Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
BIOLOGIC PRODUCTS that are imitations but not exact replicas of innovator products.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Biologically active molecules which are covalently bound to the enzymes or binding proteins normally acting on them. Binding occurs due to activation of the label by ultraviolet light. These labels are used primarily to identify binding sites on proteins.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.

Characterization and partial purification of a novel neutrophil membrane-associated kinase capable of phosphorylating the respiratory burst component p47phox. (1/4668)

The phosphorylation of p47phox is widely viewed as an important step in the activation of the neutrophil respiratory burst oxidase system. The exact nature of the kinase(s) responsible remains to be elucidated. We show here that such a kinase was detected on neutrophil membranes activated by either PMA or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. This enzyme is not intrinsic to the neutrophil membrane and could be eluted with 0.5 M NaCl. The kinase activity was partially purified and was found not to be due to the presence of previously suggested kinases, including protein kinase C isotypes, mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase B. Gel filtration and renaturation in substrate gels suggest a molecular mass of between 45 and 51 kDa. The kinase activity was independent of calcium and lipids but was potently inhibited by staurosporine. Treatment with protein phosphatase 2Ac suggested that the kinase was activated by serine/threonine phosphorylation. Phosphopeptide maps indicated that the kinase phosphorylated p47phox on similar sites to those found in vivo. These results indicate that activation of neutrophils by PMA results in the activation of a membrane-associated kinase that may play a part in the regulation of neutrophil NADPH oxidase through its ability to phosphorylate p47phox.  (+info)

Salivary mucin MG1 is comprised almost entirely of different glycosylated forms of the MUC5B gene product. (2/4668)

The MG1 population of mucins was isolated from human whole salivas by gel chromatography followed by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. The reduced and alkylated MG1 mucins, separated by anion exchange chromatography, were of similar size (radius of gyration 55-64 nm) and molecular weight (2.5-2.9 x 10(6) Da). Two differently-charged populations of MG1 subunits were observed which showed different reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to glycan epitopes. Monosaccharide and amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the MG1 subunits had similar glycan structures on the same polypeptide. An antiserum recognizing the MUC5B mucin was reactive across the entire distribution, whereas antisera raised against the MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins showed no reactivity. Western blots of agarose gel electrophoresis of fractions across the anion exchange distribution indicated that the polypeptide underlying the mucins was the product of the MUC5B gene. Amino acid analysis and peptide mapping performed on the fragments produced by trypsin digestion of the two MG1 populations yielded data similar to that obtained for MUC5B mucin subunits prepared from respiratory mucus (Thornton et al., 1997) and confirmed that the MUC5B gene product was the predominant mucin polypeptide present. Isolation of the MG1 mucins from the secretions of the individual salivary glands (palatal, sublingual, and submandibular) indicate that the palatal gland is the source of the highly charged population of the MUC5B mucin.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor II-derived peptides inhibit VEGF. (3/4668)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) directly stimulates endothelial cell proliferation and migration via tyrosine kinase receptors of the split kinase domain family. It mediates vascular growth and angiogenesis in the embryo but also in the adult in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. The potential binding site of VEGF with its receptor was identified using cellulose-bound overlapping peptides of the extracytosolic part of the human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor II (VEGFR II). Thus, a peptide originating from the third globular domain of the VEGFR II comprising residues 247RTELNVGIDFNWEYP261 was revealed as contiguous sequence stretch, which bound 125I-VEGF165. A systematic replacement with L-amino acids within the peptide representing the putative VEGF-binding site on VEGFR II indicates Asp255 as the hydrophilic key residue for binding. The dimerized peptide (RTELNVGIDFNWEYPAS)2K inhibits VEGF165 binding with an IC50 of 0.5 microM on extracellular VEGFR II fragments and 30 microM on human umbilical vein cells. VEGF165-stimulated autophosphorylation of VEGFR II as well as proliferation and migration of microvascular endothelial cells was inhibited by the monomeric peptide RTELNVGIDFNWEYPASK at a half-maximal concentration of 3-10, 0.1, and 0.1 microM, respectively. We conclude that transduction of the VEGF165 signal can be interrupted with a peptide derived from the third Ig-like domain of VEGFR II by blockade of VEGF165 binding to its receptor.  (+info)

Identification of a domain in guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1 that interacts with a complex of guanylyl cyclase and tubulin in photoreceptors. (4/4668)

The membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase in rod photoreceptors is activated by guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1 (GCAP-1) at low free [Ca2+]. GCAP-1 is a Ca2+-binding protein and belongs to the superfamily of EF-hand proteins. We created an oligopeptide library of overlapping peptides that encompass the entire amino acid sequence of GCAP-1. Peptides were used in competitive screening assays to identify interaction regions in GCAP-1 that directly bind the guanylyl cyclase in bovine photoreceptor cells. We found four regions in GCAP-1 that participate in regulating guanylyl cyclase. A 15-amino acid peptide located adjacent to the second EF-hand motif (Phe73-Lys87) was identified as the main interaction domain. Inhibition of GCAP-1-stimulated guanylyl cyclase activity by the peptide Phe73-Lys87 was completely relieved when an excess amount of GCAP-1 was added. An affinity column made from this peptide was able to bind a complex of photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase and tubulin. Using an anti-GCAP-1 antibody, we coimmunoprecipitated GCAP-1 with guanylyl cyclase and tubulin. Complex formation between GCAP-1 and guanylyl cyclase was observed independent of [Ca2+]. Our experiments suggest that there exists a tight association of guanylyl cyclase and tubulin in rod outer segments.  (+info)

Mapping of residues in the NADP(H)-binding site of proton-translocating nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli. A study of structure and function. (5/4668)

Conformational changes in proton pumping transhydrogenases have been suggested to be dependent on binding of NADP(H) and the redox state of this substrate. Based on a detailed amino acid sequence analysis, it is argued that a classical betaalphabetaalphabeta dinucleotide binding fold is responsible for binding NADP(H). A model defining betaA, alphaB, betaB, betaD, and betaE of this domain is presented. To test this model, four single cysteine mutants (cfbetaA348C, cfbetaA390C, cfbetaK424C, and cfbetaR425C) were introduced into a functional cysteine-free transhydrogenase. Also, five cysteine mutants were constructed in the isolated domain III of Escherichia coli transhydrogenase (ecIIIH345C, ecIIIA348C, ecIIIR350C, ecIIID392C, and ecIIIK424C). In addition to kinetic characterizations, effects of sulfhydryl-specific labeling with N-ethylmaleimide, 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid, and diazotized 3-aminopyridine adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) were examined. The results are consistent with the view that, in agreement with the model, beta-Ala348, beta-Arg350, beta-Ala390, beta-Asp392, and beta-Lys424 are located in or close to the NADP(H) site. More specifically, beta-Ala348 succeeds betaB. The remarkable reactivity of betaR350C toward NNADP suggests that this residue is close to the nicotinamide moiety of NADP(H). beta-Ala390 and beta-Asp392 terminate or succeed betaD, and are thus, together with the region following betaA, creating the switch point crevice where NADP(H) binds. beta-Asp392 is particularly important for the substrate affinity, but it could also have a more complex role in the coupling mechanism for transhydrogenase.  (+info)

Orientation of heparin-binding sites in native vitronectin. Analyses of ligand binding to the primary glycosaminoglycan-binding site indicate that putative secondary sites are not functional. (6/4668)

A primary heparin-binding site in vitronectin has been localized to a cluster of cationic residues near the C terminus of the protein. More recently, secondary binding sites have been proposed. In order to investigate whether the binding site originally identified on vitronectin functions as an exclusive and independent heparin-binding domain, solution binding methods have been used in combination with NMR and recombinant approaches to evaluate ligand binding to the primary site. Evaluation of the ionic strength dependence of heparin binding to vitronectin according to classical linkage theory indicates that a single ionic bond is prominent. It had been previously shown that chemical modification of vitronectin using an arginine-reactive probe results in a significant reduction in heparin binding (Gibson, A., Baburaj, K., Day, D. E., Verhamme, I. , Shore, J. D., and Peterson, C. B. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 5112-5121). The label has now been localized to arginine residues within the cyanogen bromide fragment-(341-380) that contains the primary heparin-binding site on vitronectin. One- and two-dimensional NMR on model peptides based on this primary heparin-binding site indicate that an arginine residue participates in the ionic interaction and that other nonionic interactions may be involved in forming a complex with heparin. A recombinant polypeptide corresponding to the C-terminal 129 amino acids of vitronectin exhibits heparin-binding affinity that is comparable to that of full-length vitronectin and is equally effective at neutralizing heparin anticoagulant activity. Results from this broad experimental approach argue that the behavior of the primary site is sufficient to account for the heparin binding activity of vitronectin and support an exposed orientation for the site in the structure of the native protein.  (+info)

Topology of the membrane domain of human erythrocyte anion exchange protein, AE1. (7/4668)

Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) is the chloride/bicarbonate exchange protein of the erythrocyte membrane. By using a combination of introduced cysteine mutants and sulfhydryl-specific chemistry, we have mapped the topology of the human AE1 membrane domain. Twenty-seven single cysteines were introduced throughout the Leu708-Val911 region of human AE1, and these mutants were expressed by transient transfection of human embryonic kidney cells. On the basis of cysteine accessibility to membrane-permeant biotin maleimide and to membrane-impermeant lucifer yellow iodoacetamide, we have proposed a model for the topology of AE1 membrane domain. In this model, AE1 is composed of 13 typical transmembrane segments, and the Asp807-His834 region is membrane-embedded but does not have the usual alpha-helical conformation. To identify amino acids that are important for anion transport, we analyzed the anion exchange activity for all introduced cysteine mutants, using a whole cell fluorescence assay. We found that mutants G714C, S725C, and S731C have very low transport activity, implying that this region has a structurally and/or catalytically important role. We measured the residual anion transport activity after mutant treatment with the membrane-impermeant, cysteine-directed compound, sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl)methanethiosulfonate) (MTSES). Only two mutants, S852C and A858C, were inhibited by MTSES, indicating that these residues may be located in a pore-lining region.  (+info)

Metal-catalyzed oxidation of phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli: inactivation and destabilization by oxidation of active-site cysteines. (8/4668)

The in vitro instability of the phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase [DAHPS(Phe)] from Escherichia coli has been found to be due to a metal-catalyzed oxidation mechanism. DAHPS(Phe) is one of three differentially feedback-regulated isoforms of the enzyme which catalyzes the first step of aromatic biosynthesis, the formation of DAHP from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. The activity of the apoenzyme decayed exponentially, with a half-life of about 1 day at room temperature, and the heterotetramer slowly dissociated to the monomeric state. The enzyme was stabilized by the presence of phosphoenolpyruvate or EDTA, indicating that in the absence of substrate, a trace metal(s) was the inactivating agent. Cu2+ and Fe2+, but none of the other divalent metals that activate the enzyme, greatly accelerated the rate of inactivation and subunit dissociation. Both anaerobiosis and the addition of catalase significantly reduced Cu2+-catalyzed inactivation. In the spontaneously inactivated enzyme, there was a net loss of two of the seven thiols per subunit; this value increased with increasing concentrations of added Cu2+. Dithiothreitol completely restored the enzymatic activity and the two lost thiols in the spontaneously inactivated enzyme but was only partially effective in reactivation of the Cu2+-inactivated enzyme. Mutant enzymes with conservative replacements at either of the two active-site cysteines, Cys61 or Cys328, were insensitive to the metal attack. Peptide mapping of the Cu2+-inactivated enzyme revealed a disulfide linkage between these two cysteine residues. All results indicate that DAHPS(Phe) is a metal-catalyzed oxidation system wherein bound substrate protects active-site residues from oxidative attack catalyzed by bound redox metal cofactor. A mechanism of inactivation of DAHPS is proposed that features a metal redox cycle that requires the sequential oxidation of its two active-site cysteines.  (+info)

