "Cyclic mechanical reinforcement ... Liu B, Chen W, Evavold BD, Zhu C (April 2014). "Accumulation of dynamic catch bonds between TCR and agonist peptide-MHC ... Lee H, Eskin SG, Ono S, Zhu C, McIntire LV (February 2013). "Force-history dependence and cyclic mechanical reinforcement of ...
... cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Endocrinology. 149 (9): 4336-45. doi:10.1210/en.2008-0037. PMID ... "Interaction of transcriptional intermediary factor 2 nuclear receptor box peptides with the coactivator binding site of ...
Synthetic Cyclic KTS Peptides as Novel Dual Antagonists of α1β1/α2β1 Integrins with Antiangiogenic Activity". In Momic, Tatjana ... 3) Research on computational agriculture including plant disease biocontrol studying anti-bacterial peptides expressed on virus ... and the design of new sustainable pesticides in the form of peptide aptamers and small molecules that would interfere with cell ...
water, ethanol, etc.). Peptides with unprotected nitrogen terminal can also be used as a nitrogen nucleophile equivalent. ... Chiral N-acyliminium ion "starting materials" are generally prepared by in-situ dehydration of cyclic hemiaminal. They also ... Morgan, I.R.; Yazici, A.; Pyne, S. G. (2008). "Diastereoselective borono-Mannich reactions on cyclic N-acyliminium ions". ... cyclic secondary amines and aryl- or alkenylboronic acids: In one application the Petasis reaction is used for quick access to ...
Preliminary work has established its usefulness in peptide labeling experiments, and it has also been used in the generation of ... "Application of Metal Free Triazole Formation in the Synthesis of Cyclic RGD DTPA Conjugates". ChemBioChem. 9 (11): 1805-15. doi ... Labeling has only been achieved through post-translational peptide modification. 1,3 dipolar cycloadditions have been developed ... 3-dipole rather than azides and has been used in the modification of peptides. This cycloaddition between a nitrone and a ...
Wang S, Raab RW, Schatz PJ, Guggino WB, Li M (May 1998). "Peptide binding consensus of the NHE-RF-PDZ1 domain matches the C- ... Cholera: ADP-ribosylation caused by cholera toxin results in increased production of cyclic AMP which in turn opens the CFTR ...
... the Fmoc-peptide synthesis, in which peptides are grown in solution and on solid phase is very important. The protecting groups ... Normally, the cleavage of acyclic acetals is easier than of cyclic acetals. Acylals - Removed by Lewis acids. Dithianes - ... The technique was introduced in the field of peptide synthesis by Robert Bruce Merrifield in 1977. As a proof of concept ... ISBN 978-0-19-963724-9. Weng C. Chan, Peter D. White: Fmoc Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis, S. 10-12. Merrifield, R. B.; Barany, ...
Instead, it often exists as a hydrate or a cyclic dimer. For example, in the presence of water, the carbonyl rapidly converts ... Glyoxylate is the byproduct of the amidation process in biosynthesis of several amidated peptides. For the historical record, ... the aldehyde structure has as a major conformer a cyclic hydrogen-bonded structure with the aldehyde carbonyl in close ...
... and this may contribute to its mode of action possibly through an effect on glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. In addition to ... Metformin inhibits cyclic AMP production, blocking the action of glucagon, and thereby reducing fasting glucose levels. ... inhibition of glucagon-induced elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) with reduced activation of protein kinase A ( ... "Biguanides suppress hepatic glucagon signalling by decreasing production of cyclic AMP". Nature. 494 (7436): 256-60. Bibcode: ...
... "cyclic di-GMP" below). cyclic di-AMP riboswitches (also called ydaO/yuaA) bind the signaling molecule cyclic di-AMP. cyclic di- ... Two classes of glutamine riboswitches are known: the glnA RNA motif and Downstream-peptide motif. These classes are believed to ... Two classes of cyclic di-GMP riboswitches are known: cyclic di-GMP-I riboswitches and cyclic di-GMP-II riboswitches. These ... cyclic AMP-GMP riboswitches bind the signaling molecule cyclic AMP-GMP. These riboswitches are structurally related to cyclic ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically ... in cyclic amidines. The systematic name of this enzyme class is creatinine iminohydrolase. Other names in common use include ...
