Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.

How do peptide synthetases generate structural diversity? (1/36104)

Many low-molecular-weight peptides of microbial origin are synthesized nonribosomally on large multifunctional proteins, termed peptide synthetases. These enzymes contain repeated building blocks in which several defined domains catalyze specific reactions of peptide synthesis. The order of these domains within the enzyme determines the sequence and structure of the peptide product.  (+info)

Conserved domains and lack of evidence for polyglutamine length polymorphism in the chicken homolog of the Machado-Joseph disease gene product ataxin-3. (2/36104)

Ataxin-3 is a protein of unknown function which is mutated in Machado-Joseph disease by expansion of a genetically unstable CAG repeat encoding polyglutamine. By analysis of chicken ataxin-3 we were able to identify four conserved domains of the protein and detected widespread expression in chicken tissues. In the first such analysis in a non-primate species we found that in contrast to primates, the chicken CAG repeat is short and genetically stable.  (+info)

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (3/36104)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

Role of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in adrenomedullin-induced vasodilation in the rat. (4/36104)

We previously reported that adrenomedullin (AM), a potent vasodilator peptide discovered in pheochromocytoma cells, stimulates nitric oxide (NO) release in the rat kidney. To further investigate whether the NO-cGMP pathway is involved in the mechanisms of AM-induced vasodilation, we examined the effects of E-4021, a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on AM-induced vasorelaxation in aortic rings and perfused kidneys isolated from Wistar rats. We also measured NO release from the kidneys using a chemiluminescence assay. AM (10(-10) to 10(-7) mol/L) relaxed the aorta precontracted with phenylephrine in a dose-dependent manner. Denudation of endothelium (E) attenuated the vasodilatory action of AM (10(-7) mol/L AM: intact (E+) -25.7+/-5.2% versus denuded (E-) -7. 8+/-0.6%, P<0.05). On the other hand, pretreatment with 10(-8) mol/L E-4021 augmented AM-induced vasorelaxation in the intact aorta (-49. 0+/-7.9%, P<0.05) but not in the denuded one. E-4021 also enhanced acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation in the rat intact aorta (10(-7) mol/L ACh -36.6+/-8.4% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-7) mol/L ACh -62.7+/-3.1%, P<0.05). In perfused kidneys, AM-induced vasorelaxation was also augmented by preincubation with E-4021 (10(-9) mol/L AM -15.4+/-0.6% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-9) mol/L AM -23.6+/-1.2%, P<0.01). AM significantly increased NO release from rat kidneys (DeltaNO: +11.3+/-0.8 fmol. min-1. g-1 kidney at 10(-9) mol/L AM), which was not affected by E-4021. E-4021 enhanced ACh-induced vasorelaxation (10(-9) mol/L ACh -9.7+/-1.7% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-9) mol/L ACh -18.8+/-2.9%, P<0.01) but did not affect ACh-induced NO release from the kidneys. In the aorta and the kidney, 10(-4) mol/L of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an NO synthase inhibitor, and 10(-5) mol/L of methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, reduced the vasodilatory effect of AM. These results suggest that the NO-cGMP pathway is involved in the mechanism of AM-induced vasorelaxation, at least in the rat aorta and kidney.  (+info)

Central peptidergic neurons are hyperactive during collateral sprouting and inhibition of activity suppresses sprouting. (5/36104)

Little is known regarding the effect of chronic changes in neuronal activity on the extent of collateral sprouting by identified CNS neurons. We have investigated the relationship between activity and sprouting in oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons of the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory system (MNS). Uninjured MNS neurons undergo a robust collateral-sprouting response that restores the axon population of the neural lobe (NL) after a lesion of the contralateral MNS (). Simultaneously, lesioned rats develop chronic urinary hyperosmolality indicative of heightened neurosecretory activity. We therefore tested the hypothesis that sprouting MNS neurons are hyperactive by measuring changes in cell and nuclear diameters, OT and VP mRNA pools, and axonal cytochrome oxidase activity (COX). Each of these measures was significantly elevated during the period of most rapid axonal growth between 1 and 4 weeks after the lesion, confirming that both OT and VP neurons are hyperactive while undergoing collateral sprouting. In a second study the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of neuronal activity would interfere with the sprouting response was tested. Chronic hyponatremia (CH) was induced 3 d before the hypothalamic lesion and sustained for 4 weeks to suppress neurosecretory activity. CH abolished the lesion-induced increases in OT and VP mRNA pools and virtually eliminated measurable COX activity in MNS terminals. Counts of the total number of axon profiles in the NL revealed that CH also prevented axonal sprouting from occurring. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased neuronal activity is required for denervation-induced collateral sprouting to occur in the MNS.  (+info)

The amyloid precursor protein interacts with Go heterotrimeric protein within a cell compartment specialized in signal transduction. (6/36104)

The function of the beta-amyloid protein precursor (betaAPP), a transmembrane molecule involved in Alzheimer pathologies, is poorly understood. We recently reported the presence of a fraction of betaAPP in cholesterol and sphingoglycolipid-enriched microdomains (CSEM), a caveolae-like compartment specialized in signal transduction. To investigate whether betaAPP actually interferes with cell signaling, we reexamined the interaction between betaAPP and Go GTPase. In strong contrast with results obtained with reconstituted phospholipid vesicles (Okamoto et al., 1995), we find that incubating total neuronal membranes with 22C11, an antibody that recognizes an N-terminal betaAPP epitope, reduces high-affinity Go GTPase activity. This inhibition is specific of Galphao and is reproduced, in the absence of 22C11, by the addition of the betaAPP C-terminal domain but not by two distinct mutated betaAPP C-terminal domains that do not bind Galphao. This inhibition of Galphao GTPase activity by either 22C11 or wild-type betaAPP cytoplasmic domain suggests that intracellular interactions between betaAPP and Galphao could be regulated by extracellular signals. To verify whether this interaction is preserved in CSEM, we first used biochemical, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural techniques to unambiguously confirm the colocalization of Galphao and betaAPP in CSEM. We show that inhibition of basal Galphao GTPase activity also occurs within CSEM and correlates with the coimmunoprecipitation of Galphao and betaAPP. The regulation of Galphao GTPase activity by betaAPP in a compartment specialized in signaling may have important consequences for our understanding of the physiopathological functions of betaAPP.  (+info)

Interferon-alpha does not improve outcome at one year in patients with diffuse cutaneous scleroderma: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (7/36104)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) reduces the severity of skin involvement in early (<3 years) diffuse scleroderma. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 35 patients with early scleroderma received subcutaneous injections of either IFNalpha (13.5 x 10(6) units per week in divided doses) or indistinguishable placebo. Outcomes assessed were the modified Rodnan skin score, as determined by a single observer at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, as well as data on renal, cardiac, and lung function. Pre- and posttreatment skin biopsy samples were analyzed and blood was obtained for assessment of procollagen peptide levels. RESULTS: There were 11 withdrawals from the IFNalpha group and 3 from the placebo group due to either toxicity, lack of efficacy, or death. In the intent-to-treat analysis, there was a greater improvement in the skin score in the placebo group between 0 and 12 months (mean change IFNalpha -4.7 versus placebo -7.5; P = 0.36). There was also a greater deterioration in lung function in patients receiving active therapy, as assessed by either the forced vital capacity (mean change IFNalpha -8.2 versus placebo +1.3; P = 0.01) or the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (mean change IFNalpha -9.3 versus placebo +4.7; P = 0.002). Skin biopsy showed no significant decrease in collagen synthesis in the IFNalpha group, and no significant differences in the levels of procollagen peptides were seen between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that IFNalpha is of no value in the treatment of scleroderma, and that it may in fact be deleterious.  (+info)

Basic homopolyamino acids, histones and protamines are potent antagonists of angiogenin binding to ribonuclease inhibitor. (8/36104)

A radio-ribonuclease inhibitor assay based on the interaction of 125I-angiogenin with ribonuclease inhibitor (RI) was used to detect pancreatic-type ribonucleases and potential modulators of their action. We show that highly basic proteins including the homopolypeptides poly-arginine, poly-lysine and poly-ornithine, core histones, spermatid-specific S1 protein and the protamines HP3 and Z3 were strong inhibitors of angiogenin binding to RI. A minimum size of poly-arginine and poly-lysine was required for efficient inhibition. The inhibition likely resulted from direct association of the basic proteins with the acidic inhibitor, as RI bound to poly-lysine and protamines while 125I-angiogenin did not. Antagonists of the angiogenin-RI interaction are potential regulators of either angiogenin-triggered angiogenesis and/or intracellular RI function, depending on their preferential target.  (+info)

