Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.

How do peptide synthetases generate structural diversity? (1/36104)

Many low-molecular-weight peptides of microbial origin are synthesized nonribosomally on large multifunctional proteins, termed peptide synthetases. These enzymes contain repeated building blocks in which several defined domains catalyze specific reactions of peptide synthesis. The order of these domains within the enzyme determines the sequence and structure of the peptide product.  (+info)

Conserved domains and lack of evidence for polyglutamine length polymorphism in the chicken homolog of the Machado-Joseph disease gene product ataxin-3. (2/36104)

Ataxin-3 is a protein of unknown function which is mutated in Machado-Joseph disease by expansion of a genetically unstable CAG repeat encoding polyglutamine. By analysis of chicken ataxin-3 we were able to identify four conserved domains of the protein and detected widespread expression in chicken tissues. In the first such analysis in a non-primate species we found that in contrast to primates, the chicken CAG repeat is short and genetically stable.  (+info)

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (3/36104)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

Role of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in adrenomedullin-induced vasodilation in the rat. (4/36104)

We previously reported that adrenomedullin (AM), a potent vasodilator peptide discovered in pheochromocytoma cells, stimulates nitric oxide (NO) release in the rat kidney. To further investigate whether the NO-cGMP pathway is involved in the mechanisms of AM-induced vasodilation, we examined the effects of E-4021, a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on AM-induced vasorelaxation in aortic rings and perfused kidneys isolated from Wistar rats. We also measured NO release from the kidneys using a chemiluminescence assay. AM (10(-10) to 10(-7) mol/L) relaxed the aorta precontracted with phenylephrine in a dose-dependent manner. Denudation of endothelium (E) attenuated the vasodilatory action of AM (10(-7) mol/L AM: intact (E+) -25.7+/-5.2% versus denuded (E-) -7. 8+/-0.6%, P<0.05). On the other hand, pretreatment with 10(-8) mol/L E-4021 augmented AM-induced vasorelaxation in the intact aorta (-49. 0+/-7.9%, P<0.05) but not in the denuded one. E-4021 also enhanced acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation in the rat intact aorta (10(-7) mol/L ACh -36.6+/-8.4% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-7) mol/L ACh -62.7+/-3.1%, P<0.05). In perfused kidneys, AM-induced vasorelaxation was also augmented by preincubation with E-4021 (10(-9) mol/L AM -15.4+/-0.6% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-9) mol/L AM -23.6+/-1.2%, P<0.01). AM significantly increased NO release from rat kidneys (DeltaNO: +11.3+/-0.8 fmol. min-1. g-1 kidney at 10(-9) mol/L AM), which was not affected by E-4021. E-4021 enhanced ACh-induced vasorelaxation (10(-9) mol/L ACh -9.7+/-1.7% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-9) mol/L ACh -18.8+/-2.9%, P<0.01) but did not affect ACh-induced NO release from the kidneys. In the aorta and the kidney, 10(-4) mol/L of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an NO synthase inhibitor, and 10(-5) mol/L of methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, reduced the vasodilatory effect of AM. These results suggest that the NO-cGMP pathway is involved in the mechanism of AM-induced vasorelaxation, at least in the rat aorta and kidney.  (+info)

Central peptidergic neurons are hyperactive during collateral sprouting and inhibition of activity suppresses sprouting. (5/36104)

Little is known regarding the effect of chronic changes in neuronal activity on the extent of collateral sprouting by identified CNS neurons. We have investigated the relationship between activity and sprouting in oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons of the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory system (MNS). Uninjured MNS neurons undergo a robust collateral-sprouting response that restores the axon population of the neural lobe (NL) after a lesion of the contralateral MNS (). Simultaneously, lesioned rats develop chronic urinary hyperosmolality indicative of heightened neurosecretory activity. We therefore tested the hypothesis that sprouting MNS neurons are hyperactive by measuring changes in cell and nuclear diameters, OT and VP mRNA pools, and axonal cytochrome oxidase activity (COX). Each of these measures was significantly elevated during the period of most rapid axonal growth between 1 and 4 weeks after the lesion, confirming that both OT and VP neurons are hyperactive while undergoing collateral sprouting. In a second study the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of neuronal activity would interfere with the sprouting response was tested. Chronic hyponatremia (CH) was induced 3 d before the hypothalamic lesion and sustained for 4 weeks to suppress neurosecretory activity. CH abolished the lesion-induced increases in OT and VP mRNA pools and virtually eliminated measurable COX activity in MNS terminals. Counts of the total number of axon profiles in the NL revealed that CH also prevented axonal sprouting from occurring. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased neuronal activity is required for denervation-induced collateral sprouting to occur in the MNS.  (+info)

The amyloid precursor protein interacts with Go heterotrimeric protein within a cell compartment specialized in signal transduction. (6/36104)

The function of the beta-amyloid protein precursor (betaAPP), a transmembrane molecule involved in Alzheimer pathologies, is poorly understood. We recently reported the presence of a fraction of betaAPP in cholesterol and sphingoglycolipid-enriched microdomains (CSEM), a caveolae-like compartment specialized in signal transduction. To investigate whether betaAPP actually interferes with cell signaling, we reexamined the interaction between betaAPP and Go GTPase. In strong contrast with results obtained with reconstituted phospholipid vesicles (Okamoto et al., 1995), we find that incubating total neuronal membranes with 22C11, an antibody that recognizes an N-terminal betaAPP epitope, reduces high-affinity Go GTPase activity. This inhibition is specific of Galphao and is reproduced, in the absence of 22C11, by the addition of the betaAPP C-terminal domain but not by two distinct mutated betaAPP C-terminal domains that do not bind Galphao. This inhibition of Galphao GTPase activity by either 22C11 or wild-type betaAPP cytoplasmic domain suggests that intracellular interactions between betaAPP and Galphao could be regulated by extracellular signals. To verify whether this interaction is preserved in CSEM, we first used biochemical, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural techniques to unambiguously confirm the colocalization of Galphao and betaAPP in CSEM. We show that inhibition of basal Galphao GTPase activity also occurs within CSEM and correlates with the coimmunoprecipitation of Galphao and betaAPP. The regulation of Galphao GTPase activity by betaAPP in a compartment specialized in signaling may have important consequences for our understanding of the physiopathological functions of betaAPP.  (+info)

