Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type: A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.Natriuretic Peptides: Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gastrin-Releasing Peptide: Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Peptide PHI: A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein PrecursorsTrypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Opioid Peptides: The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Aptamers, Peptide: Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Receptors, Atrial Natriuretic Factor: Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Melitten: Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Glucagon-Like Peptides: Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Magainins: A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cathelicidins: Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Inbred C57BLCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Bombesin: A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Glucagon-Like Peptide 2: A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Receptors, Bombesin: Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Biosynthesis, Nucleic Acid-Independent: The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid: A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.alpha-Defensins: DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Adrenomedullin: A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Trifluoroethanol: A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Type II: A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.PhosphopeptidesAlamethicin: A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.FMRFamide: A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Nerve Tissue ProteinsProtein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.

How do peptide synthetases generate structural diversity? (1/36104)

Many low-molecular-weight peptides of microbial origin are synthesized nonribosomally on large multifunctional proteins, termed peptide synthetases. These enzymes contain repeated building blocks in which several defined domains catalyze specific reactions of peptide synthesis. The order of these domains within the enzyme determines the sequence and structure of the peptide product.  (+info)

Conserved domains and lack of evidence for polyglutamine length polymorphism in the chicken homolog of the Machado-Joseph disease gene product ataxin-3. (2/36104)

Ataxin-3 is a protein of unknown function which is mutated in Machado-Joseph disease by expansion of a genetically unstable CAG repeat encoding polyglutamine. By analysis of chicken ataxin-3 we were able to identify four conserved domains of the protein and detected widespread expression in chicken tissues. In the first such analysis in a non-primate species we found that in contrast to primates, the chicken CAG repeat is short and genetically stable.  (+info)

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (3/36104)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

Role of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in adrenomedullin-induced vasodilation in the rat. (4/36104)

We previously reported that adrenomedullin (AM), a potent vasodilator peptide discovered in pheochromocytoma cells, stimulates nitric oxide (NO) release in the rat kidney. To further investigate whether the NO-cGMP pathway is involved in the mechanisms of AM-induced vasodilation, we examined the effects of E-4021, a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on AM-induced vasorelaxation in aortic rings and perfused kidneys isolated from Wistar rats. We also measured NO release from the kidneys using a chemiluminescence assay. AM (10(-10) to 10(-7) mol/L) relaxed the aorta precontracted with phenylephrine in a dose-dependent manner. Denudation of endothelium (E) attenuated the vasodilatory action of AM (10(-7) mol/L AM: intact (E+) -25.7+/-5.2% versus denuded (E-) -7. 8+/-0.6%, P<0.05). On the other hand, pretreatment with 10(-8) mol/L E-4021 augmented AM-induced vasorelaxation in the intact aorta (-49. 0+/-7.9%, P<0.05) but not in the denuded one. E-4021 also enhanced acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation in the rat intact aorta (10(-7) mol/L ACh -36.6+/-8.4% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-7) mol/L ACh -62.7+/-3.1%, P<0.05). In perfused kidneys, AM-induced vasorelaxation was also augmented by preincubation with E-4021 (10(-9) mol/L AM -15.4+/-0.6% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-9) mol/L AM -23.6+/-1.2%, P<0.01). AM significantly increased NO release from rat kidneys (DeltaNO: +11.3+/-0.8 fmol. min-1. g-1 kidney at 10(-9) mol/L AM), which was not affected by E-4021. E-4021 enhanced ACh-induced vasorelaxation (10(-9) mol/L ACh -9.7+/-1.7% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-9) mol/L ACh -18.8+/-2.9%, P<0.01) but did not affect ACh-induced NO release from the kidneys. In the aorta and the kidney, 10(-4) mol/L of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an NO synthase inhibitor, and 10(-5) mol/L of methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, reduced the vasodilatory effect of AM. These results suggest that the NO-cGMP pathway is involved in the mechanism of AM-induced vasorelaxation, at least in the rat aorta and kidney.  (+info)

Central peptidergic neurons are hyperactive during collateral sprouting and inhibition of activity suppresses sprouting. (5/36104)

Little is known regarding the effect of chronic changes in neuronal activity on the extent of collateral sprouting by identified CNS neurons. We have investigated the relationship between activity and sprouting in oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons of the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory system (MNS). Uninjured MNS neurons undergo a robust collateral-sprouting response that restores the axon population of the neural lobe (NL) after a lesion of the contralateral MNS (). Simultaneously, lesioned rats develop chronic urinary hyperosmolality indicative of heightened neurosecretory activity. We therefore tested the hypothesis that sprouting MNS neurons are hyperactive by measuring changes in cell and nuclear diameters, OT and VP mRNA pools, and axonal cytochrome oxidase activity (COX). Each of these measures was significantly elevated during the period of most rapid axonal growth between 1 and 4 weeks after the lesion, confirming that both OT and VP neurons are hyperactive while undergoing collateral sprouting. In a second study the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of neuronal activity would interfere with the sprouting response was tested. Chronic hyponatremia (CH) was induced 3 d before the hypothalamic lesion and sustained for 4 weeks to suppress neurosecretory activity. CH abolished the lesion-induced increases in OT and VP mRNA pools and virtually eliminated measurable COX activity in MNS terminals. Counts of the total number of axon profiles in the NL revealed that CH also prevented axonal sprouting from occurring. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased neuronal activity is required for denervation-induced collateral sprouting to occur in the MNS.  (+info)

The amyloid precursor protein interacts with Go heterotrimeric protein within a cell compartment specialized in signal transduction. (6/36104)

The function of the beta-amyloid protein precursor (betaAPP), a transmembrane molecule involved in Alzheimer pathologies, is poorly understood. We recently reported the presence of a fraction of betaAPP in cholesterol and sphingoglycolipid-enriched microdomains (CSEM), a caveolae-like compartment specialized in signal transduction. To investigate whether betaAPP actually interferes with cell signaling, we reexamined the interaction between betaAPP and Go GTPase. In strong contrast with results obtained with reconstituted phospholipid vesicles (Okamoto et al., 1995), we find that incubating total neuronal membranes with 22C11, an antibody that recognizes an N-terminal betaAPP epitope, reduces high-affinity Go GTPase activity. This inhibition is specific of Galphao and is reproduced, in the absence of 22C11, by the addition of the betaAPP C-terminal domain but not by two distinct mutated betaAPP C-terminal domains that do not bind Galphao. This inhibition of Galphao GTPase activity by either 22C11 or wild-type betaAPP cytoplasmic domain suggests that intracellular interactions between betaAPP and Galphao could be regulated by extracellular signals. To verify whether this interaction is preserved in CSEM, we first used biochemical, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural techniques to unambiguously confirm the colocalization of Galphao and betaAPP in CSEM. We show that inhibition of basal Galphao GTPase activity also occurs within CSEM and correlates with the coimmunoprecipitation of Galphao and betaAPP. The regulation of Galphao GTPase activity by betaAPP in a compartment specialized in signaling may have important consequences for our understanding of the physiopathological functions of betaAPP.  (+info)

Interferon-alpha does not improve outcome at one year in patients with diffuse cutaneous scleroderma: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (7/36104)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) reduces the severity of skin involvement in early (<3 years) diffuse scleroderma. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 35 patients with early scleroderma received subcutaneous injections of either IFNalpha (13.5 x 10(6) units per week in divided doses) or indistinguishable placebo. Outcomes assessed were the modified Rodnan skin score, as determined by a single observer at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, as well as data on renal, cardiac, and lung function. Pre- and posttreatment skin biopsy samples were analyzed and blood was obtained for assessment of procollagen peptide levels. RESULTS: There were 11 withdrawals from the IFNalpha group and 3 from the placebo group due to either toxicity, lack of efficacy, or death. In the intent-to-treat analysis, there was a greater improvement in the skin score in the placebo group between 0 and 12 months (mean change IFNalpha -4.7 versus placebo -7.5; P = 0.36). There was also a greater deterioration in lung function in patients receiving active therapy, as assessed by either the forced vital capacity (mean change IFNalpha -8.2 versus placebo +1.3; P = 0.01) or the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (mean change IFNalpha -9.3 versus placebo +4.7; P = 0.002). Skin biopsy showed no significant decrease in collagen synthesis in the IFNalpha group, and no significant differences in the levels of procollagen peptides were seen between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that IFNalpha is of no value in the treatment of scleroderma, and that it may in fact be deleterious.  (+info)

Basic homopolyamino acids, histones and protamines are potent antagonists of angiogenin binding to ribonuclease inhibitor. (8/36104)

A radio-ribonuclease inhibitor assay based on the interaction of 125I-angiogenin with ribonuclease inhibitor (RI) was used to detect pancreatic-type ribonucleases and potential modulators of their action. We show that highly basic proteins including the homopolypeptides poly-arginine, poly-lysine and poly-ornithine, core histones, spermatid-specific S1 protein and the protamines HP3 and Z3 were strong inhibitors of angiogenin binding to RI. A minimum size of poly-arginine and poly-lysine was required for efficient inhibition. The inhibition likely resulted from direct association of the basic proteins with the acidic inhibitor, as RI bound to poly-lysine and protamines while 125I-angiogenin did not. Antagonists of the angiogenin-RI interaction are potential regulators of either angiogenin-triggered angiogenesis and/or intracellular RI function, depending on their preferential target.  (+info)