This application brief establishes that the BioAccord System exhibits sufficient reproducibility for peptide mapping in regulated workflows subject to traditional validation requirements.
The T cell receptor for antigen (Ti) has recently been identified as a 90-kdalton T3-associated clonotypic structure composed of one 49-51-kdalton alpha and one 43-kdalton beta subunit, which are disulfide linked. Here, Ti molecules from two alloreactive CTL clones derived from the same donor but of differing specificities (CT8III and CT4II) are directly compared following isolation with anticlonotypic monoclonal antibodies. Isoelectric focusing shows that the alpha subunits (pI 4.4-4.7) are more acidic than the beta subunits (pI 6.0-6.2) but that each glycoprotein species is distinctive. More importantly, two-dimensional peptide maps of 125I-labeled surface receptors indicate that the beta chains of Ti1 and Ti2 appear unique and share only two peptides in common. In contrast, peptide maps of Ti1 and Ti2 alpha chains are more related although not identical. These results suggest that the human T cell receptor is composed of constant as well as variable regions and that at least one of the latter is
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Looking for online definition of peptide mapping in the Medical Dictionary? peptide mapping explanation free. What is peptide mapping? Meaning of peptide mapping medical term. What does peptide mapping mean?
Structural analysis by two-dimensional peptide maps (2D-PM) of the human Ia molecular pool expressed on the cell surface of two distinct lymphoblastoid cell line, LG-2 and Raji, revealed the existence of a novel MHC class II molecular heterodimer that differs at the level of both alpha and beta subunits from the previously described DP, DQ, and DR antigens. These differences were also seen at the level of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) of biosynthetically labeled intact molecules, although to a lesser extent, due to the intrinsic limitations of this technique in resolving fine structural differences. We have designated this new class II antigen as the fourth Ia subset. The fourth Ia subset seems to represent a small proportion of the human Ia pool. Comparative analysis by 2D-PM of the two cell lines showed the presence of structural variations in the alpha chains of the fourth Ia subset, suggesting the existence of polymorphism for these subunits. Cell surface iodination did not show ...
ICPLQuant has been developed to accurately quantify ICPL-labeled peptides on the MS level during LC-MALDI and peptide mass fingerprint experiments. The tool is able to generate a list of differentially regulated peptide precursors for subsequent MS/MS experiments, minimizing time consuming acquisition and interpretation of MS/MS data. ICPLQuant is based on two independent units. Unit 1 performs ICPL multiplex detection and quantification and proposes peptides to be identified by MS/MS. Unit 2 combines MASCOT MS/MS protein identification with the quantitative data and produces a protein/peptide list with all the relevant information accessible for further data mining.. ...
With the emergence of new protein therapeutics, including biosimilars, biobetters and ADCs, peptide mapping by LC/MS is becoming more commonly used for the identification of post-translational modifications (PTMs), glycosylation, and conjugation sites, as well as primary sequence confirmation.. The purpose of this study is to provide guidelines for developing optimal LC running conditions with Aeris™ PEPTIDE core-shell HPLC/UHPLC columns and determine the feasibility of transferring a method developed on UV to MS simply by adjusting the acidic modifier in the mobile phase.. ...
In this study, we demonstrate routine characterization of biotherapeutics through LC-MS peptide mapping using the Thermo Scientific™ Orbitrap Exploris™ 240 LC-MS/MS.
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UPLC separations and a family of optimally selective and resolving peptide separation chemistries provide unmatched resolution of complicated protein digests, exceptional glycopeptide resolution, and shorter analysis times.
BACKGROUND: Identifying druggable cavities on a protein surface is a crucial step in structure based drug design. The cavities have to present suitable size
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In the Toolbox you will find the Cloning and Restriction Sites tool that provides more control on the analysis, and gives you more output options such as a table of restriction sites. It also allows you to perform the same restriction map analysis on several sequences in one step ...
A standard technique to confirm the amino acid sequence of a molecule, Peptide Mapping Analysis uses multiple enzyme digest strategy to break apart a protein into smaller peptide fragments which are subsequently analysed on the mass spectrometer.. Peptide fragments digested with different enzymes will highly likely provide overlapping amino acid sequence data, allowing for the accurate determination and confirmation of the amino acid sequence of the full length of a target protein molecule.. An added value of Peptide Mapping Analysis is that modifications such as C-terminal truncations and/or N-terminal modifications may also be detected.. For more information please email [email protected] ...
Hudson, T H. and Johnson, G L., Peptide mapping of adenylate cyclase regulatory proteins that are cholera toxin substrates. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 3108 ...
well, in MALDI-TOF you get what is called PMF (peptide mass fingerprint) of your protein of interest (supposing you have separated your proteins with e.g. 2DE). Choosing to do MALDI-TOF-TOF (MS/MS) you select a number of those peptides and you break them to smaller fragments which - through certain algorithms - can be sequenced ...
HPLC Part: 00F-4506-AN Aeris™ 1.7 µm PEPTIDE XB-C18 100 Å, LC Column 150 x 2.1 mm, Ea Recomended Use: Peptides and Peptide Mapping Separation Mode: Reversed Phase Solid Support: Core-shell Silica* Format: Column
HPLC Part: 00G-4505-AN Aeris™ 2.6 µm PEPTIDE XB-C18 100 Å, LC Column 250 x 2.1 mm, Ea Recomended Use: Peptides and Peptide Mapping Separation Mode: Reversed Phase Solid Support: Core-shell Silica* Format: Column
Journal: ArXiv e-prints 2013, 1301.2528 Authors: Pujol A, Valls R, Radovanovic V, Guney E, Garcia-Garcia J, Domenech VC, Gonzalez LC, Mas JM, Oliva B. Systems Biology has emerged in the last years as a new holistic approach based on the global understanding of cells instead of only being focused on their individual parts (genes or proteins), to better understand the complexity of human cells. Since the Systems Biology still does not provide the most accurate answers to our questions due to the complexity of cells and the limited quality of available information to perform a good gene/protein map analysis, we have created simpler models to ensure easier analysis of the map that represents the human cell. Therefore, a virtual organism has been designed according to the main physiological rules for humans in order to replicate the human organism and its vital functions. This toy model was constructed by defining the topology of its genes/proteins and the biological functions associated to it. There ...
Summary Antigenic and structural variation in the major nucleocapsid protein, VPN41, from different strains of respiratory syncytial (RS) virus was observed using a combination of monoclonal antibodies and two-dimensional peptide mapping. Limited trypsin treatment of intact nucleocapsids produced two peptide fragments M r 27K and M r 14K. Two monoclonal antibodies, N1 and N2, reactive with primary sequence epitopes located on intact nucleocapsids also reacted with either the 27K fragment (N2) or the 14K fragment (N1). Competitive radioimmunoassay studies using N1 and N2 antibodies revealed two discrete antigenic groups among the seven human strains of RS virus examined. A bovine strain of RS virus, although antigenically similar to the human strain of RS virus, was placed in a separate group. Two-dimensional peptide mapping of 125I-labelled VPN41 purified by SDS-PAGE revealed extensive structural homology between all strains. However, several unique tryptic/chymotryptic peptides supported the grouping
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The 67 kDa calcimedin is a Ca2+-binding protein isolated from several muscle tissues. A recent report [Morse & Moore (1988) Biochem. J. 251, 171-174] indicated that the 67 kDa calcimedin is distinct from 67 kDa calelectrin, which is purified from various non-muscle cells. In the present study we have purified the 67 kDa protein from bovine aorta (i.e. 67 kDa calcimedin) and liver (i.e. 67 kDa calelectrin) and compared them by immunological and biochemical criteria. The aorta calcimedin is identical with the liver calelectrin by the following criteria. (1) The calcimedin co-electrophoresed with the calelectrin on SDS/5-15%-(w/v)-linear-gradient polyacrylamide gels. (2) The two proteins selectively cross-reacted with a chicken gizzard calcimedin antibody. (3) An antibody raised against the bovine aorta calcimedin also recognized the bovine liver calelectrin. (4) One-dimensional peptide maps of the two proteins revealed no significant difference. (5) The calcimedin appeared to have an amino acid ...
The induction of long-lived effector CD8+ T cells is key to the advancement of efficient cancer vaccines. the control of the Testosterone levels7 marketer (Body ?(Figure1A).1A). rOVA was filtered from Rabbit Polyclonal to AML1 the lysates using immobilized steel affinity chromatography (IMAC) and refined using anion-exchange chromatography (Body ?(Body1T,1B, lanes 1C5). The filtered proteins was examined by immunoblotting with an anti-His label antibody (Body ?(Body1T,1B, lanes 6C10). rlipo-OVA was filtered using IMAC (Body ?(Body1T,1B, lanes 11C14). The recombinant proteins NB-598 Maleate salt was discovered with an anti-His label antibody (Body ?(Body1T,1B, lanes 15C18). Body 1 Structure, creation and id of rOVA and rlipo-OVA rlipo-OVA and rOVA had been broken down with trypsin to monitor their peptide mass fingerprint scanning service (PMF) by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The outcomes verified that the main highs in the mass spectra corresponded to meters/z beliefs extracted from rlipo-OVA ...
Lim H, Eng J, Yates JR, Tollaksen SL, Giometti CS, Holden JF, Adams MWW, Reich CI, Olsen GJ, Hays LG. 2003. Identification of 2D-gel proteins: a comparison of MALDI/TOF peptide mass mapping to mu LC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry.. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 14(9):957-70. ...
Lim H, Eng J, Yates JR, Tollaksen SL, Giometti CS, Holden JF, Adams MWW, Reich CI, Olsen GJ, Hays LG. 2003. Identification of 2D-gel proteins: a comparison of MALDI/TOF peptide mass mapping to mu LC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry.. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 14(9):957-70. ...
In this work, the separation of peptides obtained from a bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest is demonstrated. The retention time and peak area precisions are evaluated for repeated injections.
Two MAM approaches for biotherapeutic analysis are being implemented today; one focused on the analysis of monoclonal antibody (mAb) subunits, and the other focused on the analysis of peptides from a protein digest (peptide mapping workflow). Both have their advantages and disadvantages. Here, we explore MAM for mAb subunit analysis. ...
BioAssay record AID 632955 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of Abl using DAIpYAAPFAKKK phosphopeptide as substrate by MALDI-MS analysis.
Enhanced resolution and mass precision - for highly precise and accurate determinations of the monoisotopic masses of both the Light and Heavy Chains of mAbs on an LC timescale for automated confirmation of product identity and detection of impurities. Superb raw data quality allows for fast and easy detection of modifications (including deamidation) in biotherapeutic characterization without the need for time and cost intensive digestion and peptide mapping of the entire antibody. ...
Partially purified liver insulin receptors from full-term pregnant rats show decreased autophosphorylation rates if compared with receptors from virgins. We studied the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon, looking at possible structural and functional changes of several domains. The ATP-binding domain seems to be unaltered in receptors from pregnant rats since Km for ATP was similar to that observed in virgins. In contrast, the Vmax. is decreased some 45%, suggesting changes in the kinase domain. Truncation of a fragment of 10 kDa from the C-terminal tail does not normalize the kinase activity in receptors from pregnant rats, suggesting that this domain is not involved in the inhibitory regulation. Treatment with alkaline phosphatase increases the [32P]Pi incorporation into receptors from pregnant rats; however, the autophosphorylation remains lower than that observed in virgin rats. Tryptic phosphopeptide maps of phosphorylated receptors show that the same phosphopeptides are present in ...
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Two MAM approaches for biotherapeutic analysis are being implemented today; one focused on the analysis of monoclonal antibody (mAb) subunits, and the other focused on the analysis of peptides from a protein digest (peptide mapping workflow). Both have their advantages and disadvantages. Here, we explore MAM for mAb subunit analysis. ...
Peptide Mapping page allows the user to run a sub-search and super-search. In sub-search a given peptide is mapped against all peptides of CancerPPD. While super-search returns similar peptides of our database against protein sequence given as query. If no hit is found, then Result page will be empty. For more information see HELP page ...
Enhanced resolution and mass precision - for highly precise and accurate determinations of the monoisotopic masses of both the Light and Heavy Chains of mAbs on an LC timescale for automated confirmation of product identity and detection of impurities. Superb raw data quality allows for fast and easy detection of modifications (including deamidation) in biotherapeutic characterization without the need for time and cost intensive digestion and peptide mapping of the entire antibody. Further information: Intact and/or subunit analysis Bruker App-Note: LCMS-94. Back ...
