Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
BIOLOGIC PRODUCTS that are imitations but not exact replicas of innovator products.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Biologically active molecules which are covalently bound to the enzymes or binding proteins normally acting on them. Binding occurs due to activation of the label by ultraviolet light. These labels are used primarily to identify binding sites on proteins.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.

Characterization and partial purification of a novel neutrophil membrane-associated kinase capable of phosphorylating the respiratory burst component p47phox. (1/4668)

The phosphorylation of p47phox is widely viewed as an important step in the activation of the neutrophil respiratory burst oxidase system. The exact nature of the kinase(s) responsible remains to be elucidated. We show here that such a kinase was detected on neutrophil membranes activated by either PMA or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. This enzyme is not intrinsic to the neutrophil membrane and could be eluted with 0.5 M NaCl. The kinase activity was partially purified and was found not to be due to the presence of previously suggested kinases, including protein kinase C isotypes, mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase B. Gel filtration and renaturation in substrate gels suggest a molecular mass of between 45 and 51 kDa. The kinase activity was independent of calcium and lipids but was potently inhibited by staurosporine. Treatment with protein phosphatase 2Ac suggested that the kinase was activated by serine/threonine phosphorylation. Phosphopeptide maps indicated that the kinase phosphorylated p47phox on similar sites to those found in vivo. These results indicate that activation of neutrophils by PMA results in the activation of a membrane-associated kinase that may play a part in the regulation of neutrophil NADPH oxidase through its ability to phosphorylate p47phox.  (+info)

Salivary mucin MG1 is comprised almost entirely of different glycosylated forms of the MUC5B gene product. (2/4668)

The MG1 population of mucins was isolated from human whole salivas by gel chromatography followed by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. The reduced and alkylated MG1 mucins, separated by anion exchange chromatography, were of similar size (radius of gyration 55-64 nm) and molecular weight (2.5-2.9 x 10(6) Da). Two differently-charged populations of MG1 subunits were observed which showed different reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to glycan epitopes. Monosaccharide and amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the MG1 subunits had similar glycan structures on the same polypeptide. An antiserum recognizing the MUC5B mucin was reactive across the entire distribution, whereas antisera raised against the MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins showed no reactivity. Western blots of agarose gel electrophoresis of fractions across the anion exchange distribution indicated that the polypeptide underlying the mucins was the product of the MUC5B gene. Amino acid analysis and peptide mapping performed on the fragments produced by trypsin digestion of the two MG1 populations yielded data similar to that obtained for MUC5B mucin subunits prepared from respiratory mucus (Thornton et al., 1997) and confirmed that the MUC5B gene product was the predominant mucin polypeptide present. Isolation of the MG1 mucins from the secretions of the individual salivary glands (palatal, sublingual, and submandibular) indicate that the palatal gland is the source of the highly charged population of the MUC5B mucin.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor II-derived peptides inhibit VEGF. (3/4668)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) directly stimulates endothelial cell proliferation and migration via tyrosine kinase receptors of the split kinase domain family. It mediates vascular growth and angiogenesis in the embryo but also in the adult in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. The potential binding site of VEGF with its receptor was identified using cellulose-bound overlapping peptides of the extracytosolic part of the human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor II (VEGFR II). Thus, a peptide originating from the third globular domain of the VEGFR II comprising residues 247RTELNVGIDFNWEYP261 was revealed as contiguous sequence stretch, which bound 125I-VEGF165. A systematic replacement with L-amino acids within the peptide representing the putative VEGF-binding site on VEGFR II indicates Asp255 as the hydrophilic key residue for binding. The dimerized peptide (RTELNVGIDFNWEYPAS)2K inhibits VEGF165 binding with an IC50 of 0.5 microM on extracellular VEGFR II fragments and 30 microM on human umbilical vein cells. VEGF165-stimulated autophosphorylation of VEGFR II as well as proliferation and migration of microvascular endothelial cells was inhibited by the monomeric peptide RTELNVGIDFNWEYPASK at a half-maximal concentration of 3-10, 0.1, and 0.1 microM, respectively. We conclude that transduction of the VEGF165 signal can be interrupted with a peptide derived from the third Ig-like domain of VEGFR II by blockade of VEGF165 binding to its receptor.  (+info)

Identification of a domain in guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1 that interacts with a complex of guanylyl cyclase and tubulin in photoreceptors. (4/4668)

The membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase in rod photoreceptors is activated by guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1 (GCAP-1) at low free [Ca2+]. GCAP-1 is a Ca2+-binding protein and belongs to the superfamily of EF-hand proteins. We created an oligopeptide library of overlapping peptides that encompass the entire amino acid sequence of GCAP-1. Peptides were used in competitive screening assays to identify interaction regions in GCAP-1 that directly bind the guanylyl cyclase in bovine photoreceptor cells. We found four regions in GCAP-1 that participate in regulating guanylyl cyclase. A 15-amino acid peptide located adjacent to the second EF-hand motif (Phe73-Lys87) was identified as the main interaction domain. Inhibition of GCAP-1-stimulated guanylyl cyclase activity by the peptide Phe73-Lys87 was completely relieved when an excess amount of GCAP-1 was added. An affinity column made from this peptide was able to bind a complex of photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase and tubulin. Using an anti-GCAP-1 antibody, we coimmunoprecipitated GCAP-1 with guanylyl cyclase and tubulin. Complex formation between GCAP-1 and guanylyl cyclase was observed independent of [Ca2+]. Our experiments suggest that there exists a tight association of guanylyl cyclase and tubulin in rod outer segments.  (+info)

Mapping of residues in the NADP(H)-binding site of proton-translocating nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli. A study of structure and function. (5/4668)

Conformational changes in proton pumping transhydrogenases have been suggested to be dependent on binding of NADP(H) and the redox state of this substrate. Based on a detailed amino acid sequence analysis, it is argued that a classical betaalphabetaalphabeta dinucleotide binding fold is responsible for binding NADP(H). A model defining betaA, alphaB, betaB, betaD, and betaE of this domain is presented. To test this model, four single cysteine mutants (cfbetaA348C, cfbetaA390C, cfbetaK424C, and cfbetaR425C) were introduced into a functional cysteine-free transhydrogenase. Also, five cysteine mutants were constructed in the isolated domain III of Escherichia coli transhydrogenase (ecIIIH345C, ecIIIA348C, ecIIIR350C, ecIIID392C, and ecIIIK424C). In addition to kinetic characterizations, effects of sulfhydryl-specific labeling with N-ethylmaleimide, 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid, and diazotized 3-aminopyridine adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) were examined. The results are consistent with the view that, in agreement with the model, beta-Ala348, beta-Arg350, beta-Ala390, beta-Asp392, and beta-Lys424 are located in or close to the NADP(H) site. More specifically, beta-Ala348 succeeds betaB. The remarkable reactivity of betaR350C toward NNADP suggests that this residue is close to the nicotinamide moiety of NADP(H). beta-Ala390 and beta-Asp392 terminate or succeed betaD, and are thus, together with the region following betaA, creating the switch point crevice where NADP(H) binds. beta-Asp392 is particularly important for the substrate affinity, but it could also have a more complex role in the coupling mechanism for transhydrogenase.  (+info)

Orientation of heparin-binding sites in native vitronectin. Analyses of ligand binding to the primary glycosaminoglycan-binding site indicate that putative secondary sites are not functional. (6/4668)

A primary heparin-binding site in vitronectin has been localized to a cluster of cationic residues near the C terminus of the protein. More recently, secondary binding sites have been proposed. In order to investigate whether the binding site originally identified on vitronectin functions as an exclusive and independent heparin-binding domain, solution binding methods have been used in combination with NMR and recombinant approaches to evaluate ligand binding to the primary site. Evaluation of the ionic strength dependence of heparin binding to vitronectin according to classical linkage theory indicates that a single ionic bond is prominent. It had been previously shown that chemical modification of vitronectin using an arginine-reactive probe results in a significant reduction in heparin binding (Gibson, A., Baburaj, K., Day, D. E., Verhamme, I. , Shore, J. D., and Peterson, C. B. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 5112-5121). The label has now been localized to arginine residues within the cyanogen bromide fragment-(341-380) that contains the primary heparin-binding site on vitronectin. One- and two-dimensional NMR on model peptides based on this primary heparin-binding site indicate that an arginine residue participates in the ionic interaction and that other nonionic interactions may be involved in forming a complex with heparin. A recombinant polypeptide corresponding to the C-terminal 129 amino acids of vitronectin exhibits heparin-binding affinity that is comparable to that of full-length vitronectin and is equally effective at neutralizing heparin anticoagulant activity. Results from this broad experimental approach argue that the behavior of the primary site is sufficient to account for the heparin binding activity of vitronectin and support an exposed orientation for the site in the structure of the native protein.  (+info)

Topology of the membrane domain of human erythrocyte anion exchange protein, AE1. (7/4668)

Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) is the chloride/bicarbonate exchange protein of the erythrocyte membrane. By using a combination of introduced cysteine mutants and sulfhydryl-specific chemistry, we have mapped the topology of the human AE1 membrane domain. Twenty-seven single cysteines were introduced throughout the Leu708-Val911 region of human AE1, and these mutants were expressed by transient transfection of human embryonic kidney cells. On the basis of cysteine accessibility to membrane-permeant biotin maleimide and to membrane-impermeant lucifer yellow iodoacetamide, we have proposed a model for the topology of AE1 membrane domain. In this model, AE1 is composed of 13 typical transmembrane segments, and the Asp807-His834 region is membrane-embedded but does not have the usual alpha-helical conformation. To identify amino acids that are important for anion transport, we analyzed the anion exchange activity for all introduced cysteine mutants, using a whole cell fluorescence assay. We found that mutants G714C, S725C, and S731C have very low transport activity, implying that this region has a structurally and/or catalytically important role. We measured the residual anion transport activity after mutant treatment with the membrane-impermeant, cysteine-directed compound, sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl)methanethiosulfonate) (MTSES). Only two mutants, S852C and A858C, were inhibited by MTSES, indicating that these residues may be located in a pore-lining region.  (+info)