Although protein-peptide interactions are estimated to constitute up to 40% of all protein interactions, relatively little information is available for the structural details of these interactions. Peptide-mediated interactions are a prime target for drug design because they are predominantly present in signaling and regulatory networks. A reliable data set of nonredundant protein-peptide complexes is indispensable as a basis for modeling and design, but current data sets for protein-peptide interactions are often biased towards specific types of interactions or are limited to interactions with small ligands. In PepX (http://pepx.switchlab.org), we have designed an unbiased and exhaustive data set of all protein-peptide complexes available in the Protein Data Bank with peptide lengths up to 35 residues. In addition, these complexes have been clustered based on their binding interfaces rather than sequence homology, providing a set of structurally diverse protein-peptide interactions. The final ...
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The delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins to the central nervous system is the biggest challenge when developing effective neuropharmaceuticals. The central issue is that the blood-brain barrier is impermeable to most molecules. Here we demonstrate the concept of employing an amphiphilic derivative of a peptide to deliver the peptide into the brain. The key to success is that the amphiphilic peptide should by design self-assemble into nanofibers wherein the active peptide epitope is tightly wrapped around the nanofiber core. The nanofiber form appears to protect the amphiphilic peptide from degradation while in the plasma, and the amphiphilic nature of the peptide promotes its transport across the blood-brain barrier. Therapeutic brain levels of the amphiphilic peptide are achieved with this strategy, compared with the absence of detectable peptide in the brain and the consequent lack of a therapeutic response when the underivatized peptide is administered.. ...
294545266 - EP 1064010 A1 2001-01-03 - PEPTIDE COMPOSITIONS AND FORMULATIONS AND USE OF SAME - [origin: WO9945941A1] The present invention is directed to a composition which is used to enhance the softness, elasticity, or appearance of tissue. Specifically, the present invention is directed to a composition formulated from peptides which substantially correspond to those produced from thermolysing digestion of elastin. This formulation is preferably applied to human skin in a cosmetic or therapeutic formulation. The present composition specifically includes the known chemical modification of the peptides described herein, specifically carboxy and amino modification including the addition of amino acids to either end of the peptide fragments.[origin: WO9945941A1] The present invention is directed to a composition which is used to enhance the softness, elasticity, or appearance of tissue. Specifically, the present invention is directed to a composition formulated from peptides which substantially
The performance of a biological scaffold formed by the self-assembling peptide RADA16 is comparable to the most commonly used synthetic materials employed in the culture of neural stem cells. Furthermore, improvements in the performance of RADA16 have recently been made by appending the self-assembling peptide sequence with various functional motifs from naturally occurring proteins. The focus of this work is to further analyze the performance of these functionalized self-assembling peptide scaffolds when used for the culture of neural stem cells, and to characterize these newly developed materials for comparison with RADA16. The effect of the functional motifs on the structure of the peptide scaffold was evaluated with circular dichroism and scanning electron microscopy, and the mechanical properties of the peptide scaffolds were examined through theological analysis. The functionalized peptides were found to have lower percentages of beta-sheet structure as well as reduced storage moduli in ...
Future Peptide Therapeutics Market Outlook "Global Peptide Therapeutics Market & Clinical Pipeline Insight 2026" report gives comprehensive insight on clinical and non-clinical parameters involved in the development of global peptide drug market. As per report findings, peptides have emerged as one of the important classes of therapeutic molecules which have been developed by varied pharmaceutical and biotech companies in order to attain a targeted drug discovery for several ailments. Currently, there are more than 800 peptide drugs in clinical pipeline and 197 peptide based drugs commercially available in the market. "Oncology Segment Will Continue To Dominate The Global Peptide Therapeutics Market In Terms Of Revenue Opportunity & Clinical Pipeline". From the last several decades, therapeutic peptides and proteins have risen as potential drug candidate. Many companies are specializing in their manufacturing, along with companies developing peptide based products ranging from new drug ...
Immune monitoring of T cell responses increasingly relies on the use of peptide pools. Peptides, when restricted by the same HLA allele, and presented from within the same peptide pool, can compete for HLA binding sites. What impact such competition has on functional T cell stimulation, however, is not clear. Using a model peptide pool that is comprised of 32 well-defined viral epitopes from Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Influenza viruses (CEF peptide pool), we assessed peptide competition in PBMC from 42 human subjects. The magnitude of the peptide pool-elicited CD8 T cell responses was a mean 79% and a median 77% of the sum of the CD8 T cell responses elicited by the individual peptides. Therefore, while the effect of peptide competition was evident, it was of a relatively minor magnitude. By studying the dose-response curves for individual CEF peptides, we show that several of these peptides are present in the CEF-pool at concentrations that are orders of magnitude in excess of what is
Immune monitoring of T cell responses increasingly relies on the use of peptide pools. Peptides, when restricted by the same HLA allele, and presented from within the same peptide pool, can compete for HLA binding sites. What impact such competition has on functional T cell stimulation, however, is not clear. Using a model peptide pool that is comprised of 32 well-defined viral epitopes from Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Influenza viruses (CEF peptide pool), we assessed peptide competition in PBMC from 42 human subjects. The magnitude of the peptide pool-elicited CD8 T cell responses was a mean 79% and a median 77% of the sum of the CD8 T cell responses elicited by the individual peptides. Therefore, while the effect of peptide competition was evident, it was of a relatively minor magnitude. By studying the dose-response curves for individual CEF peptides, we show that several of these peptides are present in the CEF-pool at concentrations that are orders of magnitude in excess of what is
Cancer immunotherapy: Cancer immunotherapy uses the bodys own immune system to attack cancer cells. Peptide-based vaccines use tumor-associated antigens that associate with T cells to target cancer.. Self-assembling peptide: Self-assembling peptides are short, synthetic peptides characterized by amphipathic sequences. These peptides are able to spontaneously self-assemble in aqueous solution to form highly organized structures such as hydrogels. APExBIO can synthesize hydrophobic self-assembling sequences at high quantity and purity.. Peptide Venom Peptides: Bioactive peptides are the most dominant component of animal venoms. Venom peptides can vary in length and complexity, thus their synthesis requires a combination of chemical and recombinant synthesis.. Peptide Natriuretic Peptides: Functioning in the induction of natriuresis, (the excretion of large amounts of sodium in the urine), natriuretic peptides have been touted as useful biomarkers for the purpose of personalized heart failure ...
One of the core activities of high-throughput proteomics is the identification of peptides from mass spectra. Some peptides can be identified using spectral matching programs like Sequest or Mascot, but many spectra do not produce high quality database matches. De novo peptide sequencing is an approach to determine partial peptide sequences for some of the unidentified spectra. A drawback of de novo peptide sequencing is that it produces a series of ordered and disordered sequence tags and mass tags rather than a complete, non-degenerate peptide amino acid sequence. This incomplete data is difficult to use in conventional search programs such as BLAST or FASTA. DeNovoID is a program that has been specifically designed to use degenerate amino acid sequence and mass data derived from MS experiments to search a peptide database. Since the algorithm employed depends on the amino acid composition of the peptide and not its sequence, DeNovoID does not have to consider all possible sequences, but ...
Why it can ruin your assays Noticing a change in your peptide activity over time? Your peptide could be rapidly oxidizing. Peptides containing Cys, Trp, or Met are at great risk for oxidation. Oxidation of a peptide containing one or more of these residues can result in the generation of new peptidic species, such as peptides with oxidized side chain groups, peptide fragments resulting from backbone damage, and dimerized or aggregated peptides. Peptides that require reduced forms of Cys, Trp, or Met for activity may sub-perform in assays, resulting in decreased activity or no activity. A reduction in peptide activity may be observed over time resulting in a lack of assay reproducibility and increases in experimental data variability. What You Should Do To avoid the effects of peptide oxidation, store peptides in vials flushed with argon gas and tightly sealed. Make aliquots of lyophilized peptides according to daily experimental needs and limit opening and closing of peptide vials. You may also ...
The present work comparatively analyzes the interaction of alpha-MSH and its more potent and long-acting analog [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]alpha-MSH (NDP-MSH) with lipid bilayers. the peptides were spin labeled with Toac (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid) at the N-terminal, as those derivatives had been previously shown to keep their full biological activity. Due to the special rigidity of the Toac covalent binding to the peptide molecule, this spin label is highly sensitive to the peptide backbone conformation and dynamics. the peptides were investigated both by the electron spin resonance (ESR) of Toac(0) and the time resolved fluorescence of Trp(9) present in the peptides. the Toac(0) ESR of the membrane-bound peptides indicates that the two peptides are inserted into the bilayer, close to the bilayer surface, in rather similar environments. A residue titration around pK(a) 7.5, possibly that of His(6), can be clearly monitored by peptide-lipid partition. Trp(9) time ...
One zone of examination that has indicated promising advancement are the utilization of peptide. therapeutics in treating sort 2 diabetes, focusing on the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor. Effectively three. peptides have gotten endorsement in 2012, with 14 working their way through the pipeline. A most. energizing part of these peptide drug hopefuls is the assortment in medication detailing of sub-atomic. arrangements (with peptides being covalently connected to little particles, sugars, lipids, biopolymers,. polyethylene glycol or proteins and their systems of activities (counting particular cell focusing on. peptides and cell-infiltrating peptides) presently being clarified. Accordingly, significant endeavors are. being made to change sub-atomic properties of peptide medication prompts enhance their usefulness. For. instance, half-life augmentation was the method of reasoning for four peptides (CBX129801, CVX060,. LAPSExd4, PB1023) in stage II, whereby peptide conjugation to polyethylene or ...
The substrate scope of fluorinase enzyme mediated transhalogenation reactions is extended. Substrate tolerance allows a peptide cargo to be tethered to a 5-chloro-5-deoxynucleoside substrate for transhalogenation by the enzyme to a 5-fluoro-5-deoxynucleoside. The reaction is successfully extended from that previously reported for a monomeric cyclic peptide (cRGD) to cargoes of dendritic scaffolds carrying two and four cyclic peptide motifs. The RGD peptide sequence is known to bind upregulated αVβ3 integrin motifs on the surface of cancer cells and it is demonstrated that the fluorinated products have a higher affinity to αVβ3 integrin than their monomeric counterparts. Extending the strategy to radiolabelling of the peptide cargoes by tagging the peptides with [18F]fluoride was only moderately successful due to the poor water solubility of these higher order peptide scaffolds although the strategy holds promise for peptide constructs with improved solubility ...
MARTARI, Marco and SANDERSON, Ronald D.. Critical self-assembly concentration of bolaamphiphilic peptides and peptide hybrids determined by fluorescence measurements. S.Afr.j.chem. (Online) [online]. 2008, vol.61, pp.47-52. ISSN 1996-840X.. The study of the self-assembly properties of peptides and proteins is important for the understanding of molecular recognition processes and for the rational design of functionalbiomaterials. Novel bolaamphiphilic peptides and peptide hybrids incorporating non-natural aminoacids were designed around a model lysine/leucine-rich peptide with the intention to study their self-assembly behaviour. Steady-state fluorescence measurements using pyrene as fluorescent probe were adapted to the determination of the critical self-assembly concentrations (CSACs) of these amphiphilic peptides and peptide hybrids. Different experimental conditions were studied. The morphology of the peptide aggregates was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Concentration and pH ...
The work in this thesis can be divided into two sections, namely the study of delicious peptide, a food flavour and the antimicrobial peptide lactofenicin B. The main interest in these compounds is in terms of structure and conformation adopted in solution and how this relates to their mode of action. Delicious peptide was studied initially by 1H NMR spectroscopy for evidence of a specific solution structure. Results show that delicious peptide does not adopt a regular conformation in solution. Molecular dynamics simulations of this peptide show the flexibility of the peptide structure in solution. Quenched molecular dynamics simulations were used to search for low energy conformers of the peptide. The results suggest that the flavour of the peptide is produced by interaction of basic and acidic regions in the peptide. The work was extended to examine delicious peptide analogues with similar flavour characteristics. The results obtained suggest that similar interactions of basic and acidic ...
Creative Peptides recent introduced a batch of new APIs peptides to its present online database to better facilitate the related needs, which is also a step closer to a one-stop peptide supplier. Both the number and variety of peptides at Creative Peptides are increasing, besides the detail information page of every product is optimized by being attached with professional character description and practical applications mainly in pharmaceutical field. Besides, the company introduced several peptides into its featured products line.. With the unique attribute of being easily absorbed by the body mechanism, Peptide is prone to bring a new round of research spot with great potential in various aspects of pharmaceutical. To meet the needs in the field is the original goal of the establishment of Creative Peptides. At present there are tens thousand of peptides provided by the company. And APIs peptide is just a branch of all products. APIs peptides play a pivotal role in the development of ...
Neurological diseases such as neurodegeneration, pain, psychiatric disorders, stroke, and brain cancers would greatly benefit from the use of highly potent and specific peptide pharmaceuticals. Peptides are especially desirable because of their low inherent toxicity. The presence of the blood brain barrier (BBB), their short duration of action, and their need for parenteral administration limits their clinical use. However, over the past decade there have been significant advances in delivering peptides to the central nervous system. Angiopep peptides developed by Angiochem (Montreal, Canada), transferrin antibodies developed by ArmaGen (Santa Monica, USA), and cell penetrating peptides have all shown promise in delivering therapeutic peptides across the BBB after intravenous administration. Noninvasive methods of delivering peptides to the brain include the use of chitosan amphiphile nanoparticles for oral delivery and nose to brain strategies. The uptake of the chitosan amphiphile ...