Interferon-alpha does not improve outcome at one year in patients with diffuse cutaneous scleroderma: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (7/36104)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) reduces the severity of skin involvement in early (<3 years) diffuse scleroderma. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 35 patients with early scleroderma received subcutaneous injections of either IFNalpha (13.5 x 10(6) units per week in divided doses) or indistinguishable placebo. Outcomes assessed were the modified Rodnan skin score, as determined by a single observer at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, as well as data on renal, cardiac, and lung function. Pre- and posttreatment skin biopsy samples were analyzed and blood was obtained for assessment of procollagen peptide levels. RESULTS: There were 11 withdrawals from the IFNalpha group and 3 from the placebo group due to either toxicity, lack of efficacy, or death. In the intent-to-treat analysis, there was a greater improvement in the skin score in the placebo group between 0 and 12 months (mean change IFNalpha -4.7 versus placebo -7.5; P = 0.36). There was also a greater deterioration in lung function in patients receiving active therapy, as assessed by either the forced vital capacity (mean change IFNalpha -8.2 versus placebo +1.3; P = 0.01) or the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (mean change IFNalpha -9.3 versus placebo +4.7; P = 0.002). Skin biopsy showed no significant decrease in collagen synthesis in the IFNalpha group, and no significant differences in the levels of procollagen peptides were seen between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that IFNalpha is of no value in the treatment of scleroderma, and that it may in fact be deleterious.  (+info)

Basic homopolyamino acids, histones and protamines are potent antagonists of angiogenin binding to ribonuclease inhibitor. (8/36104)

A radio-ribonuclease inhibitor assay based on the interaction of 125I-angiogenin with ribonuclease inhibitor (RI) was used to detect pancreatic-type ribonucleases and potential modulators of their action. We show that highly basic proteins including the homopolypeptides poly-arginine, poly-lysine and poly-ornithine, core histones, spermatid-specific S1 protein and the protamines HP3 and Z3 were strong inhibitors of angiogenin binding to RI. A minimum size of poly-arginine and poly-lysine was required for efficient inhibition. The inhibition likely resulted from direct association of the basic proteins with the acidic inhibitor, as RI bound to poly-lysine and protamines while 125I-angiogenin did not. Antagonists of the angiogenin-RI interaction are potential regulators of either angiogenin-triggered angiogenesis and/or intracellular RI function, depending on their preferential target.  (+info)

There are two main types of hemolysis:

1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.

Some common causes of hemolysis include:

1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.

The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease can vary from person to person and may progress slowly over time. Early symptoms may include memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with problem-solving. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience language difficulties, visual hallucinations, and changes in mood and behavior.

There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but there are several medications and therapies that can help manage its symptoms and slow its progression. These include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive training and behavioral therapy.

Alzheimer's disease is a significant public health concern, affecting an estimated 5.8 million Americans in 2020. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and its prevalence is expected to continue to increase as the population ages.

There is ongoing research into the causes and potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease, including studies into the role of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the immune system. Other areas of research include the development of biomarkers for early detection and the use of advanced imaging techniques to monitor progression of the disease.

Overall, Alzheimer's disease is a complex and multifactorial disorder that poses significant challenges for individuals, families, and healthcare systems. However, with ongoing research and advances in medical technology, there is hope for improving diagnosis and treatment options in the future.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

There are two main types of heart failure:

1. Left-sided heart failure: This occurs when the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the lungs and other organs.
2. Right-sided heart failure: This occurs when the right ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the body's tissues and organs.

Symptoms of heart failure may include:

* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Swelling in the abdomen
* Weight gain
* Coughing up pink, frothy fluid
* Rapid or irregular heartbeat
* Dizziness or lightheadedness

Treatment for heart failure typically involves a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. Medications may include diuretics to remove excess fluid from the body, ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, and aldosterone antagonists to reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Lifestyle changes may include a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques. In severe cases, heart failure may require hospitalization or implantation of a device such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).