Although protein-peptide interactions are estimated to constitute up to 40% of all protein interactions, relatively little information is available for the structural details of these interactions. Peptide-mediated interactions are a prime target for drug design because they are predominantly present in signaling and regulatory networks. A reliable data set of nonredundant protein-peptide complexes is indispensable as a basis for modeling and design, but current data sets for protein-peptide interactions are often biased towards specific types of interactions or are limited to interactions with small ligands. In PepX (http://pepx.switchlab.org), we have designed an unbiased and exhaustive data set of all protein-peptide complexes available in the Protein Data Bank with peptide lengths up to 35 residues. In addition, these complexes have been clustered based on their binding interfaces rather than sequence homology, providing a set of structurally diverse protein-peptide interactions. The final ...
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The delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins to the central nervous system is the biggest challenge when developing effective neuropharmaceuticals. The central issue is that the blood-brain barrier is impermeable to most molecules. Here we demonstrate the concept of employing an amphiphilic derivative of a peptide to deliver the peptide into the brain. The key to success is that the amphiphilic peptide should by design self-assemble into nanofibers wherein the active peptide epitope is tightly wrapped around the nanofiber core. The nanofiber form appears to protect the amphiphilic peptide from degradation while in the plasma, and the amphiphilic nature of the peptide promotes its transport across the blood-brain barrier. Therapeutic brain levels of the amphiphilic peptide are achieved with this strategy, compared with the absence of detectable peptide in the brain and the consequent lack of a therapeutic response when the underivatized peptide is administered.. ...
The delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins to the central nervous system is the biggest challenge when developing effective neuropharmaceuticals. The central issue is that the blood-brain barrier is impermeable to most molecules. Here we demonstrate the concept of employing an amphiphilic derivative of a peptide to deliver the peptide into the brain. The key to success is that the amphiphilic peptide should by design self-assemble into nanofibers wherein the active peptide epitope is tightly wrapped around the nanofiber core. The nanofiber form appears to protect the amphiphilic peptide from degradation while in the plasma, and the amphiphilic nature of the peptide promotes its transport across the blood-brain barrier. Therapeutic brain levels of the amphiphilic peptide are achieved with this strategy, compared with the absence of detectable peptide in the brain and the consequent lack of a therapeutic response when the underivatized peptide is administered.. ...
Src Optimal Peptide Substrate 是一种高度特异性的 Src 底物。Src Optimal Peptide Substrate 可以用来检测 Src 活性。- 高纯度,全球文献引用。
294545266 - EP 1064010 A1 2001-01-03 - PEPTIDE COMPOSITIONS AND FORMULATIONS AND USE OF SAME - [origin: WO9945941A1] The present invention is directed to a composition which is used to enhance the softness, elasticity, or appearance of tissue. Specifically, the present invention is directed to a composition formulated from peptides which substantially correspond to those produced from thermolysing digestion of elastin. This formulation is preferably applied to human skin in a cosmetic or therapeutic formulation. The present composition specifically includes the known chemical modification of the peptides described herein, specifically carboxy and amino modification including the addition of amino acids to either end of the peptide fragments.[origin: WO9945941A1] The present invention is directed to a composition which is used to enhance the softness, elasticity, or appearance of tissue. Specifically, the present invention is directed to a composition formulated from peptides which substantially
The performance of a biological scaffold formed by the self-assembling peptide RADA16 is comparable to the most commonly used synthetic materials employed in the culture of neural stem cells. Furthermore, improvements in the performance of RADA16 have recently been made by appending the self-assembling peptide sequence with various functional motifs from naturally occurring proteins. The focus of this work is to further analyze the performance of these functionalized self-assembling peptide scaffolds when used for the culture of neural stem cells, and to characterize these newly developed materials for comparison with RADA16. The effect of the functional motifs on the structure of the peptide scaffold was evaluated with circular dichroism and scanning electron microscopy, and the mechanical properties of the peptide scaffolds were examined through theological analysis. The functionalized peptides were found to have lower percentages of beta-sheet structure as well as reduced storage moduli in ...
Future Peptide Therapeutics Market Outlook Global Peptide Therapeutics Market & Clinical Pipeline Insight 2026 report gives comprehensive insight on clinical and non-clinical parameters involved in the development of global peptide drug market. As per report findings, peptides have emerged as one of the important classes of therapeutic molecules which have been developed by varied pharmaceutical and biotech companies in order to attain a targeted drug discovery for several ailments. Currently, there are more than 800 peptide drugs in clinical pipeline and 197 peptide based drugs commercially available in the market. Oncology Segment Will Continue To Dominate The Global Peptide Therapeutics Market In Terms Of Revenue Opportunity & Clinical Pipeline. From the last several decades, therapeutic peptides and proteins have risen as potential drug candidate. Many companies are specializing in their manufacturing, along with companies developing peptide based products ranging from new drug ...
Immune monitoring of T cell responses increasingly relies on the use of peptide pools. Peptides, when restricted by the same HLA allele, and presented from within the same peptide pool, can compete for HLA binding sites. What impact such competition has on functional T cell stimulation, however, is not clear. Using a model peptide pool that is comprised of 32 well-defined viral epitopes from Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Influenza viruses (CEF peptide pool), we assessed peptide competition in PBMC from 42 human subjects. The magnitude of the peptide pool-elicited CD8 T cell responses was a mean 79% and a median 77% of the sum of the CD8 T cell responses elicited by the individual peptides. Therefore, while the effect of peptide competition was evident, it was of a relatively minor magnitude. By studying the dose-response curves for individual CEF peptides, we show that several of these peptides are present in the CEF-pool at concentrations that are orders of magnitude in excess of what is
Immune monitoring of T cell responses increasingly relies on the use of peptide pools. Peptides, when restricted by the same HLA allele, and presented from within the same peptide pool, can compete for HLA binding sites. What impact such competition has on functional T cell stimulation, however, is not clear. Using a model peptide pool that is comprised of 32 well-defined viral epitopes from Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Influenza viruses (CEF peptide pool), we assessed peptide competition in PBMC from 42 human subjects. The magnitude of the peptide pool-elicited CD8 T cell responses was a mean 79% and a median 77% of the sum of the CD8 T cell responses elicited by the individual peptides. Therefore, while the effect of peptide competition was evident, it was of a relatively minor magnitude. By studying the dose-response curves for individual CEF peptides, we show that several of these peptides are present in the CEF-pool at concentrations that are orders of magnitude in excess of what is
Cancer immunotherapy: Cancer immunotherapy uses the bodys own immune system to attack cancer cells. Peptide-based vaccines use tumor-associated antigens that associate with T cells to target cancer.. Self-assembling peptide: Self-assembling peptides are short, synthetic peptides characterized by amphipathic sequences. These peptides are able to spontaneously self-assemble in aqueous solution to form highly organized structures such as hydrogels. APExBIO can synthesize hydrophobic self-assembling sequences at high quantity and purity.. Peptide Venom Peptides: Bioactive peptides are the most dominant component of animal venoms. Venom peptides can vary in length and complexity, thus their synthesis requires a combination of chemical and recombinant synthesis.. Peptide Natriuretic Peptides: Functioning in the induction of natriuresis, (the excretion of large amounts of sodium in the urine), natriuretic peptides have been touted as useful biomarkers for the purpose of personalized heart failure ...
(Settings) Owner name: Daniel Farry Address: 423 E 7th St Los Angeles CA 90014 Phone: +1-213 223 6533 Business Email: [email protected] Website URL: https://researchpeptides.net Description: If youre interested in learning more about peptides and what they do, head to Research Peptides. We are dedicated to providing readers with medically-approved information about different types of peptides. All of our articles are written using the latest research on peptides by the most notable scientists in the industry. We also sell high purity, USA manufactured peptides - consider us the best peptides supplier 2020. Keywords: Buy Peptides for Sale Online, Peptides for Sale, Buy Peptides Online, Purchase Peptides Online, Research Peptides for Sale Online, Buy Peptides in USA, Peptides For Sale Online, USA Peptides For Sale, Buy Research Peptides Online, Best Supplier of USA Research Peptides Operation Hours: 24/7 Online Shop Year Found: 2015 Number of Employee: 10 Youtube video
Conformation generation of protein-bound peptides is critical for the determination of protein-peptide complex structures. Despite significant progress in conformer generation of small molecules, few methods have been developed for modeling protein-bound peptide conformations. Here, we have developed a fast de novo peptide modeling algorithm, referred to as MODPEP, for conformational sampling of protein-bound peptides. Given a sequence, MODPEP builds the peptide 3D structure from scratch by assembling amino acids or helix fragments based on constructed rotamer and helix libraries. The MODPEP algorithm was tested on a diverse set of 910 experimentally determined protein-bound peptides with 3-30 amino acids from the PDB and obtained an average accuracy of 1.90 Å when 200 conformations were sampled for each peptide. On average, MODPEP obtained a success rate of 74.3% for all the 910 peptides and ≥ 90% for short peptides with 3-10 amino acids in reproducing experimental protein-bound structures.
One of the core activities of high-throughput proteomics is the identification of peptides from mass spectra. Some peptides can be identified using spectral matching programs like Sequest or Mascot, but many spectra do not produce high quality database matches. De novo peptide sequencing is an approach to determine partial peptide sequences for some of the unidentified spectra. A drawback of de novo peptide sequencing is that it produces a series of ordered and disordered sequence tags and mass tags rather than a complete, non-degenerate peptide amino acid sequence. This incomplete data is difficult to use in conventional search programs such as BLAST or FASTA. DeNovoID is a program that has been specifically designed to use degenerate amino acid sequence and mass data derived from MS experiments to search a peptide database. Since the algorithm employed depends on the amino acid composition of the peptide and not its sequence, DeNovoID does not have to consider all possible sequences, but ...
This brief review aims at providing some illustrative examples on the interaction between amphiphilic peptides and phospholipid membranes an area of significant current interest Focusing on antimicrobial peptides factors affecting peptide-membrane interactions are addressed including effects of peptide length charge hydrophobicity secondary structure and topology Effects of membrane composition are also illustrated including effects of membrane charge nature of the polar headgroup and presence of cholesterol and other sterols Throughout novel insights on the importance of peptide adsorption density on membrane stability are emphasized as is the correlation between peptide adsorption peptide induced leakage in model liposome systems peptide-induced lysis of bacteria and bacteria killing (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights ...
Why it can ruin your assays Noticing a change in your peptide activity over time? Your peptide could be rapidly oxidizing. Peptides containing Cys, Trp, or Met are at great risk for oxidation. Oxidation of a peptide containing one or more of these residues can result in the generation of new peptidic species, such as peptides with oxidized side chain groups, peptide fragments resulting from backbone damage, and dimerized or aggregated peptides. Peptides that require reduced forms of Cys, Trp, or Met for activity may sub-perform in assays, resulting in decreased activity or no activity. A reduction in peptide activity may be observed over time resulting in a lack of assay reproducibility and increases in experimental data variability. What You Should Do To avoid the effects of peptide oxidation, store peptides in vials flushed with argon gas and tightly sealed. Make aliquots of lyophilized peptides according to daily experimental needs and limit opening and closing of peptide vials. You may also ...
The present work comparatively analyzes the interaction of alpha-MSH and its more potent and long-acting analog [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]alpha-MSH (NDP-MSH) with lipid bilayers. the peptides were spin labeled with Toac (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid) at the N-terminal, as those derivatives had been previously shown to keep their full biological activity. Due to the special rigidity of the Toac covalent binding to the peptide molecule, this spin label is highly sensitive to the peptide backbone conformation and dynamics. the peptides were investigated both by the electron spin resonance (ESR) of Toac(0) and the time resolved fluorescence of Trp(9) present in the peptides. the Toac(0) ESR of the membrane-bound peptides indicates that the two peptides are inserted into the bilayer, close to the bilayer surface, in rather similar environments. A residue titration around pK(a) 7.5, possibly that of His(6), can be clearly monitored by peptide-lipid partition. Trp(9) time ...
Title: The Medicinal Chemistry of Peptides. VOLUME: 16 ISSUE: 33. Author(s):J. J. Nestor Jr.. Affiliation:EuMederis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 725 Lynwood Drive, Encinitas, California 92024, USA.. Keywords:Peptide, peptide design, peptide pharmaceutical, drug design, medicinal chemistry, constrained peptide, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, drug depot. Abstract: The shortcomings of native peptides as pharmaceuticals have been long known: short duration of action, lack of receptor selectivity, lack of oral bioavailability. However medicinal chemistry offers solutions to the first two limitations and oral bioavailability issues have been addressed with novel routes of administration (e.g. intranasal, inhalation) and injectable depot formulations. The principal issue for peptide drugs has been a short duration of action, widely assumed to be due to proteolysis. While proteolysis is a problem for native peptide structures, modification of the peptide structure by acylation, PEGylation, unnatural ...
One zone of examination that has indicated promising advancement are the utilization of peptide. therapeutics in treating sort 2 diabetes, focusing on the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor. Effectively three. peptides have gotten endorsement in 2012, with 14 working their way through the pipeline. A most. energizing part of these peptide drug hopefuls is the assortment in medication detailing of sub-atomic. arrangements (with peptides being covalently connected to little particles, sugars, lipids, biopolymers,. polyethylene glycol or proteins and their systems of activities (counting particular cell focusing on. peptides and cell-infiltrating peptides) presently being clarified. Accordingly, significant endeavors are. being made to change sub-atomic properties of peptide medication prompts enhance their usefulness. For. instance, half-life augmentation was the method of reasoning for four peptides (CBX129801, CVX060,. LAPSExd4, PB1023) in stage II, whereby peptide conjugation to polyethylene or ...
The substrate scope of fluorinase enzyme mediated transhalogenation reactions is extended. Substrate tolerance allows a peptide cargo to be tethered to a 5-chloro-5-deoxynucleoside substrate for transhalogenation by the enzyme to a 5-fluoro-5-deoxynucleoside. The reaction is successfully extended from that previously reported for a monomeric cyclic peptide (cRGD) to cargoes of dendritic scaffolds carrying two and four cyclic peptide motifs. The RGD peptide sequence is known to bind upregulated αVβ3 integrin motifs on the surface of cancer cells and it is demonstrated that the fluorinated products have a higher affinity to αVβ3 integrin than their monomeric counterparts. Extending the strategy to radiolabelling of the peptide cargoes by tagging the peptides with [18F]fluoride was only moderately successful due to the poor water solubility of these higher order peptide scaffolds although the strategy holds promise for peptide constructs with improved solubility ...
Structural characterization of peptides restricted by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules has identified residues critical for MHC class I binding and for T-cell receptor recognition. For example, optimal peptides fitting into the murine MHC class I Db groove are 9 to 11 amino acids long and require as MHC anchor residues an Asn (N) at position 5 and also either a hydrophobic residue, a Met (M) or a Cys (C), at the carboxy terminus. The three known Db-restricted peptides of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) are glycoproteins GP1 (amino acids [aa] 33 KAVYNFATC), GP2 (aa 276 SGVENPGGYCL), and nucleoprotein NP (aa 396 FQPQNGQFI). In addition to these two GP and one NP peptides, computer search revealed 11 other GP peptide sequences and 20 additional NP sequences that contained the Db binding motif. By Db competitive binding analysis, only two of these 11 GP peptides and 1 of these 20 NP peptides bound to the MHC Db molecule with an affinity equivalent to the measured ...