Synthesis and Biological Characterization of Cyclic Disulfide-Containing Peptide Analogs of the Multifunctional Opioid/ ... Synthesis and Biological Characterization of Cyclic Disulfide-Containing Peptide Analogs of the Multifunctional Opioid/ ... Synthesis and Biological Characterization of Cyclic Disulfide-Containing Peptide Analogs of the Multifunctional Opioid/ ... Herein, four cyclic disulfide analogs containing l- and/or d-type cysteine at positions 2 and 5 were synthesized. The cyclized ...
Duration of pre-rheumatoid arthritis anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide positivity is positively associated with age at ... Duration of pre-rheumatoid arthritis anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide positivity is positively associated with age at ... Duration of pre-rheumatoid arthritis anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide positivity is positively associated with age at ...
Ingested nitrate and nitrite, and cyanobacterial peptide toxins. by IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks ...
These developments are timely, as the insights they provide can guide the optimization of de novo cyclic peptides, a promising ... These developments are timely, as the insights they provide can guide the optimization of de novo cyclic peptides, a promising ... returning peptide structure-activity relationships with unprecedented depth and detail. ... returning peptide structure-activity relationships with unprecedented depth and detail. ...
Improving the selectivity of engineered protease inhibitors: Optimizing the P2 prime residue using a versatile cyclic peptide ... Improving the selectivity of engineered protease inhibitors: Optimizing the P2 prime residue using a versatile cyclic peptide ... Improving the selectivity of engineered protease inhibitors: Optimizing the P2 prime residue using a versatile cyclic peptide ... 2021 - ARC Centre of Excellence for Innovations in Peptide and Protein Science ...
Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide Within reference range. HIV antibody/antigen. Negative ×2. ...
... cyclic citrullinated peptide) antibodies in the blood. CCP antibodies are made by the immune system. Instead of fighting ... Other names: Cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, anticitrullinated peptide antibody, citrulline antibody, anti-cyclic ... Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody is a good indicator for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Pak J Med Sci. 2013 ... Test CCP: Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, IgG, Serum: Clinical and Interpretive; [cited 2020 Feb 12]; [about 2 screens ...
Antinuclear antibody, rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, anti-cardiolipin, and creatine phosphokinase ... Antinuclear antibody, rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, anti-cardiolipin, and creatine phosphokinase ...
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins [D12]. *Peptides [D12.644]. *Peptides, Cyclic [D12.644.641] ...
Categories: Peptides, Cyclic Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 12 ...
The cargoes they can deliver range from other small peptides, full-length proteins, nucleic acids including RNA and DNA, ... Since their initial description and characterization, the field of cell penetrating peptides as vectors has exploded. ... or naturally occurring peptides, able to carry variety of cargoes across the cellular membranes in an intact, functional form. ... Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), also known as protein transduction domains (PTDs), first identified ~25 years ago, are small ...
Peptides. cGMP-specific 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase: AB. SMTL:PDB. SMTL Chain Id:. PDB Chain Id:. A. A ...
Cyclosporine is an 11-amino acid cyclic peptide and a natural product of fungi. It acts on T-cell replication and activity. ... PDE-4 inhibitors allow for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to remain intact in order to decrease the proinflammatory ...
Pentagastrin and glucagon also failed to increase cyclic AMP levels in canine ileal mucosa. An increase in mucosal cyclic AMP ... we examined the effects of this peptide and other hormones on the cyclic AMP levels, adenylate cyclase activity, and ion ... More recently, this peptide has been identified in the plasma and tumors of patients with the so-called "pancreatic cholera" ... At a concentration of 2 μg/ml it caused a fivefold increase in cyclic AMP level and an increase in SCC of the same magnitude as ...
... protein variable regions V1 and V2 were actively targeted by the antibodies as determined by specific binding to both peptide ... Antibody responses were assessed using IgG isotype and gp70-V1V2-binding ELISAs, peptide arrays, and antibody-dependent ... The cyclic V2 peptide (CSFNMTTELRDKKQKVHALFYKLDIVPIEDNTSSSEYRLINC) for clade AE (A244)33 was synthesized by EZBiolab (Carmel, ... 14 peptides), C1-C (14 peptides), V1 (7 peptides), V2 (11 peptides), C2-N (11 peptides), C2-C (11 peptides), V3 (10 peptides), ...