Im looking for a commercially available peptide that is a model for a lysine-terminating tryptic peptide. Does anyone know of any options ...
Comparison of phosphopeptides is accomplished through the identification©Compare tool, as shown below: Figure 9.5.1: identification©Compare link The...
Phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) is an important component of insulin and cAMP-dependent signalling pathways. In order to study phosphorylation of PDE3B, we have used an adenoviral system to express recombinant flag-tagged PDE3B in primary rat adipocytes and H4IIE hepatoma cells. Phosphorylation of PDE3B after treatment of cells with insulin, cAMP-increasing agents, or the phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin A was analyzed by two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping and mass spectrometry. We found that PDE3B is multisite phosphorylated in adipocytes and H4IIE hepatoma cells in response to all these stimuli. Several sites were identified; serine (S)273, S296, S421, S424/5, S474 and S536 were phosphorylated in adipocyte as well as H4IIE hepatoma cells whereas S277 and S507 were phosphorylated in hepatoma cells only. Several of the sites were phosphorylated by insulin as well as cAMP-increasing hormones indicating integration of the two signalling pathways upstream of PDE3B, maybe at the level of ...
Proteins have long been known to persist in Quaternary bone fossils and are often targeted as a source of carbon used in radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analyses for determining provenance and obtaining dietary information. We have previously reported a technique using the dominant structural protein collagen (type I) as a source of genetic information for species identification in modern and relatively young (Holocene) archaeological samples. We report a systematic investigation of amino acid composition and collagen peptide mass fingerprints (PMF), for a range of samples dating back approximately 1.5 million years. Extrapolation from high temperature experimental decomposition rates predict that at a constant 10°C (the approximate mean annual air temperature in Britain today) it will take between 0.2 and 0.7 Ma for levels of collagen to fall to 1% of their original concentration in an optimal burial environment. Even when the glacial intervals of the British Quaternary are factored into ...
Free Essays from Cram | Raju Chandra et al; A reliable and reproducible reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed for the...
Below is a very informational page I refer to often. Is very explanatory and an excellent reference tool for the beginner. I love this page. http://www.peptideguide.com/index.html Main page Amino Acids Peptide Bond Peptide Builder Peptide Mass Calculator
Students, Staff and Visitors gathered in Comp Lab B in the School of Computer Science, where the posters and interactive demos were setup, and the session was officially opened by the Head of the School, Dr David Cobham. This demos session was the concluding session of the Showcasing week for the Undergraduate Projects work. Local companies, like Rockstar Games and Artgraphica, participated in the event and the judging panel. Posters have been in display around the lab and interactive demos included; Websites, Gesture-controlled Robots, Retinal Analysis, Map analysis for navigation, Healthy Eating through receipt analysis, and analysing Cheating in Games.. ...
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Date Scrapbook Page - PAPER CRAFTS, SCRAPBOOKING & ATCs (ARTIST TRADING CARDS) - Hello all, Im very new here (actually just signed up, but Ive been looking at crafts here for months). I just got finished with my first e
Peptide mapping and mutational analysis". J Biol Chem. 274 (46): 32936-32942. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.46.32936. PMID 10551860.. ... 2. Energetics of insertion of small molecules, peptides, and proteins in membranes". Journal of Chemical Information and ...
Peptide mapping and mutational analysis". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (46): 32936-32942. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.46.32936 ... Oppenheim, J J, A Biragyn, L W Kwak and D Yang (2003). "Roles of antimicrobial peptides such as defensins in innate and ... Efremov R, Nolde D, Konshina A, Syrtcev N, Arseniev A (2004). "Peptides and proteins in membranes: what can we learn via ... Zhang W, Crocker E, McLaughlin S, Smith S (2003). "Binding of peptides with basic and aromatic residues to bilayer membranes: ...
Peptide mapping and mutational analysis". J Biol Chem 274 (46): 32936-32942. PMID 10551860. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.46.32936.. ... 2. Energetics of insertion of small molecules, peptides, and proteins in membranes". Journal of chemical information and ...
Cleveland, D.W.; Fischer, S.G.; Kirschner, M.W. & Laemmli, U.K. (1977). "Peptide mapping by limited proteolysis in sodium ... Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L. (August 18, 2006). "The Development of Cleveland Peptide Mapping by Don W. ... He also developed and published a peptide fingerprinting technique that was so popular that it became a citation classic ...
J Biol Chem 266:22549-22556 Zhen, Jing (2018). "Antibody characterization using novel ERLIC-MS/MS-based peptide mapping". mAbs ... Protein deamidation has been commonly analyzed by reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) through peptide mapping. Recently ... "Quantification and characterization of antibody deamidation by peptide mapping with mass spectrometry". International Journal ... Asparagine Aspartic acid Peptide bond Post-translational modification Clarke, S (2003). "Aging as war between chemical and ...
The Pepitope Server is used to map epitopes using affinity-selected peptides. Her work with autism genetic sequencing which won ... epitope mapping from affinity-selected peptides". Bioinformatics. 23 (23): 3244-3246. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btm493. ISSN ...
2-Iodoacetamide is an alkylating agent used for peptide mapping purposes. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate. It ... It is commonly used during the sample preparation for de novo (peptide) sequencing with protein mass spectrometry, but recent ...
Similarities and differences as adjudged by peptide mapping and N-terminal sequencing". The Biochemical Journal. 240 (1): 19-26 ... "An extended genetic linkage map of markers for human chromosome 10". Genomics. 3 (4): 389-92. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(88)90133-4 ...
Bazari WL, Matsudaira P, Wallek M, Smeal T, Jakes R, Ahmed Y (July 1988). "Villin sequence and peptide map identify six ...
Active site mapping with peptide thioester substrates". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262 (8): 3444-3451. PMID 3546307. ... Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequence of a peptide from C2a containing a free thiol group". The Biochemical Journal. ...
"Renaturation and partial peptide sequencing of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) activator from rabbit skeletal ... This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon activation by a wide ... MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for ... MAP kinase kinase activity. • protein kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. ...
GFS (Genome Fingerprint Scanning) maps peptide mass fingerprint data to genomic sequences. It is built into VOCS. NAP ( ... Additional analysis tools such as BLAST searches, genome maps, genome or gene alignment, phylogenetic trees, etc. are provided ...
S. Munro, H. R. Pelham: Use of peptide tagging to detect proteins expressed from cloned genes: deletion mapping functional ... T. G. Schmidt, J. Koepke, R. Frank, A. Skerra: Molecular interaction between the Strep-tag affinity peptide and its cognate ... B. Zakeri, M. Howarth: Spontaneous intermolecular amide bond formation between side chains for irreversible peptide targeting. ... B. Zakeri, J. O. Fierer, E. Celik, E. C. Chittock, U. Schwarz-Linek, V. T. Moy, M. Howarth: Peptide tag forming a rapid ...
Unambiguous site mapping is possible for peptides with only one serine/threonine residue. The general procedure for this ... Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) is used for site mapping as ETD causes peptide backbone cleavage while leaving post- ... Testing various peptide sequences revealed that this modification slows proteasomal degradation of hydrophobic peptides, ... a CKII peptide that is a known OGT substrate, and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Upon O-GlcNAcylation of the CKII peptide, ...
1987). „Human gastrin-releasing peptide gene maps to chromosome band 18q21". Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 13 (1): 81-6. PMID 3027901 ... Lebacq-Verheyden AM, Bertness V, Kirsch I, Hollis GF, McBride OW, Battey J (1987). „Human gastrin-releasing peptide gene maps ... 2003). „Expression of progastrin-releasing peptide and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor mRNA transcripts in tumor cells of ... Gen iz kojeg je GRP izveden kodira brojne peptide slične bombesinu.[1][2][3][4] Njegov 148-aminokiselina dug preproprotein, ...
"Dexras1/AGS-1 inhibits signal transduction from the Gi-coupled formyl peptide receptor to Erk-1/2 MAP kinases". The Journal of ... Jaffrey SR, Fang M, Snyder SH (Dec 2002). "Nitrosopeptide mapping: a novel methodology reveals s-nitrosylation of dexras1 on a ...
... of amidinohydrolases among Pseudomonas and comparative studies of some purified enzymes by one-dimensional peptide mapping". ... This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically ...
Chulaporn Kamnerdpetch: Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Peptide Mapping of Potato Pulp Protein. Hannover 2006. Link. ...
Spiess J, Mount CD, Nicholson WE, Orth DN (August 1982). "NH2-terminal amino acid sequence and peptide mapping of purified ... Peptides Direct information page, accessed 26 August 2013 Le Grand, Chip (2016). The straight dope : the inside story of ... β-Lipotropin can be cleaved into smaller peptides. In humans, γ-lipotropin, β-MSH, and β-endorphin, are all possible fragments ... γ-lipotropin is the amino-terminal peptide fragment of β-lipotropin. In humans, it has 56 amino acids. Gamma lipotropin is ...
1996). "Human neurotrophin-3: a one-step peptide mapping method and complete disulfide characterization of the recombinant ... 1998). "High resolution mapping of the binding site of TrkA for nerve growth factor and TrkC for neurotrophin-3 on the second ... Ozçelik T, Rosenthal A, Francke U (1991). "Chromosomal mapping of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 genes in ...
Elkon KB, Hines JJ, Chu JL, Parnassa A (1990). "Epitope mapping of recombinant HeLa SmB and B' peptides obtained by the ...
J. R. Yates, S. Speicher, P. R. Griffin og T. Hunkapiller (1993). „Peptide mass maps: a highly informative approach to protein ... D. J. Pappin, P. Hojrup og A. J. Bleasby (1993). „Rapid identification of proteins by peptide-mass fingerprinting". Current ... Organellar proteomics to create the cell map". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 19: 376-385. PMID 17689063.. ... Progress with gene-product mapping of the Mollicutes: Mycoplasma genitalium". Electrophoresis. 7: 1090-1094. PMID 7498152.. ...
... map mapping and peptide identification. It supports label-free and isotopic-label based quantification (such as iTRAQ and TMT ... map mapping and peptide identification. It supports label-free and isotopic-label based quantification (such as iTRAQ and TMT ... mass spectrometric heat maps (2D m/z vs RT) as well as a three-dimensional visualization of a mass spectrometry experiment. ...
The two were similar in NH2-terminal sequence, peptide map, subunit molecular weight, and isoelectronic point. In a different ... and are typically membrane bound and are inhibited by l-amino acids and peptides via a means of uncompetitive mechanism. These ...
Later, however, the identity of alleles in different species could be confirmed by peptide-mapping analysis of the antigenic ... Genetic mapping of the loci controlling the class I and class II antigens of the mouse showed them to be part of a cluster, ... Initially, genetic mapping of the mouse class I antigens suggested the existence of multiple class I loci in the H2 complex. ... The discovery of the class II genes had been fitted into the model by the demonstration that they mapped between the H2K and ...
1996). "A third P-domain peptide gene (TFF3), human intestinal trefoil factor, maps to 21q22.3". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 72 (4 ... TFF comprises the gastric peptides (TFF1), spasmolytic peptide (TFF2), and the intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3, this protein). ... Peptides. 25 (5): 771-7. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2004.01.018. PMID 15177871. S2CID 23122603. Barrera GJ, Sanchez G, Gonzalez JE ... 2003). "Ocular TFF-peptides: new mucus-associated secretory products of conjunctival goblet cells". Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 506 ( ...
For example, trypsin-activated gold (Au/trypsin) probe tips can be used for the peptide mapping of the hen egg lysozyme. ... Functionalized probes can be used in Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM) to measure intermolecular forces and map chemical ... Dogruel, David.; Williams, Peter.; Nelson, Randall W. (December 1995). "Rapid Tryptic Mapping Using Enzymically Active Mass ... mapping and electrical properties of a single atom or molecule on the surface of the sample. The proliferation of the thrust in ...
In biological applications, benzophenones have been used extensively as photophysical probes to identify and map peptide- ...
... comparative mapping of the locus for the human peptide antibiotic FALL-39". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... "Entrez Gene: CAMP cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide".. *^ a b c d e Zanetti M (January 2004). "Cathelicidins, multifunctional ... The cathelicidin family of peptides are classified as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The AMP family also includes the defensins ... Cattle: BMAP-27,28,34 (Bovine Myeloid Antimicrobial Peptides); Bac5, Bac7. *Frogs: cathelicidin-AL (found in Amolops loloensis) ...
"Characterization of three forms of rabbit microsomal cytochrome P-450 by peptide mapping utilizing limited proteolysis in ...