Milk proteins are precursors of many different biologically active peptides. These peptides are inactive within the protein sequence, requiring enzymatic proteolysis for release of the bioactive fragment from the proteins precursor. It is evident that activated peptides originating from milk proteins should be taken into account as potential modulators of various regulatory processes in the body. Activated peptides are potential modulators of various regulatory processes in the living system: immunomodulatory peptides stimulate the activities of cells of the immune system and several cytomodulatory peptides inhibit cancer cell growth, antimicrobial peptides kill sensitive microorganisms, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides exert an hypotensive effect, opioid peptides are opioid receptor ligands which can modulate absorption processes in the intestinal tract, mineral binding peptides may function as carriers for different minerals, especially calcium, antithrombotic peptides ...
MARTARI, Marco and SANDERSON, Ronald D.. Critical self-assembly concentration of bolaamphiphilic peptides and peptide hybrids determined by fluorescence measurements. S.Afr.j.chem. (Online) [online]. 2008, vol.61, pp.47-52. ISSN 1996-840X.. The study of the self-assembly properties of peptides and proteins is important for the understanding of molecular recognition processes and for the rational design of functionalbiomaterials. Novel bolaamphiphilic peptides and peptide hybrids incorporating non-natural aminoacids were designed around a model lysine/leucine-rich peptide with the intention to study their self-assembly behaviour. Steady-state fluorescence measurements using pyrene as fluorescent probe were adapted to the determination of the critical self-assembly concentrations (CSACs) of these amphiphilic peptides and peptide hybrids. Different experimental conditions were studied. The morphology of the peptide aggregates was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Concentration and pH ...
The work in this thesis can be divided into two sections, namely the study of delicious peptide, a food flavour and the antimicrobial peptide lactofenicin B. The main interest in these compounds is in terms of structure and conformation adopted in solution and how this relates to their mode of action. Delicious peptide was studied initially by 1H NMR spectroscopy for evidence of a specific solution structure. Results show that delicious peptide does not adopt a regular conformation in solution. Molecular dynamics simulations of this peptide show the flexibility of the peptide structure in solution. Quenched molecular dynamics simulations were used to search for low energy conformers of the peptide. The results suggest that the flavour of the peptide is produced by interaction of basic and acidic regions in the peptide. The work was extended to examine delicious peptide analogues with similar flavour characteristics. The results obtained suggest that similar interactions of basic and acidic ...
Creative Peptides recent introduced a batch of new APIs peptides to its present online database to better facilitate the related needs, which is also a step closer to a one-stop peptide supplier. Both the number and variety of peptides at Creative Peptides are increasing, besides the detail information page of every product is optimized by being attached with professional character description and practical applications mainly in pharmaceutical field. Besides, the company introduced several peptides into its featured products line.. With the unique attribute of being easily absorbed by the body mechanism, Peptide is prone to bring a new round of research spot with great potential in various aspects of pharmaceutical. To meet the needs in the field is the original goal of the establishment of Creative Peptides. At present there are tens thousand of peptides provided by the company. And APIs peptide is just a branch of all products. APIs peptides play a pivotal role in the development of ...
Neurological diseases such as neurodegeneration, pain, psychiatric disorders, stroke, and brain cancers would greatly benefit from the use of highly potent and specific peptide pharmaceuticals. Peptides are especially desirable because of their low inherent toxicity. The presence of the blood brain barrier (BBB), their short duration of action, and their need for parenteral administration limits their clinical use. However, over the past decade there have been significant advances in delivering peptides to the central nervous system. Angiopep peptides developed by Angiochem (Montreal, Canada), transferrin antibodies developed by ArmaGen (Santa Monica, USA), and cell penetrating peptides have all shown promise in delivering therapeutic peptides across the BBB after intravenous administration. Noninvasive methods of delivering peptides to the brain include the use of chitosan amphiphile nanoparticles for oral delivery and nose to brain strategies. The uptake of the chitosan amphiphile ...
The pH (Low) Insertion Peptides (pHLIP® peptides) find application in studies of membrane-associated folding, since spontaneous insertion of these peptides is conveniently triggered by varying pH. Here we employed small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to investigate WT pHLIP® peptide oligomeric state in solution at high concentrations and monitor changes in liposome structure upon peptide insertion into the bilayer. We established that even at high concentrations (up to 300 μM) WT pHLIP® peptide at pH 8.0 does not form oligomers higher than tetramers (which exhibit concentration-dependent transfer to monomeric state as it was shown previously). This finding has significance for medical applications, when high concentration of the peptide is injected into blood and diluted in blood circulation. The interaction of WT pHLIP® peptide with liposomes does not alter the unilamellar vesicle structure upon peptide adsorption by lipid bilayer at high pH or upon insertion across the bilayer at low pH. At the
The invention relates to a peptide that is a maturation product of the Basic Prolin-rich Lacrinal Protein (BPLP) or a peptide derivative or a mimetic of said maturation product, wherein the peptide or peptide derivative or mimetic exhibits an inhibitory property against a metallo-ectopeptidase, especially NEP and/or APN. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides coding for said peptides and to antibodies directed against said peptides. Furthermore, the present invention relates to diagnostic and therapeutic uses of human BPLP protein and inhibitory peptides derived therefrom, polypeptides coding for human BPLP protein or peptides derived therefrom as well as antibodies directed against BPLP protein or peptides derived therefrom ...
Pores and skin professionals recommend facial products that have peptides (like Peter Thomas Roth Un-wrinkle Turbo Experience Serum) to be a an effective, protected way to realize radiant pores and serum for oily skin. Please read on to master precisely what a peptide is, and why several types of peptides are adept at reviving pores and skin. You may also get some simple info on why Peter Thomas Roth peptide serum is so productive at bettering pores and skin.. Introduction to Peptides:. A peptide is usually a string of amino acids, the basic elements are used to make proteins. As handful of as two amino acids can appear together to sort a peptide (exclusively a dipeptide). Other peptides contain dozens of amino acids. Generally, fifty amino acids is the cut-off line - anymore than this, and youre considering a protein, not a peptide.. The Significant Job Peptides Perform in Pores and skin Health and fitness:. Skin experts became fascinated with peptides after getting the essential component ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the peptide-binding specificity of Mamu-A*11 results in the identification of SIV-derived epitopes and interspecies cross-reactivity. AU - Sette, Alessandro. AU - Sidney, John. AU - Bui, Huynh Hoa. AU - Del Guercio, Marie France. AU - Alexander, Jeff. AU - Loffredo, John. AU - Watkins, David I.. AU - Mothé, Bianca R.. PY - 2005/4/1. Y1 - 2005/4/1. N2 - The SIV-infected Indian rhesus macaque is the most established model of HIV infection, providing insight into pathogenesis and a system for testing novel vaccines. However, only a limited amount of information is available regarding the peptide-binding motifs and epitopes bound by their class I and class II MHC molecules. In this study, we utilized a library of over 1,000 different peptides and a high throughput MHC-peptide binding assay to detail the binding specificity of the rhesus macaque class I molecule Mamu-A*11. These studies defined the fine specificity of primary anchor positions, and dissected the ...
We describe an ELISA-based method that can be used to identify and quantitate proteins in biological samples. In this method, peptides in solution, derived from proteolytic digests of the sample, compete with substrate-attached synthetic peptides for antibodies, also in solution, generated against the chosen peptides. The peptides used for the ELISA are chosen on the basis of their being (i) products of the proteolytic (e.g. tryptic) digestion of the protein to be identified and (ii) unique to the target protein, as far as one can know from the published sequences. In this paper we describe the competition assay and we define the optimal conditions for the most effective assay. We have performed an analysis of the kinetics of interaction between the four components of the assay: the plastic substratum to which the peptide is bound, the bound peptide itself, the competing added peptide, and the antibody that is specific for the peptide and we compare the results of theoretical simulations to the actual
With the advent of high throughput biomolecular engineering techniques, it has become possible to isolate short peptides that bind to a variety of targets ranging from inorganic materials to proteins. The application of peptides as therapeutics has been hampered by the inherent susceptibility of peptides to proteases present throughout the human body. One strategy to overcome this protease susceptibility is to fortify peptides via cyclization or other conformational constraints. Indeed, nature uses this strategy in several classes of peptides such as cyclotides and defensins which are stabilized by networks of disulfide bonds and in some cases head-to-tail cyclization. My group studies a class of peptides termed lasso peptides because of their unique slipknot-like structure. This highly entropically disfavored fold endows the peptides with tremendous stability; some lasso peptides can retain their structure and function even after boiling in 8 M urea. Lasso peptides are also resistant to ...
68111PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 1Cys Ser Val Arg Gln Gly Pro Val Gln Lys Cys1 5 10211PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 2Cys Ser Ser Cys Gln Asn Ser Pro Ala Leu Cys1 5 10311PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 3Cys Gln Ile Pro Gln Arg Thr Ala Thr Arg Cys1 5 10411PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 4Cys Ala Lys Gln Arg Thr Asp Pro Gly Tyr Cys1 5 10511PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 5Cys Trp Met Ser Pro Arg His Leu Gly Thr Cys1 5 10611PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 6Cys Arg Asn Cys Thr Val Ile Gln Phe Ser Cys1 5 10711PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 7Cys His Tyr Ile Ala Gly Thr Val Gln Gly Cys1 5 10811PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 8Cys Pro Leu Val Ser Leu Arg Asp His Ser Cys1 5 10911PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 9Cys Lys Gln Ser Tyr Leu His His Leu Leu Cys1 5 101011PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 10Cys Phe Gln Pro Leu Thr Pro Leu Cys Arg Cys1 5 101111PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 11Cys Gln Ser Tyr His Glu Leu ...
BACKGROUND: Self-assembling peptides that form nanostructured hydrogels are important biomaterials for tissue engineering scaffolds. The P₁₁-family of peptides includes, P₁₁-4 (QQRFEWEFEQQ) and the complementary peptides P₁₁-13 (EQEFEWEFEQE) and P₁₁-14 (QQOrnFOrnWOrnFOrnQQ). These form self-supporting hydrogels under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 140 mM NaCl) either alone (P₁₁-4) or when mixed (P₁₁-13 and P₁₁-14). We report a SUMO-peptide expression strategy suitable for allowing release of native sequence peptide by SUMO protease cleavage.. RESULTS: We have expressed SUMO-peptide fusion proteins from pET vectors by using autoinduction methods. Immobilised metal affinity chromatography was used to purify the fusion protein, followed by SUMO protease cleavage in water to release the peptides, which were recovered by reverse phase HPLC. The peptide samples were analysed by electrospray mass spectrometry and self-assembly was followed by circular dichroism and ...
Peptides Ireland is the leading and the most popular provider for buying peptides in Europe. They offer an extensive range of the latest peptides on the market today. Peptides are used for research purposes only however have many benefits according to research studies. Peptides Ireland take pride in their products for their high quality and exceptional prices. All peptides are tested for purity by MS-UPLC and HPLC. The peptides are 98% purity to ensure the highest quality products you can buy. There are combo packages available to suit your research needs. The most competitive research peptides prices on the market for superb and premium quality peptides. Reliable and fast shipping services worldwide. You wont find better quality peptides anywhere else.. ...
High Quality Peptide for Industry and Research Applications BioConcept has a team of expert professionals using solid phase and solution phase chemistries by employing Fmoc and t-Boc methodologies for the design and production of peptides for research purposes. It?s the best place for you to outsource your routine peptide needs. BioConcept offers a range of peptide services from small research scale to large scale synthesis. Hallmarks of our custom services: Both small and large scale peptide synthesis ranging from milligram to multigram. Peptides purity range to suit customer requirement. Peptides available with various modifications. Peptides are synthesized by Fmoc chemistry on the CS Bio automated multiple peptide synthesizer. Free personalized non-obligatory technical consultation. Currently the shipping is at no extra charge within India. Complete customer confidentiality. Fast, on time delivery. Key Features: High Success Rate: Our expert scientists
Structural biology of peptides presented by class I and class II MHC proteins has transformed immunology, impacting our understanding of fundamental immune mechanisms and allowing researchers to rationalize immunogenicity and design novel vaccines. However, proteins are not static structures as often inferred from crystallographic structures. Their components move and breathe individually and collectively over a range of timescales. Peptides bound within MHC peptide binding grooves are no exception, and their motions have been shown to impact recognition by TCRs and other receptors in ways that influence function. Further, peptides tune the motions of MHC proteins themselves, which impacts recognition of peptide/MHC complexes by other proteins. Here we review the motional properties of peptides in MHC binding grooves and discuss how peptide properties can influence MHC motions. We briefly review theoretical concepts about protein motion and highlight key data that illustrate immunological consequences.
Peptide therapeutics market is expected to grow over the forecast period owing to the increasing prevalence of cancer and other various metabolic diseases. The other growth drivers of this market are introduction of technological advancements such as hybrid method of synthesis of peptides, lifestyle induced diseases such as obesity & diabetes, sophisticated healthcare infrastructure, increasing population and awareness. Peptides are referred as amide bonds which are linked with small chains of amino acid monomers. Peptides differ from protein on the basis of size. The presence of amino acids in peptides is less than 55 molecules. Peptides crunch themselves to some imitate such as receptor ligands and specific cell surface receptors.. As peptides act on cell membrane, so it helps peptides in treating various diseases. As the market has a huge potential, thus various biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are developing new peptides that can be used for various purposes. So these companies ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conformations of Gly(n)H+ and Ala(n)H+ peptides in the gas phase. AU - Hudgins, Robert R.. AU - Mao, Yi. AU - Ratner, Mark A.. AU - Jarrold, Martin F.. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - High-resolution ion mobility measurements and molecular dynamics simulations have been used to probe the conformations of protonated polyglycine and polyalanine (Gly(n)H+ and Ala(n)H+, n = 3-20) in the gas phase. The measured collision integrals for both the polyglycine and the polyalanine peptides are consistent with a self-solvated globule conformation, where the peptide chain wraps around and solvates the charge located on the terminal amine. The conformations of the small peptides are governed entirely by self-solvation, whereas the larger ones have additional backbone hydrogen bonds. Helical conformations, which are stable for neutral Ala(n) peptides, were not observed in the experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations for Ala(n)H+ peptides suggest that the charge destabilizes the helix, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An alternative solid phase peptide fragment condensation protocol with improved efficiency. AU - Mihala, Nikolett. AU - Bódi, József. AU - Gomory, A.. AU - Süli-Vargha, Helga. PY - 2001/11/7. Y1 - 2001/11/7. N2 - The success of solid phase peptide synthesis is often limited by the aggregation of the growing peptide chains on the resin. Working from the results of a study of model coupling reactions in solution between Z-Gly-Phe-OH and H-Phe-OBzl, we have achieved higher efficiency in the repetitive solid phase fragment condensation of VGVAPG, in a 3:1 chloroform-phenol solvent system, using diisopropylcarbodiimide (DIC) as coupling agent, and a combination of 3-hydroxy-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazine (HODhbt) and its tetrabutyl ammonium salt as additive, than in DMF with DIC and HODhbt alone.. AB - The success of solid phase peptide synthesis is often limited by the aggregation of the growing peptide chains on the resin. Working from the results of a study of model ...
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How is proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide abbreviated? PAMP stands for proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide. PAMP is defined as proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide rarely.
SATPdb (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/satpdb/) is a database of structurally annotated therapeutic peptides, curated from 22 public domain peptide databases/datasets including 9 of our own. The current version holds 19192 unique experimentally validated therapeutic peptide sequences having length between 2 and 50 amino acids. It covers peptides having natural, non-natural and modified residues. These peptides were systematically grouped into 10 categories based on their major function or therapeutic property like 1099 anticancer, 10585 antimicrobial, 1642 drug delivery and 1698 antihypertensive peptides. We assigned or annotated structure of these therapeutic peptides using structural databases (Protein Data Bank) and state-of-the-art structure prediction methods like I-TASSER, HHsearch and PEPstrMOD. In addition, SATPdb facilitates users in performing various tasks that include: (i) structure and sequence similarity search, (ii) peptide browsing based on their function and properties, (iii) ...