Cyclosporine A is an 11-amino acid cyclic peptide and natural product of fungi. It acts on T-cell replication and activity. It ...
Will be interesting to see the cyclic peptide jobs.. **38 cores crunching for R@H on behalf of - a non- ... for example a new cyclic peptide modeling protocol), and some modifications to the graphics application.. This insinuated ... for example a new cyclic peptide modeling protocol), and some modifications to the graphics application. ... added a nice light source for a spacefill representation which you will see soon once he starts submitting his cyclic peptide ...
Cyclic citrullinated peptide test.. *Rheumatoid factor.. *Thyroid function tests.. *Anti-nuclear antibody. ...
We have 25+ years of peptide manufacturing experience. ... Custom Peptide Synthesis. Specializing in Cyclic, FRET, ... Custom Peptides Synthesis. From macrocyclic to fluorescent or other highly modified peptides ... With over 25 years of peptide manufacturing experience, AnaSpec is your trusted source of highly complex peptides. ... With over 25 years of peptide manufacturing experience, AnaSpec is your trusted source of highly complex peptides. ...
Targeted Discovery of Tetrapeptides and Cyclic Polyketide-Peptide Hybrids from a Fungal Antagonist of Farming Termites. Schalk ...
Disulfide-Rich Cyclic Peptides from Protect against β-Amyloid Toxicity and Oxidative Stress in Transgenic .. J Med Chem. * ...
Antimycobacterial (Cyclic Peptide). *. Antimycobacterial (Rifamycins). *. Antineoplastic. *. Antineoplastic (Anthracycline). * ...
Natriuretic Peptide-Induced Cyclic Cmp Accumulation In Adult Guinea-Pig Cerebellar Slices British Journal Of Pharmacology. 113( ... Natriuretic peptide-induced cyclic GMP accumulation in adult guinea-pig cerebellar slices. British Journal of Pharmacology. 113 ... Signalling convergence through Epac, exchange factors directly activated by cyclic AMP. Elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP ... Potentiation of sodium nitroprusside-stimulated cyclic GMP formation in NG108-15 cells in the presence of cyclic AMP stimuli In ...
06, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The global catalog peptides market is expected to generate $332.1 million revenue by 2024, ... 06, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The global catalog peptides market is expected to generate $332.1 million revenue by 2024, ... Among these, the cyclic peptides category is projected to lead the market, both in terms of revenue and growth, throughout the ... On the basis of type, the catalog peptides market has been categorized into cyclic, calcitonin gene-related, caspase related, ...
The results suggested that the SAAP-MC method is useful for conformational sampling for the short peptides. A protocol of SAAP- ... simulation was carried out for short peptide models, that is, Met-enkephalin and chignolin, at 300 K in an implicit ... was demonstrated to be an effective strategy toward structure prediction for short peptide molecules. ... Energy minimizations for crystals of cyclic peptides and crambin," Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 110, no. 6, ...
Anti-Sa antibodies and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptide are not equivalent as predictors of severe outcomes in ... The diagnostic properties of rheumatoid arthritis antibodies recognizing a cyclic citrullinated peptide. Arthritis and ...
... examines the use of chemicals called cyclic peptide inhibitors which block the proteins that cancer cells need to grow. ...
Test includes: C-Reactive protein (CRP) Quantitative test; cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies; rheumatoid arthritis factor ...