... suggesting that transit peptides are actually collections of domains with different functions.[42] Transit peptides tend to be ... Chloroplast DNA Interactive gene map of chloroplast DNA from Nicotiana tabacum. Segments with labels on the inside reside on ... Chloroplast transit peptides exhibit huge variation in length and amino acid sequence.[42] They can be from 20-150 amino acids ... The 154 kb chloroplast DNA map of a model flowering plant (Arabidopsis thaliana: Brassicaceae) showing genes and inverted ...
The nascent protein contains a N-terminal signal peptide sequence, a conserved "ZP domain" module, a consensus furin cleavage ... and maps closely to this gene.[5] ... reaction induced by recombinant human zona pellucida 3 peptides ...
February 2006). "The opioid peptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ mediates prostaglandin E2-induced allodynia, tactile pain associated ... as well as mapping of the area of abnormality. ...
Tomato as a model system: I. Genetic and physical mapping of jointless". MGG Molecular & General Genetics. 242 (6). doi:10.1007 ... The plant peptide hormone, systemin was first identified in tomato plants and genetic modification has been used to demonstrate ... Tomatoes have been used as a model in map-based cloning, where transgenic plants must be created to prove that a gene has been ... Wing, R.; Zhang, H. B.; Tanksley, S. (1994). "Map-based cloning in crop plants. ...
"Lyme Disease risk areas map". Risk of Lyme disease to Canadians. Government of Canada. 27 January 2015. Archived from the ... a whole-cell sonicate enzyme immunoassay followed by a VlsE C6 peptide enzyme immunoassay". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 53 (6 ... CDC map showing the risk of Lyme disease in the United States, particularly its concentration in the Northeast Megalopolis and ...
"Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. PMID 16189514. doi ... "Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides.". Nat ...
RSK2 is normally activated by the ERK MAP kinase. Mutated RSK2 may be deficient for activation by ERK, or its kinase activity ... Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. GTP-binding protein regulators. GTPase-activating protein. * ...
positive regulation of MAP kinase activity. • positive regulation of catalytic activity. • mitochondrial transport. • post- ... A 5-fold drop of amyloid peptide was observed, suggesting that deficiency of presenilin-1 can down regulate amyloid and ... Phiel CJ, Wilson CA, Lee VM, Klein PS (May 2003). "GSK-3alpha regulates production of Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta peptides ...
Peptides. 31 (8): 1441-8. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2010.04.021. PMC 2905501 . PMID 20441784. Schein CH, Volk DE, Oezguen N, Paul ... sequencing of radiochemically modified protein allows mapping of the gene on B RNA. The EMBO Journal, 3(7), 1629-1634. PMC ... Peptides. 27 (7): 1676-84. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2006.01.018. PMC 1629084 . PMID 16540201. Schein CH, Oezguen N, van der Heden ... Schein CH, Oezguen N, Volk DE, Garimella R, Paul A, Braun W (July 2006). "NMR structure of the viral peptide linked to the ...
Gilbert F (1999). "Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome. Chromosome 16". Genet Test. 3 (2): 243-54. ... PDF: encoding enzyme Peptide deformylase, mitochondrial. *PDPR: encoding protein Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory ...
A map of the genome of JC virus, indicating the position of the tumor antigen genes (red), the three capsid protein genes ( ... coding for a 10 amino acid truncated peptide, which is believed to mediate CPN tropism. Additionally, analysis of the sub- ...
"BSBI Distribution Maps, Papaver somniferum". London, U.K.: Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland.. ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. *v. *t ...
2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... "A cDNA encoding the calcitonin gene-related peptide type 1 receptor". J Biol Chem. 271 (19): 11325-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.19. ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/ ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... The Proteolysis Map. *Exosome. *Endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation. *JUNQ and IPOD ... The strength of MHC class I ligand binding is dependent on the composition of the ligand C-terminus, as peptides bind by ... These peptides are products of proteasomal degradation of proteins originated by the invading pathogen. Although constitutively ...
Williamson P, Lang J, Boyd Y (1992). "The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gnrh) gene maps to mouse chromosome 14 and identifies ... Tan L, Rousseau P (1983). "The chemical identity of the immunoreactive LHRH-like peptide biosynthesized in the human placenta ...
1995). "Mapping of gene loci in the Q13-Q15 region of chromosome 12". Chromosome Res. 3 (4): 261-2. doi:10.1007/BF00713052. ... 1996). "Inhibition of pRb phosphorylation and cell-cycle progression by a 20-residue peptide derived from p16CDKN2/INK4A". Curr ... Demetrick DJ, Zhang H, Beach DH (1994). "Chromosomal mapping of human CDK2, CDK4, and CDK5 cell cycle kinase genes". Cytogenet ... "Inhibition of pRb phosphorylation and cell-cycle progression by a 20-residue peptide derived from p16CDKN2/INK4A". Curr. Biol. ...
The human TNF gene (TNFA) was cloned in 1985.[22] It maps to chromosome 6p21.3, spans about 3 kilobases and contains 4 exons. ... positive regulation of MAP kinase activity. • response to salt stress. • positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase ... "A physical and functional map of the human TNF alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway". Nat. Cell Biol. 6 (2): 97-105. ... Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. *. Biology portal. *. Medicine portal ...
Ovaj metionin se uklanja iz većine proteina (bolo prirodnih ili rekombinantnih) enzimom metionin aminopeptidaza (MAP).[5] ... "Cross-recognition of N-formylmethionine peptides is a general characteristic of H2-M3-restricted CD8+ T cells". Infection and ...
When the TCR engages with antigenic peptide and MHC (peptide/MHC), the T lymphocyte is activated through signal transduction, ... Orthologues of the 4 loci have been mapped in various species.[3][4] Each locus can produce a variety of polypeptides with ... many TCRs recognize the same antigen peptide and many antigen peptides are recognized by the same TCR.[2] ... T cells are very sensitive to their antigens despite the low affinity of TCR for its peptide/MHC and low numbers of specific ...
cellular response to peptide. • daunorubicin metabolic process. • doxorubicin metabolic process. • maternal process involved in ... There are a few putative pseudogenes for this gene, and one of them has been confirmed and mapped to chromosome 3.[6] ... Graham A, Heath P, Morten JE, Markham AF (March 1991). "The human aldose reductase gene maps to chromosome region 7q35". Human ... Graham A, Heath P, Morten JE, Markham AF (March 1991). "The human aldose reductase gene maps to chromosome region 7q35". Human ...
Genomics maps for small non-coding RNA's and their targets in microbial genomes ... with the position of each molecule accounted for in an epigenomic map, a diagrammatic representation of the gene expression, ... gene maps based on their targets in microbial genomes are also constructed.[74] ... "Genome-wide mapping of methylated adenine residues in pathogenic Escherichia coli using single-molecule real-time sequencing" ...
Jacobi FK, Broghammer M, Pesch K, Zrenner E, Berger W, Meindl A, Pusch CM (July 2000). "Physical mapping and exclusion of GPR34 ...
Kuigi MAP-kinaasid on seriini/treoniini-spetsiifilised, aktiveeritakse neid nii seriini/treoniini kui ka türosiini ... Bogoyevitch, MA, Barr, RK, Ketterman, AJ (2005). "Peptide inhibitors of protein kinases-discovery, characterisation and use". ... MAP-kinaaside aktiivsust piiravad mitmed fosfataasid, mis eemaldavad aktiivse konformatsiooni tekkimiseks vajalikke ... Näiteks MEK (MAPKK), mis osaleb MAP-kinaasi kaskaadis, on segatüübiline seriini/treoniini ja türosiini kinaas ning loetakse ...
Mapping the human acetylcholinesterase gene to chromosome 7q22 by fluorescent in situ hybridization coupled with selective PCR ... 1f8u: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF MUTANT E202Q OF HUMAN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE COMPLEXED WITH GREEN MAMBA VENOM PEPTIDE FASCICULIN-II ...
The other isoform (IL-15 SSP) has a short signal peptide of 21 amino acids encoded by exons 4A and 5.[5] Both isoforms shared ... MAP (mitogen-activated protein kinase) kinase pathway and the phosphorylation of Lck (lymphocyte-activated protein tyrosine ... Figure 2. The originally identified isoform, with long signal peptide of 48 amino acids (IL-15 LSP) consisted of a 316 bp 5'- ... The other isoform (IL-15 SSP) has a short signal peptide of 21 amino acids encoded by exons 4A and 5. Both isoforms shared 11 ...
MAP-kinase scaffold activity. • protein kinase inhibitor activity. • protein binding. • kinesin binding. • protein kinase ... 2001). "Cell-permeable peptide inhibitors of JNK: novel blockers of beta-cell death". Diabetes. 50 (1): 77-82. doi:10.2337/ ... 1998). "A mammalian scaffold complex that selectively mediates MAP kinase activation". Science. 281 (5383): 1671-4. doi:10.1126 ... 1999). "Genomic organization, fine-mapping, and expression of the human islet-brain 1 (IB1)/c-Jun -amino-terminal kinase ...
Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. MAP. *see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins ...
Epitope mapping using randomly generated peptide libraries.. Bongartz J1, Bruni N, Or-Guil M. ... The analysis can be applied to classify and predict different groups of individuals and to detect the peptides which best ... Here, we present a method comprising binding studies of serum antibody pools to synthetic random peptide libraries, and data ... and predict the different mice strains and the infection with very high accuracy and with a very small number of peptides, ...
UPLC separations and a family of optimally selective and resolving peptide separation chemistries provide unmatched resolution ... In a peptide map, each peptide fragment must be resolved into a single peak, which is a significant chromatographic challenge ... Keys to Successful Peptide Analysis. Peptide mapping is an important technique for the comprehensive characterization of ... The top panel shows the peptide map of bovine hemoglobin with peptide standards spiked at 2% molar basis. A total injection on- ...
With ongoing advancements, we are your experienced source for peptide mapping by mass spectrometry. Contact us today for more ... SGS M-Scan experts were involved in creating MS peptide mapping using fast atom bombardment in the 1980s. ... Our Peptide Mapping Services by mass spectrometry help our clients to comply with ICH Q6B guidelines in support of marketing ... Peptide mapping can be used in drug discovery and throughout the manufacturing process for quality control between batches to ...
So MAPs are Multiply Attacted Peptides, or some such, giving a small tree of peptides, each branch is another of the synthesied ... MAP peptides for Abs. Tom Doak tom_doak at hlthsci.med.utah.edu Thu Apr 28 14:14:28 EST 1994 *Previous message: S. typhim. LPS ... However the AppliedBiosystems MAP substrate for peptide synthesis has been suggested, but not by anyone with much experience ... We hope to make antisera to synthetic peptides representing our favorite ORF. I had thought to do this by a fairly conventional ...
Peptide Mapping with Ascentis Express Peptide ES-C18. By: Hillel Brandes, Reporter US Volume 28 ... Peptide mapping is an established technique for assessing changes to the primary structure of a protein. This has applications ... While 0.1% formic acid has become a de facto standard for peptide mapping by LC-MS, it is not without some concerns. It has ... Peptide mapping is generally done by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Traditionally this was done in conjunction with low- ...
Save time and increase robustness with our confident proven peptide mapping workflows that include digestion, separations, ... automated peptide mapping of proteins. *Application Note: Robust and reproducible peptide mapping and intact mass analysis ... Peptide mapping is a critical step during biotherapeutic characterization. The so-called "bottom up" characterization of ... Run your routine UHPLC, or LC-MS peptide mapping analyses in an enterprise environment-from method creation to final reporting. ...
Please select the Peptide Mapping technologies that you would like to be contacted about (check all that apply): ...
This text is devoted to the characterization of recombinant DNA-derived proteins by peptide mapping. It describes new ... The Optimization of Peptide Mapping via Computer Simulation, L.R. Snyder. The Use of Capillary Electrophoresis for Peptide ... Peptide Mapping to Characterize Subtle Modifications in the Analysis of Protein Pharmaceuticals, V.T. Ling, M.L. Eng, P.-J. Lee ... Many figures of peptide maps illustrate typical results. Tables of summary information about digestion, separation conditions, ...
... partially unfolded intermediates can be distinguished serologically from native amyloidogenic precursor proteins or peptides. ... we used random peptide phage display and epitope mapping of VL Len using wild-type and alanine-mutated Len peptides where it ... Phage display and peptide mapping of an immunoglobulin light chain fibril-related conformational epitope Biochemistry. 2007 Nov ... Sequence alignments of the phage peptides revealed a central proline, often flanked by aromatic residues. Taken together, these ...
With a simple mapping search, this peptide appears to be uniquely mapping to a protein not seen anywhere else in PeptideAtlas, ... Flexible and Fast Mapping of Peptides to a Proteome with ProteoMapper.. Mendoza L1, Deutsch EW1, Sun Z1, Campbell DS1, ... the identification of those peptides via mass spectrometry, and the mapping of the identified peptides back to the reference ... Bar chart of the size of the index, time to build the index, and mapping time for a reference set of 3700 peptides, all as a ...
Typical analysis workflow begins with the peptide feature detection and intensity calculation from LC-MS map. We are the first ... The peptide feature list reported by our model matches with 97.43% of high quality MS/MS identifications in a benchmark dataset ... to detect peptide features of different charge states, as well as, estimate their intensity. Existing tools are designed with ... We obtain LC-MS map from each replicate, totaling 57 LC-MS maps for the experiment. We cut peptide features from these maps for ...