Background Cancer is responsible for millions of immature deaths every year and is an economical burden on developing countries. One of the major challenges in the present era is to design drugs that can specifically target tumor cells not normal cells. In this context, tumor homing peptides have drawn much attention. These peptides are playing a vital role in delivering drugs in tumor tissues with high specificity. In order to provide service to scientific community, we have developed a database of tumor homing peptides called TumorHoPe. Description TumorHoPe is a manually curated database of experimentally validated tumor homing peptides that specifically recognize tumor cells and tumor associated microenvironment, i.e., angiogenesis. These peptides were collected and compiled from published papers, patents and databases. Current release of TumorHoPe contains 744 peptides. Each entry provides comprehensive information of a peptide that includes its sequence, target tumor, target cell, techniques of
We showed that plasma adrenomedullin concentrations on day 2 were markedly increased in patients with heart failure (Killip class II or more) after myocardial infarction and were negatively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction; that among the non-invasive variables, only plasma adrenomedullin was an independent predictor of mortality by multivariate analysis; and that, using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, patients with plasma adrenomedullin values above the median had a significantly greater mortality than those with values below the median.. Earlier studies have shown that adrenomedullin is produced mainly by endothelial cells and by vascular smooth muscle cells regulating vascular tone.1 4 18-20 More recently, the failing ventricle has also been shown to secrete adrenomedullin into plasma.11 12 Adrenomedullin synthesis is promoted in vitro by a variety of cytokines, such as interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor α,18 19 both of which increase in parallel with myocardial ...
Recent molecular studies have revealed an overwhelming role of hemolymph proteins and functional peptides in invertebrate physiology. This is mainly due to the large assortment of biomolecular factors each with a different structure and function. In addition there is a multitude of genes encoding for hemolymph proteins and functional peptides. Hemolymph proteins and functional peptides: Recent Advances in Insects and other Arthropods elucidates the physiological role, both at biochemical and molecular levels, of hemolymph proteins and functional peptides in reproduction, development, homeostasis, hibernation, migration, immune system, and in abiotic stress tolerance of insects and other arthropods. Readers gain an opportunity to find out how insects or other arthropods benefit from these biomolecular instruments for physiological processes, and how they endure and respond to the environmental stress. Recent research developments from a wider range of recognized authors and laboratories actively ...
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The peptide components of defatted walnut (Juglans regia L.) meal hydrolysate (DWMH) remain unclear, hindering the investigation of biological mechanisms and exploitation of bioactive peptides. The present study aims to identify the peptide composition of DWMH, followed by to evaluate in vitro antioxidant effects of selected peptides and investigate mechanisms of antioxidative effect. First, more than 1 000 peptides were identified by de novo sequencing in DWMH. Subsequently, a scoring method was established to select promising bioactive peptides by structure based screening. Eight brand new peptides were selected due to their highest scores in two different batches of DWMH. All of them showed potent in vitro antioxidant effects on H₂O₂-injured nerve cells. Four of them even possessed significantly stronger effects than DWMH, making the selected bioactive peptides useful for further research as new bioactive entities. Two mechanisms of hydroxyl radical scavenging and ROS reduction were ...
In the years since the publication of Atherton and Sheppards volume, the technique of Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis has matured considerably and is now the standard approach for the routine production of peptides. The basic problems at the time of publication of this earlier work have now for the most part, been solved.
Solid-phase peptide synthesis is a fundamental and cost-effective process that can be harnessed for the production of therapeutic peptides.
According to Fact.MR, the global peptide and heparin market is projected to reflect a high single-digit CAGR throughout the forecast period (2017-2026). The market is estimated to reach nearly US$ 35,000 Mn revenues by 2026-end.. Vendors of Peptide Therapeutics are Outsourcing Manufacturing Processes to Developing Countries. Although therapeutic peptides were originally developed for replacing their endogenous lack, spectrum of the candidate peptide drugs available is not by far restrained to human peptide pool. With the help of multifarious organisms, bioactive peptides are being discovered through modern tools of peptidomics. A virtually infinite range of potential peptide-based medications await pharmacological characterization. Meanwhile, several methods of peptide synthesis are evolving to enable highly efficient production of extraordinarily long & heavily-modified compounds. Numerous clinical trials associated with peptide drug candidates are currently being conducted, which in turn ...
To gain insight into the rules that govern the binding of endogenous and viral peptides to a given major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule, we characterized the amino acid sequences of a set of self peptides bound by a soluble analogue of murine H-2Ld, H-2Lds. We tested corresponding synthetic peptides quantitatively for binding in several different assays, and built three-dimensional computer models of eight peptide/H-2Lds complexes, based on the crystallographic structure of the human HLA-B27/peptide complex. Comparison of primary and tertiary structures of bound self and antigenic peptides revealed that residues 2 and 9 were not only restricted in sequence and tolerant of conservative substitutions, but were spatially constrained in the three-dimensional models. The degree of sequence variability of specific residues in MHC-restricted peptides reflected the lack of structural constraint on those amino acids. Thus, amino acid residues that define a peptide motif represent side ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enzyme-triggered self-assembly of peptide hydrogels via reversed hydrolysis. AU - Toledano, S AU - Williams, R J AU - Jayawarna, V AU - Ulijn, R V PY - 2006/2/1. Y1 - 2006/2/1. N2 - This paper looks at enzyme-triggered self-assembly of peptide hydrogels via reversed hydrolysis. AB - This paper looks at enzyme-triggered self-assembly of peptide hydrogels via reversed hydrolysis. KW - enzyme-triggered self-assembly. KW - peptide hydrogels. KW - reversed hydrolysis. U2 - 10.1021/ja056549l. DO - 10.1021/ja056549l. M3 - Article. VL - 128. SP - 1070. EP - 1071. JO - Journal of the American Chemical Society. JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society. SN - 0002-7863. IS - 4. ER - ...
The ability of cell-penetrating peptides to cross plasma membranes has been explored for various applications, including the delivery of bioactive molecules to inhibit disease-causing cellular processes. The uptake mechanisms by which cell-penetrating peptides enter cells depend on the conditions, such as the cell line the concentration and the temperature. To be used as therapeutics, each novel cell-penetrating peptide needs to be fully characterized, including their physicochemical properties, their biological activity and their uptake mechanism. Our group has developed a series of highly performing, non-toxic cell-penetrating peptides, all derived from the original sequence of transportan 10. These analogs are called PepFects and NickFects and they are now a diverse family of N-terminally stearylated peptides. These peptides are known to form noncovalent, nano-sized complexes with diverse oligonucleotide cargoes. One bottleneck that limits the use of this technology for gene therapy ...
Three structurally related and novel antibacterial peptides have been isolated from the haemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, immunized with Escherichia coli. These peptides were 32 amino acids long and characteristically rich in proline residues. A unique threonine residue in each peptide was O-glycosylated and the modification seemed to be important for expression of antibacterial activity. The primary structure and antibacterial character of the novel peptides resemble those of abaecin (41% identity in amino acid sequence), an antibacterial peptide of the honeybee, although abaecin is not O-glycosylated. Incubation of the novel peptides with a liposome preparation caused leakage of entrapped glucose under low-ionic-strength conditions, suggesting that a target of the peptides is the bacterial membrane. We propose the name lebocin for the novel peptide family isolated from B. mori. ...
Synthetic peptides have emerged as highly versatile tools, useful in a broad range of research and commercial applications. Initially, synthetic peptides were primarily designed to mimic protein epitopes and used as antigen to generate antibody. Functional uses of peptides have matured as recent advancements in chemical peptide synthesis and the inclusion of modified amino acids have increased the research options and commercial potential of peptides. Subsequently, longer peptides have been synthesized using refined solid phase chemical synthesis techniques. These techniques combined with fragment condensation and ligation methods, have allowed for the precise synthesis of peptides over 150aa in length. In addition to synthesis techniques, modified amino acids are being incorporated into peptides allowing customization of a peptides chemical profile. For example, these modified amino acids can be used to change the solubility of a peptide or increase its bio-availability.
The aim of the study was to find out whether prolonged exercise influences plasma adrenomedullin (ADM) concentration and whether it is related to the hormonal, metabolic and cardiovascular changes. Eighteen healthy subjects (age 25+/-1 yrs) were subm
A series of novel hetero-bifunctional linkers functionalised as ATRP initiators and protein and peptide-reactive agents has been prepared using standard synthetic techniques. A protein-based initiator has been applied to the initiation of living polymerisation in the synthesis of a novel bioconjugate. The linkers were designed based on the properties of polyethylene glycol and short alkyl chains coupled to either amine selective or thiol selective moieties for chemoselectivity, and bromoisobutyryl esters to facilitate atom transfer living polymerisation. The bi-functional linkers have also been coupled to short peptides based on the RGD bio-recognition sequence synthesised by standard solid phase peptide synthesis and the protein. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) using standard conditions to prepare peptide/protein-based ATRP initiators. Attempts at functionalising peptides with the N succinimidyl 4-(2-bromo-2- methylpropionyloxy) butanoate linker were unsuccessful. Model test of the protein based ATRP ...
290271452 - EP 1317475 A2 2003-06-11 - PEPTIDES FOR USE IN CULTURE MEDIA - [origin: WO0202591A2] The present invention provides peptides libraries which are useful for rapid identification of biologically active compounds. The invention further provides peptides which include cell-growth affecting peptides and peptides which enhance or inhibit production of cellular proteins. Many of the peptides of the invention may be produced in large quantity by recombinant techniques and formulated in culture medium to produce the desired effect on cultured cells and tissues. Certain of the libraries of the invention and the peptides identified in them are particularly useful in concatemer-based recombinant expression methods.[origin: WO0202591A2] The present invention provides peptides libraries which are useful for rapid identification of biologically active compounds. The invention further provides peptides which include cell-growth affecting peptides and peptides which enhance or inhibit production of cellular
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
5119PRTArtificialan artificially synthesized peptide sequence 1Val Leu Ser Leu Phe Asn Gly Tyr Val1 529PRTArtificialan artificially synthesized peptide sequence 2Phe Met Tyr Phe Gly Pro Lys Ala Leu1 539PRTArtificialan artificially synthesized peptide sequence 3Lys Gln Cys Asn Phe Phe Gln Trp Ala1 549PRTArtificialan artificially synthesized peptide sequence 4Leu Ile Cys Phe Phe Asp Ser Ser Val1 559PRTArtificialan artificially synthesized peptide sequence 5Phe Gln Asn Ser Pro Pro Ala Ser Val1 569PRTArtificialan artificially synthesized peptide sequence 6Tyr Val Tyr Ser Gly Val Glu Thr Leu1 579PRTArtificialan artificially synthesized peptide sequence 7Arg Leu Ala Ala Ser Thr Val Val Val1 589PRTArtificialan artificially synthesized peptide sequence 8Ser Leu Gln Gly Arg Ala Leu Arg Leu1 599PRTArtificialan artificially synthesized peptide sequence 9Ile Ile Ser Trp Thr Ser Ser Arg Val1 5109PRTArtificialan artificially synthesized peptide sequence 10Lys Leu Pro Thr Arg Asn Thr Ile Ile1 ...
MHC class I molecules display peptides selected from a poorly characterized pool of peptides available in the endoplasmic reticulum. We analyzed the diversity of peptides available to MHC class I molecules by monitoring the generation of an OVA-derived octapeptide, OVA257-264 (SL8), and its C-terminally extended analog, SL8-I. The poorly antigenic SL8-I could be detected in cell extracts only after its conversion to the readily detectable SL8 with carboxypeptidase Y. Analysis of extracts from cells expressing the minimal precursor Met-SL8-I by this method revealed the presence of SL8/Kb and the extended SL8-I/Kb complexes, indicating that the peptide pool contained both peptides. In contrast, cells expressing full length OVA generated only the SL8/Kb complex, demonstrating that the peptide pool generated from the full length precursor contained only a subset of potential MHC-binding peptides. Deletion analysis revealed that SL8-I was generated only from precursors lacking additional C-terminal ...
Presented is a novel protocol for the ligation of protected peptide segments that relies on a selective ruthenium-catalyzed cross metathesis reaction. Amino acid A-termini were acryloylated using acryloyl chloride and triethylamine and C-termini were coupled to homoallylamine using standard coupling conditions. The conditions used in both reactions are suited to use on protected peptides. Model studies were performed on a range of single protected amino acids. This demonstrated the applicability of the technique. The synthetic ligation between a protected dipeptide bearing a C-terminal homoallyl amide and a protected 7V-acryloyl tripeptide was achieved. Application to the total chemical synthesis of modified Crambin was then investigated. A site was chosen for ligation and syntheses of the appropriate peptide segments were attempted using solid phases peptide synthesis techniques and an Fmoc protection approach ...
VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) is a growth factor responsible for angiogenesis, which is the development of new blood vessels from preexisting ones. Oxygen and nutrients are supplied to tumors by blood vessels and tumor growth is greatly limited without angiogenic capabilities. Targeting VEGF is a promising strategy for cancer treatment and preventing metastasis. The focus of this project is to inhibit VEGF-VEGFR-2 (VEGF receptor 2) interaction high affinity by producing anti-peptide antibodies that will compete with VEGF for the binding region of VEGFR-2. VEGFR-2 has been shown to bind VEGF and stimulate angiogenesis, thereby resulting in increased tumor growth and metastasis. The hypothesis to be tested is whether these anti-peptide antibodies are able to recognize VEGFR-2 by specifically binding to the protein. The peptides were synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis and binding was tested against antibodies produced in outbred rabbits that had been immunized with the peptide ...
Highlights DOI: 10.1002/anie.200803868 Biosynthesis Extending the Biosynthetic Repertoire in Ribosomal Peptide Assembly Bradley S. Moore* bacteriocins · biosynthesis · enzymes · natural products · ribosomal peptides Natural products are quite inspiring. To chemists, they inspire the development of new synthetic methods and the creation of ever more sensitive analytical techniques. Biologists, on the other hand, exploit natural products in the discovery of new molecular targets and drugs, as well as to learn more about the way cells or whole organisms communicate with each other. Natural products also motivate biochemists to explore new ways in which nature assembles complex organic molecules. Such products, in one form or another, have helped transform modern science. In this post-genomic era, the scientific field of natural product biosynthesis has witnessed a constant flow of fascinating discoveries outlining new biochemical transformations in secondary metabolism. Most recently, cyclic ...
Nine peptides with differential growth inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the tetraploid frog Xenopus borealis Parker, 1936 (Pipidae). Structural characterization of the peptides demonstrated that they were orthologous to magainin-2 (1 peptide), peptide glycine-leucine-amide, PGLa (2 peptides), caerulein-precursor fragments, CPF (4 peptides), and xenopsin-precursor fragments, XPF (2 peptides), previously isolated from Xenopus laevis and X. amieti. In addition, a second magainin-related peptide (G**KFLHSAGKFGKAFLGEVMIG) containing a two amino acid residue deletion compared with magainin-2 was identified that had only weak antimicrobial activity. The peptide with the greatest potential for development into a therapeutically valuable anti-infective agent was CPF-B1 (GLGSLLGKAFKIGLKTVGKMMGGAPREQ) with MIC=5 microM against E. coli, MIC=5 microM against S. aureus, and MIC=25 microM against Candida albicans, and
The current method to match mass spectra from tandem mass spectrometry (MS) to a peptide sequence requires searching a large database of all possible peptides encoded by an organism. However, only a subset of these possible peptides is consistently and repeatedly identified by MS (proteotypic peptides). Matching spectra to this smaller, proteotypic peptide search space increases computational efficiency and improves accuracy of the peptide identification, hence increasing the confidence that a protein has been accurately identified. Currently, it is labor-intensive to build a proteotypic peptide database of experimentally observed peptides! thus computationally deriving such a database is desirable. Webb-Robertson et al. trained a statistical learning algorithm called a support vector machine (SVM) from Yersinia pestis data that computationally classifies a peptide as proteotypic or not proteotypic. Preliminary tests by these authors showed that this SVM accurately predicted proteotypic peptides for two