The invention relates to a peptide that is a maturation product of the Basic Prolin-rich Lacrinal Protein (BPLP) or a peptide derivative or a mimetic of said maturation product, wherein the peptide or peptide derivative or mimetic exhibits an inhibitory property against a metallo-ectopeptidase, especially NEP and/or APN. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides coding for said peptides and to antibodies directed against said peptides. Furthermore, the present invention relates to diagnostic and therapeutic uses of human BPLP protein and inhibitory peptides derived therefrom, polypeptides coding for human BPLP protein or peptides derived therefrom as well as antibodies directed against BPLP protein or peptides derived therefrom ...
Pores and skin professionals recommend facial products that have peptides (like Peter Thomas Roth Un-wrinkle Turbo Experience Serum) to be a an effective, protected way to realize radiant pores and serum for oily skin. Please read on to master precisely what a peptide is, and why several types of peptides are adept at reviving pores and skin. You may also get some simple info on why Peter Thomas Roth peptide serum is so productive at bettering pores and skin.. Introduction to Peptides:. A peptide is usually a string of amino acids, the basic elements are used to make proteins. As handful of as two amino acids can appear together to sort a peptide (exclusively a dipeptide). Other peptides contain dozens of amino acids. Generally, fifty amino acids is the cut-off line - anymore than this, and youre considering a protein, not a peptide.. The Significant Job Peptides Perform in Pores and skin Health and fitness:. Skin experts became fascinated with peptides after getting the essential component ...
With the advent of high throughput biomolecular engineering techniques, it has become possible to isolate short peptides that bind to a variety of targets ranging from inorganic materials to proteins. The application of peptides as therapeutics has been hampered by the inherent susceptibility of peptides to proteases present throughout the human body. One strategy to overcome this protease susceptibility is to fortify peptides via cyclization or other conformational constraints. Indeed, nature uses this strategy in several classes of peptides such as cyclotides and defensins which are stabilized by networks of disulfide bonds and in some cases head-to-tail cyclization. My group studies a class of peptides termed lasso peptides because of their unique slipknot-like structure. This highly entropically disfavored fold endows the peptides with tremendous stability; some lasso peptides can retain their structure and function even after boiling in 8 M urea. Lasso peptides are also resistant to ...
68111PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 1Cys Ser Val Arg Gln Gly Pro Val Gln Lys Cys1 5 10211PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 2Cys Ser Ser Cys Gln Asn Ser Pro Ala Leu Cys1 5 10311PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 3Cys Gln Ile Pro Gln Arg Thr Ala Thr Arg Cys1 5 10411PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 4Cys Ala Lys Gln Arg Thr Asp Pro Gly Tyr Cys1 5 10511PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 5Cys Trp Met Ser Pro Arg His Leu Gly Thr Cys1 5 10611PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 6Cys Arg Asn Cys Thr Val Ile Gln Phe Ser Cys1 5 10711PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 7Cys His Tyr Ile Ala Gly Thr Val Gln Gly Cys1 5 10811PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 8Cys Pro Leu Val Ser Leu Arg Asp His Ser Cys1 5 10911PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 9Cys Lys Gln Ser Tyr Leu His His Leu Leu Cys1 5 101011PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 10Cys Phe Gln Pro Leu Thr Pro Leu Cys Arg Cys1 5 101111PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic Peptide 11Cys Gln Ser Tyr His Glu Leu ...
High Quality Peptide for Industry and Research Applications BioConcept has a team of expert professionals using solid phase and solution phase chemistries by employing Fmoc and t-Boc methodologies for the design and production of peptides for research purposes. It?s the best place for you to outsource your routine peptide needs. BioConcept offers a range of peptide services from small research scale to large scale synthesis. Hallmarks of our custom services: Both small and large scale peptide synthesis ranging from milligram to multigram. Peptides purity range to suit customer requirement. Peptides available with various modifications. Peptides are synthesized by Fmoc chemistry on the CS Bio automated multiple peptide synthesizer. Free personalized non-obligatory technical consultation. Currently the shipping is at no extra charge within India. Complete customer confidentiality. Fast, on time delivery. Key Features: High Success Rate: Our expert scientists
Structural biology of peptides presented by class I and class II MHC proteins has transformed immunology, impacting our understanding of fundamental immune mechanisms and allowing researchers to rationalize immunogenicity and design novel vaccines. However, proteins are not static structures as often inferred from crystallographic structures. Their components move and breathe individually and collectively over a range of timescales. Peptides bound within MHC peptide binding grooves are no exception, and their motions have been shown to impact recognition by TCRs and other receptors in ways that influence function. Further, peptides tune the motions of MHC proteins themselves, which impacts recognition of peptide/MHC complexes by other proteins. Here we review the motional properties of peptides in MHC binding grooves and discuss how peptide properties can influence MHC motions. We briefly review theoretical concepts about protein motion and highlight key data that illustrate immunological consequences.
Peptide therapeutics market is expected to grow over the forecast period owing to the increasing prevalence of cancer and other various metabolic diseases. The other growth drivers of this market are introduction of technological advancements such as hybrid method of synthesis of peptides, lifestyle induced diseases such as obesity & diabetes, sophisticated healthcare infrastructure, increasing population and awareness. Peptides are referred as amide bonds which are linked with small chains of amino acid monomers. Peptides differ from protein on the basis of size. The presence of amino acids in peptides is less than 55 molecules. Peptides crunch themselves to some imitate such as receptor ligands and specific cell surface receptors.. As peptides act on cell membrane, so it helps peptides in treating various diseases. As the market has a huge potential, thus various biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are developing new peptides that can be used for various purposes. So these companies ...
Peptide splicing is a novel mechanism of production of peptides relying on the proteasome and involving the linkage of fragments originally distant in the parental protein. Peptides produced by splicing can be presented on class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex and recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes. Here, we describe a new antigenic peptide, which is presented by HLA-A3 and comprises two non-contiguous fragments of the melanoma differentiation antigen gp100PMEL17 spliced together in the reverse order to that in which they appear in the parental protein. Contrary to the previously described spliced peptides, which are produced by the association of fragments of 3 to 6 amino acids, the peptide described here results from the ultimate association of an 8-amino acid fragment with a single arginine residue. As described before, peptide splicing takes place in the proteasome by transpeptidation involving an acyl-enzyme intermediate linking one of the peptide fragment to a ...
BACKGROUND: Antigen-specific CD8 T cells following infection or immunization are typically assessed by measuring interferon-gamma production after stimulation with overlapping peptides spanning the region of interest. The effect of epitope location within such peptides is not known but may influence recognition. OBJECTIVE: To examine if peptides containing the appropriate C-terminal anchor amino acid residue would provide more sensitive detection of T cell responses. The impact was examined of epitope location within overlapping peptides on recognition of epitope-specific CD8 T cell responses. METHODS: C-terminal amino acid residues were analyzed in well-defined optimal epitopes for HIV, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and influenza and in peptide-binding motifs. Recognition of known epitopes within longer synthesized peptides by peripheral blood mononuclear cells or CD8 T cell lines was tested using interferon-gamma Elispot at various peptide concentrations. RESULTS: Only 9 of 20 amino acids served
Individual proteins can now often be modified with atomic precision, but there are still major obstacles to connecting proteins into larger assemblies. To direct protein assembly, ideally, peptide tags would be used, providing the minimal perturbation to protein function. However, binding to peptides is generally weak, so assemblies are unstable over time and disassemble with force or harsh conditions. We have recently developed an irreversible protein-peptide interaction (SpyTag/SpyCatcher), based on a protein domain from Streptococcus pyogenes, that locks itself together via spontaneous isopeptide bond formation. Here we develop irreversible peptide-peptide interaction, through redesign of this domain and genetic dissection into three parts: a protein domain termed SpyLigase, which now ligates two peptide tags to each other. All components expressed efficiently in Escherichia coli and peptide tags were reactive at the N terminus, at the C terminus, or at internal sites. Peptide-peptide ligation
Peptide-binding peptides can be a very powerful research tool. A novel methodology, based on the mechanism of bacteriophage l switch in E. coli and combinatorial screening, has been developed to isolate peptides that bind another target peptide in vivo. Two pairs of interacting peptides have been isolated and characterized. One of the potential applications of such peptide-binding peptides is to be utilized as protein purification tags. Another novel aspect of this research is that a candidate peptide is able to inhibit an enzyme-catalyzed protein hydrolysis by binding specifically to a peptide sequence on the substrate which is recognized by the protease. In other words, a novel concept of substrate-directed enzyme inhibitors has been developed ...
As shown below, the peptide array is directly synthesized on a membrane with a maximum capacity of 384 peptide dots. The membrane is then overlaid with a purified target protein, followed by immunoblotting to find the interaction between the target protein and selective peptide dots. The minimum peptide sequence sufficient to bind to the target protein is revealed by analyzing several adjacent dots that all show positive binding with the target protein. Selected peptide candidates will be linked with a membrane-permeable sequence (roughly 10 aa long) so that they can penetrate both the blood-brain barrier and the plasma membrane of cells. We have used this technique extensively to identify small peptide sequences (roughly 10 aa long) that can be applied for either interference of protein-protein interaction by binding to the interaction interface of target proteins or selective knockdown of endogenous proteins using our peptide-mediated protein knockdown technology.. ...
References for Abcams Human Tau (unmodified ) peptide (ab23425). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
We recently reported on a new class of branched amphiphilic peptides that associate with double stranded DNA and promote in vitro transfection of eukaryotic cells. In the present study, we tested a different formulation in which plasmid DNA associates with the surface of preformed 20-30 nm cationic capsules formed through the self-assembly of the two branched amphiphilic peptides. Under these conditions, the negatively charged DNA interacts with the cationic surface of the Branched Amphiphilic Peptide Capsules (BAPCs) through numerous electrostatic interactions generating peptide-DNA complexes with sizes ranging from 50 to 250 nm. The BAPCs-DNA nanoparticles are capable of delivering plasmid DNA of different size into cells in culture, yielding high transfection rates and minimal cytotoxicity. Furthermore, BAPCs were tested for in vivo delivery of a DNA vaccine previously designed to activate immune responses and capable of controlling tumors induced by type 16 human papilloma virus (HPV-16). ...
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) released into the extra cellular environment via cell death or through vaccination are taken up by antigen presenting cells of the immune system. HSP-chaperoned peptides are then cross-presented for priming of specific T cell responses. Our goal is to identify the subset(s) of cells that sample HSPs in vivo and then initiate T cell priming. By introducing a fluorescent labeled HSP into mice, cells in the draining lymph node that engage extracellular HSP have been identified. Our data demonstrate that CD4+CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC) are the predominant cells that internalize the HSP, while CD8+CD11c+ DCs did not significantly internalize the HSP. The localization of these cells within the lymph node and their ability to prime T cells are examined. These studies illustrate how HSPs act to alert the immune system of cellular damage and will be useful for optimizing HSP-based vaccination regimes in clinical studies of cancer patients. ...
Ubiquitin contains eight primary amine sites including seven Lys and the N terminus. The reaction of ubiquitin with the NN reagent is very efficient, as evidenced by the ESI-mass spectrum of the protein after modification (see supplemental Figs. S2A and S2B). For ubiquitin, a 1:2 protein/NN ratio produced predominantly singly modified proteins with minor contributions of doubly and triply modified proteins. Subsequent tryptic digestion and LC-MS/MS analysis resulted in identification of nine unmodified peptides plus 14 modified peptides, the latter based on the characteristic N-N bond cleavage upon ETD followed by CID. The modified peptides were easily distinguished from unmodified peptides using ETD through the preferential cleavage of the NN bond (Fig. 2). This cleavage leads to a loss of 93 from all charge reduced species. In addition, sequential losses of 93 Da can be used to identify the number of modifications. For example, the N-terminal peptide for ubiquitin, MQIFVKTLTGK, has two ...
The availability of bioactive peptides in food sources is currently a topic of great interest, following recent reports of their health benefits. Although a field of great potential, there are also a large number of challenges surrounding the availability of peptides from food sources, as researchers in Canada have recently reported in a review article published in Trends in Food Science and Technology. Bioactive peptides comprise two or more amino acid residues and are typically made during breakdown of proteins by enzymes; this can happen during food processing, gastric digestion or during fermentation. However, lack of specificity during these processes makes prediction of the resulting bioactive peptides difficult; use of heat treatment during these processes can, in fact, lead to the production of peptides that could actually be harmful to human health. Traditional methods of bioactive peptide discovery build on pre-existing knowledge of proteins and enzymes to create databases of novel ...
Disclosed is a method for delivering an active protein or peptide to the colon. The steps of the method include providing a multiparticulate dosage core particle comprising 3 components, the total weight of the 3 components in dry form defining a batch size. The multiparticulate core particle is produced by the method comprising: a) providing an aqueous PEG solution, the dry weight of the PEG component representing from about 2.5% to about 15% of the batch size (weight/weight), the water component of the aqueous PEG solution representing approximately 30-60% of the batch size (weight/weight); b) providing a homogenous mixture of the active protein or peptide and microcrystalline cellulose, both in dry form, the active protein or peptide comprising from about 50% to about 95% of the batch size (weight/weight) and the microcrystalline cellulose comprising from about 2.5% to about 35% of the batch size (weight/weight); c) while mixing the components of step b), contacting the components of step b) with the