  • Abdul Wahab A, Mohammad M, Rahman MM, Mohamed Said MS. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody is a good indicator for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • Replication of Associations of Genetic Loci Outside the HLA Region With Susceptibility to Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide-Negative Rheumatoid Arthritis. (
  • Many proteins and peptides fold upon binding another protein. (
  • The cargoes they can deliver range from other small peptides, full-length proteins, nucleic acids including RNA and DNA, liposomes, nanoparticles, and viral particles as well as radioisotopes and other fluorescent probes for imaging purposes. (
  • through Epac, exchange proteins directly activated by cyclic AMP. (
  • The research ( ) examines the use of chemicals called cyclic peptide inhibitors which block the proteins that cancer cells need to grow. (
  • This reactivity of chemicals to cutaneous the peptide reactivity assay ( 10 ), quantitative LC-MS was proteins is the basis for most, if not all, current nonanimal- exploited by Natsch et al. (
  • This test looks for CCP (cyclic citrullinated peptide) antibodies in the blood. (
  • HIV-1 envelope protein variable regions V1 and V2 were actively targeted by the antibodies as determined by specific binding to both peptide and V1V2-carrying scaffolds. (
  • This can be attributed to the effectiveness of catalog peptides in raising high-quality antibodies. (
  • Systematic review: accuracy of anti-citrullinated Peptide antibodies for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • Environmental risk factors differ between rheumatoid arthritis with and without auto-antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides. (
  • Antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptide and IgA rheumatoid factor predict the development of rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • Antibody responses were assessed using IgG isotype and gp70-V1V2-binding ELISAs, peptide arrays, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays. (
  • Among the various commercial applications of catalog peptides, the antibody production category contributed the highest share, of 52.7%, to the market in 2018. (
  • This is mainly on the account of their large product portfolio of catalog peptides, which are being used for various applications such as antibody production, drug discovery, enzyme profiling, disease research, and biomarker discovery. (
  • We recently demonstrated that phage peptide libraries can be an excellent source of immunoreagents that facilitate the development of sandwich-type noncompetitive immunoassays for the detection of small analytes, avoiding the technical challenges of producing anti-immunocomplex antibody. (
  • As a model system we used a polyclonal antibody to 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and an anti-immunocomplex phage clone bearing the cyclic peptide CFNGKDWLYC. (
  • Improving the selectivity of engineered protease inhibitors: Optimizing the P2 prime residue using a versatile cyclic peptide library. (
  • PDE-4 inhibitors allow for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to remain intact in order to decrease the proinflammatory response (eg, cytokine release) associated with atopic dermatitis. (
  • Synthesis and Biological Characterization of Cyclic Disulfide-Containing Peptide Analogs of the Multifunctional Opioid/Neuropeptide FF Receptor Agonists That Produce Long-Lasting and Nontolerant Antinociception. (
  • In this study, the SAAP force field (SAAPFF) parameters were improved, and classical canonical Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was carried out for short peptide models, that is, Met-enkephalin and chignolin, at 300 K in an implicit water model. (
  • A protocol of SAAP-MC simulation followed by structural clustering and examination of the obtained structures by ab initio calculation or simply by the number of the hydrogen bonds (or the hardness) was demonstrated to be an effective strategy toward structure prediction for short peptide molecules. (
  • Since their initial description and characterization, the field of cell penetrating peptides as vectors has exploded. (
  • Therefore, binding affinity can be captured by a single thermodynamic value, K D or Δ G °. However, this strength of binding depends on numerous inter- and intra-chain interactions as well as the conformational preferences of the peptide and protein. (
  • The results suggested that the SAAP-MC method is useful for conformational sampling for the short peptides. (
  • We need a thorough understanding of how amino acid sequence affects the binding of these peptides. (
  • Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), also known as protein transduction domains (PTDs), first identified ~25 years ago, are small, 6-30 amino acid long, synthetic, or naturally occurring peptides, able to carry variety of cargoes across the cellular membranes in an intact, functional form. (
  • Cyclosporine is an 11-amino acid cyclic peptide and a natural product of fungi. (
  • Peptides whose amino acid residues are linked together forming a circular chain. (
  • With over 25 years of unparalleled experience in the manufacturing of custom and catalog Peptides, Assay Kits, Fluorescent Dyes, Amino Acids , and more, AnaSpec aims to support and empower our customers in their endeavors to advance health and well-being. (
  • Cyclic anhydrides, select diones, and aromatic aldehydes proved to be false negatives in this assay. (
  • The peptide depletion assay developed skin sensitization perspective, understanding and predicting early by Gerberick et al. (