NovoPro is pleased to offer one of the worlds largest and fastest growing peptide catalogs, containing ,15000 of high-quality catalogue peptides. With more than 25 years of experience in synthesizing peptides, NovoPro is a premier supplier of high quality peptides to leading pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and academic institutions. Unless otherwise specified, all peptides have ,95% purity and contain TFA (trifluoroacetic acid) as counter-ions. Our database of catalog peptides is searchable by product name or (part of the) peptide sequence. NovoPro is proud to provide a comprehensive collection of amino acid derivatives, beta-amyloid peptides, blocking peptides, cosmetic peptides, biochemical reagents and pharmaceuticals to clients in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, academic and industry institutions all over the world. ...
A new protective group for the indole nitrogen of the amino acid tryptophan, the Boc-sarcosinoyl-sarcosinolyl (Boc-Sar-Sar) is described. This protective group shows good stability to the reaction conditions used in solid phase peptide synthesis and can be incorporated into the peptide as Fmoc-Trp(Boc-Sar-Sar)-OH. When the peptide is cleaved from the resin with trifluororoactetic acid, the Boc group is simultaneously cleaved and the N-terminal nitrogen in the Sar-Sar group is exposed. At low pH this amino group is protonated and thereby the peptide will have higher solubility in aqueous solution. High solubility of the peptide is an important factor for the purification of peptides with reversed phase HPLC. During HPLC purification, the protonated Sar-Sar group will remain on the peptide. When the purified peptide is exposed to physiological pH, the Sar-Sar group will be cleaved and the peptide will be obtained in its fully deprotected form.. Gramicidin A (GA) is an extremely hydrophobic peptide ...
Translocation of a nascent protein from the cytosol into the ER mediated by its signal peptide is a critical step in protein secretion. The aim of this work was to develop a platform technology to optimize the signal peptides for high level production of therapeutic antibodies in CHO cells. A database of signal peptides from a large number of human immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain (HC) and kappa light chain (LC) was generated. Most of the HC signal peptides contain 19 amino acids which can be divided into three domains and the LC signal peptides contain 22 amino acids. The signal peptides were then clustered according to sequence similarity. Based on the clustering, 8 HC and 2 LC signal peptides were analyzed for their impacts on the production of 5-top selling antibody therapeutics, namely, Herceptin, Avastin, Remicade, Rituxan, and Humira. The best HC and LC signal peptides for producing these 5 antibodies were identified. The optimized signal peptides for Rituxan is 2-fold better compared to its
16 Mar, 2016 - Peptide is an atom comprising of 2 or more amino acids. Peptides are smaller proteins, which are likewise chains of amino acids. Atoms sufficiently little to be incorporated from the constituent amino acids are, by tradition, called peptides instead of proteins. The separating line is at around 50 amino acids. Contingent upon the quantity of amino acids, peptides are called dipeptides, tripeptides, tetrapeptides, et cetera.. Peptides frame a substantial part of the organic flagging system. They convey data to cells and they are likewise significant controllers of life. A peptide is a concoction compound made out of amino acids. Two or more amino acids connected together frame a polypeptide. The amino acids are joined in a particular grouping by peptide bonds. As indicated by how the peptides are joined, particular amino acids and proteins are shaped. Peptides react to cell receptors, are water solvent and cant enter the cell. Their sign is transmitted to the DNA in the cell ...
Peptide Drug Design & Delivery SummitThe popularity of peptide therapeutics has increased significantly in recent years. It is estimated that by 2018, the global Peptide therapeutics market is expected to pass $25 billion. This dramatic market increase is driven by both growing incidences of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and technological enhancements in peptide synthesis that include high-throughput approaches. Conjugation technologies are also contributing to the growth of peptide therapeutics, and leading to innovative approaches to designing safe and effective therapies.
ChemPep supplies custom peptides, catalog peptides, generic peptides, cosmetic peptides, antibodies, Fmoc amino acids, Boc amino acids, Cbz amino acids, unusual amino acids, solid phase resins, linkers, peptide coupling reagents, N-protecting reagents; specializing in custom peptide synthesis.
ChemPep supplies custom peptides, catalog peptides, generic peptides, cosmetic peptides, antibodies, Fmoc amino acids, Boc amino acids, Cbz amino acids, unusual amino acids, solid phase resins, linkers, peptide coupling reagents, N-protecting reagents; specializing in custom peptide synthesis.
Collagen peptides, a long-time staple of Paleo enthusiasts, have gone mainstream. From celebrity magazines to medical journals, the benefits of this supplement seem to be showing up everywhere. Better digestion, improved bone and joint health, and clearer skin are just a few of the claims collagen-peptide users swear by. If you havent heard of collagen peptides, or dont fully understand them, this overview can help get you started.. What are collagen peptides?. Collagen peptides are an easily digestible form of collagen. Available as a supplemental powder or capsule, collagen peptides contain short-chain amino acids that are derived from (usually) pasture-raised animal collagen. Theyre the gelatin that comes from collagen after it gets further broken down through a process called hydrolysis. This level of processing makes collagen-peptide supplements easy to consume and digest.. Taking collagen as a supplement has many of the same benefits as drinking bone broth, but in a more isolated ...
We analyzed immune responses to the 10 different HPV-VLP L1-derived peptides (20-mers) that had binding motifs to both HLA-class I (A2 or A24) and HLA-class II (DR) in animal model. We used BALB/c and C57BL/6N mice that have been regarded as Th2- and Th1-skewed strains, respectively, and widely known to express different immune responses in normal and pathological states [7]. When we examined humoral immune responses to the 10 different HPV-VLP L1-derived peptides in the Th2-skewed BALB/c mice, the levels of IgG to the peptide 4 and peptide 6 were clearly elevated in the sera after immunization with HPV-VLPs. We also used the Th1-skewed C57BL/6N mice to examine whether the selection of mouse strains tested has considerable and variable impacts on humoral immune responses to HPV-VLPs. In the C57BL/6N mice, one of the identified peptides , peptide 6 , but not another one (peptide 4), was also immunogenic, suggesting that the peptide 6 is a major common B cell epitope peptide in mice. Notably, our ...
Cyclic peptides[edit]. A peptide is a short polymer of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. They have the same chemical ... Cyclic peptides Microcystins Liver Microcystis, Anabaena, Planktothrix (Oscillatoria), Nostoc, Hapalosiphon, Anabaenopsis ... In a cyclic peptide, the ends link to form a stable circular chain. In mammals this stability makes them resistant to the ... Of all the cyanotoxins, the cyclic peptides are of most concern to human health. The microcystins and nodularins poison the ...
Peptide alkaloids[edit]. Peptide ergot alkaloids or ergopeptines (also known as ergopeptides) are ergoline derivatives that ... contain a tripeptide structure attached to the basic ergoline ring in the same location as the amide group of the lysergic acid ...
Antimicrobial peptides[edit]. The skin creates antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidins that control the proliferation of ... Psoriasis has been linked to self-DNA created from cathelicidin peptides that causes autoinflammation. A major factor ... "Antimicrobial peptides and the skin immune defense system". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 122 (2): 261-6. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.03 ... "Unique profile of antimicrobial peptide expression in polymorphic light eruption lesions compared to healthy skin, atopic ...
Therapeutic peptides and proteins[edit]. A relatively new way of administration of therapeutic peptides and proteins (such as ... Peptides and proteins are not stable in the gastro-intestinal tract, mainly due to degradation by enzymes and pH differences. ... As a consequence, most peptides (such as insulin, exenatide, vasopressin, etc...) or proteins (such as interferon, EPO and ... Increased efforts are underway to deliver macromolecules (peptides, proteins and immunotherapies) by sublingual route, by ...
Peptide lyases[edit]. A seventh catalytic type of proteolytic enzymes, asparagine peptide lyase, was described in 2011. Its ... The structure of a protease (TEV protease) complexed with its peptide substrate in black with catalytic residues in red.(PDB: ... The mechanism used to cleave a peptide bond involves making an amino acid residue that has the cysteine and threonine ( ... Asparagine peptide lyases - using an asparagine to perform an elimination reaction (not requiring water) ...
Signal peptide prediction[edit]. Name Method. Description. Link SignalP artificial neural networks and hidden Markov models. ... On-line server for peptide structure prediction. Server Secondary structure prediction[edit]. Main article: Protein structure ... Homology modeling of proteins in monomeric or multimeric forms alone and in complex with peptides and DNA as well as ... and transmembrane helix and signal peptide prediction. ...
... fungal peptides, invertebrate peptides, amphibian/skin peptides, venom peptides, cancer/anticancer peptides, vaccine peptides ... cardiovascular peptides, renal peptides, respiratory peptides, opiate peptides, neurotrophic peptides, and blood-brain peptides ... immune/inflammatory peptides, brain peptides, endocrine peptides, ingestive peptides, gastrointestinal peptides, ... A peptide hormone is a peptide that acts as a hormone.. *A proteose is a mixture of peptides produced by the hydrolysis of ...
Computational resources for prediction of toxic peptides and proteins[edit]. One of the bottlenecks in peptide/protein-based ... Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body ... Myotoxins are small, basic peptides found in snake and lizard venoms, They cause muscle tissue damage by a non enzymatic ... Recently, in silico models for predicting toxicity of peptides and proteins, developed by Gajendra Pal Singh Raghava's group,[ ...
Random Peptide Array[edit]. Early immunosignature tests used glass microscope slides, with spots of 10,000 random peptides.[1] ... This eliminated the peptides in common between various cancers, and this selection of peptides was used to distinguish between ... at the C-terminus side of the peptide) are common to each peptide spot. This 3 amino acid segment is used as the linker by ... the array now has the 10,000 random peptides, and an unknown number of antibodies bound to some of those peptides. ...
Peptide removal[edit]. Peptides that fail to bind MHC class I molecules in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are ... Translocation and peptide loading[edit]. The peptide translocation from the cytosol into the lumen of the ER is accomplished by ... The α1 and α2 domains fold to make up a groove for peptides to bind. MHC class I molecules bind peptides that are predominantly ... The peptide-loading process involves several other molecules that form a large multimeric complex called the Peptide loading ...
Vasoactive intestinal peptide. VIP. Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors. -. PP: Secretins. Growth hormone-releasing hormone ... Peptides: somatostatin, substance P, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, opioid peptides[9] ... List of neurotransmitters, peptides, and gasotransmitters[edit]. This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Snyder SH, Innis RB (1979). "Peptide neurotransmitters". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 48: 755-82. PMID 38738. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi. ...
The pro-peptide[edit]. The MMPs are initially synthesized as inactive zymogens with a pro-peptide domain that must be removed ... Collagen Hybridizing Peptide, a peptide that can bind and stain MMP cleaved collagen ... The pro-peptide domain is part of the "cysteine switch." This contains a conserved cysteine residue that interacts with the ... The three common domains are the pro-peptide, the catalytic domain, and the haemopexin-like C-terminal domain, which is linked ...
Peptides. 31 (8): 1441-8. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2010.04.021. PMC 2905501 . PMID 20441784. Schein CH, Volk DE, Oezguen N, Paul ... Peptides. 27 (7): 1676-84. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2006.01.018. PMC 1629084 . PMID 16540201. Schein CH, Oezguen N, van der Heden ... Schein CH, Oezguen N, Volk DE, Garimella R, Paul A, Braun W (July 2006). "NMR structure of the viral peptide linked to the ... "NMR solution structure of poliovirus uridylyated peptide linked to the genome (VPgpU)". ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators • GnRH and gonadotropins ... These drugs can be both peptides and small-molecules. They are modeled after the hypothalamic neurohormone GnRH, which ...
doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2010.03.021. PMID 20338210.. *^ Zhang N, Yuan C, Li Z, Li J, Li X, Li C, Li R, Wang SR (January 2011). " ... doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2007.11.002. PMID 18308154.. *^ Sjölund K, Ekman R, Wierup N (June 2010). "Covariation of plasma ghrelin ... Obestatin is encoded by the same gene that encodes ghrelin, a peptide hormone. The mRNA produced from the GHRL gene has four ... Dong XY, He JM, Tang SQ, Li HY, Jiang QY, Zou XT (February 2009). "Is GPR39 the natural receptor of obestatin?". Peptides. 30 ( ...
doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2010.02.002. PMID 20153391.. *^ Gasperini, C.; Ruggieri, S. (2012). "Development of oral agent in the ... "Stimulation of n-cadherin-dependent neurite outgrowth by small molecule peptide mimetic agonists of the n-cadherin hav motif". ...
Peptides. 27 (10): 2508-14. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2006.03.038. PMID 16904237.. ... "Production of recombinant large proneurotensin/neuromedin N-derived peptides and characterization of their binding and ...
... (Oxt; /ˌɒksɪˈtoʊsɪn/) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide. Oxytocin is normally produced by the paraventricular ... The oxytocin peptide is synthesized as an inactive precursor protein from the OXT gene.[18][19][20] This precursor protein also ... response to peptide hormone. • maternal behavior. • negative regulation of blood pressure. • memory. • positive regulation of ... Oxytocin is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide) in the sequence cysteine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glutamine-asparagine- ...
The 5-HT1 receptors are a subfamily of the 5-HT serotonin receptors that bind to the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT).[1] The 5-HT1 subfamily consists of five G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are coupled to Gi/Go and mediate inhibitory neurotransmission, including 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E, and 5-HT1F. There is no 5-HT1C receptor, as it was reclassified as the 5-HT2C receptor.[2] For more information, please see the respective main articles of the individual subtypes: ...
"Peptides. 72: 4-15. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2015.04.012.. *^ a b Bioanalytical chemistry. Manz, A. (Andreas), Dittrich, Petra S ... "A short history, principles, and types of ELISA, and our laboratory experience with peptide/protein analyses using ELISA". ...
Peptides. 32 (7): 1530-5. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2011.05.028. PMID 21672568. S2CID 19982289.. ... Nociceptin is a peptide related to the opioid class of compounds (ex. morphine and codeine), but it does not act at the classic ... It is derived from the prepronociceptin protein, as are a further 2 peptides, nocistatin & NocII, which inhibit the N/OFQ ... Okuda-Ashitaka E, Minami T, Tachibana S, Yoshihara Y, Nishiuchi Y, Kimura T, Ito S (March 1998). "Nocistatin, a peptide that ...
Kleerebezem, M; Quadri, LE (October 2001). "Peptide pheromone-dependent regulation of antimicrobial peptide production in Gram- ... positive bacteria: a case of multicellular behavior". Peptides. 22 (10): 1579-96. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(01)00493-4. PMID ...
August 2002). "Antiproliferative action of valorphin in cell cultures". Journal of Peptide Science. 8 (8): 438-52. doi:10.1002/ ... International Journal of Peptide and Protein Research. 39 (6): 477-84. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3011.1992.tb00277.x. PMID 1356941.. ...
Natriuretic peptide receptor C/guanylate cyclase C (atrionatriuretic peptide receptor C), also known as NPR3, is an atrial ... G-protein coupled peptide receptor activity. • protein binding. • chloride ion binding. • peptide binding. • protein ... Anand-Srivastava MB (2005). "Natriuretic peptide receptor-C signaling and regulation". Peptides. 26 (6): 1044-59. doi:10.1016/j ... Atrial natriuretic peptide receptor. References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000113389 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
... s are a class of naturally occurring, endogenous opioid peptides which are found in the bloodstream, and are derived ... Brantl V, Gramsch C, Lottspeich F, Mertz R, Jaeger KH, Herz A (June 1986). "Novel opioid peptides derived from hemoglobin: ... Davis TP, Gillespie TJ, Porreca F (1989). "Peptide fragments derived from the beta-chain of hemoglobin (hemorphins) are ... centrally active in vivo". Peptides. 10 (4): 747-51. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(89)90107-1. PMID 2587417.. ...
Peptides/proteins. *General: Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. *Peptides: Angiotensin receptor modulators ...
Arai AC (January 2009). "The role of kisspeptin and GPR54 in the hippocampus". Peptides. 30 (1): 16-25. doi:10.1016/j.peptides. ... These N-terminally truncated peptides are known as the kisspeptins and belong to a larger family of peptides known as RFamides ... The gene for kisspeptin codes for a peptide that can be cleaved into several pieces.[8] In humans, one of these pieces is made ... Kisspeptin is a product of the KISS1 gene which is cleaved from an initial 145 amino acid peptide to a 54 amino acid long ...
"Peptides. 30 (7): 1383-6. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2009.04.008. PMID 19394382.. ...
beta-hCG is mostly similar to beta-LH, with the exception of a Carboxy Terminus Peptide (beta-CTP) containing four glycosylated ... Furuhashi M, Shikone T, Fares FA, Sugahara T, Hsueh AJ, Boime I (January 1995). "Fusing the carboxy-terminal peptide of the ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators • GnRH and gonadotropins ... C-terminal peptide total hCG, intact hCG, free β-subunit hCG, β-core fragment hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, nicked hCG, alpha hCG ...