It is important to note that heart failure is a chronic condition, and it requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with heart failure are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Peptides. 27 (4): 911-6. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.12.014. PMID 16476508. Steckelings, U; Kaschina, E; Unger, T (2005). "The ... Peptides. 26 (11): 2274-9. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.04.025. PMID 16137788. "Master Journal List". Intellectual Property & ... "Peptides". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2021. Official website (Articles with ... Peptides is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the biochemistry, neurochemistry, pharmacology, and biological ...
... are one of the largest families of neuropeptides, found from amphibians to mammals. They were so named due ... Tachykinin peptides are also involved in inflammation, and tachykinin receptor antagonists have been researched for use in ... The genes also code for multiple splice forms that are made up of different sets of peptides. Tachykinins excite neurons, evoke ... Neuropeptide K and neuropeptide gamma are N-terminally longer versions of neurokinin A that appear to be final peptide products ...
... are a family of short (23 amino acids) insect peptides that halt metamorphosis of insects from larvae to ... These peptides contain one disulphide bridge. The family includes growth-blocking peptide (GBP) of Mythimna separata (Oriental ... "Structure of the insect cytokine peptide plasmatocyte-spreading peptide 1 from Pseudoplusia includens". Journal of Biological ... as well as plasmatocyte-spreading peptide (PSP1). Skinner WS, Dennis PA, Li JP, Summerfelt RM, Carney RL, Quistad GB (July 1991 ...
... including antimicrobial peptides, in a protein sequence PeptideRanker Bioactive peptide, including antimicrobial peptide, ... Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defence peptides (HDPs) are part of the innate immune response found among all ... Antimicrobial peptides are generally between 12 and 50 amino acids. These peptides include two or more positively charged ... It appears as though many peptides initially isolated as and termed "antimicrobial peptides" have been shown to have more ...
... include: Casomorphin (from milk) Gluten exorphin (from gluten) Gliadorphin/gluteomorphin (from gluten) ... Rubiscolin (from spinach) Soymorphin-5 (from soy) Oryzatensin (from rice) v t e v t e (Peptides, Opioids, All stub articles, ...
... are a family of highly potent antimicrobial peptides with a large spectrum of activity, which ... A number of these defence peptides are secreted from the skin of frogs and other amphibians, including the opiate-like ... Conlon JM, Kolodziejek J, Nowotny N (August 2009). "Antimicrobial peptides from the skins of North American frogs". Biochimica ... Haney EF, Hunter HN, Matsuzaki K, Vogel HJ (August 2009). "Solution NMR studies of amphibian antimicrobial peptides: linking ...
The final peptides are eight to fourteen residues long. Erspamer V, Erspamer GF, Mazzanti G, Endean R (1984). "Active peptides ... Bombesin-like peptides comprise a large family of peptides which were initially isolated from amphibian skin, where they ... Bombesin-like peptides, like many other active peptides, are synthesized as larger protein precursors that are enzymatically ... In mammals and birds two categories of bombesin-like peptides are known, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), which stimulates the ...
In genetic engineering, the 2A peptides are used to cleave a longer peptide into two shorter peptides. The 2A peptides can be ... 2A self-cleaving peptides, or 2A peptides, is a class of 18-22 aa-long peptides, which can induce ribosomal skipping during ... resulting in the peptide located upstream of the 2A peptide to have extra amino acids on its C-terminal end while the peptide ... 2A peptides, when combined (or not) with the IRES elements, can make it possible to generate multiple separated peptides within ...
... renal peptides, respiratory peptides, opiate peptides, neurotrophic peptides, and blood-brain peptides. Some ribosomal peptides ... fungal peptides, invertebrate peptides, amphibian/skin peptides, venom peptides, cancer/anticancer peptides, vaccine peptides, ... immune/inflammatory peptides, brain peptides, endocrine peptides, ingestive peptides, gastrointestinal peptides, cardiovascular ... Amylin AGG01 Aromatic short peptides Biomimetic peptides Peptide amphiphiles Peptide dendrimers B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP ...
... forms a peptide bond). A peptide bond can be broken by hydrolysis (the addition of water). The hydrolysis of peptide bonds in ... Peptides and proteins are chains of amino acids held together by peptide bonds (and sometimes by a few isopeptide bonds). ... However, not all peptide groups have the same effect on folding; nonnative isomers of other peptide groups may not affect ... Some peptides, like alpha-amanitin, are called ribosomal peptides as they are made by ribosomes, but many are nonribosomal ...
Opioid peptides are peptides that bind to opioid receptors in the brain; opiates and opioids mimic the effect of these peptides ... Such peptides may be produced by the body itself, for example endorphins. The effects of these peptides vary, but they all ... Exorphins include opioid food peptides like Gluten exorphin and opioid food peptides and are mostly contained in cereals and ... hemoglobin-derived opioid peptides, including hemorphin-4, valorphin, and spinorphin, among others. While not peptides, codeine ...
... has immunotoxic as well as neurotoxic properties due to different active sites of the MCD peptide. The MCD peptide ... MCD peptide is a cationic 22-amino acid residue peptide with two disulfide bridges. Although the MCD peptide sequence shows ... Buku, A (1999). "Mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide: a prototypic peptide in allergy and inflammation". Peptides. 20 (3): ... MCD peptide is a component of bumblebee (Megabombus pennsylvanicus) venom. In addition to MCD peptide, melittin and apamin have ...
Peptides with multiple, tandem staples are sometimes referred to as stitched peptides. Among other applications, peptide ... A stapled peptide is a short peptide, typically in an alpha-helical conformation, that is constrained by a synthetic brace (" ... Beta-peptide Druggability Non-proteinogenic amino acids Peptide synthesis Peptidomimetic Peptoid Douse, CH; Maas, SJ; Thomas, ... Since this first proof of principle, peptide stapling technology has been applied to numerous peptide templates, allowing the ...
A peptide library is a tool for studying proteins. A peptide library contains a great number of peptides that have a systematic ... "Peptide Library services". Archived from the original on 2022-03-14. Retrieved 2022-07-21. Peptide library ... The subtypes are (1) overlapping peptide libraries, (2) truncation peptide libraries, (3) random libraries, (4) alanine ... Large random peptide libraries are often used for the synthesis of certain peptide molecules, such as ultra-large chemical ...
... vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) K. Siddle, J. C. Hutton, Peptide Hormone Secretion/Peptide Hormone Action: A Practical ... Like all peptides and proteins, peptide hormones and protein hormones are synthesized in cells from amino acids according to ... Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptide, or proteins, respectively. The latter have ... When a peptide hormone binds to a receptor on the surface of the cell, a second messenger appears in the cytoplasm, which ...
... , and its modified analog Dala1-peptide T-amide (DAPTA), a drug in clinical trials, is a short peptide derived from ... Jul 2003). "Antiviral and immunological benefits in HIV patients receiving intranasal peptide T (DAPTA)". Peptides. 24 (7): ... Peptide T has several positive effects related to HIV disease and Neuro-AIDS. A FDG-PET neuro-imaging study in an individual ... Peptide T clinical development was stopped due to the propensity of the liquid nasal spray to lose potency upon storage and ...
A peptide microarray (also commonly known as peptide chip or peptide epitope microarray) is a collection of peptides displayed ... However, peptide synthesis on chip allows the parallel synthesis of tens of thousands of peptides providing larger peptide ... Peptides are ideally covalently linked through a chemoselective bond leading to peptides with the same orientation for ... The assay principle of peptide microarrays is similar to an ELISA protocol. The peptides (up to tens of thousands in several ...
The initial peptides were successfully used to kill B-cell lymphoma cancer cells. The reference synthetic short peptide was ... Photoactivated peptides are modified natural or synthetic peptides the functions of which can be activated with light. This can ... Caged peptides which contain photocleavable protecting groups belong to irreversibly activated peptides. Reversible activation/ ... in the side chains or in the backbone of peptide templates to get the photo-controlled peptides, which can reversibly change ...
Cyclic peptides in plants are synthesized via a two-step process; the translation of a linear peptide chain, and its subsequent ... Cyclic peptides can be classified according to the types of bonds that comprise the ring. Homodetic cyclic peptides, such as ... Other bicyclic peptides include echinomycin, triostin A, and Celogentin C. There are a number of bi and monocyclic peptides ... Cyclic peptides tend to be extremely resistant to the process of digestion, making them of interest to scientists working on ...
... also known as amyloid β- peptide (Aβ)17-40/42 is the peptide resulting from the b- and γ-secretase cleavage from the ... However, p3 peptide's role in these diseases is not truly known yet. There is little information related to the p3 peptides ... This confirms the absence of N-terminal domain Aβ1-16 in p3 peptides. p3 peptide generates from the 17-40 or 17-42 sequence of ... That is why p3 peptide represents the benign form of amyloid. Energy plays a very important role in p3 peptides. While Aβ ...
Peptide-based synthetic vaccines, also called epitope vaccines, are subunit vaccines made from peptides. The peptides mimic the ... The peptides can be specially designed for specificity. A single peptide vaccine can be designed to have multiple epitopes to ... Gp100 peptide vaccine is studied to treat melanoma. To generate a greater in vitro CTL response, the peptide, gp100:209-217( ... IC41 is a peptide vaccine candidate against the Hepatitis C virus. It consists of five synthetic peptides along with the ...
... , also known as peptide histidine isoleucine, is a peptide which functions as a hormone. This peptide contains a ... "Differential Effects of Peptide Histidine Isoleucine (PHI) and Related Peptides on Stimulation and Suppression of Neuroblastoma ... "Peptides that Regulate Food Intake Effect of peptide histidine isoleucine on consummatory behavior in rats". American Journal ... Peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) is part of family that plays a vital role in the cell growth rate such as in the intestine ...
Each nonribosomal peptide synthetase can synthesize only one type of peptide. Nonribosomal peptides often have cyclic and/or ... Nonribosomal peptides (NRP) are a class of peptide secondary metabolites, usually produced by microorganisms like bacteria and ... Nonribosomal peptides are synthesized by one or more specialized nonribosomal peptide-synthetase (NRPS) enzymes. The NRPS genes ... Nonribosomal peptides are synthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases, which, unlike the ribosomes, are independent of ...
This class of model peptides has proved useful for studying the impact of changes in lipid composition on peptide insertion. ... WALP peptides are a class of synthesized, membrane-spanning α-helices composed of tryptophan (W), alanine (A), and leucine (L) ... Following detailed experimental studies by various techniques, the WALP and related peptides have become commonly used model ... Killian, J.Antoinette (2003). "Synthetic peptides as models for intrinsic membrane proteins". FEBS Letters. 555 (1): 134-138. ...
Known natriuretic peptides include the following: atrial natriuretic peptide, also known as ANP brain natriuretic peptide, also ... A natriuretic peptide is a peptide that induces natriuresis, which is the excretion of sodium by the kidneys. ... known as BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) C-type natriuretic peptide, also known as CNP dendroaspis natriuretic peptide, also ... known as DNP urodilatin Nesiritide Carperitide CD-NP Ularitide Natriuretic+peptides at the US National Library of Medicine ...
... which is commonly referred to as the signal peptide, signal sequence or leader peptide. Signal peptides form alpha-helical ... A target peptide is a short (3-70 amino acids long) peptide chain that directs the transport of a protein to a specific region ... Target+Peptide at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) SPdb (Signal Peptide DataBase) Prediction ... Like most signal peptides, mitochondrial targeting signals and plastid specific transit peptides are cleaved once targeting is ...
Chemerin peptides are short peptides (on the order of 9 amino acids) that are produced from the carboxyl terminus of the ... Cash, J; Greaves DR (May 2010). "Chemerin peptides promote phagocytosis in a ChemR23 and Syk dependent manner". J. Immunol. 184 ... A particular synthetic chemerin-derived peptide, termed C15, was developed at Oxford University. It showed anti-inflammatory ... "Synthetic chemerin-derived peptides suppress inflammation through ChemR23". J. Exp. Med. 205 (4): 767-75. doi:10.1084/jem. ...
... (PYY) also known as peptide tyrosine tyrosine is a peptide that in humans is encoded by the PYY gene. Peptide YY is ... Peptide YY is related to the pancreatic peptide family by having 18 of its 36 amino acids located in the same positions as ... Mannon PJ (2002). "Peptide YY as a growth factor for intestinal epithelium". Peptides. 23 (2): 383-8. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(01 ... Hagan MM (2002). "Peptide YY: a key mediator of orexigenic behavior". Peptides. 23 (2): 377-82. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(01)00614 ...
... is a form of computing which uses peptides, instead of traditional electronic components. The basis of this ... For instance, while DNA is made of four building blocks, peptides are made of twenty building blocks. The peptide-antibody ... Similar to DNA computing, the parallel interactions of peptide sequences and antibodies have been used by this model to solve a ... ISBN 978-3-540-43775-8. Hubert Hug & Rainer Schuler (2001). "Strategies for the development of a peptide computer". ...