The genuine facts are unexpected there are in fact a handful of dozen peptide treatment centers dotted about the important towns of Sydney. You will find that each and every peptide medical clinic throughout the land may have extremely demanding policies that has to follow the requirements of WADA (Planet Anti Doping Organization). This you may think will undoubtedly make buying process a hurdle of dilemma soon after problem, wrong! By purchasing from any peptide clinic the customer is practically guaranteed a standard of quality with the peptide clinicsassurance that he/she will be buying genuine chemicals. That is what these rules mean. ...
Hydrocarbon stapled peptides have important potential in the development of peptide drugs. Peptides have high potency, high specificity and few side effects, but are rapidly degraded by protease enzymes. The hydrocarbon cross links of stapled peptides constrain the peptide in an a-helix conformation, favoring binding for peptides that bind to their receptor in an a-helix conformation. Additionally, in a helical structure, the polar amide backbone is less exposed producing greater resistance to protease enzymes and increased penetration of cell membranes. Double stapling of an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor greatly improved its pharmacokinetic properties, including oral availability. (1). STAPLED PEPTIDES AS POTENTIAL DRUG LEADS ...
Bioactive peptides, including biological sources-derived peptides with different biological activities, are protein fragments that influence the functions or conditions of organisms, in particular humans and animals. Conventional methods of identifying bioactive peptides are time-consuming and costly. To quicken the processes, several bioinformatics tools are recently used to facilitate screening of the potential peptides prior their activity assessment in vitro and/or in vivo. In this study, we developed an efficient computational method, SpirPep, which offers many advantages over the currently available tools. The SpirPep web application tool is a one-stop analysis and visualization facility to assist bioactive peptide discovery. The tool is equipped with 15 customized enzymes and 1-3 miscleavage options, which allows in silico digestion of protein sequences encoded by protein-coding genes from single, multiple, or genome-wide scaling, and then directly classifies the peptides by bioactivity using an
A method to obtain selected individual peptides or families thereof which have a target property and optionally to determine the amino acid sequence of a selected peptide or peptides to permit synthesis in practical quantities is disclosed. In general outline, the method of the invention comprises synthesizing a mixture of randomly or deliberately generated peptides using standard synthesis techniques, but adjusting the individual concentrations of the components of a mixture of sequentially added amino acids according to the coupling constants for each amino acid/amino acid coupling. The subgroup of peptides having the target property can then be selected, and either each peptide isolated and sequenced, or analysis performed on the mixture to permit its composition to be reproduced. Also included in the invention is an efficient method to determine the relevant coupling constants.
Provides a dedicated resource of experimentally verified antiviral peptides (AVPs) targeting over 60 medically important viruses including Influenza, HCV, HSV, RSV, HBV, DENV, SARS, etc.
There is a very strong correlation between the affinity of peptide binding to MHC molecules and the capacity of the peptide to induce an immune response (31, 32). This information is critical to the strategy used in this study. The size of a peptide determines its capacity to bind class I MHC. Whereas the optimal peptide length for most murine MHC molecules appears to be 9-amino acid residues, the Kb and Kk molecules prefer 8-residue peptides (33). Kb molecules were initially chosen to define a glycopeptide that: (a) binds with high affinity; and (b) will be of a structure that skews the T cell response toward recognition of the carbohydrate moiety rather than toward either the peptide or the MHC molecule. The critical anchor residues for Kb binding have been canonically defined as phenylalanine (F) or tyrosine (Y) in position 5 and leucine (L) or methionine (M) at position 8 of an octamer peptide (8). The maintenance of critical hydrogen bonding between main chain atoms in the peptide and atoms ...
In the last few years, there has been a renewed interest in peptide therapeutics directed toward a wide range of indications, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, HIV and cancer. Peptides, compared to other small molecule drugs, offer increased specificity while potentially offering greater metabolic stability and oral availability than protein biologics. These peptide therapies can be manufactured using either recombinant methods or chemical synthesis alone or in combination. Recently, innovative synthesis methods have been described for generating long peptides that can be classified as proteins. For example, Provence Technologies recently synthesized IL-10, consisting of 160 amino acids. The FDA classifies any peptide produced synthetically containing over 100 amino acids as a protein. This blog outlines the three elements that affect costs of producing a peptide therapeutic.. First, a critical factor in the cost of peptides made by chemical synthesis is the product yield per amino ...
... is a stearated form of the peptide Ht-31P. This peptide has been used as a negative control peptide for the study of InCELLect™ AKAP St-Ht31 Inhibitor Peptide.
The main benefit of natural peptides, peptide analogs and newly designed peptides as therapeutics, lies in their high selectivity and affinity, which are frequently in the nanomolar range. New drugs targeting protein-protein interactions often require larger interaction sites than small molecules can offer. Thus, many peptidic drugs are already applied in therapy at the current state. The next generation of peptide-based therapeutic agents is currently on its way from basic research to clinical studies and eventually to the pharmaceutical market. Development of more robust and long-lasting drugs owing to well-known and new stabilization strategies is yielding novel and continuously improving peptide drugs. The introduction of smart linkers that exhibit stability towards blood plasma but intracellular lability will lead to target-oriented activity, which might successfully decrease side effects. In this review, peptidic therapeutics on the market, in clinical studies and some of those in basic research
Peptides are very important compounds that are frequently synthesized in all living organisms, and also offer mostly to control physical processes. Peptide hormonal agents as well as neuropeptides manage several procedures in the human body. Peptides are involved in the procedure of regrowth and development of cells, correct functioning of the immune system, body metabolic rate, rest guideline, hormonal agent production, Peptides as well as sarms influence several physiological factors such as muscle mass, efficiency, endurance and also general physical problem, body fat loss, regrowth of all tissues and body organs, maturing rate (peptides could considerably reduce aging), injury recovery, joint and also tendon regrowth, energy and vigor, excellent skin and hair condition and much more. It additionally impacts mental factors such as memory, actions, concentration, focus, concentration, ability to discover, promote great as well as deep sleep. Peptides positively affect lots of elements vital ...
In many cases, peptides hormones are initially synthesized on the ribosomes of the endocrine cells as larger proteins known as preprohormones, which are then cleaved to prohormones by proteolytic enzymes in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The prohormone is then packaged into secretory vesicles by the Golgi apparatus. In this process, the prohormone is cleaved to yield the active hormone and other peptide chains found in the prohormone. Therefore, when the cell is stimulated to release the contents of the secretory vesicles by exocytosis, the other peptides are co-secreted with the hormone. In certain cases they, too, may exert hormonal effects. In other words, instead of just one peptide hormone, the cell may be secreting multiple peptide hormones that differ in their effects on target cells. ...
A non-neurotoxin, arginine residue-containing non-naturally occurring lytic peptide comprising a sequence of amino acid residues in sufficient number and arrangement to confer lytic activity to the peptide, wherein the guanido groups of the arginine residues and the α-amino group of the N-terminal amino acid are sufficiently glyoxylated to impart enhanced tryptic, chymotryptic, and aminopeptidase digestion resistance to the peptide. The compositions of the invention are suitable for in vivo administration. A method of-making the same, to impart enhanced tryptic digestion resistance thereto, comprising glyoxylating the guanido groups of the arginine residues and the α-- amino group of the N-terminal amino acid with glyoxa containing buffer for sufficient time and at sufficient conditions to glyoxylate the side chain and α-amino groups to sufficient extent to confer enhanced proteolytic digestion resistance to the peptide.
Peptides , Cell Permeable Peptides (CPP) , Drug Delivery Peptides , TfR Targeting Peptide; This 12-mer peptide sequence is a transferrin receptor (TfR) targeting peptide. It binds to TfR and is internalized via endocytosis into TfR-expressing cells. TfR targeting peptide is a potential carrier for transportation of small molecules across the bl; THRPPMWSPVWP; H-Thr-His-Arg-Pro-Pro-Met-Trp-Ser-Pro-Val-Trp-Pro-OH
Peptides (from Gr. πεπτός, "digested", derived from πέσσειν, "to digest") are biologically occurring short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.. The covalent chemical bonds are formed when the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amine group of another. The shortest peptides are dipeptides, consisting of 2 amino acids joined by a single peptide bond, followed by tripeptides, tetrapeptides, etc. A polypeptide is a long, continuous, and unbranched peptide chain. Hence, peptides fall under the broad chemical classes of biological oligomers and polymers, alongside nucleic acids, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, etc.. ...
Peptides (from Gr. πεπτός, "digested", derived from πέσσειν, "to digest") are biologically occurring short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.. The covalent chemical bonds are formed when the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amine group of another. The shortest peptides are dipeptides, consisting of 2 amino acids joined by a single peptide bond, followed by tripeptides, tetrapeptides, etc. A polypeptide is a long, continuous, and unbranched peptide chain. Hence, peptides fall under the broad chemical classes of biological oligomers and polymers, alongside nucleic acids, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, etc.. ...
This is the largest study to date utilizing U15N-labeled proteins as internal standards for protein quantification. The U15N-labeled proteins were expressed and purified using the same process as the unlabeled proteins used in this study and, in all regards, should behave quite similarly. An added benefit to using heavy-labeled proteins as internal standards is the ability to monitor multiple peptides from each protein. In cases where digestion is incomplete, resulting in missed cleaved peptides, or in cases where additional peptides from the protein would strengthen the statistics of the measurement, as long as the heavy-labeled protein behaves the same way as the endogenous protein, the additional peptide forms can be readily monitored. Such experiments are especially tractable using instruments with high resolution, accurate mass capabilities where the accurate mass measurement of the precursor and the fragments significantly improve the confidence of the analyses, and selection and ...
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Peptides such as in ghrp 6 are short chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds and have a defined sequence. Peptide function primarily as a signalling molecule in animals or as antibiotics in some lower organisms. Peptides are great polypeptide chains comprising up to 50 amino acids which can be classified by function and also by synthesis.. Some common types of peptides are classified by functions including hormones, neuropeptides, and alkaloids. When classified by synthesis, peptides can ribosomes, nonribosomal, and peptonic. The classification system peptide considered an imperfect science as one of the peptides can belong to multiple groups simultaneously and scientists continue to argue as to be classified as a protein peptide, or protein peptides.. Many scientists agree that the peptide does not fit easily into a certain pattern, while the protein is more clearly the nature of the adjustment. Here are the types of peptides and their functions.. - Hormones. Hormones, one of the ...
Peptides such as in ghrp 6 are short chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds and have a defined sequence. Peptide function primarily as a signalling molecule in animals or as antibiotics in some lower organisms. Peptides are great polypeptide chains comprising up to 50 amino acids which can be classified by function and also by synthesis.. Some common types of peptides are classified by functions including hormones, neuropeptides, and alkaloids. When classified by synthesis, peptides can ribosomes, nonribosomal, and peptonic. The classification system peptide considered an imperfect science as one of the peptides can belong to multiple groups simultaneously and scientists continue to argue as to be classified as a protein peptide, or protein peptides.. Many scientists agree that the peptide does not fit easily into a certain pattern, while the protein is more clearly the nature of the adjustment. Here are the types of peptides and their functions.. - Hormones. Hormones, one of the ...
Recent approaches to constraining peptide sequences into more structurally-defined α- helical secondary structures, so-called peptide stapling, are discussed. Stapled peptides are a class of therapeutics that have been shown to more effectively target protein-protein interactions, which are harder to target using a classical small-molecule therapeutic approach. Stapling a peptide constrains it into a well-defined secondary structure. This more accurately mimics the protein-protein interaction making the peptide a more viable therapeutic. Starting from the p53-MDM2 interaction, a protein-protein interaction with important implications in cell health, a known peptidyl inhibitor of this interaction was stapled and analysed for increased α-helicity. This was achieved by using monomers that utilise the copper (I) alkyne azide cycloaddition as a cross-linking methodology, which has been less well researched in the context of peptide stapling. The viability of a novel stapled peptomer inhibitor ...
The conventional wisdom is that certain classes of bioactive peptides have specific structural features that endow their particular functions. Accordingly, predictions of bioactivity have focused on particular subgroups, such as antimicrobial peptides. We hypothesized that bioactive peptides may share more general features, and assessed this by contrasting the predictive power of existing antimicrobial predictors as well as a novel general predictor, PeptideRanker, across different classes of peptides. We observed that existing antimicrobial predictors had reasonable predictive power to identify peptides of certain other classes i.e. toxin and venom peptides. We trained two general predictors of peptide bioactivity, one focused on short peptides (4-20 amino acids) and one focused on long peptides ( amino acids). These general predictors had performance that was typically as good as, or better than, that of specific predictors. We noted some striking differences in the features of short peptide and long
Hello to all of you! Does anybody have experience with in vitro peptide synthesis? Im using the Promega TNT-T7 Quick coupled translation-transcription kit in order to obtain the protein translation of PCR fragments from human genomic DNA (PTT, protein truncation test; size fragments: about 1300 bp; gene: exon 11 of BRCA1). Each forward primer contains the T7 promoter sequence and a eukaryotic translation initiation sequence. After synthesis, the products are analyzed by 12% SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. My problems: 1) the size of translated peptide its larger than expected (about 65 kD vs 50 kD) 2) an unexpected, high molecular weight peptide - about 85 kD - appears on the autoradiography Any suggestion is welcome.. Thans, Simonetta Palleschi ...