"Peptides. 31 (2): 257-62. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2009.11.024. PMC 4043136. PMID 19961888.. ... doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.04.025. PMID 16137788.. *^ a b Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 10:Neural and ... Ghrelin (pronounced /ˈɡrɛlɪn/), the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ... "International Journal of Peptides. 2010: 1-40. doi:10.1155/2010/879503. PMC 2925380. PMID 20798846.. ...
The subgroup of peptides having the target property can then be selected, and either each peptide isolated and sequenced, or ... thereof which have a target property and optionally to determine the amino acid sequence of a selected peptide or peptides to ... the method of the invention comprises synthesizing a mixture of randomly or deliberately generated peptides using standard ... A method to obtain selected individual peptides or families ... The peptide mixture of claim 8, wherein at least one peptide in ...
This peptide has been used as a negative control peptide for the study of InCELLect™ AKAP St-Ht31 Inhibitor Peptide. ... St-Ht31P Control Peptide is a stearated form of the peptide Ht-31P. ... St-Ht31P Control Peptide is a stearated form of the peptide Ht-31P. This peptide is used as a negative control peptide with the ... InCELLect™ St-Ht31P Control Peptide. Stearated Form of the Peptide Ht-31P. *Control peptide for use with InCELLect™ AKAP St- ...
Keywords: Buy Peptides for Sale Online, Peptides for Sale, Buy Peptides Online, Purchase Peptides Online, Research Peptides for ... Peptides For Sale Online, USA Peptides For Sale, Buy Research Peptides Online, Best Supplier of USA Research Peptides Operation ... We also sell high purity, USA manufactured peptides - consider us the best peptides supplier 2020. ... If youre interested in learning more about peptides and what they do, head to Research Peptides. We are dedicated to providing ...
A peptide hormone is a peptide that acts as a hormone.. *A proteose is a mixture of peptides produced by the hydrolysis of ... Peptide classes[edit]. Peptides are divided into several classes, depending on how they are produced:. Milk peptides Two ... The term peptide has been used to mean secretagogue peptides and peptide hormones in sports doping matters: secretagogue ... Well-known peptide families[edit]. The peptide families in this section are ribosomal peptides, usually with hormonal activity ...
In the example shown, peptide A, but not peptide B, can bind to the HLA molecule. Self-peptides presented to T cells in this ... Three of these peptides were present at levels (,100 copies/cell) that place them among the top 5% of all peptides in the drug- ... To set up the assay, 5 × 105 PBMCs were then exposed to 10 μg/mL of exogenous peptides, either singly or as peptide pools ... D) Abacavir binding in the F pocket does not alter the peptide conformation compared with other peptide/HLA-B complexes. A ...
Methods and Protocols features biological methods for the preparation of peptide phage display libraries using both filamentous ... Therapeutic Peptides: Methods and Protocols features biological methods for the preparation of peptide phage display libraries ... Heterovalent ligands Library design Peptide library mining Peptide phage display libraries Therapeutic candidates ... peptide libraries for peptides with the desired function and the subsequent characterization of the identified peptides. ...
... fungal peptides, invertebrate peptides, amphibian/skin peptides, venom peptides, cancer/anticancer peptides, vaccine peptides ... cardiovascular peptides, renal peptides, respiratory peptides, opiate peptides, neurotrophic peptides, and blood-brain peptides ... immune/inflammatory peptides, brain peptides, endocrine peptides, ingestive peptides, gastrointestinal peptides, ... A peptide hormone is a peptide that acts as a hormone.. *A proteose is a mixture of peptides produced by the hydrolysis of ...
They can take up and degrade antigens, in the case of pro- teins to peptides. The peptides of protein antigens reappear on the ... Molecular Features of Class II MHC-Restricted T-Cell Recognition of Protein and Peptide Antigens: The Importance of Amphipathic ... Immune Response to Synthetic Herpes Simplex Virus Peptides:The Feasibility of a Synthetic Vaccine ... The Value of Synthetic Peptides as Vaccines for Eliciting T-Cell Immunity ...
The growth of gold nanoparticles has been manipulated using amino acids and peptides to produce twisted structures that alter ... Figure 1 , The transfer of chirality from peptides to nanoparticles. Lee et al.3 grew gold nanoparticles from crystal seeds ... In a paper in Nature, Lee et al.3 report a remarkable method that uses amino acids or peptides (small molecules formed from ... For example, the peptide glutathione can occur as mirror-image l- and d-isomers, which direct the growth of mirror-image ...
Current subject areas covered are Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins. Carbohydrate Chemistry, Catalysis, Electron Spin ... Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins, Volume 28. Amino acids, peptides and proteins. Volume 28 of Specialist Periodical Reports. ... molecular molecules nucleophiles oxidation P-lactam penicillin Pept Pept.Chem Peptide Protein Res peptide synthesis peptides ... inhibitors Int.J.Peptide Protein Res involving isosteres J.Am.Chem.Soc J.Chem.Soc J.MedChem J.Org.Chem J.Pept.Sci J.Peptide ...
The EC5 peptide has shown efficient binding and selective bactericidal activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, while having ... This technology relates to a class of synthetic peptides with antimicrobial activity. The lead candidate identified among this ... The EC5 peptide has shown efficient binding and selective bactericidal activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, while having ... "A peptide derived from phage display library exhibits antibacterial activity against E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa." PLoS ...
Bioactive peptides are short protein fragments (2−20 amino acids in length) that can influence a multitude of bodily functions. ... Bioactive Peptides. Food 2017, 6, 32. *Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour. ... This activity of a peptide depends on its amino acid composition, N and C-terminal amino acid, length of the peptide chain, ... Antioxidant properties of biactive peptides. Oxidation is one of the major disease-causing factors in humans. Peptides derived ...
Shop Moisturizers With Peptides and find the best fit for your beauty routine. Free shipping and samples available ... Moisturizers With Peptides are available now at Sephora! ... Signal Peptide Complex (Growth Factors): Nine signal peptides ( ... I am loving this...No waist or mess...amazing peptides skin care at night...I received peptide moisturizer to try for free it ... Firming Peptide Ingredient Callouts: Free of sulfates SLS and SLES, parabens, and phthalates.. What Else You Need to Know: When ...
Solumeve, Collagen Peptides Plus Vitamin C & Hyaluronic Acid, Variety Pack, Lemon and Pomegranate, 10 Packets, 0.18 oz (5.15 g ... Solumeve, Collagen Peptides Plus Vitamin C & Hyaluronic Acid, Lemon, 30 Packets, 0.18 oz (5.15 g) Each. ... Solumeve, Collagen Peptides Plus Vitamin C & Hyaluronic Acid, Pomegranate, 30 Packets, 0.18 oz (5.15 g) Each. ... Derma E, Advanced Peptides & Collagen Eye Cream , 1/2 oz (14 g). ... Peptides 36 Results (showing 1 - 24) Fish Peptides and Blood ...
CPP, Cell-Penetrating Peptides. Authors. * Ülo Langel Copyright. 2019. Publisher. Springer Singapore. Copyright Holder. ... Provides a comprehensive update of cell penetrating peptides. *Summarizes the CPP uptake mechanisms and their critical analysis ...
The glucagon-like peptides GLP-1 and GLP-2 are produced in enteroendocrine L cells of the small and large intestine and ... Minireview: the glucagon-like peptides.. Drucker DJ1.. Author information. 1. Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital ... The actions of these peptides on nutrient absorption and energy homeostasis and the efficacy of GLP-1 and GLP-2 in animal ... models of diabetes and intestinal diseases, respectively, suggest that analogs of these peptides may be clinically useful for ...
Peptide Hormones. All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryAmino Acids, Peptides, and ProteinsPeptidesIntercellular ... All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryAmino Acids, Peptides, and ProteinsProteinsIntercellular Signaling Peptides and ... Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the ... All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryBiological FactorsIntercellular Signaling Peptides and ProteinsAdipokines ...
A new study has expanded what we can do with these crafty peptides. Published in APL Bioengineering, the researchers show that ... but they are protected against processes that degrade natural peptides. ... Beta peptides have become a key tool in building more robust biomaterials. These synthetic molecules mimic the structure of ... In beta peptides, the extra carbon makes the molecules hardier against peptide-breaking enzymes in the body. Beta peptides can ...
Collagen Peptides at Sephora. This pure, ingestible drink lets you sip your way to plump skin, shiny hair, and strong nails.* ... What Else You Need to Know: Looking to improve your skincare routine? Vital Proteins Collagen Peptides provides a boost to ... 2 scoops of Collagen Peptides. -1 knob fresh ginger, grated. -1 kiwi, sliced. -1 c coconut water. Add all ingredients to ...
The presence of unusual amino acids and structural motifs in AMPs confers unique structural properties to the peptide that ... Antimicrobial peptides are diverse group of biologically active molecules with multidimensional properties. In recent past, a ... of AMPs along with its multidimensional properties that could be exploited for the application of these bioactive peptides as a ... Cationic peptides. Peptides forming α-helical structures. Cecropins. α-Helix. [19]. Single disulphide bridge. Thanatin. β-Sheet ...
A C-peptide test can help doctors tell the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It also can help find the cause of ... In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin and little or no C-peptide. In type 2 diabetes, C-peptide levels ... In general, high C-peptide levels are associated with increased insulin production, while low C-peptide levels indicate ... C-peptide, on the other hand, has no effect on blood sugar. It is, however, useful as a marker of insulin production, since the ...
... shorter strings of linked amino acids are known as peptides). ... Peptide Bond A peptide bond is a linkage between the building ... Peptide Bond. A peptide bond is a linkage between the building blocks of proteins called amino acids (shorter strings of linked ... The synthesis of proteins involves the formation of many peptide bonds. Cleavage of peptide bonds, involved in digestion of ... peptide bond A chemical bond that links 2 or more amino acids by a reaction between carboxyl and amino groups. According to the ...
... a peptide, one form of which, angiotensin II, causes constriction of blood vessels. There are three forms of angiotensin. ... peptide. Peptide. , any organic substance of which the molecules are structurally like those of proteins, but smaller. The ... protein: Peptides with hormonelike activity. One peptide, angiotensin (angiotonin or hypertensin), is formed in the blood from ... Angiotensin, a peptide, one form of which, angiotensin II, causes constriction of blood vessels. ...
The class of peptides includes many hormones, antibiotics, and other compounds that participate in the metabolic functions of ... Peptide molecules are composed of two or more ... Peptide, any organic substance of which the molecules are ... protein: Peptides with hormonelike activity. Small peptides have been discovered that, like hormones, act on certain target ... protein: Peptides with hormonelike activity. Small peptides have been discovered that, like hormones, act on certain target ...
atrial n. p. (*ANP*) a peptide produced in the atria of the heart in response to a rise in atrial pressure. ... any of several peptides that stimulate diuresis and vasodilatation. They act on the kidney tubules to promote excretion of ... Others include brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), produced in the central nervous system, and type C natriuretic peptide (CNP).. ... natriuretic peptide Any of several peptide hormones that promote the excretion of sodium ions in the urine (i.e. natriuresis). ...
Peptides. 6th July to 7th July 2017, London, United Kingdom. SMI GROUPS PEPTIDES CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION RETURNS TO LONDON ... Head of Peptide Chemistry , IRBM Science Park. Elisabetta Bianchi has been the Head of Peptide Chemistry at IRBM Science Park ... Elisabetta Bianchi, Head of Peptide Chemistry , IRBM Science Park. View Bio. Elisabetta Bianchi has been the Head of Peptide ... Peptide manufacturers and suppliers have been developing and implementing new technologies to improve the peptide production, ...
... is an international journal presenting original contributions on the biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology of ... Regulatory Peptides merged with Peptides in January 2015. The two journals now share a common aims and scope and a consolidated ... The most downloaded articles from Peptides in the last 90 days. * Cell-penetrating peptides for siRNA delivery to glioblastomas ... Peptides emphasizes all aspects of high profile peptide research in mammals and non-mammalian vertebrates. Special ...
Peptides is an international journal presenting original contributions on the biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology of ... Regulatory Peptides merged with Peptides in January 2015. The two journals now share a common aims and scope and a consolidated ... Special issues published in Peptides. * Newer peptide-based agents for treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes Peter Flatt ... Peptides emphasizes all aspects of high profile peptide research in mammals and non-mammalian vertebrates. Special ...
Could host defense peptides provide a new avenue of attack? ... A group of peptide molecules has been found to play a major ... Natural peptide antibiotics, the so-called host defence peptides (HDPs), have been investigated since the 1990s in a search for ... Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides in Cutaneous Infections after Skin Surgery. M.R. Kesting; M. Stoeckelhuber; F. Hölzle; T. ... Host defence peptides might become alternatives to conventional antibiotics. A limiting factor is their narrow therapeutic ...
Peptides that correspond substantially to the sequences of those proteins and methods of their use are also disclosed, as are ... polymers containing peptide repeating units corresponding to the 540 residue protein and also polymers containing 517 protein ... Peptide 30 (291-305); Peptide 46 (451-465); Peptide 58 (11-28); Peptide 59 (66-79); Peptide 60 (114-130); and Peptide (394-408 ... Thus, anti-peptide antibodies raised to a peptide of this invention such as those raised to Peptides 1 and 54 can be utilized ...
Sarikaya and his team at the University of Washington join biology and solid-state materials to demonstrate control of peptide ... "Short peptides assembling on solid surfaces … may be a way to overcome some of the design and assembly problems encountered ... This is a collage of AFM (atomic force microscopy) images of self-assembled peptides on graphite or graphene. The center panel ... Researchers at the University of Washington have demonstrated how peptides, or short chains of amino acids, assemble by ...
... the building blocks of peptides, affected the potential use of the peptide. The approach allowed the scientists to accomplish ... The approach expanded the number of "peptides of potential" from only a handful to more than 200. Thus, it vastly increased the ... With their tiny scaffolds of atoms, peptides hold the promise of creating catalysts for biofuels, capturing hazardous waste, ... While nature offers a few peptides with the perfect characteristics for such purposes, scientists have been attempting to ...
Peptides with growth inhibitory action. EP1534308A4 *. 30 Sep 2002. 14 Mar 2007. Becton Dickinson Co. Peptides with growth ... Solid-phase peptide synthesis, for example, is commenced from the carboxyterminal-end of the peptide using an α-amino protected ... The peptides can form acid addition salts, for example with inorganic acids, especially mineral acids. For peptides having at ... all of which will vary with the peptides size. If the peptides are sufficiently small (e.g., less than about 8-10 amino acid ...
  • With our experience of over a decade in peptide synthesis we are the preferred supplier to leading drug-discovery and generic peptide formulation companies worldwide. (boulderpeptide.org)
  • Our dedicated facility at Mumbai, India is equipped with state-of-the-art peptide synthesizers and our experience of over a decade in peptide synthesis, efficiency and in-house testing makes it easy for us to deliver your custom peptide synthesis products quickly and with high quality (purity of 90-95% is typical). (boulderpeptide.org)
  • This peptide is used as a negative control peptide with the InCELLect™ AKAP St-Ht31 Inhibitor Peptide, which inhibits the interaction between protein kinase A and AKAP. (promega.com)
  • Prof Lynne Regan, Dr Mathew Horrocks and their teams have developed a novel super-resolution technique for live cell imaging using reversible peptide-protein interactions. (ed.ac.uk)
  • LIVE-PAINT involves reversible binding of a protein (fused to a fluorescent protein) to a small peptide (fused to the protein of interest). (ed.ac.uk)
  • The fluorescent protein complex can move around the cell until it is transiently bound to its complementary peptide, which results in a transient fluorescence localization. (ed.ac.uk)
  • One of the potential applications of such peptide-binding peptides is to be utilized as protein purification tags. (utexas.edu)
  • Another novel aspect of this research is that a candidate peptide is able to inhibit an enzyme-catalyzed protein hydrolysis by binding specifically to a peptide sequence on the substrate which is recognized by the protease. (utexas.edu)
  • Although protein-peptide interactions are estimated to constitute up to 40% of all protein interactions, relatively little information is available for the structural details of these interactions. (kuleuven.be)
  • A reliable data set of nonredundant protein-peptide complexes is indispensable as a basis for modeling and design, but current data sets for protein-peptide interactions are often biased towards specific types of interactions or are limited to interactions with small ligands. (kuleuven.be)
  • In PepX (http://pepx.switchlab.org), we have designed an unbiased and exhaustive data set of all protein-peptide complexes available in the Protein Data Bank with peptide lengths up to 35 residues. (kuleuven.be)
  • In addition, these complexes have been clustered based on their binding interfaces rather than sequence homology, providing a set of structurally diverse protein-peptide interactions. (kuleuven.be)
  • The final data set contains 505 unique protein-peptide interface clusters from 1431 complexes. (kuleuven.be)
  • Almac's peptide and protein technology offering is a key component within our suite of services. (boulderpeptide.org)