A peptide amphiphile typically comprises a hydrophilic peptide sequence attached to a lipid tail, i.e. a hydrophobic alkyl ... Peptide amphiphiles are a class of molecules consisting of either hydrophobic and hydrophilic peptide sequences, or a ... Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are peptide-based molecules that self-assemble into supramolecular nanostructures including; ... This self-assembly allows the peptides to further optimise their interaction with the surroundings. Peptide amphiphiles are ...
Peptide libraries, purification, synthesis and structural analyses. Timo Jacob,. Ute Kaiser,. Clarissa Read,. Ludger Ständker, ... Peptide evaluation and molecular imaging in vivo. Ambros Beer,. Volker Rasche. Gilbert Weidinger. ...
... providing peptides having this motif which are present in the sequence of the antigen of interest; screening the peptides for ... W 0001/96 (Peptides) of 22.5.1996. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:1996:W000196.19960522. ... As part of the discovery of peptides capable of eliciting a CTL response in individuals of the HLA groups A2, B8, B17 and B7, ... 1. The peptides, being either epitopes or potential epitopes for the stated HLA (human leucocyte antigen) class I molecules, ...
Collagen peptides (hydrolyzed collagen) are made by breaking down collagen proteins into small pieces. They are commonly used ... When taken by mouth: Collagen peptides are possibly safe. Collagen peptides have been safely used in doses up to 10 grams daily ... Collagen peptides are made by breaking down whole collagen proteins into smaller pieces. When taken by mouth, collagen peptides ... Collagen peptides have most often been used by adults in doses of 2.5-10 grams daily for up to 6 months. Speak with a ...
06, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The global catalog peptides market is expected to generate $332.1 million revenue by 2024, ... 06, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The global catalog peptides market is expected to generate $332.1 million revenue by 2024, ... JPT Peptide Technologies GmbH, Advanced ChemTech, LifeTein LLC, Kaneka Eurogentec S.A., Elim Biopharm Inc., Creative Peptides, ... Catalog Peptides Market is Set to Generate $332.1 Million Revenue By 2024: P&S Intelligence. 06 août 2019 03h48 HE. , Source: ...
... you may have heard of Paradigm Peptides. Short for selective androgen receptor modulators, SARMs are a class of medications ... What are Paradigm Peptides? If youre looking for an edge in your fitness routine, you may have heard of Paradigm Peptides. ... Alternatives to Paradigm Peptides: There are many alternatives to Paradigm Peptides on the market today. Some of the most ... Features of Paradigm Peptides: Paradigm Peptides are a new generation of performance-enhancing compounds that have been ...
Peptide growth factors. Class Summary. rhIGF-I is a member of the somatomedin polypeptide hormones. IGF-I mediates the anabolic ... Peptide, messenger ribonucleic acid and gene structures, serum, and tissue concentrations. Endocr Rev. 1989 Feb. 10(1):68-91. [ ...
p,The predicted 3D secondary structure of the peptides from PEP-FOLD3 (above) and the helical wheel projection of the peptides ... Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) found in the innate immune system of different organisms present a promising class of bioactive ... A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antimicrobial Peptides". ... In conclusion, peptide modification, through the introduction of additional membrane penetrating regions, can increase both the ...
This peptide, a 90-amino-acid-long molecule encoded by the lncRNA LINC00961, is called Small regulatory Polypeptide of Amino ... For now, however, they indicated that they have already expanded the repertoire of peptide-coding genes in the human genome ... and TherapeuticsMolecular biologyNoncoding RNANucleic acidsPeptidesRNASystemic conditions ... to understand to what extent lncRNA molecules might actually encode functional polypeptides and how important such peptides ...
GMP grade peptides. Catalog peptides are 95% purity by HPLC unless otherwise specified. ... Peptides Peptides. We offer custom and catalog peptides, GMP grade peptides. Catalog peptides are 95% purity by HPLC unless ... SARS-CoV-2 derived peptides. Range of peptides and peptides libraries to study SARS-CoV-2 ...
Tv1 and Tsu1.1 are distinct from previously identified venom peptides, expanding the toolkit of peptides that can potentially ... hybrid approach for screening venom peptides that is amenable to large-venom peptide libraries with minimal amounts of peptide ... These findings describe the first functional bioactivity of terebrid venom peptides in relation to pain and diet and indicate ... Using this approach, we characterized the physiological and behavioral phenotypes of two peptides from the venom of predatory ...
Robertson, J. and Reiner, J. (2018), The utility of nanopore technology for protein and peptide sensing, Proteomics (Accessed ... ...
Peptides are large protein molecules, meaning that "evolution peptides" uses unique technology to bind tadalafil with peptides ... And evolution peptides tadalafil is one such example (4).. What Makes Evolution Peptides Tadalafil So Effective?. Evolution ... Evolution peptides tadalafil works for about 36 hours. It is best to take it when and as needed, but not more than once in a ... Once taken, peptides slowly release tadalafil (5).. 1 ml of the product has 30 mg of tadalafil, which is enough for most men. ...
Mitochondrial-Derived Peptides Are Down Regulated in Diabetes Subjects. Manjunath Ramanjaneya1*, Ilham Bettahi1, Jayakumar ... Mitochondria related peptide MOTS-c suppresses ovariectomy-induced bone loss via AMPK activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. ( ... Alis R, Lucia A, Blesa JR, Sanchis-Gomar F. The role of mitochondrial derived peptides (MDPs) in metabolism. J Cell Physiol. ( ... The mitochondrial-derived peptide MOTS-c promotes metabolic homeostasis and reduces obesity and insulin resistance. Cell Metab ...
Nuritas Peptide Finder). The platform analyzes billions of untapped peptides in plants and natural food sources to predict and ... Health tech startup Nuritas has built an extensive peptide knowledge base using its proprietary AI and genomics platform Nπϕ ( ... Related tags nutracast personalized nutrition peptides AI Unmetered Health tech startup Nuritas has built an extensive peptide ... Collagen peptides for a holistic beauty approach * Science-Backed Strategies for Boosting Health and Performance: Pomegranate, ...
17-40 Beta-Amyloid peptides. Pyroglutamate-modified (Pyr) beta-Amyloid 3-40 and 11-40 have been described as major compounds in ... Custom Peptides Synthesis. From macrocyclic to fluorescent or other highly modified peptides ... With over 25 years of peptide manufacturing experience, AnaSpec is your trusted source of highly complex peptides. ... With over 25 years of peptide manufacturing experience, AnaSpec is your trusted source of highly complex peptides. ...