Introduction: Several MHC class I HER2-derived peptides have been identified that elicit a peptide-specific, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. We have postulated that Trastuzumab (Tz) binding may protect or modulate enzymatic cleavage sites on HER2 normally accessible by proteasomes thereby altering the cleavage pattern and resulting peptide profile. We have previously reported that Tz-treated breast cancer cells are recognized and killed more efficiently than untreated cells by T cells stimulated with the HER2-derived peptide E75 (aa:369-377). In the current study, we show that unique peptides may be located within the Tz binding sequence and that treatment with Tz may generate novel immunogenic peptides that could be used as vaccines in combination immunotherapy.. Methods: The binding site of Tz on the HER2 protein was analyzed for HLA-A2 binding peptides. Five nonameric peptides were identified, synthesized and tested. HLA-stabilization assays using T2 cells were performed to confirm ...
Figure: Shotgun mass spectrometry. 1) Proteins are digested with an enzyme to produce peptides, 2) the peptides are separated via HPLC, 3) the peptides are ionized by electrospray and 4) intact peptide ion intensities are used to calculate abundance and time-of-flight analysis is used to measure mass/charge ratios of the peptides and peptide fragments for identification via database comparisons. The mass spectrometer measures the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio of the ionized peptides and peptide fragments, and peptides can then be identified by comparison of the m/z values with those in a protein database which has been subjected to virtual proteolysis. The main advantage of this method is the ability to detect more difficult classes of proteins which are not detectable by traditionally-used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis approaches. ...
... on testing of fractions of organic samples in bacterial development inhibition assays. goals. had been at that correct period just obtainable seeing that clones from a cDNA collection. 5 The overall idea was to create and characterize this peptide without prior direct BINA chemical or isolation synthesis. AMP Production Because of the little BINA bit of Rabbit polyclonal to PLSCR1. genuine peptide directly retrieved from isolates additional studies always rely on a technique to recover even more of the materials of interest. That is essential to exploit their setting of actions and their pharmaceutical potential. Since it converted out in addition it is among the larger challenges when learning more technical AMPs. Generally you can find three different techniques that may be used: immediate isolation of peptides from organic sources chemical substance synthesis or recombinant manifestation of peptides in transgenic ...
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Does anybody remember a good method of precipitation of peptides, preferably using organic solvents (for easy liophylization later)? I have a bunch of hydrophobic peptides (weakly soluble in H2O - up to ~ 0.5-1 mg/ml, almost freely soluble in DMSO, acetone, etc.) I would like to re-crystallize to remove impurities (salts, by-products of synthesis, etc.), without losing too much of material, and avoiding any harsh treatments like TCA precipitation that may modify residues. Solubilization in e.g., acetone with subsequent precipitation with water is not a solution, because of partial solubility in water. HPLC is not quick enough, because I need a lot of peptide and as quick as possible, and HPLC (semi-preparative column) can yield ~ ,10mg/run of peptide (need to recrystallize 5 x 500 mg peptides). Thanks for ideas. Emir Khatipov University of Chicago ...
Enzymatic digestion of proteins generates biologically active peptides which can be concentrated by filtration with the appropriate membranes. This work uses a hydrolysate derived from the New Zealand geoduck Panopea zelandica and compares the effectiveness of membranes with varying molecular weight cut-offs (MWCOs) and surface charges for carrying out selective separations of the peptides. A membrane with a MWCO of 2.5 kDa was found to be most effective for obtaining the greatest differences between the permeate and retentate from the membranes when separating by size alone. For separating peptides based on charge the choice of membrane and pH was important. The results obtained suggested that each hydrolysate has different optimum conditions for achieving separation. A challenge when analysing the effects of membranes on peptide mixtures is quantifying the changes that have occurred. The work presented here introduced a multivariate approach to interpretation of complete sets of HPLC data that ...
Human CD4\(^+\) T cells process and present functional class II MHC-peptide complexes, but the endogenous peptide repertoire of these non-classical antigen presenting cells remains unknown. We eluted and sequenced HLA-DR-bound self-peptides presented by CD4\(^+\) T cells in order to compare the T cell-derived peptide repertoire to sequences derived from genetically identical B cells. We identified several novel epitopes derived from the T cell-specific proteome, including fragments of CD4 and IL-2. While these data confirm that T cells can present peptides derived from the T-cell specific proteome, the vast majority of peptides sequenced after elution from MHC were derived from the common proteome. From this pool, we identified several identical peptide epitopes in the T and B cell repertoire derived from common endogenous proteins as well as novel endogenous epitopes with promiscuous binding. These findings indicate that the endogenous HLA-DR-bound peptide repertoire, regardless of APC type and ...
GSI has prepared modified peptides that can be fluorescently labeled, biotinylated, phophorylated, acetylated, or have one or more disulfides (see available peptide modifications). GSI has prepared ,100,000 peptides for scientists all over the world. GSI products and services have been referenced in several hundreds peer reviewed publications. GSI peptide chemists can help you make peptides tailored to your specific requirements from mg to grams and purities approaching 98-100%. ...
Do you need peptides synthesized? Peptide antigens for antibody production? Or even specialized peptide libraries? -- The UNC High Throughput Peptide Synthesis and Array Facility can help!
The purpose of this study was to extend the previous immunoproteomic identification of peptide antigens from human ovarian cancer cells by showing their relevance in activating tumor-specific T cells in vitro and in vivo. The broad application of these peptide antigens was supported by the demonstration that peptide-specific T cells could be activated that could recognize HLA-matched ovarian and breast cancer cells, but not normal cells with comparable HLA-A2 expression.. We observed that peptides originally identified from ovarian cancer-derived pools of HLA-A2 associated peptides could be formulated into combinations of peptides that induced immune responses as potent as those induced by single peptides. This observation permitted us to combine peptides into pools, first combining 6 peptides at a time into mixture and then later combining all 12 peptides into a single mixture. We then conducted 2 parallel pilot trials of 2 dose levels of the peptides combined with Montanide and GM-CSF and ...
We have recently identified (a) ectocalreticulin as the main source of immunogenicity of cancer cell death induced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy, (b) ectoERP57 as critical protein for inducing cell surface exposure of calreticulin, and (c) that ectoERP57 and ectocalreticulin are cotranslocated together to the tumor cell surface by the mediator of the inhibition of PP1/GADD34 complex. Here, I report that the immunogenicity of cancer cell death induced by anticancer targeted proapoptotic peptides is also dictated by ectocalreticulin. To improve the anticancer activity of these proapoptotic peptides, I have designed several targeted chimeric inhibitor peptides of the PP1/GADD34 complex, which are comprised of an inhibitor peptide of the PP1/GADD34 complex fused to a protein transduction domain-5, to prostate homing peptide, or to the tumor antigen BiP/GRP78-binding peptide motifs. These inhibitor peptides (a) induce ectocalreticulin and ectoERP57 in a variety of tumor cell lines by the mediator ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): 4E10 is a monoclonal antibody that was derived from the B cells of a patient with persistent HIV infections. In vitro and in vivo, 4E10 neutralizes a wide variety of HIV and SHIV strains. As such, an immunogen that elicits 4E10-like antibody responses in humans would be a huge advance toward the goal of designing a safe and effective vaccine against HIV. Although the epitope for 4E10 was found to be a six amino acid peptide (NWFNIT) from the fusogenic domain of gp41, attempts to use this peptide as an immunogen to elicit antibodies that mimic the HIV neutralizing activity of 4E10 have been totally unsuccessful. This result indicates that antigen presentation is possibly the missing link that lies between immunization with NWFNIT-containing immunogens and the successful elicitation of 4E10-like antibodies in vivo. For over a decade we have been developing methods in peptide chemistry to induce linear synthetic peptides to assume new conformations. The ...
Citation. Singh S, Singh H, Tuknait A, Chaudhary K, Singh B, Kumaran S, Raghava GP. PEPstrMOD: Structure Prediction of Peptides Containing Natural, Non-natural and Modified Residues.. Biology Direct. 2015 Mar 01; 10: 73.. External Citation. Abstract. In the past, many methods have been developed for peptide tertiary structure prediction but they are limited to peptides having natural amino acids. This study describes a method PEPstrMOD, which is an updated version of PEPstr, developed specifically for predicting the structure of peptides containing natural and non-natural/modified residues.. This publication is listed for reference purposes only. It may be included to present a more complete view of a JCVI employees body of work, or as a reference to a JCVI sponsored project. ...
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We set out to clone Bax-specific CD8+ T cells from peripheral blood sam- ples of patients with primary chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. A number of clones were generated using a Bax peptide pool and their T-cell epitope was mapped to two peptides sharing a common 9-amino-acid sequence (LLSYFGTPT), restricted by HLA-A*0201. However, when these T-cell clones were tested against highly purified syntheses (, 95%) of the same peptide sequence, there was no functional response. Subsequent mass spectrometric analysis and HPLC fractionation suggested that the active component in the original crude peptide preparations (77% pure) was a peptide with a tert-butyl (tBu) modification of the tyrosine residue. This was confirmed by modification of the inactive wild-type sequence to gen- erate functionally active peptides. Computer modelling of peptide:HLA- A*0201 structures predicted that the tBu modification would not affect interactions between peptide residues and the HLA binding site. However, these models ...
Peptide represents MedChemExpress SR 3029 putative SBP binding peptide in Pea-15 and the 15900046 latter is a peptide obtained from the literature. The common
295873657 - EP 0970106 A1 2000-01-12 - uPAR-MIMICKING PEPTIDES - [origin: WO9842733A1] Peptides comprising the SRSRY sequence derived from the uPAR (urokinase receptor) are endowed with chemotactic activity, making them useful for preventing or activating the migration of cells in a mammal. More particularly, the peptides of the invention are useful for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases and/or hyperinflammatory diseases and for stimulating wound healing.[origin: WO9842733A1] Peptides comprising the SRSRY sequence derived from the uPAR (urokinase receptor) are endowed with chemotactic activity, making them useful for preventing or activating the migration of cells in a mammal. More particularly, the peptides of the invention are useful for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases and/or hyperinflammatory diseases and for stimulating wound healing.
The multi-institutional team of Dr. Carol Hall, Camille Dreyfus Distinguished Professor at NC State University, Dr. Anant Paravastu, associate professor at Georgia Tech, and Dr. Hudalla, combine their expertise in computational modeling, biophysical characterization, and nuclear magnetic resonance to study peptide assembly into supramolecular (beyond the molecule) structures. This RAISE award supports their on-going efforts to advance understanding of "peptide co-assembly" -- the formation of a single supramolecular structure via interactions between two unique peptide molecules -- as well as to use co-assembling peptides attached to proteins as a general strategy to create functional supramolecular biomaterials. The goals of this project are to establish a computational-experimental framework to uncover molecular-level design rules necessary to predict peptide co-assembly, and then to use these rules to develop novel enzyme-functionalized supramolecular biomaterials. This approach is ...
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Upon receiving the peptides, it would be best to maintain its room temperature if youre going to use it right away. It could last for around a month in such condition. However, you can opt to refrigerate it to make it last for up to 48 months. Just note that you should not put the peptides from room temperature into the cold or vice versa repeatedly, or else it would be damaged.. If you buy peptides for the purpose of cosmetics, you wont be having problems in storing them for use. Just keep them in room temperature, and you can be assured theyll be on high effectiveness.. Find a reliable seller now where you can buy peptides! Consider the points mentioned above, for you to assure your peptides effectivity. Regardless of your purpose of having it, you should always keep and use them properly for best outcome.. ...
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Advanced Materials Technology have launched two new advanced LC phases for your LC separation toolbox – HALO Peptide Phenyl-Hexyl and HALO AQ-C18. HALO 160 Å Peptide Phenyl-Hexyl – a BioClass Fused-Core HPLC/UHPLC column – is specifically designed to offer alternative selectivity to C18 and CN columns, for separations of peptides and tryptic digests. It offers excellent separation of peptide and protein digests, unique selectivity, rugged stability and excellent lot-to-lot reproducibility.
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Researchers are approaching the battle against Alzheimers with a number of strategies. "Our approach is to try to find small peptides that will prevent the amyloid peptide from being toxic, and render it harmless," Professor Ingram said.. To do this, the researchers selected from a combinatorial library a series of peptides with various interesting properties. Peptides are natural or synthetic compounds of two or more linked amino acids, the most basic building blocks of life.. Professor Ingram and his research team created 30 small peptides, each between five and eight amino acids long, and tested them with lab-cultured human nerve cells. Some had no effect. Eight of them counteracted the excessive, toxic influx of calcium, knocking it down to normal levels. "In the presence of the decoy peptide, the final product of the aggregate is not toxic," he said. The fibrils still form, but are harmless and do not affect internal calcium levels in the cells.. Because they are small and can be modified ...
Residues within processed protein fragments bound to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) glycoproteins have been considered to function as a series of "independent pegs" that either anchor the peptide (p) to the MHC-I and/or interact with the spectrum of alphabeta-T-cell receptors (TCRs) specific for the pMHC-I epitope in question. Mining of the extensive pMHC-I structural database established that many self- and viral peptides show extensive and direct interresidue interactions, an unexpected finding that has led us to the idea of "constrained" peptides. Mutational analysis of two constrained peptides (the HLA B44 restricted self-peptide (B44DPalpha-EEFGRAFSF) and an H2-D(b) restricted influenza peptide (D(b)PA, SSLENFRAYV) demonstrated that the conformation of the prominently exposed arginine in both peptides was governed by interactions with MHC-I-orientated flanking residues from the peptide itself. Using reverse genetics in a murine influenza model, we revealed that mutation of ...