If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. ...
Keywords: Buy Peptides for Sale Online, Peptides for Sale, Buy Peptides Online, Purchase Peptides Online, Research Peptides for ... Peptides For Sale Online, USA Peptides For Sale, Buy Research Peptides Online, Best Supplier of USA Research Peptides Operation ... We also sell high purity, USA manufactured peptides - consider us the best peptides supplier 2020. ... If youre interested in learning more about peptides and what they do, head to Research Peptides. We are dedicated to providing ...
Peptide linkage mapping of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens vir-encoded type IV secretion system reveals protein subassemblies. ... Peptide linkage mapping of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens vir-encoded type IV secretion system reveals protein subassemblies ... Peptide linkage mapping of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens vir-encoded type IV secretion system reveals protein subassemblies ... Peptide linkage mapping of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens vir-encoded type IV secretion system reveals protein subassemblies ...
In a typical peptide mapping workflow, a protein is first digested with trypsin or other protease to generate peptides, which ... The peptide mapping workflow includes RapiGest™ SF assisted proteolytic digestion, high resolution separation of peptides with ... Improving Peptide Mapping. View PDF by Asish B. Chakraborty Hongwei Xie St John Skilton John C. Gebler Weibin Chen Wednesday, ... Although LC/MS peptide mapping can be powerful in detecting and identifying minute changes in a protein therapeutic, many ...
Mapping sites of interaction of p47-phox and flavocytochrome b with random-sequence peptide phage display libraries. F R DeLeo ... Mapping sites of interaction of p47-phox and flavocytochrome b with random-sequence peptide phage display libraries ... Mapping sites of interaction of p47-phox and flavocytochrome b with random-sequence peptide phage display libraries ... Mapping sites of interaction of p47-phox and flavocytochrome b with random-sequence peptide phage display libraries ...
... peptide mapping explanation free. What is peptide mapping? Meaning of peptide mapping medical term. What does peptide mapping ... Looking for online definition of peptide mapping in the Medical Dictionary? ... peptide mapping. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. peptide mapping. A means of identifying proteins ... Peptide mapping , definition of peptide mapping by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/peptide+ ...
Proteome-wide Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Using Ultra-dense Peptide Arrays. Björn Forsström, Barbara Bisławska Axnäs, Klaus- ... Proteome-wide Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Using Ultra-dense Peptide Arrays. Björn Forsström, Barbara Bisławska Axnäs, Klaus- ... Proteome-wide Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Using Ultra-dense Peptide Arrays Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Proteome-wide Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Using Ultra-dense Peptide Arrays. Björn Forsström, Barbara Bisławska Axnäs, Klaus- ...
Proteome-wide Epitope Mapping of Three Polyclonal Antibodies. Ultra-dense peptide arrays with 2.1 million 12-mer peptides ... Proteome-wide Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Using Ultra-dense Peptide Arrays. Björn Forsström, Barbara Bisławska Axnäs, Klaus- ... Proteome-wide Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Using Ultra-dense Peptide Arrays. Björn Forsström, Barbara Bisławska Axnäs, Klaus- ... Proteome-wide Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Using Ultra-dense Peptide Arrays Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
Figure 2. Peptide mapping of antibody. Peptide mapping utilizes trypsin or alternative proteases to digest an antibody into ... Figure 2. Peptide mapping of antibody. Peptide mapping utilizes trypsin or alternative proteases to digest an antibody into ... Peptide mapping is commonly used to monitor these modifications. However, the sample preparation steps involved in peptide ... Peptide mapping utilizes trypsin or alternative proteases to digest an antibody into smaller fragments (peptides). By analyzing ...
... peptide map explanation free. What is peptide map? Meaning of peptide map medical term. What does peptide map mean? ... Looking for online definition of peptide map in the Medical Dictionary? ... Peptide map , definition of peptide map by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/peptide+map ... peptide map. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. peptide map. a pattern observed from two-dimensional ...
Send us an aliquote of your antibody and the amino acid sequence of the binding partner and we will perform peptide synthesis, ... Abnova provides a convenient and efficient way for antibody epitope mapping using peptides and phospho-peptides. ... Antibody Epitope Mapping. Abnova provides a convenient and efficient way for antibody epitope mapping using peptides and ... Send us an aliquote of your antibody and the amino acid sequence of the binding partner and we will perform peptide synthesis, ...
Investigation into surfactant-aided matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry for peptide mapping Author(s ... This study has investigated the effect of surfactants on the MALDI-MS data obtained from hydrophobic peptides and tryptic ...
Peptide Mapping of Antibody Drugs by Nexera-i Peptide mapping by HPLC is one of the important quality assurance tests used for ... peptide, mapping, antibody, drugs, Pharma & Biopharma, Monoclonal Antibodies and Biosimilars, Nexera-i, i-series. File Name:. ... the use of small-particle columns and core shell columns for peptide analysis has spread in recent years. In order to compare ...
The AdvanceBio Peptide Mapping column is excellent for highly complex peptide mapping and will provide 100 percent sequence ... enabling the identification of key peptides in complex peptide maps.. All available columns are stable to 600-bar, enabling ... High-Resolution Glycopeptide Mapping of EPO Using an Agilent AdvanceBio Peptide Mapping Column. ... The new AdvanceBio Peptide Mapping BioHPLC and ZORBAX RRHD 300-HILIC columns are designed to deliver exceptional performance ...
In this work, the separation of peptides obtained from a bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest is demonstrated. The retention time ... Application Note: Confident Results in Peptide Mapping Using the Vanquish Flex UHPLC System. 23 June 2015 ... In this work, the separation of peptides obtained from a bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest is demonstrated. The retention time ...
5 mg per peptide should be enough for the screening. OLPs and truncated peptides (Step 6.1) can be desalted peptides (purity is ... Figure 4: Design of truncated peptides of a 15-mer peptide. A 15-mer peptide was progressively truncated at its N- and C- ... The N-terminus of each peptide, except for the first peptide, overlapped with the C-terminus of the previous peptide by 11 ... Overlapping Peptide Library to Map Qa-1 Epitopes in a Protein. Yi Xu*1, Samiksha Wasnik*1, David J. Baylink1, Edmundo Carreon ...
... chart in International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics format for free. ...
Peptide mapping by mass spectrometry (MS) is a valuable tool for characterizing sequence variants, including single amino acid ... Here we describe the development of a peptide mapping method using LC-MS/MS combined with Mascot ETS to evaluate variants ... Determination of Unique Amino Acid Substitutions in Protein Variants By Peptide Mass Mapping with FT-ICR MS.. J. Am. Soc. Mass ... Assessing Genetic Heterogeneity in Production Cell Lines: Detection By Peptide Mapping of a Low Level Tyr to Gln Sequence ...
Here, we identify the metal abstraction peptide (MAP) as an inhibitor of MMP-8 and demonstrate that tethering MAP to ... Dixit, N., Settle, J. K., Ye, Q., Berrie, C. L., Spencer, P., & Laurence, J. S. (2015). Grafting MAP peptide to dental polymer ... Grafting MAP peptide to dental polymer inhibits MMP-8 activity. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied ...
  • Visit the new Peptide & Protein Bioanalysis Boot Camp. (waters.com)
  • Peptide mapping can be used in drug discovery and throughout the manufacturing process for quality control between batches to produce a unique 'fingerprint' of an individual protein and to compare this with the theoretical gene-derived amino acid sequence. (sgs.com)
  • Peptide mapping is an established technique for assessing changes to the primary structure of a protein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Essentially, the protein(s) is cleaved (digested) in a sequence-dependent manner to generate a finite number of peptide fragments. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The so-called "bottom up" characterization of biologic drugs by protein digestion to their constituent peptides is necessary to ensure a full sequence coverage of the biopharmaceutical molecule. (thermofisher.com)
  • To define further the antibody binding site, we used random peptide phage display and epitope mapping of VL Len using wild-type and alanine-mutated Len peptides where it was shown that the antibody epitope was reliant on up to 10 of the first 15 residues of protein Len. (nih.gov)
  • Reliable mapping of peptides to proteins still poses substantial challenges when considering similar proteins, protein families, splice isoforms, sequence variation, and possible residue mass modifications, combined with an imperfect and incomplete understanding of the proteome. (nih.gov)
  • Protein identification and quantification are fundamental tasks in proteomics and peptides are the building block of protein. (nature.com)
  • Protein is first enzymatically digested into peptides, and then peptides are analyzed by LC-MS/MS instruments. (nature.com)
  • The LC-MS map of a protein sample is a 3D plot where the three dimensions are: mass-to-charge ( m / z ) or Da, retention time (RT), and intensity (I) of peptide ions in that sample. (nature.com)
  • Its applications include the identification of proteins based on the elution pattern of peptide fragments, the determination of posttranslational modifications, the confirmation of genetic stability, and the analysis of protein sequences when interfaced to a mass spectrometer. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • In a typical peptide mapping workflow, a protein is first digested with trypsin or other protease to generate peptides, which are separated by liquid chromatography, most commonly reversed-phase LC, and then detected by either UV/VIS or MS. Compared with a traditional LC-UV/VIS approach, LC/MS analysis significantly enhances the information content available from a peptide mapping experiment. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • Measurement by MS can differentiate coeluting peptides under a chromatographic peak, and can identify and locate low-abundance modifications and single amino acid variants of a protein by MS/MS. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • Although LC/MS peptide mapping can be powerful in detecting and identifying minute changes in a protein therapeutic, many organizations struggle to develop a robust and reproducible analytical workflow. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • Each protein leaves a characteristic pattern of light and dark peptide bands on the electrophoretic paper or gel. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • UNIFI, a solution initially developed for intact protein mass analysis, peptide mapping and supporting general bioseparations, has been extended to support a mix of quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-Tof) MS and optical detection instruments within a networked lab workgroup. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The new AdvanceBio Peptide Mapping column can rapidly determine the primary protein structure and identify modifications with unparalleled speed and sensitivity. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The AdvanceBio Peptide Mapping column is excellent for highly complex peptide mapping and will provide 100 percent sequence coverage of many protein digests, including rhEPO with 45 glycopeptide matches. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Peptide mapping by mass spectrometry (MS) is a valuable tool for characterizing sequence variants, including single amino acid substitutions in protein variants. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • A novel approach combining peptide mapping using LC-MS/MS with Mascot error tolerant search (ETS) has been developed and reported for detecting protein sequence variants with amino acid substitutions in low abundance ( 16 ,- 17 ). (bioprocessintl.com)
  • Some of the FPR residues that appeared to be involved in binding of formylated peptides were located at sites analogous to those identified in ligand binding to certain other G protein-coupled receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • With the emergence of new protein therapeutics, including biosimilars, biobetters and ADCs, peptide mapping by LC/MS is becoming more commonly used for the identification of post-translational modifications (PTMs), glycosylation, and conjugation sites, as well as primary sequence confirmation. (advion.com)
  • Mimotopes have developed an advanced strategy for mapping epitopes of Cytotoxic T-Cells based on generating equimolar mixtures of the four C-terminal peptides for each nominal 11-mer across your entire protein. (mimotopes.com)
  • In approaching the problem of in vitro discovery and evaluation of potential antigen-specific epitopes, Mimotopes, in partnership with Pure Protein, offer a new technology for peptide synthesis and high throughput screening of CTL epitopes. (mimotopes.com)
  • When a similar analysis of the crosslinked protein was carried out using trypsin, a large peptide (m/z nearly 5,000) was observed (Figure 7A) that would correspond to crosslinking between K31 and either K20 or K24 indicated for the mass of the fragment (bioworks software analysis) of 4999.5366 m/z. (nih.gov)
  • The reduction in ACE2 mRNA by ANG II was also prevented by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059. (physiology.org)