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Using chromatographic procedures, several studies reported an increasing number of circulating peptides related to … ... is to give an update on the state of the art of the immunoassay methods for the measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP ... the precursor of the peptide hormone, proBNP, constitutes a major portion of the peptide measured in plasma of patients with ... State of the art of immunoassay methods for B-type natriuretic peptides: An update Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2015;52(2):56-69. doi ...
The resulting compound consisting of a peptide and a copper atom has become known as a copper peptide. The benefits of copper ... He found and patented a number of specific copper peptides (in particular, GHK copper peptides or GHK-Cu) that were ... In one small study, copper peptides stimulated collagen production in the intact skin. In fact, in that study copper peptides ... What exactly are copper peptides and how can they boost skin rejuvenation? Generally speaking, peptides are small fragments of ...
Longevity Collagen Peptides mixes well in hot or cold liquid. What Flavor is Longevity Collagen Peptides? Longevity Collagen ... Hydrolyzed Peptides: Collagen cant be used in its whole form, so it must be broken down into smaller pieces, known as peptides ... What Types of Collagen Are Included in Longevity Collagen Peptides? ProHealths Longevity Collagen Peptides contains types 1,2, ... Longevity collagen peptides I have tried many different brands of collagen. My body tells me which ones are best because my ...
This journal provides purely theoretical papers and new insight into the principles of protein and peptide structure and ...
John Buchanan co-authored an article in Tetrahedron Letters titled "Practical Synthesis of Fully-Substituted Peptide Thiazoles ...
C-Peptide C-peptide radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a competitive assay where 125I-labelled C-peptide competes with C-peptide in the ... LBXCPSI - C-peptide: SI(nmol/L). Variable Name: LBXCPSI. SAS Label: C-peptide: SI(nmol/L). English Text: C-peptide (nmol/L) in ... Plasma Fasting Glucose, Serum C-peptide & Insulin (L10AM_B) Data File: L10AM_B.xpt First Published: March 2005. Last Revised: ... Bound and free C-peptide is separated by adding a second PEG-accelerated double antibody. The antibody-bound fraction is ...
Collagen Peptides Powder information including description from Now, supplement facts, and suggested use. Order online for ... Collagen Peptides Powder Description from Now Collagen peptides from types 1 and 3 bovine collagen are well-known for their ...
Other terms for BNP include B-type natriuretic peptide, ventricular natriuretic peptide and natriuretic peptide B) ... 1992). "Receptor selectivity of natriuretic peptide family, atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and C-type ... Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also known as B-type natriuretic peptide, is a hormone secreted by cardiomyocytes in the heart ... C-type natriuretic peptide. References. *↑ "CV Pharmacology - Natriuretic Peptides". Archived from the ...
An open-source automated peptide synthesizer based on Arduino and Python ... An open-source automated peptide synthesizer based on Arduino and Python - GitHub - harigali/PepSy: ... An open-source automated peptide synthesizer based on Arduino and Python ... An open-source automated peptide synthesizer based on Arduino and Python ...
This 115 page book focuses on 40+ years of research for endogenous substances able to retard aging processes and how peptides ... Peptides in the Epigenetic Control of Ageing book. 115 page book. Peptides in the Epigenetic Control of Ageing, is a 115 page ... The peptide bioregulator revolution book. The use of bioactive peptides for aging and health. View Product ... With the circulation peptide, I noticed in a few days that I had warmer hands and feet, and no more angina when doing heavy ...
... has published a new report on the fish collagen peptides market for the forecast period of 2019-2027. According to the ... Fish Collagen Peptides Market: Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Potential of Fish Collagen Peptides Foster Innovation. March 30th, ... and are a safer option than bovine and cattle collagen peptides. Moreover, fish collagen peptides are free from risks ... The fish collagen peptides market in Asia Pacific is projected to expand at a high CAGR during the forecast period. Increase in ...
Weight loss can be as simple as modifying your life choices, and making those choices can make your life that much healthier. Few of these choices are all that really dramatic, but when combined their results can be. The most obvious place to start is with food: By choosing to eat more healthy foods and fewer unhealthy ones, a person can lose a few pounds here and there. Interestingly enough, a healthier diet can also affect the persons moods; a person that eats just carbohydrates and proteins is more likely to be depressed, but by adding a few more vegetables and fruits that persons moods can be incredibly lightened. But diet choices are just the beginning of weight loss.. It can be easy to incorporate exercise into a persons life. If you spend a lot of time on the phone, start standing up and moving around when you talk to someone; you will find quickly that not only are you are more assertive on the phone as well as able to think a little faster on your feet but that you are losing pounds ...
  • Collagen peptides are made by breaking down whole collagen proteins into smaller pieces. (
  • Generally speaking, peptides are small fragments of proteins. (
  • In gene, recombinant and peptide vaccines, the immunogen is a single protein or a small assembly of epitopes from antigenic proteins. (
  • In intracellular eukaryotic parasites like Trypanosoma cruzi , proteins that are secreted may be a major source of peptides for the MHC class I presentation pathway (3). (
  • Cleavage site-specific proteases and transporter proteins involved in the processing of protein antigens into peptides also seem to play a role in the selection of antigenic peptides. (
  • Proteasomes, which generate peptides from cytoplasmic proteins for the class I pathway, seem to have preferred cleavage sites flanking dominant CD8+ T cell epitopes in protein sequences (4). (
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a member of the vasoactive intestinal peptide/secretin/glucagon family , has an amino acid sequence identity of 68% with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). (
  • Acute alcohol and chronic drinking bidirectionally regulate the excitability of prefrontal cortex vasoactive intestinal peptide interneurons. (
  • By contrast, the plurality of all remaining INs express vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), reside within superficial layers, and preferentially target other types of INs. (
  • John Buchanan co-authored an article in Tetrahedron Letters titled "Practical Synthesis of Fully-Substituted Peptide Thiazoles. (
  • these peptides being selected from three Plasmodium falciparum antigens, circumsporozoite protein (cp), thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (tr) and liver- stage antigen-1 (ls). (
  • and conservative variants thereof and longer peptides containing the sequences which are sub-units of the stated antigens, and of oligonucleotides which code for said peptides, as a cytotoxic T lymphocyte-inducer for immunization against malaria of individuals possessing a HLA-B7 allele. (