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All Natural . Vegan . Gluten Free. Essential C has been formulated with 18% l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and peptides, producing a powerful line-reducing concentrate to improve overall skin texture, tone and radiance and reducing the appearance of lines and wrinkles. Vitamin C is a highly efficacious antioxidant known for its powerful ability to improve the appearance of skin aging. Vitamin C is essential for collagen synthesis.. Peptides are anti-aging and provide a lifting effect. Peptides are a string of amino acids that are held together by bonds of nitrogen and carbon. Short chain peptides are able to penetrate the epidermis and send signals to cells, informing them how to function. They are one of the most effective treatments in repairing damaged and aging skin.. Its all Good ...
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To seek the underlying cause of autoimmune diseases we tested the hypothesis that mutated self proteins from mitochondria are seen as foreign proteins. A total of 21 mitochondrial peptides were identified using epitope prediction tool, SYFPEITHI as likely HLA-A2 restricted peptides. In vitro T cell line assays were conducted based on MHC stabilization of the peptides on T2 cells. Ten peptides were identified and the significant correlations were observed between the insilico and in vitro binding affinities. To determine the frequency of T cellular memory for the identified mutated peptides, PBMCs from healthy donors were tested in INF gamma-ELISpot assays. Frequencies of T cells recognizing mutated self peptide ranged from as few as 10 in 200,000 to 90 in 200,000 of the PBMCs plated. Among A2-donors, significant T cell responses were seen with mean age of 61 years. Of the 21 peptides two peptides, named as P10 and P14 were identified to be immuno-dominant peptides based on the immunogenic ...
Description Contains 60 capsules: 30-day course Visoluten® is the retina peptide bioregulator. Serves the same role as peptide bio-regulators developed naturally in the body Reducing peptide deficiency Restoring protein synthesis inside cells Natural Peptides Combinations (Cytomaxes) An Interview With Professor Vladim
For many people with advanced Type 2 diabetes, taking insulin is a regular part of their routine, helping them control their blood sugar by signaling the metabolism of glucose. But recently, researchers have been investigating GLP-1, a peptide that gets activated when people eat, triggering insulin through a more natural pathway.. "Proteins do a lot of the work in cells," said E. James Petersson, an associate professor of chemistry in the University of Pennsylvanias School of Arts and Sciences. "Peptides are shorter, and theyre not really functional as machines in the same way that proteins are. But what they can do is signal molecules. One cell will secrete a peptide, and it will travel through the bloodstream and activate another type of cell.". The problem with giving patients GLP-1 to trigger insulin production is that the peptide degrades in about two minutes due to natural enzymes in the body that break it apart, a process called proteolysis. In a paper published in the Journal of the ...
Convert a binary vector into a peptide.. Given: A space-delimited binary vector P.. Return: A peptide whose binary peptide vector matches P. For masses with more than one amino acid, any choice may be used.. Note: In this chapter, all dataset problems implicitly use the standard integer-valued mass table for the regular twenty amino acids. Examples sometimes use imaginary amino acids X and Z having respective integer masses 4 and 5.. ...
in European Journal of Biochemistry (1998), 256(3), 570-9. A class of peptides that associate with lipids, known as oblique-orientated peptides, was recently described [Brasseur R., Pillot, T., Lins, L., Vandekerckhove, J. & Rosseneu, M. (1997) Trends Biochem ... [more ▼]. A class of peptides that associate with lipids, known as oblique-orientated peptides, was recently described [Brasseur R., Pillot, T., Lins, L., Vandekerckhove, J. & Rosseneu, M. (1997) Trends Biochem. Sci. 22, 167-171]. Due to an asymmetric distribution of hydrophobic residues along the axis of the alpha-helix, such peptides adopt an oblique orientation which can destabilise membranes or lipid cores. Variants of these oblique peptides, designed to have an homogeneous distribution of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues along the helical axis, are classified as regular amphipathic peptides. These peptides are expected to lie parallel to the polar/apolar interface with their hydrophobic residues directed towards the apolar ...
The XBridge BEH300 C18 Peptide Separation Technology (PST) columns are optimized and QC tested for peptide separations. The wide-pore (300Å) trifunctionally bonded BEH particle offers you the widest usable pH range, superior low pH stability, and ultra-low column bleed to assay samples for proteomics, protein characterization, and peptide synthesis.
The XBridge BEH300 C18 Peptide Separation Technology (PST) columns are optimized and QC tested for peptide separations. The wide-pore (300Å) trifunctionally bonded BEH particle offers you the widest usable pH range, superior low pH stability, and ultra-low column bleed to assay samples for proteomics, protein characterization, and peptide synthesis.
Peptides are all the buzz in the fitness industry these days. What exactly are peptides, and why might you want to take them? Lets look at the chemistry and the function of peptides in the body.
Peptides are all the buzz in the fitness industry these days. What exactly are peptides, and why might you want to take them? Lets look at the chemistry and the function of peptides in the body.
Washington- A new research has found that a peptide produced by the human body could help in treating diabetes. The recently discovered human peptide,
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The use of microwave technology for solid phase peptide synthesis is one of the most significant breakthroughs of the past decade in the field of peptide chemistry. Much of the research on microwave-assisted peptide synthesis has focused on difficult to synthesize peptides. Described herein is an extensive study of the standard microwave synthesis protocols for the synthesis of a series of peptides that span a range of complexities. Each peptide was rapidly prepared in excellent purity, and often the microwave method far outperformed conventional synthesis techniques.. ...
Kit 30500-050 Kit 30500-096 DNA marker 81-0020 DNA marker 81-0100 DNA marker 82-0100 DNA marker 82-0200 DNA marker 82-0500 DNA marker 82-1000 DNA marker 83-2500 DNA marker 83-5000 DNA Aptamers AD-155-B DNA Aptamers AD-155-F DNA Aptamers AD-155-U Peptide Aptamers AP-302-B Peptide Aptamers AP-302-F Peptide Aptamers AP-302-U Peptide Aptamers AP-304-B Peptide Aptamers AP-304-F Peptide Aptamers AP-304-U Peptide Aptamers AP-306-B Peptide Aptamers AP-306-F Peptide Aptamers AP-306-U Peptide Aptamers AP-308-B Peptide Aptamers AP-308-F Peptide Aptamers AP-308-U Peptide Aptamers AP-309-B Peptide Aptamers AP-309-F Peptide Aptamers AP-309-U Peptide Aptamers AP-310-B Peptide Aptamers AP-310-F Peptide Aptamers AP-310-U Peptide Aptamers AP-312-B Peptide Aptamers AP-312-F Peptide Aptamers AP-312-U Peptide Aptamers AP-315-B Peptide Aptamers AP-315-F Peptide Aptamers AP-315-U Peptide Aptamers AP-318-B Peptide Aptamers AP-318-F Peptide Aptamers AP-318-U Peptide Aptamers AP-319-B Peptide Aptamers AP-319-F Peptide Aptamers
Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis: The Merrifield Method. Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis. In solid-phase synthesis, the starting material is bonded to an inert solid support. Reactants are added in solution. Slideshow 5946190 by riley-bullock
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We have recently identified peptide mimetics of the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide by screening phage display peptide libraries. 2H1, one of a large family of mAbs against the glucuronoxylomannan fraction (GXM), is highly protective and binds several peptide motifs. This study analyzes the immunologic properties of P601E (SYSWMYE), a peptide from the low affinity motif (W/YXWM/LYE) that has an extended cross-reactivity among anti-GXM mAbs and whose binding correlates with the protective potential of mAbs in experimental infection. P601E is a mimetic, since it competes for GXM binding to 2H1, but not a mimotope, since it does not elicit an anti-GXM response. Sequence analysis of 14 anti-P601E mAbs indicates that anti-P601E mAbs elicited in BALB/c mice have an order of homology with 2H1 of V kappa | J kappa || V(H) | J(H) | D. Further screening of a peptide library with anti-P601E mAbs isolated peptides having a motif almost identical to the peptide motif selected by 2H1. When these
TY - JOUR. T1 - Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight (MALDI-QIT-TOF)-based imaging mass spectrometry reveals a layered distribution of phospholipid molecular species in the mouse retina. AU - Hayasaka, Takahiro. AU - Goto-Inoue, Naoko. AU - Sugiura, Yuki. AU - Zaima, Nobuhiro. AU - Nakanishi, Hiroki. AU - Ohishi, Kentaro. AU - Nakanishi, Setsuko. AU - Naito, Takayuki. AU - Taguchi, Ryo. AU - Setou, Mitsutoshi. PY - 2008/11/15. Y1 - 2008/11/15. N2 - We recently developed a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight (MALDI-QIT-TOF)-based imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) system. This system enables us to perform structural analyses using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), as well as to visualize phospholipids and peptides in frozen sections. In the retina, phototransduction is regulated by the light-sensitive interaction between visual pigment-coupled receptor proteins, such as rhodopsin, and G proteins, such as transducin. ...
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Diastereochemical differentiation of β-amino acids using host-guest complexes studied by fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry | Anna R.M. Hyyryläinen; Jaana M.H. Pakarinen; Pirjo Vainiotalo; Géza Stájer; Ferenc Fülöp | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
Cyclic peptides[edit]. A peptide is a short polymer of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. They have the same chemical ... Cyclic peptides Microcystins Liver Microcystis, Anabaena, Planktothrix (Oscillatoria), Nostoc, Hapalosiphon, Anabaenopsis ... In a cyclic peptide, the ends link to form a stable circular chain. In mammals this stability makes them resistant to the ... Of all the cyanotoxins, the cyclic peptides are of most concern to human health. The microcystins and nodularins poison the ...
Therapeutic peptides and proteins[edit]. A relatively new way of administration of therapeutic peptides and proteins (such as ... Peptides and proteins are not stable in the gastro-intestinal tract, mainly due to degradation by enzymes and pH differences. ... As a consequence, most peptides (such as insulin, exenatide, vasopressin, etc...) or proteins (such as interferon, EPO and ... Increased efforts are underway to deliver macromolecules (peptides, proteins and immunotherapies) by sublingual route, by ...
Peptide lyases[edit]. A seventh catalytic type of proteolytic enzymes, asparagine peptide lyase, was described in 2011. Its ... The structure of a protease (TEV protease) complexed with its peptide substrate in black with catalytic residues in red.(PDB: ... The mechanism used to cleave a peptide bond involves making an amino acid residue that has the cysteine and threonine ( ... Asparagine peptide lyases - using an asparagine to perform an elimination reaction (not requiring water) ...
Signal peptide prediction[edit]. Name Method. Description. Link SignalP artificial neural networks and hidden Markov models. ... On-line server for peptide structure prediction. Server Secondary structure prediction[edit]. Main article: Protein structure ... Homology modeling of proteins in monomeric or multimeric forms alone and in complex with peptides and DNA as well as ... and transmembrane helix and signal peptide prediction. ...
... fungal peptides, invertebrate peptides, amphibian/skin peptides, venom peptides, cancer/anticancer peptides, vaccine peptides ... cardiovascular peptides, renal peptides, respiratory peptides, opiate peptides, neurotrophic peptides, and blood-brain peptides ... immune/inflammatory peptides, brain peptides, endocrine peptides, ingestive peptides, gastrointestinal peptides, ... A peptide hormone is a peptide that acts as a hormone.. *A proteose is a mixture of peptides produced by the hydrolysis of ...
Computational resources for prediction of toxic peptides and proteins[edit]. One of the bottlenecks in peptide/protein-based ... Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body ... Myotoxins are small, basic peptides found in snake and lizard venoms, They cause muscle tissue damage by a non enzymatic ... Recently, in silico models for predicting toxicity of peptides and proteins, developed by Gajendra Pal Singh Raghava's group,[ ...
Random Peptide Array[edit]. Early immunosignature tests used glass microscope slides, with spots of 10,000 random peptides.[1] ... This eliminated the peptides in common between various cancers, and this selection of peptides was used to distinguish between ... at the C-terminus side of the peptide) are common to each peptide spot. This 3 amino acid segment is used as the linker by ... the array now has the 10,000 random peptides, and an unknown number of antibodies bound to some of those peptides. ...
Peptide removal[edit]. Peptides that fail to bind MHC class I molecules in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are ... Translocation and peptide loading[edit]. The peptide translocation from the cytosol into the lumen of the ER is accomplished by ... The α1 and α2 domains fold to make up a groove for peptides to bind. MHC class I molecules bind peptides that are predominantly ... The peptide-loading process involves several other molecules that form a large multimeric complex called the Peptide loading ...
Vasoactive intestinal peptide. VIP. Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors. -. PP: Secretins. Growth hormone-releasing hormone ... Peptides: somatostatin, substance P, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, opioid peptides[9] ... List of neurotransmitters, peptides, and gasotransmitters[edit]. This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Snyder SH, Innis RB (1979). "Peptide neurotransmitters". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 48: 755-82. PMID 38738. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi. ...
Peptides. 31 (8): 1441-8. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2010.04.021. PMC 2905501 . PMID 20441784. Schein CH, Volk DE, Oezguen N, Paul ... Peptides. 27 (7): 1676-84. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2006.01.018. PMC 1629084 . PMID 16540201. Schein CH, Oezguen N, van der Heden ... Schein CH, Oezguen N, Volk DE, Garimella R, Paul A, Braun W (July 2006). "NMR structure of the viral peptide linked to the ... "NMR solution structure of poliovirus uridylyated peptide linked to the genome (VPgpU)". ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators • GnRH and gonadotropins ... These drugs can be both peptides and small-molecules. They are modeled after the hypothalamic neurohormone GnRH, which ...
doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2010.03.021. PMID 20338210.. *^ Zhang N, Yuan C, Li Z, Li J, Li X, Li C, Li R, Wang SR (January 2011). " ... doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2007.11.002. PMID 18308154.. *^ Sjölund K, Ekman R, Wierup N (June 2010). "Covariation of plasma ghrelin ... Obestatin is encoded by the same gene that encodes ghrelin, a peptide hormone. The mRNA produced from the GHRL gene has four ... Dong XY, He JM, Tang SQ, Li HY, Jiang QY, Zou XT (February 2009). "Is GPR39 the natural receptor of obestatin?". Peptides. 30 ( ...
Peptides. 27 (10): 2508-14. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2006.03.038. PMID 16904237.. ... "Production of recombinant large proneurotensin/neuromedin N-derived peptides and characterization of their binding and ...
... (Oxt; /ˌɒksɪˈtoʊsɪn/) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide. Oxytocin is normally produced by the paraventricular ... The oxytocin peptide is synthesized as an inactive precursor protein from the OXT gene.[18][19][20] This precursor protein also ... response to peptide hormone. • maternal behavior. • negative regulation of blood pressure. • memory. • positive regulation of ... Oxytocin is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide) in the sequence cysteine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glutamine-asparagine- ...
"Peptides. 72: 4-15. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2015.04.012.. *^ a b Bioanalytical chemistry. Manz, A. (Andreas), Dittrich, Petra S ... "A short history, principles, and types of ELISA, and our laboratory experience with peptide/protein analyses using ELISA". ...
Kleerebezem, M; Quadri, LE (October 2001). "Peptide pheromone-dependent regulation of antimicrobial peptide production in Gram- ... positive bacteria: a case of multicellular behavior". Peptides. 22 (10): 1579-96. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(01)00493-4. PMID ...