  • Compared to traditional phage library display, the biosynthetic peptide method can identify both the monoclonal antibody epitope and the polyclonal antibody epitope, and know all and fine linear B cell epitopes on the target protein. (creative-peptides.com)
  • Epitope mapping can be used to detect the specificity of an immune response or the identification of different antibodies, as well as to determine the properties of a protein, such as the location of a protein, the source of a protein fragment, and the location of the protein in the cell. (creative-peptides.com)
  • Using peptide array technology, researchers are able to perform high-throughput screening of target proteins and their effector binding sites, such as screening for intracellular kinase binding domains, and detecting changes in fingerprints of dysfunctional protein binding sites in the disease. (creative-peptides.com)
  • Through the peptide array technology, hundreds of non-natural peptides are synthesized at one time to test the target protein, thereby promoting the discovery of the activity inhibitor or the competition conjugate. (creative-peptides.com)
  • Visualize, interrogate, and validate search results with interactive MS/MS, EIC & MS1 charts and protein/peptide table lists. (massmatrix.bio)
  • This technique involves the generation and 2-D analysis of peptides from a protein. (brainkart.com)
  • Each protein has a unique peptide map (2-D analysis) and hence serves as a fingerprint for the protein. (brainkart.com)
  • This tech nique involves the generation and 2-D analysis of peptides from a protein. (brainkart.com)
  • Peptide maps provide a more comprehensive analysis than intact protein analysis, delivering identification of proteins and their variants. (chromnews.com)
  • Columns with smaller pore sizes, such as the Agilent AdvanceBio peptide mapping columns , are ideal for small protein fragments and peptides. (chromnews.com)
  • As part of our protein mass spectrometry services , BioPharmaSpec provides a peptide mapping service that allows you to meet the structural characterization requirements of the ICH Q6B guidelines , understand the primary structure of your protein, assess post translational modifications (PTMs) and make key development decisions based on this knowledge. (biopharmaspec.com)
  • The principle of peptide mapping is that controlled enzymic breakdown (or digestion) of the protein will produce peptides that are amenable to analysis by mass spectrometry . (biopharmaspec.com)
  • This step breaks the protein down into peptides . (biopharmaspec.com)
  • As mentioned above, a peptide mapping method will involve digesting the protein into peptides and analyzing these peptides using mass spectrometry . (biopharmaspec.com)
  • Using an appropriate digestion strategy , all of the protein chain can be converted to suitable peptides for peptide mapping analysis. (biopharmaspec.com)
  • The use of multiple digestion strategies results in the production of overlapping peptides which tie the sequence of the peptides together along the protein chain. (biopharmaspec.com)
  • In Mass Spectrometric Peptide Mapping analysis, we cleave the protein/antibody into smaller peptides using a specific protease. (alphalyse.com)
  • The peptides are analyzed by mass spec and then the observed peptides correlated to the protein/antibody amino acid sequence for peptide identification . (alphalyse.com)
  • The identified peptides in the peptide map thus confirms the specific amino acid sequences covered by the peptide map, as well as the identity of the protein/antibody. (alphalyse.com)
  • Detailed characterization of a protein/antibody requires careful investigation of the protein/antibody sequence to select the best proteases, and choice of nano-flow LC-MS/MS or standard flow UV LC MS/MS to observe the peptides. (alphalyse.com)
  • Protein/Antibody peptide mapping analysis by mass spectrometry requires a pure protein/antibody in sufficient amounts to obtain good data. (alphalyse.com)
  • The number and size of fragments generated from a protein are determined largely by the protein's amino acid sequence, since proteases break peptide bonds adjacent to preferred amino acid residues. (modernbio.com)
  • Peptide mapping is critical for characterizing protein drugs and monitoring product critical quality attributes (CQAs) in biopharma. (sepscience.com)
  • Due to the heterogenous nature of protein drugs, comprehensive analytical characterization is required for getting full coverage peptide maps and identifying heterogeneities, such as post-translation modifications (PTMs). (sepscience.com)
  • Peptide mapping is a technique in protein characterization that reveals detailed information about the protein structure, including primary structure and post translational modifications. (phenomenex.blog)
  • As you can see, peptide mapping is a required characterization tool with many intricacies that must be controlled in all protein analyses. (phenomenex.blog)
  • sively mapped to an eliciting protein with high success rate. (asu.edu)
  • Capillary zone electrophoresis in stationary, isoelectric buffers is a novel method for generating peptide maps of protein digests. (univr.it)
  • Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) was the first automated method for protein identification in proteomics, and it remains in common usage today because of its simplicity and the low equipment costs for generating fingerprints. (unt.edu)
  • In this study, we have identified and characterized linear elements of B-cell epitopes from 870 pit viper venom protein sequences by employing a high-throughput methodology based on custom designed high-density peptide microarrays. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • By combining data on antibody-peptide interactions with multiple sequence alignments of homologous toxin sequences and protein modelling, we have determined linear elements of antibody binding sites for snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs), phospholipases A2s (PLA2s), and snake venom serine proteases (SVSPs). (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Central to this process is the idea that small peptide libraries contain sequences that will bind to independent regions on a protein surface, and that these ligands can be combined on synthetic scaffolds to create high affinity bivalent reagents. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, an array of 4,000 unique 12-mer peptides was screened to identify sequences that bind to non-overlapping sites on the yeast regulatory protein Gal80. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Individual peptide ligands were screened at different distances using a novel DNA linking strategy to identify the optimal peptide pair and peptide pair separation distance required to transform two weaker ligands into a single high affinity protein capture reagent. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The mentioned changes have been monitored using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with subsequent peptide-mapping protein identification. (mdpi.com)
  • Eng, J. K., McCormack, A. L. & Yates, J. R. An approach to correlate tandem mass spectral data of peptides with amino acid sequences in a protein database. (nature.com)
  • The aim of the study was to determine the epitope targeted by 5 different HumAbs and the cross-reactivity to linear peptide epitopes of 12 different factor H binding protein (fHbp) variants. (omicsdi.org)
  • Sequence alignments of the phage peptides revealed a central proline, often flanked by aromatic residues. (nih.gov)
  • The additional sites were mapped to a domain on the first predicted cytosolic loop of gp91-phox encompassing residues S86TRVRRQL93 and to a domain near the cytosolic C-terminal tail of gp91-phox encompassing residues F450EWFADLL457. (pnas.org)
  • The analysis suggests that linear epitopes are relatively short, confined to five to seven residues, resulting in apparent off-target binding to peptides corresponding to a large number of unrelated human proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • The peptide was sequenced yielding the sequence TVTDIKDLTK24LGAIY - TK24L, which contain the crosslinked residues K24 and K24 suggesting the proximity between both N-terminal ends of the polypeptides. (nih.gov)
  • However when the crosslinked IN 1-105 dimer was digested with chymotrypsin, a peptide corresponding to crosslinking of residues K20 and K31 on each of the polypeptide chains was identified and sequenced (Figure 7B). (nih.gov)
  • The inhibitory epitope of the 21-amino acid peptide, corresponding to residues 253 to 273 of CYP3A4, has been identified to reside in a 7-amino acid sequence (LEDTQKH: residues 261-267 of CYP3A4). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The design tools below will guide you through the steps of isolating minimum length active peptide sequences, identifying critical amino acid residues, designing analogs for sequence optimization and will provide indicative pricing for all peptide sets. (mimotopes.com)
  • It leverages the growing wealth of binding data between PRDs and large numbers of random peptides, and searches for PRD residues that exhibit strong evolutionary covariation with some positions of the statistical profiles of bound peptides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MHC-I molecules have closed ends so that the specific binding peptide fragments only contain 8-11 residues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MHC-II molecules have open ends and bind longer peptide fragments, which usually contains 14-18 residues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A single peptide (21 residues) was shown to contain two tandem or partially overlapping epitopes recognized by T-cell hybridomas in the context of I-A(d) and I-A b , respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • Considering that residues 111 to 122 are located at the base of the antigen groove, and clone 13 is able to recognize Kb.111-122 when presented by syngeneic target cells, we suggest that inhibition of this CTL clone may be due to MHC restricted, self-presentation of peptide rather than to direct binding of free peptide to the TCR. (scripps.edu)
  • Epitope mapping using randomly generated peptide libraries. (nih.gov)
  • Abnova provides a convenient and efficient way for antibody epitope mapping using peptides and phospho-peptides. (abnova.com)
  • Send us an aliquote of your antibody and the amino acid sequence of the binding partner and we will perform peptide synthesis, detect epitope with your antibody and data interpretation, and provide a complete documentation of the results. (abnova.com)
  • Mass spectrometric and peptide chip epitope mapping of rheumatoid arthritis autoantigen RA33. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The aim of our study is to characterise the epitope of a monoclonal antiRA33 antibody on recombinant RA33 using mass spectrometric epitope mapping. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mass spectrometric epitope mapping. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Intact Transition Epitope Mapping (ITEM). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Correct and detailed mapping of antigenic epitopes has positive implications for the diagnosis of disease sites, the design of multi-epitope vaccines with no toxic side effects, and immunotherapeutic agents. (creative-peptides.com)
  • Epitope identification and epitope mapping can be performed by a novel biosynthetic peptide method. (creative-peptides.com)
  • Fig.1 Schematic of the epitope mapping procedure. (creative-peptides.com)
  • Creative Peptides provides a comprehensive epitope mapping services. (creative-peptides.com)
  • We will use our excellent technology to provide Peptide Array-Based Epitope Mapping services to our global customers. (creative-peptides.com)
  • Epitope mapping of antibodies using a cell array-based polypeptide library. (creative-peptides.com)
  • They recognize and bind to antigenic peptides (the binding moiety is called epitope) and present it to the cell surface for interacting with TCR (T cells receptor), then induce the immune response [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pepitope: epitope mapping from affinity-selected peptides. (umass.edu)
  • The server implements three different algorithms for epitope mapping: PepSurf, Mapitope, and a combination of the two. (umass.edu)
  • The rationale behind these algorithms is that the set of peptides mimics the genuine epitope in terms of physicochemical properties and spatial organization. (umass.edu)
  • When the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the antigen is known, the information in these peptides can be used to computationally infer the corresponding epitope. (umass.edu)
  • The aim of the study was to determine the epitope targeted by four different HumAbs and the cross-reactivity to linear peptide epitopes of 5 different Neisserial adesin A (NadA) variants. (omicsdi.org)
  • Knowledge about an antibody's linear epitopes is also useful in, for instance, developing assays involving the capture of peptides obtained from trypsin cleavage of samples prior to mass spectrometry analysis. (mcponline.org)
  • This has allowed analysis of on- and off-target binding of both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, complemented with precise mapping of epitopes based on full amino acid substitution scans. (mcponline.org)
  • T-cell epitopes are defined as peptide sequences which, in association with proteins on antigen-presenting cells (APC), are required for recognition by specific T-cells. (mimotopes.com)
  • PepSets peptide libraries make it possible to rapidly identify the epitopes of T-Cells, T-Cell clones, T-Helper Cell Clones, T-cell lines, and unpurified T-cells, such as lymph node cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). (mimotopes.com)
  • With the increasing need for understanding antibody specificity in antibody and vaccine research, pepscan assays provide a rapid method for mapping and profiling antibody responses to continuous epitopes. (innopsys.com)
  • Antigen peptides represent specific epitopes for stimulation of T cells in T cell assays such as ELISPOT. (jpt.com)
  • The primary aim of this thesis is to explore the ability of these arrays to map continuous (linear) epitopes. (asu.edu)