  • were linked by the common utility of providing protection against malaria via peptides from antigens of Plasmodium falciparum. (
  • Since most immune responses against protein and peptide antigens are T-cell dependent, the molecular target of such vaccines is to generate at least 50-100 complexes between MHC molecule and the antigenic peptide per antigen-presenting cell, sensitizing a T cell population of appropriate clonal size and effector characteristics. (
  • Details for: Synthetic peptides as antigens. (
  • Collagen peptides are very small pieces of protein from animal collagen. (
  • When taken by mouth, collagen peptides seem to build up in the skin and cartilage. (
  • Collagen peptides are used for aging skin and osteoarthritis. (
  • Don't confuse collagen peptides with collagen type I (native), collagen type II (native), or gelatin. (
  • Taking collagen peptides by mouth seems to improve skin hydration and skin elasticity in older people. (
  • Taking collagen peptides by mouth might slightly relieve pain and improve joint function in people with knee osteoarthritis. (
  • There is interest in using collagen peptides for a number of other purposes, but there isn't enough reliable information to say whether it might be helpful. (
  • Collagen peptides are possibly safe. (
  • Collagen peptides have been safely used in doses up to 10 grams daily for up to 5 months. (
  • There isn't enough reliable information to know if collagen peptides are safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. (
  • Collagen peptides have most often been used by adults in doses of 2.5-10 grams daily for up to 6 months. (
  • Miyanaga M, Uchiyama T, Motoyama A, Ochiai N, Ueda O, Ogo M. Oral Supplementation of Collagen Peptides Improves Skin Hydration by Increasing the Natural Moisturizing Factor Content in the Stratum Corneum: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. (
  • Oral Intake of Enzymatically Decomposed AP Collagen Peptides Improves Skin Moisture and Ceramide and Natural Moisturizing Factor Contents in the Stratum Corneum. (
  • Collagen can't be used in its whole form, so it must be broken down into smaller pieces, known as peptides. (
  • The aim of this review article is to give an update on the state of the art of the immunoassay methods for the measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its related peptides. (
  • Brain natriuretic peptide ( BNP ), also known as B-type natriuretic peptide , is a hormone secreted by cardiomyocytes in the heart ventricles in response to stretching caused by increased ventricular blood volume. (
  • Once released, BNP binds to and activates the atrial natriuretic factor receptor NPRA , and to a lesser extent NPRB , in a fashion similar to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) but with 10-fold lower affinity. (
  • The above groups 1 to 5 of inventions related to a plurality of solutions of different nature (based on the different primary structures, antigenic origin of the peptides and the different HLA class I molecules they bind to) which were not linked to each other by a special technical feature so as to form a single inventive concept. (
  • Our team set about trying to understand to what extent lncRNA molecules might actually encode functional polypeptides and how important such peptides might be," asserted Dr. Pandolfi. (
  • Peptides are large protein molecules, meaning that "evolution peptides" uses unique technology to bind tadalafil with peptides. (
  • A protocol of SAAP-MC simulation followed by structural clustering and examination of the obtained structures by ab initio calculation or simply by the number of the hydrogen bonds (or the hardness) was demonstrated to be an effective strategy toward structure prediction for short peptide molecules. (
  • The central event in the cellular immune response to invading microorganisms is the specific recognition of foreign peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules by the a ß T cell receptor (TCR). (
  • Immunization with overlapping peptides induces suboptimal responses to additional peptides, the so-called 'cryptic' epitopes. (
  • We use solid-state NMR to determine the molecular and supramolecular structure of MAX1, a de novo designed gel-forming peptide, in its fibrillar state. (
  • The platform analyzes billions of untapped peptides in plants and natural food sources to predict and identify how they impact specific health areas, molecular pathways or receptors. (
  • Paradigm Peptides are synthetic medications that mimic the effects of testosterone in the body. (
  • Therefore, it is necessary to implement rational design strategies to synthetic AMPs to overcome these disadvantages and further modify the chemical and physical properties of existing peptides. (
  • To address this discovery-to-function gap, we developed a sequence driven:activity-based hybrid approach for screening venom peptides that is amenable to large-venom peptide libraries with minimal amounts of peptide. (
  • For now, however, they indicated that they have already expanded the repertoire of peptide-coding genes in the human genome that should be studied and annotated. (
  • Certain kinds of peptides have an avid affinity for copper, to which they bind very tightly. (
  • While peptide vaccines may bind directly to the MHC, recombinant vaccines must undergo proteolytic processing through the MHC class II pathway in endosomal vesicles, and expression products of DNA vaccines enter both the cytoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum MHC class I pathway and can also be uptaken by professional antigen-presenting cells (2). (
  • Among the various commercial applications of catalog peptides, the antibody production category contributed the highest share, of 52.7%, to the market in 2018. (
  • This is mainly on the account of their large product portfolio of catalog peptides, which are being used for various applications such as antibody production, drug discovery, enzyme profiling, disease research, and biomarker discovery. (
  • C-peptide radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a competitive assay where 125 I-labelled C-peptide competes with C-peptide in the specimen for antibody sites. (
  • Bound and free C-peptide is separated by adding a second PEG-accelerated double antibody. (
  • Vaccination with DNA- or peptide-based vaccines relies on T cell recognition, either in the afferent (T cell-dependent antibody-mediated responses) or in both the afferent and effector limbs of the immune response (T cell-mediated responses - e.g., delayed hypersensitivity). (
  • This peptide, a 90-amino-acid-long molecule encoded by the lncRNA LINC00961, is called S mall regulatory P olypeptide of A mino acid R esponse (SPAR). (
  • NEW YORK, Aug. 06, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The global catalog peptides market is expected to generate $332.1 million revenue by 2024, advancing at a CAGR of 5.8% during the forecast period. (
  • Based on application, the catalog peptides market has been categorized into commercial, academic research, and therapeutics applications. (
  • It is also expected to be the fastest growing category in the catalog peptides market during the forecast period. (