August 2002). "Antiproliferative action of valorphin in cell cultures". Journal of Peptide Science. 8 (8): 438-52. doi:10.1002/ ... International Journal of Peptide and Protein Research. 39 (6): 477-84. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3011.1992.tb00277.x. PMID 1356941.. ...
Natriuretic peptide receptor C/guanylate cyclase C (atrionatriuretic peptide receptor C), also known as NPR3, is an atrial ... G-protein coupled peptide receptor activity. • protein binding. • chloride ion binding. • peptide binding. • protein ... Anand-Srivastava MB (2005). "Natriuretic peptide receptor-C signaling and regulation". Peptides. 26 (6): 1044-59. doi:10.1016/j ... Atrial natriuretic peptide receptor. References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000113389 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
Peptides/proteins. *General: Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. *Peptides: Angiotensin receptor modulators ...
Arai AC (January 2009). "The role of kisspeptin and GPR54 in the hippocampus". Peptides. 30 (1): 16-25. doi:10.1016/j.peptides. ... These N-terminally truncated peptides are known as the kisspeptins and belong to a larger family of peptides known as RFamides ... The gene for kisspeptin codes for a peptide that can be cleaved into several pieces.[8] In humans, one of these pieces is made ... Kisspeptin is a product of the KISS1 gene which is cleaved from an initial 145 amino acid peptide to a 54 amino acid long ...
"Peptides. 30 (7): 1383-6. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2009.04.008. PMID 19394382.. ...
beta-hCG is mostly similar to beta-LH, with the exception of a Carboxy Terminus Peptide (beta-CTP) containing four glycosylated ... Furuhashi M, Shikone T, Fares FA, Sugahara T, Hsueh AJ, Boime I (January 1995). "Fusing the carboxy-terminal peptide of the ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators • GnRH and gonadotropins ... C-terminal peptide total hCG, intact hCG, free β-subunit hCG, β-core fragment hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, nicked hCG, alpha hCG ...
"Peptides. 31 (2): 257-62. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2009.11.024. PMC 4043136. PMID 19961888.. ... doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.04.025. PMID 16137788.. *^ a b Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 10:Neural and ... Ghrelin (pronounced /ˈɡrɛlɪn/), the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ... "International Journal of Peptides. 2010: 1-40. doi:10.1155/2010/879503. PMC 2925380. PMID 20798846.. ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators • GnRH and gonadotropins ... LH and FSH are heterodimers consisting of two peptide chains, an alpha chain and a beta chain. LH and FSH share nearly ...
Peptides. 8 (5): 797-800. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(87)90061-1. PMID 3432128. Gregory Boyle (12 September 2003). "Effects of male ...
... is a 9-amino acid peptide chain. The amino acid sequence of bradykinin is: Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg ( ... It is a peptide that causes blood vessels to dilate (enlarge), and therefore causes blood pressure to fall. A class of drugs ... Bradykinin is a physiologically and pharmacologically active peptide of the kinin group of proteins, consisting of nine amino ...
... aims at providing comprehensive data on ... Molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide prices in other regions. 7. MOLLUSCAN CARDIOEXCITATORY PEPTIDE END-USE SECTOR 7.1. Molluscan ... 6. MOLLUSCAN CARDIOEXCITATORY PEPTIDE MARKET PRICES. 6.1. Molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide prices in Europe. 6.2. Molluscan ... 3. MOLLUSCAN CARDIOEXCITATORY PEPTIDE MANUFACTURING METHODS. 4. MOLLUSCAN CARDIOEXCITATORY PEPTIDE PATENTS. Abstract. ...
PAMP stands for proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide. PAMP is defined as proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide rarely. ... This film is loaded with the proangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial peptide, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 ... S.v. "PAMP." Retrieved March 31 2020 from https://www.acronymattic.com/proadrenomedullin-N_terminal-20-peptide-(PAMP).html ... a href=https://www.acronymattic.com/proadrenomedullin-N_terminal-20-peptide-(PAMP).html,PAMP,/a,. ...
Treatment Human neutrophil peptide. Symptoms and causes Human neutrophil peptide Prophylaxis Human neutrophil peptide ... Peptide-1. Peptides , Defensins , HNP-1, Defensin Human Neutrophil Peptide-1; Mammalian defensins are abundant in the ... Role of human neutrophil peptides in the initial interaction .... Role of human neutrophil peptides in the initial interaction ... Role of human neutrophil peptides in lung inflammation .... TRANSLATIONAL PHYSIOLOGY. Role of human neutrophil peptides in lung ...
A peptide hormone is a peptide that acts as a hormone.. *A proteose is a mixture of peptides produced by the hydrolysis of ... Peptide classes[edit]. Peptides are divided into several classes, depending on how they are produced:. Milk peptides Two ... The term peptide has been used to mean secretagogue peptides and peptide hormones in sports doping matters: secretagogue ... Well-known peptide families[edit]. The peptide families in this section are ribosomal peptides, usually with hormonal activity ...
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a test that measures the amount of VIP in the blood. ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a test that measures the amount of VIP in the blood. ...
... peptide microarrays, peptide pools and libraries for immunology e.g. SARS-CoV-2 immune monitoring & epitope identification, and ... Cosmetic Peptides (DPRA Peptides). Cosmetic Peptides. Cosmetic Peptides such as Lysine and Cysteine Peptide are used for DPRA ( ... Histone Peptide Tools. Our histone peptide library is the largest on the market and available as Peptide ELISA, Peptide ... SARS-CoV-2 Peptide Tools PepMixes™, Peptide Microarrays,. Antigen Peptides & Epitope Mapping. Peptides Sets available now!. ...
In the example shown, peptide A, but not peptide B, can bind to the HLA molecule. Self-peptides presented to T cells in this ... Three of these peptides were present at levels (,100 copies/cell) that place them among the top 5% of all peptides in the drug- ... To set up the assay, 5 × 105 PBMCs were then exposed to 10 μg/mL of exogenous peptides, either singly or as peptide pools ... D) Abacavir binding in the F pocket does not alter the peptide conformation compared with other peptide/HLA-B complexes. A ...
Methods and Protocols features biological methods for the preparation of peptide phage display libraries using both filamentous ... Therapeutic Peptides: Methods and Protocols features biological methods for the preparation of peptide phage display libraries ... Heterovalent ligands Library design Peptide library mining Peptide phage display libraries Therapeutic candidates ... peptide libraries for peptides with the desired function and the subsequent characterization of the identified peptides. ...
... fungal peptides, invertebrate peptides, amphibian/skin peptides, venom peptides, cancer/anticancer peptides, vaccine peptides ... cardiovascular peptides, renal peptides, respiratory peptides, opiate peptides, neurotrophic peptides, and blood-brain peptides ... immune/inflammatory peptides, brain peptides, endocrine peptides, ingestive peptides, gastrointestinal peptides, ... A peptide hormone is a peptide that acts as a hormone.. *A proteose is a mixture of peptides produced by the hydrolysis of ...
They can take up and degrade antigens, in the case of pro- teins to peptides. The peptides of protein antigens reappear on the ... Molecular Features of Class II MHC-Restricted T-Cell Recognition of Protein and Peptide Antigens: The Importance of Amphipathic ... Immune Response to Synthetic Herpes Simplex Virus Peptides:The Feasibility of a Synthetic Vaccine ... The Value of Synthetic Peptides as Vaccines for Eliciting T-Cell Immunity ...
The growth of gold nanoparticles has been manipulated using amino acids and peptides to produce twisted structures that alter ... Figure 1 , The transfer of chirality from peptides to nanoparticles. Lee et al.3 grew gold nanoparticles from crystal seeds ... In a paper in Nature, Lee et al.3 report a remarkable method that uses amino acids or peptides (small molecules formed from ... For example, the peptide glutathione can occur as mirror-image l- and d-isomers, which direct the growth of mirror-image ...
Current subject areas covered are Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins. Carbohydrate Chemistry, Catalysis, Electron Spin ... Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins, Volume 28. Amino acids, peptides and proteins. Volume 28 of Specialist Periodical Reports. ... molecular molecules nucleophiles oxidation P-lactam penicillin Pept Pept.Chem Peptide Protein Res peptide synthesis peptides ... inhibitors Int.J.Peptide Protein Res involving isosteres J.Am.Chem.Soc J.Chem.Soc J.MedChem J.Org.Chem J.Pept.Sci J.Peptide ...
Firming Peptide Ingredient Callouts: Free of sulfates SLS and SLES, parabens, and phthalates.. What Else You Need to Know: When ... Shopping ideas related to Moisturizers With Peptides. face creams for winter. "Its perfect to get me through the Winter." ... The key to Saturday Skin is the Cha-7 es Complex™, an exclusive peptide formula that supports the skins natural regeneration ... A lightweight cream with advanced ceramides to deeply hydrate and a triple peptide blend to visibly smooth the appearance of ...
Natriuretic peptides.. Levin ER1, Gardner DG, Samson WK.. Author information. 1. Department of Medicine, University of ...
Solumeve, Collagen Peptides Plus Vitamin C & Hyaluronic Acid, Variety Pack, Lemon and Pomegranate, 10 Packets, 0.18 oz (5.15 g ... Solumeve, Collagen Peptides Plus Vitamin C & Hyaluronic Acid, Lemon, 30 Packets, 0.18 oz (5.15 g) Each. ... Solumeve, Collagen Peptides Plus Vitamin C & Hyaluronic Acid, Pomegranate, 30 Packets, 0.18 oz (5.15 g) Each. ... Derma E, Advanced Peptides & Collagen Eye Cream , 1/2 oz (14 g). ... Peptides 36 Results (showing 1 - 24) Fish Peptides and Blood ...
CPP, Cell-Penetrating Peptides. Authors. * Ülo Langel Copyright. 2019. Publisher. Springer Singapore. Copyright Holder. ... Provides a comprehensive update of cell penetrating peptides. *Summarizes the CPP uptake mechanisms and their critical analysis ...
The glucagon-like peptides GLP-1 and GLP-2 are produced in enteroendocrine L cells of the small and large intestine and ... Minireview: the glucagon-like peptides.. Drucker DJ1.. Author information. 1. Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital ... The actions of these peptides on nutrient absorption and energy homeostasis and the efficacy of GLP-1 and GLP-2 in animal ... models of diabetes and intestinal diseases, respectively, suggest that analogs of these peptides may be clinically useful for ...
Peptide microsequencing.. The isolated peptides were sequenced by automated Edman degradation, and detection of the ... Among the bioactive peptides/polypeptides that have already been characterized from insects, antimicrobial peptides are ... Antiviral and antitumor peptides from insects. Sergey Chernysh, S. I. Kim, G. Bekker, V. A. Pleskach, N. A. Filatova, V. B. ... Antiviral and antitumor peptides from insects. Sergey Chernysh, S. I. Kim, G. Bekker, V. A. Pleskach, N. A. Filatova, V. B. ...
Collagen Peptides at Sephora. This pure, ingestible drink lets you sip your way to plump skin, shiny hair, and strong nails.* ... What Else You Need to Know: Looking to improve your skincare routine? Vital Proteins Collagen Peptides provides a boost to ... 2 scoops of Collagen Peptides. -1 knob fresh ginger, grated. -1 kiwi, sliced. -1 c coconut water. Add all ingredients to ...
Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of peptide research. ... International Journal of Peptides is a peer-reviewed, ... "Plant defense and antimicrobial peptides," Protein and Peptide ... L. Otvos Jr., "Antibacterial peptides isolated from insects," Journal of Peptide Science, vol. 6, pp. 497-511, 2000. View at ... Membrane permeabilizing peptides are mostly represented by cationic peptides capable of forming transient pores on the membrane ...
A C-peptide test can help doctors tell the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It also can help find the cause of ... In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin and little or no C-peptide. In type 2 diabetes, C-peptide levels ... In general, high C-peptide levels are associated with increased insulin production, while low C-peptide levels indicate ... C-peptide, on the other hand, has no effect on blood sugar. It is, however, useful as a marker of insulin production, since the ...
... shorter strings of linked amino acids are known as peptides). ... Peptide Bond A peptide bond is a linkage between the building ... Peptide Bond. A peptide bond is a linkage between the building blocks of proteins called amino acids (shorter strings of linked ... The synthesis of proteins involves the formation of many peptide bonds. Cleavage of peptide bonds, involved in digestion of ... peptide bond A chemical bond that links 2 or more amino acids by a reaction between carboxyl and amino groups. According to the ...
... The Protein and Peptide Science Group (PPSG) is one of the RSCs many Interest Groups. The ... MyRSC Protein and Peptide Science Group You will be required to register for MyRSC, then you can sign up to become a member of ... Peptide chemists and biologists, medics, members of the biotechnology, food and pharmaceutical industries. Community. We also ...
... a peptide, one form of which, angiotensin II, causes constriction of blood vessels. There are three forms of angiotensin. ... peptide. Peptide. , any organic substance of which the molecules are structurally like those of proteins, but smaller. The ... protein: Peptides with hormonelike activity. One peptide, angiotensin (angiotonin or hypertensin), is formed in the blood from ... Angiotensin, a peptide, one form of which, angiotensin II, causes constriction of blood vessels. ...
The class of peptides includes many hormones, antibiotics, and other compounds that participate in the metabolic functions of ... Peptide molecules are composed of two or more ... Peptide, any organic substance of which the molecules are ... protein: Peptides with hormonelike activity. Small peptides have been discovered that, like hormones, act on certain target ... protein: Peptides with hormonelike activity. Small peptides have been discovered that, like hormones, act on certain target ...
  • However, replacement of two amino acids took place in the C-terminal 53-residue sequence, corresponding to another endogenous form of the peptide. (elsevier.com)
  • In this case, the researchers, led by Jensen and Isidore Rigoutsos of IBM Research (Rigoutsos is also a visiting lecturer in the Department of Chemical Engineering), used a pattern discovery tool to find about 700 grammatical patterns in the sequences of 526 naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. (medgadget.com)
  • A new study suggests vitamin D may protect against UTIs among children by upregulating their own naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. (vitamindcouncil.org)
  • The pharmacologic interaction with immune receptors (p-i) model states that drugs can induce the formation of HLA-drug complexes that can activate T-cell immune responses directly without requiring a specific peptide ligand ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Angiotensin -converting enzyme (ACE) is an enzyme that targets a specific peptide bond, forming a chemical signal that increases blood pressure . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cellular tests by collaboration partners in Israel showed that only specific peptide variants are absorbed very quickly. (eurekalert.org)
  • Finally, while aspects of the lab techniques applied to peptides versus polypeptides and proteins differ (e.g., the specifics of electrophoresis , chromatography , etc.), the size boundaries that distinguish peptides from polypeptides and proteins are not absolute: long peptides such as amyloid beta have been referred to as proteins, and smaller proteins like insulin have been considered peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide ( amide ) bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids that have been incorporated into peptides are termed "residues" due to the release of either a hydrogen ion from the amine end or a hydroxyl ion from the carboxyl end, or both, as a water molecule is released during formation of each amide bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptide molecules are composed of two or more amino acids joined through amide formation involving the carboxyl group of each amino acid and the amino group of the next. (britannica.com)
  • The chemical bond between the carbon and nitrogen atoms of each amide group is called a peptide bond . (britannica.com)