  • In order to facilitate the development of a malaria transmission-blocking subunit vaccine, studies were undertaken to map epitopes on Pfg27 recognized by T-helper lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • We identified and mapped five distinct T-cell epitopes that tire recognized by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted T-cell hybridoma clones. (elsevier.com)
  • Synthetic peptides representing epitopes recognized by T-cell hybridoma clones elicited strong IgG responses in immunized mice, suggesting that T-cells of the helper phenotype were stimulated in vivo by these peptides. (elsevier.com)
  • The Pepitope server is a web-based tool that aims at predicting discontinuous epitopes based on a set of peptides that were affinity-selected against a monoclonal antibody of interest. (umass.edu)
  • To identify epitopes recognized by alloreactive CTL we have examined H-2Kb-specific CTL for their recognition of synthetic peptides with sequences derived from the native Kb class I molecule. (scripps.edu)
  • To demonstrate that the additional regions identified were biologically significant, peptides mimicking the gp91-phox sequences F77LRGSSACCSTRVRRQL93 and E451WFADLLQLLESQ463 were synthesized and assayed for their ability to inhibit NADPH oxidase activity. (pnas.org)
  • Dear BioStars community, I am trying to map thousands of 12-mer peptide sequences to a single pro. (biostars.org)
  • Hi eveyone I am wondering does anyone know how to map short peptide sequences to proteome datase. (biostars.org)
  • Here, we used high-density overlapping peptide arrays, structural modeling, and molecular docking methods to map IL-13 binding sequences on its receptors. (jpt.com)
  • In addition, the identification of peptide sequences that are unique to IL-13Rα1 allowed us to generate a monoclonal antibody that selectively binds IL-13Rα1. (jpt.com)
  • For this, different peptide sequences were synthesized and evaluated for their antigenicity (SPOT mapping) by the pep scan strategy. (scitechnol.com)
  • The new peptides preserve the motifs but vary in sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Peptide microarrays that display overlapping peptide scans through antigens from infectious organisms or tumor associated antigens for antibody or serum profiling. (jpt.com)
  • This thesis explores an immunodiagnostic technology based on highly scalable, non-natural sequence peptide microarrays designed to profile the humoral immune response and address the healthcare problem. (asu.edu)
  • Simple software workflows guide you along the biotherapeutic characterization pathway, providing full coverage including peptide sequence verification and identification of all variants and modifications. (thermofisher.com)
  • In the present report, we further examine the interaction of these two oxidase components by using random-sequence peptide phage display library analysis. (pnas.org)
  • Primary amino acid sequence analysis of the peptide fragments of HS628 and originator tocilizumab was obtained by using reduced peptide mapping followed by RP-UPLC-MS sequencing, which resulted in 100% sequence coverage for the heavy chain and light chain of two products. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The 3 enzymatic digestion protocols produced very high sequence coverage for cTnI, including several peptides verifying acetylation of the N-terminal region. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The image shows the ionization and sequence of the LC peak (indicated in the inset) corresponding at the intermolecular peptide 67-73 and 86-95 with K68 and K88 crosslinked with BS3. (nih.gov)
  • The sequence is quite distinct at some positions from that region of the natural substrates, presumably because the peptides have to mimic the folded structure formed by the natural substrate. (nih.gov)
  • This conclusion was based on the reversal of antibody inhibition of testosterone 6β-hydroxylation when peptides with overlapping sequence in this region were preincubated with the antibody. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Because the corresponding sequence in CYP3A5 (L N D K QKH) and CYP3A7 (L KE TQKH) differs from CYP3A4 by only two amino acids, six peptides with either one or two amino acid changes were used to determine which amino acid is essential for antibody-antigen interaction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Could you please recommend me some tools where I can give multiple peptides as input to map against multiple sequence alignment file? (biostars.org)
  • 7. On examining this peptide and determining its amino acid sequence, Ingram found that it had a valine substitution for glutamic acid in the peptide. (brainkart.com)
  • Fragment ion information is also generated, which allows sequence information from the peptides to be determined. (biopharmaspec.com)
  • This sequence information serves to confirm peptide identity and provides primary sequence information. (biopharmaspec.com)
  • The intact mass generated from each peptide along with the fragmentation data for that peptide can confirm the sequence against a theoretical amino acid sequence . (biopharmaspec.com)
  • Peptide mapping analysis using mass spec is one of the most valuable methods for verifying the amino acid sequence of proteins. (alphalyse.com)
  • Cyclic peptides are polypeptide chains which contain a circular sequence of bonds. (unionpedia.org)
  • However, when checking the sequence coverage, it is always important to check the MS/MS fragmentation to confirm all the peptides that are identified are valid hits. (phenomenex.blog)
  • Pfg27-specific T-cell hybridoma clones were produced from Pfg27-immunized BALB/c (H-2(d)) and C57BL/6 (H-2 b ) mice, and used in studies to map antigenic determinants using PCR-generated Pfg27 gene fragments express'ed in E. coli and synthetic peptides based on the Pfg27 sequence. (elsevier.com)
  • Simplified peptide maps for sequence verification and PTM heterogeneity identification and quantitation. (bruker.com)
  • In mass-spectrometry-based proteomics, the identification and quantification of peptides and proteins heavily rely on sequence database searching or spectral library matching. (nature.com)
  • Prosit is integrated into ProteomicsDB, allowing search result re-scoring and custom spectral library generation for any organism on the basis of peptide sequence alone. (nature.com)
  • Overall design: A panel of 348 peptides (15-mer overlapping peptides with an offset of 4 amino acids) covering the entire sequence of five different NadA variants (var1, var2, var3, var4 and var5) were printed in triplicate on a custom PepStar Peptide Microarray. (omicsdi.org)
  • Overall design: A panel of 561 peptides (15-mer overlapping peptides with an offset of 4 amino acids) covering the entire sequence of ten different NHBA variants (p1, p2, p3, p5, p10, p17, p18, p20, p21 and p29) were printed in triplicate on a custom PepStar Peptide Microarray. (omicsdi.org)
  • The peptide mapping workflow includes RapiGest™ SF assisted proteolytic digestion, high resolution separation of peptides with the ACQUITY UPLC® System, a multiplexed MS E approach for accurate mass measurement of all the eluting peptides as well as corresponding fragments with Xevo™ QTof MS, and automated data processing and interpretation by BiopharmaLynx. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • Figure 6 shows the profile of one of these differential peptides obtained after digestion of the dimeric band with chymotrypsin. (nih.gov)
  • Their identification was based on the electrophoretic separation of peptide fragments resulting from their partial digestion with proteases of restricted specificity (D.W. Cleveland, S. G. Fisher, N. W. Kirschner, and U. K. Laemmli, J. Biol. (asm.org)
  • However, the optimum temperature for a particular mapping separation will depend on many factors based on digestion type and composition. (chromnews.com)
  • Here, we present a method comprising binding studies of serum antibody pools to synthetic random peptide libraries, and data analysis of the resulting binding patterns. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we describe, for the first time, the design and use of peptide arrays covering all human proteins for the analysis of antibody specificity, based on parallel in situ photolithic synthesis of a total of 2.1 million overlapping peptides. (mcponline.org)
  • Peptide mapping by HPLC is one of the important quality assurance tests used for verifying the primary structure of antibody drugs. (shimadzu.com)
  • We have developed a relatively low-cost method to generate peptide microarray slides for studying antibody binding. (innopsys.com)
  • Gentaur Molecular :Stressmarq \ Erk1_2 Antibody Polyclonal Host: Rabbit Immunogen: A 35 residue synthetic peptide, corresponding to Erk1 MAP kinase with the CGG spacer group added and the peptide coupled to KLH. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of Erk1_2 Antibody Polyclonal Host: Rabbit Immunogen: A 35 residue synthetic peptide, corresponding to Erk1 MAP kinase with the CGG spacer group added and the peptide coupled to KLH. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Our technical expertise includes the structural characterization and physicochemical analysis of recombinant biopharmaceuticals such as biosimilars and biobetters, monoclonal antibodies, Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs), peptides, blood circulating hormones etc. (terrapinn.com)
  • Peptide mapping is a critical step during biotherapeutic characterization. (thermofisher.com)
  • One mass spectrometer for peptide mapping and intact characterization. (thermofisher.com)
  • This text is devoted to the characterization of recombinant DNA-derived proteins by peptide mapping. (routledge.com)
  • Peptide mapping is the workhorse technique in biopharmaceutical analysis, offering the comprehensive characterization of biopharmaceutical products. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • The new AdvanceBio Peptide Mapping BioHPLC and ZORBAX RRHD 300-HILIC columns are designed to deliver exceptional performance for the separation, characterization and analysis of a wide range of proteins, monoclonal antibodies, peptides and additional biologics. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrate routine characterization of biotherapeutics through LC-MS peptide mapping using the Thermo Scientific™ Orbitrap Exploris™ 240 LC-MS/MS. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • Peptide mapping characterization of viral proteins generated in a cell-free coupled system for the transcription and translation of influenza virus mRNA. (asm.org)
  • Glycan and peptide mapping should be easy to accomplish as part of routine characterization. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The present report is a comparison of the radioiodinated tryptic peptides of intrinsic factor, transcobalamin and haptocorrin from man, hog and rabbit. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 3. Two separate strips of Whatman filter paper are spotted with Hb and scHb tryptic peptides and the peptides allowed to separate using the technique of paper electrophoresis at pH 2.0. (brainkart.com)
  • Here, we extended the ProteomeTools synthetic peptide library to 550,000 tryptic peptides and 21 million high-quality tandem mass spectra. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 3: Evaluation of fragment ion intensity and iRT prediction for non-tryptic peptides. (nature.com)
  • Cosmetic Peptides such as Lysine and Cysteine Peptide are used for DPRA (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay) for Skin Sensitization Testing. (jpt.com)
  • Due to the design of the library and the sophisticated analysis, the method is able to classify and predict the different mice strains and the infection with very high accuracy and with a very small number of peptides, illustrating the potential of random library screenings in determining molecular markers for diagnosis. (nih.gov)
  • How this integrated workflow makes identification and quantification for PTM peptides fast and simple. (sepscience.com)
  • The steps involved in generating a peptide map/fingerprint are as follows (Fig. 6) . (brainkart.com)
  • Peptide mapping is a useful fingerprint comparability tool during batch-to-batch or biosimilar-to-innovator comparability studies . (biopharmaspec.com)
  • Peptide-based hidden Markov model for peptide fingerprint mapping. (unt.edu)
  • Typical analysis workflow begins with the peptide feature detection and intensity calculation from LC-MS map. (nature.com)
  • Based on a thorough understanding of LC/MS peptide mapping experimentation, Waters' previously-described analytical approach can be applied as a highly robust and efficient workflow to vastly improve the results of peptide mapping studies. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • This article follows on from our previous piece on the topic to look directly at optimizing some simple areas of your peptide mapping workflow to achieve the best possible results. (chromnews.com)
  • For many, the main goal when looking to improve peptide mapping workflow is to minimize the analysis time, while retaining selectivity and high resolution. (chromnews.com)
  • Changing the temperature is a powerful way to alter selectivity and improve your peptide mapping workflow. (chromnews.com)
  • To ensure product quality and safety, there is increasing need to develop a sensitive and fast workflow solution for in-depth peptide mapping and PTM quantification. (sepscience.com)
  • Separation Science, in collaboration with Agilent Technologies, is offering an online presentation that discusses a fast and sensitive workflow for in-depth peptide mapping and PTM analysis. (sepscience.com)
  • How an integrated peptide mapping workflow solution automates and streamlines this complex process from sample preparation to data analysis. (sepscience.com)
  • The mixture of peptide fragments is then resolved chromatographically. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • With this method, proteases are used to cut proteins into smaller peptide fragments and the fragments derived from two or more proteins are compared. (modernbio.com)
  • Bottom-up proteomics relies on the proteolytic or chemical cleavage of proteins into peptides, the identification of those peptides via mass spectrometry, and the mapping of the identified peptides back to the reference proteome to infer which possible proteins are identified. (nih.gov)
  • Proteomic identification of protease cleavage site specificity (PICS) is a recent proteomic approach for the easy mapping of protease subsite preferences that determines both the prime- and non-prime side specificity concurrently. (dtu.dk)