  • This can be attributed to the effectiveness of catalog peptides in raising high-quality antibodies. (
  • Globally, the North American catalog peptides market is expected to account for more than 30% share by 2024. (
  • The U.S. is expected to lead the North American catalog peptides market throughout the analysis period. (
  • Among these players, Bachem AG, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Merck KGaA, and AnaSpec Inc. are the key players occupying major share in the catalog peptides market. (
  • We offer custom and catalog peptides, GMP grade peptides. (
  • Catalog peptides are 95% purity by HPLC unless otherwise specified. (
  • Furthermore, other studies have suggested that, using immunoassays that are considered specific for BNP, the precursor of the peptide hormone, proBNP, constitutes a major portion of the peptide measured in plasma of patients with heart failure. (
  • The category is expected to progress at a CAGR of 6.8% during the forecast period, mainly on account of the fact that these peptides provide good stability, high binding affinity, and selectivity toward target biomolecules. (
  • Diabetes mellitus was assessed by measures of plasma glucose, serum insulin, and serum C-peptide in participants aged 12 years and over in the morning examination session only. (
  • 5. A vaccine comprising at least one peptide according to any one of claims 1 to 4, for immunisation against malaria. (
  • PACAP38 , derived from a 176-amino acid precursor (preproPACAP), is a 38-amino acid peptide discovered as an ovine hypothalamic neuropeptide. (
  • A large number of factors influence dominance and crypticity of peptide epitopes, basically availability for MHC binding, MHC binding itself, and the recognition of the MHC:peptide complex by T cells via their antigen receptors (1). (
  • Based on the analgesic effect of NMDA antagonist receptors, the nociceptive action of the peptide BLMP-101 is evaluated, agonist of NMDA, designed to boost learning/memory. (
  • Several factors influence the availability of a given peptide sequence for processing and presentation, at both the quantitative and qualitative levels. (
  • Paradigm Peptides are a new generation of performance-enhancing compounds that have been designed to provide superior results with fewer side effects than traditional steroids. (
  • Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) found in the innate immune system of different organisms present a promising class of bioactive compounds that offers a potential solution to the antibiotic resistance problem due to their mode of action on microbial membranes. (
  • A good example of a wound-healing agent that appears to also have anti-wrinkle potential is the class of compounds called copper peptides. (
  • These peptides may have reduced or even no biological activity. (
  • [2] Cleavage at other sites produces shorter BNP peptides with unknown biological activity. (
  • In this short review, we will discuss the several concepts related to selection of amino acid sequences to be included in DNA and peptide vaccines. (
  • VII International Symposium on Vasoactive Peptides. (
  • In most immunological systems, including post-infectious protective immune responses, only some peptides from a large number of potential candidates are actually the target of a vigorous immune response. (
  • What exactly are copper peptides and how can they boost skin rejuvenation? (
  • Claims 2 to 4 concern specific embodiments of the peptides of claim 1. (
  • Khaldi is hoping to flip the script by identifying specific health needs using the Nuritas Peptide finder. (
  • Finally, the authors believe that the development of more specific methods for the active peptide, BNP1-32, should reduce the systematic differences between methods and result in better harmonization of results. (
  • He found and patented a number of specific copper peptides (in particular, GHK copper peptides or GHK-Cu) that were particularly effective in healing wounds and skin lesions as well as some gastrointestinal conditions. (
  • With over 25 years of peptide manufacturing experience, AnaSpec is your trusted source of highly complex peptides. (
  • The mechanism of copper peptide action is relatively complex. (
  • There is a pressing need for a systematic, cost effective, and scalable approach to identify physiological effects of venom peptides. (
  • These findings describe the first functional bioactivity of terebrid venom peptides in relation to pain and diet and indicate that Tv1 and Tsu1.1 may, respectively, act as antinociceptive and orexigenic agents. (
  • If you're looking for a safe and effective way to enhance your performance without putting your health at risk, Paradigm Peptides may be the perfect solution for you! (
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  • IMPORTANT: If you are considering using copper peptides after a particular procedure, make sure to discuss it with your physician. (
  • However, while the wound healing effects of copper peptide have been investigated and documented in many studies, much less research has been done so far on their cosmetic and anti-aging use. (
  • The effects of asphalt fumes on nasal mucosal innervation were examined by measuring SP and calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels in rat TG neurons projecting to the nasal epithelium. (
  • The biological half-life of BNP, however, is twice as long as that of ANP , and that of NT-proBNP is even longer, making these peptides better targets than ANP for diagnostic blood testing. (
  • The net effect of these peptides is a decrease in blood pressure due to the decrease in systemic vascular resistance and, thus, afterload. (
  • Results suggest that the BLMP- 101 peptide does not present nociceptive activity at levels and periodicity used in this study. (
  • Venom-peptide research and drug discovery has increased exponentially with the advance of genomic-transcriptomic sequencing and proteomic mass-spectrometry 10 . (
  • In this study, the SAAP force field (SAAPFF) parameters were improved, and classical canonical Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was carried out for short peptide models, that is, Met-enkephalin and chignolin, at 300 K in an implicit water model. (
  • The results suggested that the SAAP-MC method is useful for conformational sampling for the short peptides. (
  • Since copper peptides optimize healing and improve skin remodeling, then can augment the effect of treatments based on various forms of controlled skin injury. (
  • The benefits of copper peptides for tissue regeneration were discovered by Dr. Loren Pickart in the 1970s. (
  • In many cases, copper peptides can reduce or eliminate the irritation and help maximize treatment benefits. (
  • Topical application and oral supplementation of peptides in the improvement of skin viscoelasticity and density. (
  • A distinctive feature of GHK copper peptides is that they reduce scar tissue formation while stimulating normal skin remodeling. (
  • Can copper peptides be useful for regular skin protection and rejuvenation? (
  • While it remain to be further researched, it appears that copper peptide can help minimize the damage from daily wear and tear of the skin. (
  • There are many alternatives to Paradigm Peptides on the market today. (