  • These molecule s link to each other by forming a bond (an amide linkage) between the amino group of one peptide to the carboxyl group of another. (everything2.com)
  • Two peptides were isolated from the blood of an experimentally infected insect, the blow fly Calliphora vicina (Diptera), with the following amino acid sequences: HGVSGHGQHGVHG (alloferon 1) and GVSGHGQHGVHG (alloferon 2). (pnas.org)
  • For example, opioid peptides are short amino acid sequences with similar pharmacological activity as opium. (news-medical.net)
  • Typical opioid peptides have the same N-terminal sequence of Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe, while atypical opioid peptides have varying amino acid sequences at their N-terminal region with conserved tyrosine residue. (news-medical.net)
  • 2. A mixture as claimed in claim 1, wherein the mixture contains 160,000 or more different peptides of distinct, unique and different amino acid sequences, each in retrievable and analyzable amounts. (google.com)
  • 8. A synthesized peptide mixture containing 8,000 or more different peptides of distinct, unique and different amino acid sequences, wherein each of the individual member peptides in the mixture are present in an amount such that each peptide is analyzable. (google.com)
  • 9. The peptide mixture of claim 8, wherein the mixture contains 160,000 or more different peptides of distinct, unique and different amino acid sequences, each present in an amount such that each peptide is analyzable. (google.com)
  • Because there are 20 naturally occurring amino acids, there are about 1026 possible peptide sequences of length 20. (medgadget.com)
  • With such a mind-boggling number of possible combinations, it is extremely difficult to find effective antimicrobial peptides by using traditional methods such as testing random sequences or slightly tweaking naturally existing peptides. (medgadget.com)
  • Instead, the researchers decided to take a more strategic approach, based on grammatical patterns in the peptide sequences. (medgadget.com)
  • To design their new peptides, the researchers first came up with all possible 20-amino acid sequences in which each overlapping string of 10 amino acids conformed to one of the grammars. (medgadget.com)
  • Then, they threw out sequences that were very similar to each other and chose 42 peptides to test. (medgadget.com)
  • That is a much higher success rate than one would expect from testing randomly generated sequences, and much higher than the success rate for peptides with the same amino acids as the designed sequences, but in a shuffled order. (medgadget.com)
  • IMAP 2018 will cover both the antimicrobial activity of peptides as well as their role in regulation and modulation of the immune system. (rsc.org)
  • Antioxidant activity of peptides obtained from porcine myofibrillar proteins by protease treatment. (wikiversity.org)
  • Minireview: the glucagon-like peptides. (nih.gov)
  • The glucagon-like peptides GLP-1 and GLP-2 are produced in enteroendocrine L cells of the small and large intestine and secreted in a nutrient-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • a , b , Comparison of DDA and DIA data for individual peptides under each experimental condition. (nature.com)
  • Practical and dependable, Therapeutic Peptides: Methods and Protocols is an ideal guide for researchers from all backgrounds seeking methods for the identification of therapeutic peptide candidates. (springer.com)
  • This review discusses our current knowledge on the health effects of food-derived bioactive peptides, their processing methods and challenges in their development. (mdpi.com)
  • Peptide therapy brings us one step closer to the prospective marriage of personalized medicine and pharmaceuticals in the near future. (theepochtimes.com)
  • The importance of this shift in pharmaceuticals from a broad range of chemicals with a variety of effects to engineered and targeted peptide therapies opens the door to the higher potency of the intended effect and decreased probability of adverse reactions. (theepochtimes.com)
  • The genes that produce tachykinins encode precursor proteins called preprotachykinins, which are chopped apart into smaller peptides by posttranslational proteolytic processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulatory Peptides merged with Peptides in January 2015. (elsevier.com)
  • C-peptide, like the hormone insulin, is produced in the pancreas. (kidshealth.org)
  • When insulin is released, so is C-peptide. (kidshealth.org)
  • It is, however, useful as a marker of insulin production, since the pancreas typically releases C-peptide and insulin in about equal amounts. (kidshealth.org)
  • In general, high C-peptide levels are associated with increased insulin production, while low C-peptide levels indicate decreased insulin production. (kidshealth.org)
  • The C-peptide test may be ordered to determine how much insulin is being made by the pancreas. (kidshealth.org)
  • In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin and little or no C-peptide. (kidshealth.org)
  • In type 2 diabetes, C-peptide levels will typically be normal or high, as the pancreas works harder to overcome insulin resistance (when the tissues become less sensitive to the effects of insulin) by producing more insulin. (kidshealth.org)
  • C-peptide is a substance that is created when the hormone insulin is produced and released into the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The insulin C-peptide test measures the amount of this product in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • C-peptide is measured to tell the difference between insulin the body produces and insulin that is injected into the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Someone with type 1 or type 2 diabetes may have their C-peptide level measured to see if their body is still producing insulin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • C-peptide is also measured in case of low blood sugar to see if the person's body is producing too much insulin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The test is also often ordered to check certain medicines that can help the body produce more insulin, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 analogs (GLP-1) or DPP IV inhibitors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • C-peptide is a sign that your body is producing insulin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A low level (or no C-peptide) indicates that your pancreas is producing little or no insulin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with type 2 diabetes, obesity, or insulin resistance may have a high C-peptide level. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Well-known examples include insulin, which comprises 51 amino acid building blocks and controls the metabolism of sugar, or cyclosporine, an eleven amino acid-peptide that has been proven to suppress organ rejection after transplants. (eurekalert.org)
  • C-Peptide is useful in the evaluation of pancreatic beta cell function (e.g., helping distinguish type 1 from type 2 diabetes mellitus, or monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplants) and for determining the source of insulin in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (e.g., distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors from exogenous insulin administration). (questdiagnostics.com)
  • C-peptide is a substance produced by the beta cells in the pancreas when proinsulin splits apart and forms one molecule of C-peptide and one molecule of insulin . (labcorp.com)
  • Since C-peptide and insulin are produced at the same rate, C-peptide is a useful marker of insulin production. (labcorp.com)
  • A C-peptide test is not ordered to help diagnose diabetes, but when a person has been newly diagnosed with diabetes, it may be ordered by itself or along with an insulin level to help determine how much insulin a person's pancreas is still producing (endogenous insulin). (labcorp.com)
  • therefore, the C-peptide test can be used to monitor beta cell activity and capability over time and to help a health practitioner determine when to begin insulin treatment. (labcorp.com)
  • In these cases, C-peptide measurement is a useful alternative to testing for insulin. (labcorp.com)
  • C-peptide measurements can also be used in conjunction with insulin and glucose levels to help diagnose the cause of documented hypoglycemia and to monitor its treatment. (labcorp.com)
  • These are tumors of the islet cells in the pancreas that can produce uncontrolled amounts of insulin and C-peptide and can cause acute episodes of hypoglycemia. (labcorp.com)
  • Sometimes a C-peptide test may be used to help evaluate a person diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, a set of risk factors that includes abdominal obesity, increased blood glucose and/or insulin resistance, unhealthy blood lipid levels, and high blood pressure (hypertension). (labcorp.com)
  • Rarely, when someone has had his pancreas removed or has had pancreas islet cell transplants, intended to restore the ability to make insulin, C-peptide levels may be used to verify the effectiveness of treatment and continued success of the procedure. (labcorp.com)
  • C-peptide levels may be done when there is documented acute or recurring low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) and/or excess insulin is suspected. (labcorp.com)
  • The first and probably most well-known peptide therapy, insulin, was discovered in 1921. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Keep in mind that insulin is a completely natural peptide that could kill a person rapidly if used inappropriately. (theepochtimes.com)
  • some authorities have adopted, as an upper limit on the molecular weight of a polypeptide, 10,000 (that of a peptide composed of about 100 amino acids). (britannica.com)
  • The center panel is a molecular dynamics model of graphite binding peptide onto graphene. (livescience.com)
  • Analyses of the Sarikaya's observations revealed which amino acids apparently control surface and inter-molecular interactions of peptides that led to their self-assembly. (livescience.com)
  • 10) são antihipertensivo eficaz, os agentes antioxidáveis que encontram a aplicação comercial para produzir peptides no volume do que alto - peptides do peso molecular. (news-medical.net)
  • Increased conformational rigidity of bicyclic peptides is obtained by tying the peptide up on small central molecular scaffolds, which results in molecules with high target specificity and affinity resembling antibodies or small proteins. (astrazeneca.com)
  • Amyloid deposits are insoluble and the core component of these plaques are A peptides that are 39 to 42 amino acid residues in length with a molecular mass of approximately 4 kDa. (anaspec.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Washington have demonstrated how peptides, or short chains of amino acids, assemble by themselves into nano-sized structures on solid surfaces such as graphite and other layered minerals. (livescience.com)
  • Using modern liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques, the researchers in the new study discovered that the reaction samples from 1958 did indeed contain peptides. (redorbit.com)
  • To overcome this obstacle, the researchers developed a systemic, fluorescently labeled peptide and injected it into mice. (photonics.com)
  • A method pioneered by MIT researchers might offer hope in finding a new generation of antibiotics, made of antimicrobial peptides. (medgadget.com)
  • Sigma-Genosys created the PEPscreen ® Custom Peptide Library service to enable researchers to affordably and quickly perform high throughput peptide assays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We appreciate your dedication to the continuing education of fellow researchers by providing your expertise regarding peptides as screening tools. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Empa researchers have now succeeded in encasing peptides in a protective coat, which could prolong their life in the human body. (empa.ch)
  • Locating hard-to-see nerves during surgery may now be possible with injectable fluorescent peptides that preferentially bind to peripheral neurons, causing them to glow. (photonics.com)
  • Natural product-like macrocyclic N-methyl-peptide inhibitors against a ubiquitin ligase uncovered from a ribosome-expressed de novo library," Chemistry & Biology , vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1562-1570, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Natriuretic Peptides and Vasopeptidase Inhibitors / [Peptides nat. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The peptides oxytocin and vasopressin , which are both produced by the pituitary gland , act as hormone s. (everything2.com)
  • The lesser-known but commonly used peptides of oxytocin, ACTH, calcitonin, vasopressin, and leuprorelin then followed by the late 1980s. (theepochtimes.com)
  • The peptides vasopressin and oxytoxin have been linked to social behaviors such as pair-bonding. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In addition, net charge and hydrophobicity of AMPs play a crucial role in cellular association of these peptides to selective target cellular membranes in exerting antimicrobial activity [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A three-year PhD position is available at the GEC Department, University "Picardie Jules Verne" (UPJV) in Amiens, France, to study the interaction of antimicrobial peptides with biomimetic membranes. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Antimicrobial peptides act by attaching to bacterial membranes and punching holes in them , an attack that is general to many different types of bacteria and is difficult for them to defend against. (medgadget.com)
  • The action aforementioned peptides were studied on artificial membranes as well. (chemweb.com)
  • Insects can rapidly clear microbial infections by producing a variety of immune-induced molecules including antibacterial and/or antifungal peptides/polypeptides. (pnas.org)
  • Among the bioactive peptides/polypeptides that have already been characterized from insects, antimicrobial peptides are fascinating scientists for their potential use as therapeutic agents ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, huge varieties of peptides/polypeptides from animal origin remain practically untapped in this area. (pnas.org)
  • Peptides generally contain fewer than 30 amino acid residues, while polypeptides contain as many as 4000. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • These peptides were purified by reverse-phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and characterized by mass spectrometry. (chemweb.com)
  • The peptide fractions were isolated from the plasma of vaginal discharge of three healthy nulliparous women and subjected to identification by automatic sequencing as well as by mass spectrometry. (chemweb.com)
  • In this project, various peptides with activity towards cancer, bacteria and fungi will be studied. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • There are peptides which affect the growth of bacteria, yeasts and fungi. (wikiversity.org)
  • The actions of these peptides on nutrient absorption and energy homeostasis and the efficacy of GLP-1 and GLP-2 in animal models of diabetes and intestinal diseases, respectively, suggest that analogs of these peptides may be clinically useful for the treatment of human disease. (nih.gov)
  • hence GLP-1 analogs or the lizard peptide exendin-4 that are resistant to DPP-IV cleavage may be more potent GLP-1 molecules in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Angiotensin , a peptide , one form of which, angiotensin II, causes constriction of blood vessels . (britannica.com)
  • Some peptides have the property of inhibiting the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) which catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to a potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II that participates in the regulation of blood pressure. (wikiversity.org)
  • Peptides, short amino acid chains that control many functions in the human body, represent a billion-dollar market, also in the pharmaceutical industry. (eurekalert.org)
  • With contributions from renowned authors in the field, the book also explores selection and screening of the prepared peptide libraries for peptides with the desired function and the subsequent characterization of the identified peptides. (springer.com)
  • Isolation and characterization of peptides with antioxidant activity derived from wheat gluten. (wikiversity.org)
  • Other important factors such as the possibility of allergenicity, cytotoxicity and the stability of the peptides during gastrointestinal digestion would need to be addressed. (mdpi.com)
  • No medication based on unmodified peptides would have a chance to survive the passage through the gastrointestinal tract. (eurekalert.org)