  • NEW YORK, Aug. 06, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The global catalog peptides market is expected to generate $332.1 million revenue by 2024, advancing at a CAGR of 5.8% during the forecast period. (
  • These developments are timely, as the insights they provide can guide the optimization of de novo cyclic peptides, a promising new modality for chemical probes and therapeutic agents. (
  • Folding upon binding reactions are necessarily multistep: Peptide and protein must diffuse into the same vicinity, the peptide must fold, interactions must form between peptide and partner protein, and the partner protein may change conformation-not necessarily in this order. (
  • This method ( 10 ) mea- chemical-induced skin sensitization is the ability of a chemical, sured the depletion of the peptides after treatment with excess either as such or after ex/in cutaneo activation, to covalently electrophile for 24 h and adopted the percent depletion (dp) as react with a carrier protein or peptide ( 6 ), resulting in an the reactivity index of a given chemical. (
  • Based on application, the catalog peptides market has been categorized into commercial, academic research, and therapeutics applications. (
  • It is also expected to be the fastest growing category in the catalog peptides market during the forecast period. (
  • Globally, the North American catalog peptides market is expected to account for more than 30% share by 2024. (
  • The U.S. is expected to lead the North American catalog peptides market throughout the analysis period. (
  • Among these players, Bachem AG, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Merck KGaA, and AnaSpec Inc. are the key players occupying major share in the catalog peptides market. (
  • Interestingly, the cyclized analog possessed an improved stability in the brain and an increased blood-brain barrier permeability compared to the parent peptide and produced more potent analgesia after supraspinal or subcutaneous administration with improved duration of action of 4 h. (
  • In order to explore the possible role of VIP in the pathogenesis of this syndrome, we examined the effects of this peptide and other hormones on the cyclic AMP levels, adenylate cyclase activity, and ion transport in in vitro preparations of ileal mucosa. (
  • In rabbit ileal mucosa, VIP (20 μg/ml) caused a prompt fivefold increase in cyclic AMP level, whereas nine other hormones, which have been postulated to cause intestinal secretion, failed to exert such an effect. (
  • Elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels leads to diverse cellular responses dependent on the cell type. (
  • This version uses the latest Rosetta source code which includes an improved score function, new protocols (for example a new cyclic peptide modeling protocol), and some modifications to the graphics application. (
  • Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), originally isolated from hog small intestinal mucosa, has been shown to cause small intestinal secretion. (
  • Pentagastrin and glucagon also failed to increase cyclic AMP levels in canine ileal mucosa. (
  • An increase in mucosal cyclic AMP levels was observed at a VIP concentration of 0.1 μg/ml and appeared to be nearly maximal at 2.0 μg/ml. (
  • Furthermore, these high-throughput mutagenesis methods have been expanded to include mutations to non-canonical amino acids, returning peptide structure-activity relationships with unprecedented depth and detail. (
  • The category is expected to progress at a CAGR of 6.8% during the forecast period, mainly on account of the fact that these peptides provide good stability, high binding affinity, and selectivity toward target biomolecules. (
  • Glutathione and other select peptides have been used to determine the reactivity of electrophilic allergens to nucleophiles, but these methods are inadequate to accurately measure rapid kinetics observed with many chemical sensitizers. (
  • With over 25 years of peptide manufacturing experience, AnaSpec is your trusted source of highly complex peptides. (
  • In a previously described chimeric peptide, we reported that the multifunctional opioid/neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptor agonist (BN-9) produced antinociception for 1.5 h after supraspinal administration. (
  • He also added a nice light source for a spacefill representation which you will see soon once he starts submitting his cyclic peptide modeling jobs. (
  • This can be mainly attributed to the presence of established players, increase in the adoption of advance peptide production technologies, and rise in the investment and funding for research and development (R&D) in the region. (
  • Among these, the cyclic peptides category is projected to lead the market, both in terms of revenue and growth, throughout the analysis period. (
  • Herein, four cyclic disulfide analogs containing l- and/or d-type cysteine at positions 2 and 5 were synthesized. (
  • Liraglutide, a glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist, is the first noninsulin drug approved to treat type 2 diabetes in pediatric patients since metformin was approved for pediatric use in 2000. (
  • At a concentration of 2 μg/ml it caused a fivefold increase in cyclic AMP level and an increase in SCC of the same magnitude as that caused by 5 mM theophylline. (
  • We manufacture custom GMP peptides and dyes for Diagnostic testing, BioPharmaceutical manufacturing, Skin cosmetics and many other applications. (
  • An additional focus of my research has been an investigation of enzymes (particularly those involved in turnover of endocannabinoids, hydrogen sulphide and cyclic nucleotides), as convergence points for signalling cross-talk, as well as quantifying enzyme activities ex vivo , for example, in pathological conditions or following drug exposure. (