  • We offer a complete range of peptide and protein services from catalogue products through to GMP manufacture from early phase to commercial launch. (boulderpeptide.org)
  • The availability of bioactive peptides in food sources is currently a topic of great interest, following recent reports of their health benefits. (rssl.com)
  • Traditional methods of bioactive peptide discovery build on pre-existing knowledge of proteins and enzymes to create databases of novel peptides, from which assessments can be made on bioavailability. (rssl.com)
  • If successful, bioactive peptides used as a functional food ingredient could have significant health benefits in reducing conditions such as hypertension, diabetes and cancer. (rssl.com)
  • The Gpn residue is constrained to adopt folded conformations resulting in the formation of intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded structures even in short peptides. (figshare.com)
  • The Control Peptide has a similar sequence to the Inhibitor Peptide but does not inhibit the interaction. (promega.com)
  • The RGD peptide sequence is known to bind upregulated αVβ3 integrin motifs on the surface of cancer cells and it is demonstrated that the fluorinated products have a higher affinity to αVβ3 integrin than their monomeric counterparts. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Recent studies have been published indicating that the presence of structured forms is correlated with the location of T cell and/or B cell epitopes in peptide sequences. (scripps.edu)
  • As specialists in the manufacture of complex and high quality peptides, we continually make significant technological advances to support your research and development programmes and routinely produce peptides in excess of 100 amino acids in length. (boulderpeptide.org)
  • Here we demonstrate the concept of employing an amphiphilic derivative of a peptide to deliver the peptide into the brain. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The key to success is that the amphiphilic peptide should by design self-assemble into nanofibers wherein the active peptide epitope is tightly wrapped around the nanofiber core. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The nanofiber form appears to protect the amphiphilic peptide from degradation while in the plasma, and the amphiphilic nature of the peptide promotes its transport across the blood-brain barrier. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Therapeutic brain levels of the amphiphilic peptide are achieved with this strategy, compared with the absence of detectable peptide in the brain and the consequent lack of a therapeutic response when the underivatized peptide is administered. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Home Research Outputs Interaction between amphiphilic peptides and phospholipid me. (lu.se)
  • There are several types of peptides, but in bodybuilding most often apply the following: GHRP-or otherwise called group ghrelin, preparations included in which, allow to immediately increase the concentration of growth hormone in the body. (steroidscentre.com)
  • The delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins to the central nervous system is the biggest challenge when developing effective neuropharmaceuticals. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Peptide-mediated interactions are a prime target for drug design because they are predominantly present in signaling and regulatory networks. (kuleuven.be)
  • peptide Boc-Ala-Aib-Gpn-Aib-Ala-OMe 8 provides an example of C 12 conformation and peptides Boc-βLeu-Gpn-Val-OMe 9 and Boc-βPhe-Gpn-Phe-OMe 10 provide examples of C 13 conformation. (figshare.com)
  • A novel methodology, based on the mechanism of bacteriophage l switch in E. coli and combinatorial screening, has been developed to isolate peptides that bind another target peptide in vivo. (utexas.edu)
  • Moreover, we provide an additional source of data for peptide design by annotating peptides with naturally occurring backbone variations using fragment clusters from the BriX database. (kuleuven.be)
  • The presence of the hydrophobic stearated moiety enhances the cellular uptake of the peptide, allowing it to be used to study PKA signaling in intact cells in culture. (promega.com)
  • Reference 1 describes the inhibitory effects for the InCELLect™ AKAP St-Ht31 Inhibitor Peptide in the range of 5-50μM within 3-5 minutes after treatment. (promega.com)
  • The reaction is successfully extended from that previously reported for a monomeric cyclic peptide (cRGD) to cargoes of dendritic scaffolds carrying two and four cyclic peptide motifs. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Substrate tolerance allows a peptide cargo to be tethered to a 5'-chloro-5'-deoxynucleoside substrate for transhalogenation by the enzyme to a 5'-fluoro-5'-deoxynucleoside. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • X-ray crystal structures of complexes between peptides and anti-peptide antibodies frequently show the peptides bound in beta-turn conformations, and the presence of helix in one peptide-antibody complex has been shown by NMR spectroscopy. (scripps.edu)
  • Studies of peptides free in solution and bound to anti-peptide antibodies in the crystal indicate that the structure of the principal neutralizing determinant of HIV-1 probably includes at least one beta-turn in a highly conserved region. (scripps.edu)
  • Although most short, linear peptide fragments of proteins are unstructured in aqueous solution, a number of immunogenic and antigenic peptides have been shown to have conformational preferences for structured forms. (scripps.edu)
  • pHLIP Peptide Interaction with a Membrane Monitored by SAXS" by Theyencheri Narayanan, Dhammika Weerakkody et al. (uri.edu)
  • The pH (Low) Insertion Peptides (pHLIP® peptides) find application in studies of membrane-associated folding, since spontaneous insertion of these peptides is conveniently triggered by varying pH. (uri.edu)
  • At the same time, SAXS data clearly reflect the insertion of the peptide into the membrane at low pH, which opens the possibility to investigate kinetic process of a polypeptide insertion and exit from the membrane in real time by time-resolved SAXS. (uri.edu)
  • Here we employed small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to investigate WT pHLIP® peptide oligomeric state in solution at high concentrations and monitor changes in liposome structure upon peptide insertion into the bilayer. (uri.edu)
  • We established that even at high concentrations (up to 300 μM) WT pHLIP® peptide at pH 8.0 does not form oligomers higher than tetramers (which exhibit concentration-dependent transfer to monomeric state as it was shown previously). (uri.edu)
  • Peptides are distinguished from proteins on the basis of size, and as an arbitrary benchmark can be understood to contain approximately 50 or fewer amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Finally, while aspects of the lab techniques applied to peptides versus polypeptides and proteins differ (e.g., the specifics of electrophoresis , chromatography , etc.), the size boundaries that distinguish peptides from polypeptides and proteins are not absolute: long peptides such as amyloid beta have been referred to as proteins, and smaller proteins like insulin have been considered peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptide fragments refer to fragments of proteins that are used to identify or quantify the source protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hapten (or prohapten) model states that drugs and their metabolites are too small to be immunogenic on their own, but rather act like haptens and modify certain self-proteins in the host that lead to immune recognition of the resulting hapten-self-peptide complexes as de novo antigens ( 5 ⇓ - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The peptides of protein antigens reappear on the surface of the antigen-presenting cells, where they must become associated with membrane proteins encoded by genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in order to be recognized by T-Iymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • Current subject areas covered are Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins. (google.com)
  • Bioactive peptides differ from proteins when it comes to length (as proteins usually consist of longer sequences of more than 200 amino acids). (news-medical.net)
  • Bovine milk, cheese, and dairy products have high amounts of bioactive proteins and peptides. (news-medical.net)
  • Peptides derived from milk proteins show antioxidant properties and prevent the peroxidation of essential fatty acids. (news-medical.net)
  • Proteins and peptides from sources such as egg, milk, soy, and plant sources show anti-inflammatory properties. (news-medical.net)
  • Peptides from hydrolysates of rice and soybean proteins can stimulate ROS and trigger non-specific immune defense systems. (news-medical.net)
  • Signal Peptide Complex (Growth Factors): Nine signal peptides (made up of amino acids, which form proteins in the skin) bind moisture to skin visibly plumping, firming, and restoring bounce. (sephora.com)
  • Although these peptides have no clear homologies with known immune response modifiers, protein database searches established some structural similarities with proteins containing amino acid stretches similar to alloferon. (pnas.org)
  • These synthetic molecules mimic the structure of small proteins, but they are protected against processes that degrade natural peptides. (eurekalert.org)
  • A peptide bond is a linkage between the building blocks of proteins called amino acids (shorter strings of linked amino acids are known as peptides). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The synthesis of proteins involves the formation of many peptide bonds. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cleavage of peptide bonds, involved in digestion of proteins and in many regulatory processes, is carried out by enzymes known as proteases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Peptide , any organic substance of which the molecules are structurally like those of proteins, but smaller. (britannica.com)
  • This reaction, producing smaller peptides and finally the individual amino acids, is commonly used in studies of the composition and structure of peptides and proteins. (britannica.com)
  • Peptides that correspond substantially to the sequences of those proteins and methods of their use are also disclosed, as are polymers containing peptide repeating units corresponding to the 540 residue protein and also polymers containing 517 protein pentapeptides as repeating units. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to recombinant proteins and peptides related to mycobacteria, and particularly to proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are coded for by adjacent open reading frames on complementary DNA strands of the genome and vectors for propagating and expressing those recombinants, as well as to peptides that correspond substantially in sequence to portions of those proteins. (google.com)
  • These bacteria or yeast secrete their proteolytic enzymes in due course to release peptides from the proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Human salivary proteins, including statherin, histatin 3, histatin 1, proline-rich proteins and musin 7 can generate bioactive peptides with anti-microbial, anti-viral, and other therapeutic activities. (news-medical.net)
  • Oral nanoparticle formulations increase bioavailability of bioactive proteins and peptides, and improve treatment compliance in the long run. (news-medical.net)
  • By definition, a peptide is a natural building block of enzymes and proteins. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. (mdpi.com)
  • Emphasizes all aspects of peptide research and covers investigations of these proteins in plants, insects, lower vertebrates, animals and clinical studies in humans. (ovid.com)
  • Vital Proteins® Collagen Peptides - Unflavored is for skin, hair + joint support. (gnc.com)
  • The energy dependence of fragmentation in a collision cell was measured for 2100 peptide ions derived from the digestion of twenty four common proteins. (nist.gov)
  • Most proteins were digested by trypsin and derived peptides were divided into several classes, depending on the mobility (basicity) of the least tightly bound proton and in some cases on charge. (nist.gov)
  • Increased conformational rigidity of bicyclic peptides is obtained by tying the peptide up on small central molecular scaffolds, which results in molecules with high target specificity and affinity resembling antibodies or small proteins. (astrazeneca.com)
  • Many food proteins are sources for peptides that show biological activity. (wikiversity.org)
  • It was found that milk proteins can provide peptides that enhance calcium and phosphate bioavailability. (wikiversity.org)
  • 2003) also isolated peptides from porcine myofibrillar proteins by protease treatment [4] . (wikiversity.org)
  • Antioxidant activity of peptides obtained from porcine myofibrillar proteins by protease treatment. (wikiversity.org)
  • The genes that produce tachykinins encode precursor proteins called preprotachykinins, which are chopped apart into smaller peptides by posttranslational proteolytic processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Milk is a rich source of biologically active peptides which are released during digestion. (news-medical.net)
  • Eggs are another rich source of biologically active peptides. (news-medical.net)
  • Peptides is an international journal presenting original contributions on the biochemistry , physiology and pharmacology of biological active peptides , as well as their functions that relate to gastroenterology, endocrinology, and behavioral effects . (elsevier.com)
  • Studying the interaction of AMPs with biological membranes is of paramount importance for the understanding of their mechanism of action, their selectivity, and consequently, the development of new active peptides to be used in medicine and agriculture. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Pseudins are a subfamily of the FSAP family (Frog Secreted Active Peptides) extracted from the skin of the paradoxical frog Pseudis paradoxa (Paradoxical frog). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • These active peptides were able to interact with cellular membrane.Hemoglobin is an animal protein described as a source of biologically active peptides. (chemweb.com)
  • The most active peptides resulted to be the short ones. (chemweb.com)
  • The articles of this Research Topic will be assembled into a free-of-charge e-book and we would like that this e-book becomes a major reference for all researchers working on biologically active peptides. (frontiersin.org)
  • [4] All peptides except cyclic peptides have an N-terminal and C-terminal residue at the end of the peptide (as shown for the tetrapeptide in the image). (wikipedia.org)
  • [11] These peptides are often cyclic and can have highly complex cyclic structures, although linear nonribosomal peptides are also common. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibiotic s cyclosporin , valinomycin , and gramicidin are all cyclic peptides. (everything2.com)
  • Besides, we were able to provide detailed insight on the mechanism of pore-forming cyclic peptides in an effort that brought together simulation results and in vitro measurements of peptide activity [6]. (rug.nl)
  • The molecular basis for antimicrobial activity of pore-forming cyclic peptides. (rug.nl)
  • In particular, there are provided cyclic peptides having increased affinity and selectivity for the certain receptors over that of linear, Arg-Gly-Asp-containing synthetic peptides. (google.es)
  • Antimicrobial peptides are diverse group of biologically active molecules with multidimensional properties. (hindawi.com)
  • The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are biologically active molecules produced by wide variety of organisms as an essential component of their innate immune response. (hindawi.com)
  • 1. A predetermined mixture of peptides containing 8,000 or more different peptides of distinct, unique and different amino acid sequences, wherein the presence of each peptide in the mixture is predetermined, each peptide is present in an amount such that 100 picomoles or more of each peptide can be retrieved and analyzed and the mixture includes at least one biologically active peptide. (google.com)
  • Opportunities to increase medicament concentrations in areas that are difficult to access now exist with the advent of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), which can transport into the cell a wide variety of biologically active conjugates (cargoes). (nih.gov)
  • Stepwise microwave assisted solid phase synthesis is an efficient technique especially for the preparation of difficult and long peptide sequences. (unimi.it)
  • In 2008, researchers were able to show a much more robust peptide synthesis than the one Miller published in Science in 1953. (redorbit.com)
  • A method to obtain selected individual peptides or families thereof which have a target property and optionally to determine the amino acid sequence of a selected peptide or peptides to permit synthesis in practical quantities is disclosed. (google.com)
  • In general outline, the method of the invention comprises synthesizing a mixture of randomly or deliberately generated peptides using standard synthesis techniques, but adjusting the individual concentrations of the components of a mixture of sequentially added amino acids according to the coupling constants for each amino acid/amino acid coupling. (google.com)
  • Currently, more than 2,000 AMPs have been reported in antimicrobial peptide database ( http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.php/ ). (hindawi.com)
  • A novel antimicrobial peptide from bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) skin, structurally related to the bacterial antibiotic, polymyxin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Pseudin-2: an antimicrobial peptide with low hemolytic activity from the skin of the paradoxical frog. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Some of the pharmacological properties of bioactive peptides are discussed below. (news-medical.net)
  • A new study suggests vitamin D may protect against UTIs among children by upregulating their own naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. (vitamindcouncil.org)
  • Therapeutic Peptides: Methods and Protocols features biological methods for the preparation of peptide phage display libraries using both filamentous and lytic phage. (springer.com)
  • Practical and dependable, Therapeutic Peptides: Methods and Protocols is an ideal guide for researchers from all backgrounds seeking methods for the identification of therapeutic peptide candidates. (springer.com)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that this peptide, which has immunomodulatory properties, may have therapeutic capacities. (pnas.org)
  • Among the bioactive peptides/polypeptides that have already been characterized from insects, antimicrobial peptides are fascinating scientists for their potential use as therapeutic agents ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we describe the structure, biological activity, and therapeutic potential of a group of bioactive peptides originating from insects. (pnas.org)
  • Milk-derived bioactive peptides also exert multiple therapeutic functions, such as immunomodulatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and antagonistic activities against toxic agents. (news-medical.net)