  • Cleavage by trypsin typically provides peptides of good size that contains +2 or +3 charge states, with the ability to accept a proton upon introduction to the mass spectrometer. (phenomenex.blog)
  • Screening p47-phox with the peptide libraries identified five potential sites of interaction with flavocytochrome b, including three previously reported regions of interaction and two additional regions of interaction of p47-phox with gp91-phox and p22-phox. (pnas.org)
  • I describe a technique for screening peptide libraries of over 10(9) independent clones for substrates of peptide-modifying enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • Peptide libraries are a powerful tool in biological research for screening large numbers of peptides in the search for the few, critical bioactive peptides. (mimotopes.com)
  • Mimotopes is the co-founder of peptide library technology and has over 20 years experience in designing and synthesizing custom peptide libraries. (mimotopes.com)
  • Peptide libraries are synthesized on Mimotopes' unique proprietary synthesis platform and are typically supplied at the 1 to 3 mg scale for fast, efficient screening work. (mimotopes.com)
  • The concept of combinatorial peptide libraries originated at Mimotopes (Geysen, M., 1984) and in 2009, Mimotopes launched the peptide industry's first fully-HPLC purified peptide library platform. (mimotopes.com)
  • Mimotopes' proprietary process transforms unpurified "crude" peptide libraries, into fully-purified peptides that have all been prepared to minimum 70%, 80%, 90% or 95% purity by reverse-phase HPLC, regardless of initial "crude" purity. (mimotopes.com)
  • Purified peptide libraries provided at 1 to 4 mg scale. (mimotopes.com)
  • However the AppliedBiosystems MAP substrate for peptide synthesis has been suggested, but not by anyone with much experience using it. (bio.net)
  • The synthesis of long peptides in addition to its higher cost may be limited by undesirable reactions (cycling, deletions, etc.) that impede the synthesis. (scitechnol.com)
  • Antibodies are used in proteomics both as imaging reagents for the analysis of tissue specificity ( 1 ) and subcellular localization ( 2 ) and as capturing agents for targeted proteomics ( 3 ), in particular for the enrichment of peptides for immunoaffinity methods such as Stable Isotope Standards and Capture by Anti-peptide Antibodies ( 4 ). (mcponline.org)
  • This means that on top of being very large molecules (peptides, small proteins, antibodies, polysaccharides etc.), they exhibit post-translational modifications and certain degrees of structure variability. (bruker.com)
  • Thus, TFA-mobile phases became the default method for peptide mapping with UV detection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Development and validation of a spectral library searching method for peptide identification from MS/MS. Proteomics 7 , 655-667 (2007). (nature.com)
  • During the 1960s and 1970s, 2-dimensional peptide mapping on paper and ion exchange mapping on Dowex resins led to the identification of many new variants until these techniques were eventually superseded by reversed-phase HPLC in the 1980s. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The MAGIC 2002 Capillary HPLC System is ideally suited to interface with a variety of commercial micro or nano ESI-MS systems for picomole to attomole peptide mapping and identification of proteins from 2D gels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In fact, it can produce exceptional analytical results two to three times faster than conventional peptide mapping with fully porous HPLC columns, which can take up to 60 minutes. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to provide guidelines for developing optimal LC running conditions with Aeris™ PEPTIDE core-shell HPLC/UHPLC columns and determine the feasibility of transferring a method developed on UV to MS simply by adjusting the acidic modifier in the mobile phase. (advion.com)
  • We hope to make antisera to synthetic peptides representing our favorite ORF. (bio.net)
  • The DPRA measures the reaction of a chemical with synthetic peptides containing Cysteine (Ac‑RFAACAA‑COOH) or Lysine (Ac‑RFAAKAA‑COOH) to assess its sensitization potency. (jpt.com)
  • Fig. 2: Collision energy calibration yields fragment intensity predictions with near-synthetic peptide spectrum quality. (nature.com)
  • Each batch of AdvanceBio mapping media is tested with a rigorous peptide mix to ensure suitability and reproducibility, enabling the identification of key peptides in complex peptide maps. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Length of the column: longer columns are usually better for fully resolving more complex peptide maps and providing higher resolution. (chromnews.com)
  • The analysis can be applied to classify and predict different groups of individuals and to detect the peptides which best discriminate the investigated groups. (nih.gov)
  • Supelco has recently released a new column on the Fused-Core ™ particle platform designed for polypeptide analysis, Ascentis Express Peptide ES-C18. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The Thermo Scientific Q Exactive BioPharma Platform of Orbitrap-based mass spectrometers add superior denatured and native MS intact analysis and subunit top/middle-down analysis capabilities to the most powerful benchtop peptide mapping instruments available. (thermofisher.com)
  • However, not all proteins can be correctly identified through peptide mapping , in which case fragment analysis by tandem mass spectrometers is necessary. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Due to the large number of peaks that require separation, the use of small-particle columns and core shell columns for peptide analysis has spread in recent years. (shimadzu.com)
  • Starter method details for routine biotherapeutic peptide mapping analysis using information dependent acquisition (IDA) with the X500B QTOF System, powered by SCIEX OS. (sciex.com)
  • In this way, an informed choice of enzymes(s) can be made that should result in the best peptide mapping analysis . (biopharmaspec.com)
  • Analysis of the digested peptides using on-line Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet (UV) an d Electrospray-Mass Spectrometric detection ( LC/ES-MS ). (biopharmaspec.com)
  • The analysis provides a Base Peak Chromatogram, and collects all MS/MS data for peptides with mass/charge from 200 to 1600 Da. (alphalyse.com)
  • Don't miss out on how to improve your peptide mapping and PTM analysis skills and register to attend this online event, particularly if you are an application chemist, biopharma scientist or process chemist. (sepscience.com)
  • In this last electrolyte system, peptide maps of beta-casein digests (known to contain also very large peptides, up to 6000 Da) could be generated with excellent resolution and half the transit times as compared with the standard buffer adopted in peptide analysis (80 mM phosphate buffer, pH 2.0). (univr.it)
  • The results derive from a high-resolution yeast two-hybrid assay, in which a library of small peptide domains of T4SS components was screened for interactions. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, small peptide substrates that are enzymatically biotinylated at a single site should be useful for a variety of purposes in labeling, purification, detection, and immobilization of proteins. (nih.gov)
  • In this work, the separation of peptides obtained from a bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest is demonstrated. (selectscience.net)
  • A low pH ACN gradient is always recommended for peptide separation as it allows for the separation of a wide range of peptide types and structures. (chromnews.com)
  • Changing the gradient steepness can also dramatically improve band spacing and affect selectivity of the peptide mapping separation. (chromnews.com)
  • MHC Multimers for reproducible detection, enumeration and isolation of antigen-specific T cells with disease specific peptides. (jpt.com)
  • MHC-I and MHC-II bind with specific peptides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In both cases, we observed an increase in binding affinity of ~1000-fold (ΔΔG = ~4.1 kcal/mol) between the individual peptides and final bivalent synbody construct. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Amylin, or islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), is a 37-residue peptide hormone. (unionpedia.org)
  • Some polypeptide hormones, antimicrobial peptides, and neurotoxins accumulate at the membrane surface prior to locating and interacting with their cell surface receptor targets, which may themselves be peripheral membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) denotes peptides of 36-43 amino acids that are crucially involved in Alzheimer's disease as the main component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer patients. (unionpedia.org)
  • BioPharmaSpec uses state-of-the-art mass spectrometric instrumentation and techniques for peptide mapping analyses . (biopharmaspec.com)
  • The mass spectrometric data generated from the peptide map can be used to investigate the structure of these components and, if necessary, orthogonal tests such as icIEF can then be performed to corroborate the reasons for differences in the peptide mapping data. (biopharmaspec.com)
  • Ccsf Map Fabulous Us A1 Purification Of Peptide Conjugates By Hydrophobic was posted in June 30, 2018 at 4:38 pm. (webinfoindia.org)
  • Ccsf Map As Us B2 O Linked Glycosylation Of Peptides Google Patents was posted in June 30, 2018 at 4:38 pm. (webinfoindia.org)
  • It also enables fuzzy searches to find highly similar peptides with residue order changes or other isobaric or near-isobaric substitutions within a specified mass tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • We applied the approach to PDZ, SH3 and kinase domains, and evaluated the results using both residue proximity in co-crystal structures and verified binding specificity maps from mutagenesis studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Traditional methods cost highly for designing such peptides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the past, molecular simulation methods such as molecular dynamics have been used to determine key conformations of adsorbed peptides. (hw.ac.uk)
  • If you find Creative Peptides is useful to satisfy your needs, please do not hesitate to contact us! (creative-peptides.com)
  • When sensitized with tumor antigenic peptides, dendritic cells produce exosomes, which stimulate anti-tumor immune responses and the rejection of established tumors in mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • This study has investigated the effect of surfactants on the MALDI-MS data obtained from hydrophobic peptides and tryptic digests of hydrophobic and hydrophilic proteins. (spie.org)
  • More hydrophobic peptides will move with the solvent to longer distance s. (brainkart.com)
  • Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptides are a family of polypeptides primarily stored in the lysosomes of macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). (unionpedia.org)
  • Cecropins are antimicrobial peptides. (unionpedia.org)
  • Previous studies identified the peptide IMT-286 (40 mer), located in the core of the virus as a possible candidate to be used in the diagnosis of Hepatitis C by ELISA. (scitechnol.com)
  • Pools of overlapping peptides from antigenic proteins for T-cell stimulation, T-cell expansion in T-cell assays such as ELISPOT, ICS or Flow Cytometry, e.g. for immune monitoring. (jpt.com)
  • Peptide sets and pools, as well as assay standardization kits are available with stable isotope labeled or unlabeled proteotypic peptides for mass-spectrometry based proteomics such as MRM assays. (jpt.com)
  • Bromodomain-peptide displacement assays for interactome mapping and inhibitor discovery. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we report the development of high-throughput assays that quantify the binding of bromodomains to acetylated histone peptides. (ox.ac.uk)
  • abstract = "Tryptic peptide map analyses of five K- and three D-gene products of various H-2 haplotypes are presented. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Peptide adsorption occurs across technology, medicine, and nature. (hw.ac.uk)
  • We have explored the structural features of cobalamin binding proteins by peptide mapping. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We are the first to propose a deep learning based model, DeepIso, that combines recent advances in Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) to detect peptide features of different charge states, as well as, estimate their intensity. (nature.com)
  • I have a set of short peptides (200) comprising 5-30 amino acids that l have to map (align) these peptides against MSA file order to detect polymorphisms present in short peptides. (biostars.org)
  • Peptide mapping is generally done by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • DeepRT 11 provides improved peptide Retention Time prediction in liquid chromatography. (nature.com)
  • The use of liquid chromatography mass spectrometry ( LC-MS ) allows peptides to be readily separated and analyzed. (biopharmaspec.com)
  • Using a setup of an IntavisAG MultiPep RS peptide synthesizer, a Digilab MicroGrid II 600 microarray printer robot, and an InnoScan 1100 AL scanner, the method allows the interrogation of up to 1536 overlapping, alanine-scanning, and mutant peptides derived from the target antigens. (innopsys.com)
  • These four clones (561, 1830, 1631 and 991 bp), which mapped to chromosome 11p15, were all found to contain degenerate 87-base-pair tandem repeats which encode non-repetitive peptides. (biochemj.org)
  • Numerous deletions or insertions in an otherwise virtually perfect 87-base-pair tandem repeat create many shifts in reading frame which completely destroy the repetitive peptide structure. (biochemj.org)
  • We offer our extensive know-how and experience in peptide microarray incubation & data evaluation as full-service packages for many applications. (jpt.com)
  • Thermo Scientific Acclaim VANQUISH C18 UHPLC columns are recommended for peptide mapping of biotherapeutic proteins, offering excellent separations and helping to ensure sharp peaks. (thermofisher.com)
  • Ccsf Map Fabulous Us A1 Purification Of Peptide Conjugates By Hydrophobic is just one of the many collections of pictures or photos that are on this website. (webinfoindia.org)