  • By enhancing the mucoadhesive property of nanoparticles, bioactive peptides can readily reach the blood stream for its intended therapeutic action. (news-medical.net)
  • Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) inhibit cell growth and are involved in killing microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. (news-medical.net)
  • The presence of unusual amino acids and structural motifs in AMPs confers unique structural properties to the peptide that attribute for their specific mode of action. (hindawi.com)
  • The present review focuses on the diversity and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of AMPs along with its multidimensional properties that could be exploited for the application of these bioactive peptides as a potential and promising drug candidate in pharmaceutical industries. (hindawi.com)
  • The smaller size of AMPs facilitates the rapid diffusion and secretion of peptide outside the cells, which is required for eliciting immediate defence response against pathogenic microbes [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The antimicrobial specificity of AMPs towards the target cells was highly dependent on the preferential interaction of peptides with the microbial cells, which enable them to kill specific target cells without affecting the host cells [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, net charge and hydrophobicity of AMPs play a crucial role in cellular association of these peptides to selective target cellular membranes in exerting antimicrobial activity [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A group of peptide molecules has been found to play a major role as cutaneous antimicrobial and immunomodulating agents, the so-called host defence peptides (HDPs) or antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). (medscape.com)
  • Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) form a very large family of natural peptides with an astonishing variety of activities (antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral and anti-tumor) with an impact in medicine (as drugs targeting cancer or antibiotic-resistant super-bugs) and agriculture (as an alternative to pesticides). (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) exhibit a wide range of antimicrobial and antifungal activity and have attracted significant interest as potential antibiotics. (rug.nl)
  • Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. (mdpi.com)
  • In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. (mdpi.com)
  • The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. (mdpi.com)
  • The class of peptides includes many hormones, antibiotics, and other compounds that participate in the metabolic functions of living organisms. (britannica.com)
  • Small peptides have been discovered that, like hormones, act on certain target organs. (britannica.com)
  • natriuretic peptide Any of several peptide hormones that promote the excretion of sodium ions in the urine (i.e. natriuresis). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some organisms produce peptides as antibiotics , such as microcins . (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural peptide antibiotics, the so-called host defence peptides (HDPs), have been investigated since the 1990s in a search for alternative treatment strategies. (medscape.com)
  • A method pioneered by MIT researchers might offer hope in finding a new generation of antibiotics, made of antimicrobial peptides. (medgadget.com)
  • New research shows that vitamin D increases the body's antimicrobial peptides, which are naturally occurring antibiotics in the body. (vitamindcouncil.org)
  • The research carried out by Empa and the University of Copenhagen could, therefore, be a first step in the successful fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, as peptides use a different mechanism from that used by antibiotics and destroy the membrane of bacteria. (empa.ch)
  • The most common non-ribosomal peptide is glutathione , which is a component of the antioxidant defenses of most aerobic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Washington have demonstrated how peptides, or short chains of amino acids, assemble by themselves into nano-sized structures on solid surfaces such as graphite and other layered minerals. (livescience.com)
  • Scientists and engineers have long been interested in synthesizing peptides -- chains of amino acids responsible for conducting many functions within cells -- to both mimic nature and to perform new activities. (eurekalert.org)
  • Peptides are built from chains of amino acids that can be as many as 20 amino acids long, with 20 different possibilities for each acid. (eurekalert.org)
  • It's all about synthetic peptides, small chains of amino acids with potentially huge effects on your health and physiological function. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • On the other hand, collagen peptides are highly bioavailable and easily absorbed…(because they are) shorter chains of amino acids, and thus have a lower molecular weight. (spafinder.com)
  • IMAP 2018 will cover both the antimicrobial activity of peptides as well as their role in regulation and modulation of the immune system. (rsc.org)
  • Bioactive Collagen Peptides® are expanding more and more into active nutrition, where they can play a unique role in helping athletes and active people. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Previous skin health studies with VERISOL® Bioactive Collagen Peptides® have shown that when ingested orally, they stimulate fibroblast cells in the dermal. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • In general, peptides are linear, although lariat structures have been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growth of gold nanoparticles has been manipulated using amino acids and peptides to produce twisted structures that alter the rotation of light. (nature.com)
  • Calliphora is also known to produce, after an experimental challenge with bacteria, a series of potent antimicrobial substances with primary structures similar to those described for other insects, namely an insect defensin, diptericins, cecropins, and proline-rich peptides ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Beta peptide-based structures might provide the bioscaffolding for brain meshes that can help coordinate the growth of neurons after a patient experiences a stroke or traumatic brain injury. (eurekalert.org)
  • To evaluate the model's calculations experimentally, the team then created the most promising peptides and analyzed them using SLIM (structures for lossless ion manipulations) at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a Department of Energy Office of Science user facility. (energy.gov)
  • The first step was to find the right peptides that would act as enzymatic substrates for these structures. (eurekalert.org)
  • A few peptides with certain structures do not fit these correlations and are discussed separately. (nist.gov)
  • Peptides is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the biochemistry, neurochemistry, pharmacology, and biological functions of peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide ( amide ) bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids that have been incorporated into peptides are termed "residues" due to the release of either a hydrogen ion from the amine end or a hydroxyl ion from the carboxyl end, or both, as a water molecule is released during formation of each amide bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptide molecules are composed of two or more amino acids joined through amide formation involving the carboxyl group of each amino acid and the amino group of the next. (britannica.com)
  • The chemical bond between the carbon and nitrogen atoms of each amide group is called a peptide bond . (britannica.com)
  • These molecule s link to each other by forming a bond (an amide linkage) between the amino group of one peptide to the carboxyl group of another. (everything2.com)
  • Biochemists study the structure of peptides to help solve a wide range of problems in cell biology . (everything2.com)
  • Minireview: the glucagon-like peptides. (nih.gov)
  • The glucagon-like peptides GLP-1 and GLP-2 are produced in enteroendocrine L cells of the small and large intestine and secreted in a nutrient-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the biological activity of the glucagon-like peptides. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Most of them are cationic peptides, and only a few of them are anionic, which shared the ability to fold into amphipathic conformation upon interacting with the membranes [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A three-year PhD position is available at the GEC Department, University "Picardie Jules Verne" (UPJV) in Amiens, France, to study the interaction of antimicrobial peptides with biomimetic membranes. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Various mechanisms for antimicrobial peptides to interact with bacterial membranes. (rug.nl)
  • Antimicrobial peptides act by attaching to bacterial membranes and punching holes in them , an attack that is general to many different types of bacteria and is difficult for them to defend against. (medgadget.com)
  • The action aforementioned peptides were studied on artificial membranes as well. (chemweb.com)
  • Digestion of casein also produces phosphorylated peptides with hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activity. (news-medical.net)
  • Other important factors such as the possibility of allergenicity, cytotoxicity and the stability of the peptides during gastrointestinal digestion would need to be addressed. (mdpi.com)
  • Peptic digestion of bovine hemoglobin alpha-chain allowed obtaining peptide fractions with antimicrobial activity. (chemweb.com)
  • a , b , Comparison of DDA and DIA data for individual peptides under each experimental condition. (nature.com)
  • Bicyclic peptides are also proteolytically stable with improved plasma stability compared to linear peptides. (astrazeneca.com)
  • While nature offers a few peptides with the perfect characteristics for such purposes, scientists have been attempting to design peptides more precisely. (energy.gov)
  • 10 kDa) are effective anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidative agents that find commercial application to produce peptides in bulk than high molecular weight peptides. (news-medical.net)
  • Regulatory Peptides merged with Peptides in January 2015. (elsevier.com)
  • Apidaecins: antibacterial peptides from honeybees. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The specially developed nanocarriers consist of so-called structure-forming lipids, which can accommodate the antibacterial peptides and hold or release them based on the nature of the structure. (empa.ch)
  • For the first time, researchers have shown it is possible to attach self-assembling beta peptides onto different organic molecules. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using modern liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques, the researchers in the new study discovered that the reaction samples from 1958 did indeed contain peptides. (redorbit.com)
  • To overcome this obstacle, the researchers developed a systemic, fluorescently labeled peptide and injected it into mice. (photonics.com)
  • Sigma-Genosys created the PEPscreen ® Custom Peptide Library service to enable researchers to affordably and quickly perform high throughput peptide assays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We appreciate your dedication to the continuing education of fellow researchers by providing your expertise regarding peptides as screening tools. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Empa researchers have now succeeded in encasing peptides in a protective coat, which could prolong their life in the human body. (empa.ch)
  • Others include brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), produced in the central nervous system , and type C natriuretic peptide (CNP). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Within the last five years, assay systems for measurement of plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) have been approved as a diagnostic aid for heart failure (HF). (nih.gov)
  • In this report, we present the isolation, structural characterization, and biological properties of two variants of a group of bioactive, slightly cationic peptides, referred to as alloferons. (pnas.org)
  • The pseudins belong to the class of cationic, amphipathic-helical antimicrobial peptides [ PMID: 11689009 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • and peptides with a high content of specific amino acid residues (e.g. proline, glycine or histidine rich). (news-medical.net)
  • 3. The peptide of claim 1, wherein the peptide has a non-peptide bond between adjacent amino acid residues. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Amyloid deposits are insoluble and the core component of these plaques are A peptides that are 39 to 42 amino acid residues in length with a molecular mass of approximately 4 kDa. (anaspec.com)
  • This provides an explanation for HLA-linked idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, namely that drugs can alter the repertoire of self-peptides presented to T cells, thus causing the equivalent of an alloreactive T-cell response. (pnas.org)
  • Indeed, we identified specific self-peptides that are presented only in the presence of abacavir and that were recognized by T cells of hypersensitive patients. (pnas.org)
  • Locating hard-to-see nerves during surgery may now be possible with injectable fluorescent peptides that preferentially bind to peripheral neurons, causing them to glow. (photonics.com)
  • Some or all of the peptide bonds, which connect the consecutive triplets of atoms in the chain regarded as the backbone of the molecule, can be broken by partial or complete hydrolysis of the compound . (britannica.com)
  • With their tiny scaffolds of atoms, peptides hold the promise of creating catalysts for biofuels, capturing hazardous waste, and delivering new therapies to improve health. (energy.gov)
  • Natural product-like macrocyclic N-methyl-peptide inhibitors against a ubiquitin ligase uncovered from a ribosome-expressed de novo library," Chemistry & Biology , vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1562-1570, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • The test is also often ordered to check certain medicines that can help the body produce more insulin, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 analogs (GLP-1) or DPP IV inhibitors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other peptides are studied because they have or may have value in treating diseases such as cancer , AIDS , and other viral and bacterial diseases. (everything2.com)
  • Antimicrobial peptides induce growth of phosphatidylglycerol domains in a model bacterial membrane. (rug.nl)
  • The charged ends allow the peptides to latch onto the bacteria by attracting the negative charges of the bacterial membrane, while the hydrophobic ends punch holes in the membrane. (medgadget.com)
  • The reason for this lies in their structure, which results in peptides being broken down relatively quickly inside the human body, before they can have an anti-bacterial impact. (empa.ch)
  • Initial tests with bacterial cultures have shown that the peptides are completely enclosed by the nanocarriers and thus remain stable. (empa.ch)
  • Peptides derived from α 107-141 were antibacterial whatever the bacterial species. (chemweb.com)
  • The minimal inhibitory concentration and mode of action of these peptides were studied against five bacterial strains including Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis as Gram-negative bacteria and Listeria innocua, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus as Gram-positive bacteria. (chemweb.com)
  • For this reason, the search for food-derived bioactive peptides has increased exponentially. (mdpi.com)
  • In type 2 diabetes, C-peptide levels will typically be normal or high, as the pancreas works harder to overcome insulin resistance (when the tissues become less sensitive to the effects of insulin) by producing more insulin. (kidshealth.org)
  • Someone with type 1 or type 2 diabetes may have their C-peptide level measured to see if their body is still producing insulin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with type 2 diabetes, obesity, or insulin resistance may have a high C-peptide level. (medlineplus.gov)
  • C-Peptide is useful in the evaluation of pancreatic beta cell function (e.g., helping distinguish type 1 from type 2 diabetes mellitus, or monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplants) and for determining the source of insulin in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (e.g., distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors from exogenous insulin administration). (questdiagnostics.com)
  • The peptides, referred to as alloferons, were isolated from bacteria-challenged larvae of the blow fly Calliphora vicina . (pnas.org)
  • In this project, various peptides with activity towards cancer, bacteria and fungi will be studied. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • About half of the peptides displayed significant antimicrobial activity against two common strains of bacteria - Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. (medgadget.com)
  • This is an important breakthrough because peptides are considered to be a possible solution in the fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (empa.ch)
  • They occur in many organisms and constitute natural weapons against bacteria in the body, being known as antimicrobial peptides. (empa.ch)
  • Peptides are already effective against bacteria when working "alone" - but in combination with the carrier structure they are even stronger. (empa.ch)
  • There are peptides which affect the growth of bacteria, yeasts and fungi. (wikiversity.org)
  • Non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs) are secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms, e.g. bacteria and fungi. (innovations-report.com)
  • This review discusses our current knowledge on the health effects of food-derived bioactive peptides, their processing methods and challenges in their development. (mdpi.com)
  • But methods for discovering and synthesizing peptides are expensive and time-consuming, often involving months or years of guesswork and failure. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nonribosomal peptides are assembled by enzymes that are specific to each peptide, rather than by the ribosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonribosomal peptides are assembled by enzymes , not the ribosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In beta peptides, the extra carbon makes the molecules hardier against peptide-breaking enzymes in the body. (eurekalert.org)
  • Among cereals, wheat and barley showed the highest abundance of peptides with potential biological activity. (news-medical.net)
  • The type of N- and C-terminal amino acid, the peptide chain length, charge character, and composition of the amino acids determines the biological activity of bioactive peptides. (news-medical.net)
  • Food-derived peptides with biological activity: from research to food applications. (wikiversity.org)