Metal-catalyzed oxidation of phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli: inactivation and destabilization by oxidation of active-site cysteines. (8/4668)

The in vitro instability of the phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase [DAHPS(Phe)] from Escherichia coli has been found to be due to a metal-catalyzed oxidation mechanism. DAHPS(Phe) is one of three differentially feedback-regulated isoforms of the enzyme which catalyzes the first step of aromatic biosynthesis, the formation of DAHP from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. The activity of the apoenzyme decayed exponentially, with a half-life of about 1 day at room temperature, and the heterotetramer slowly dissociated to the monomeric state. The enzyme was stabilized by the presence of phosphoenolpyruvate or EDTA, indicating that in the absence of substrate, a trace metal(s) was the inactivating agent. Cu2+ and Fe2+, but none of the other divalent metals that activate the enzyme, greatly accelerated the rate of inactivation and subunit dissociation. Both anaerobiosis and the addition of catalase significantly reduced Cu2+-catalyzed inactivation. In the spontaneously inactivated enzyme, there was a net loss of two of the seven thiols per subunit; this value increased with increasing concentrations of added Cu2+. Dithiothreitol completely restored the enzymatic activity and the two lost thiols in the spontaneously inactivated enzyme but was only partially effective in reactivation of the Cu2+-inactivated enzyme. Mutant enzymes with conservative replacements at either of the two active-site cysteines, Cys61 or Cys328, were insensitive to the metal attack. Peptide mapping of the Cu2+-inactivated enzyme revealed a disulfide linkage between these two cysteine residues. All results indicate that DAHPS(Phe) is a metal-catalyzed oxidation system wherein bound substrate protects active-site residues from oxidative attack catalyzed by bound redox metal cofactor. A mechanism of inactivation of DAHPS is proposed that features a metal redox cycle that requires the sequential oxidation of its two active-site cysteines.  (+info)

This application brief establishes that the BioAccord System exhibits sufficient reproducibility for peptide mapping in regulated workflows subject to traditional validation requirements.
The T cell receptor for antigen (Ti) has recently been identified as a 90-kdalton T3-associated clonotypic structure composed of one 49-51-kdalton alpha and one 43-kdalton beta subunit, which are disulfide linked. Here, Ti molecules from two alloreactive CTL clones derived from the same donor but of differing specificities (CT8III and CT4II) are directly compared following isolation with anticlonotypic monoclonal antibodies. Isoelectric focusing shows that the alpha subunits (pI 4.4-4.7) are more acidic than the beta subunits (pI 6.0-6.2) but that each glycoprotein species is distinctive. More importantly, two-dimensional peptide maps of 125I-labeled surface receptors indicate that the beta chains of Ti1 and Ti2 appear unique and share only two peptides in common. In contrast, peptide maps of Ti1 and Ti2 alpha chains are more related although not identical. These results suggest that the human T cell receptor is composed of constant as well as variable regions and that at least one of the latter is
Find the HTML color code, color conversions, css, color numbers, charts, harmonies, shades, tints, tones, color blindness simulator, monochromacy, dichromacy, trichromacy for #A6A6AF. RGB decimal: 166, 166, 175, CMY: 35, 35, 31, CMYK: 5, 5, 0, 31, HSL: 240°, 5.3, 66.9, HSV (or HSB): 240°, 5.1, 68.6, Websafe: 999999, XYZ: 37.1, 38.475, 46.028, Yxy: 38.475, 0.305, 0.316, CIE-L*ab: 68.369, 1.752, -4.638, CIE-L*CH°: 68.369, 4.958, 290.693, CIE-L*uv: 68.369, -0.515, -7.159, Hunter-Lab: 62.028, -1.785, -0.577, Binary: 166, 166, 175, Decimal: 10921647
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Looking for online definition of peptide mapping in the Medical Dictionary? peptide mapping explanation free. What is peptide mapping? Meaning of peptide mapping medical term. What does peptide mapping mean?
Structural analysis by two-dimensional peptide maps (2D-PM) of the human Ia molecular pool expressed on the cell surface of two distinct lymphoblastoid cell line, LG-2 and Raji, revealed the existence of a novel MHC class II molecular heterodimer that differs at the level of both alpha and beta subunits from the previously described DP, DQ, and DR antigens. These differences were also seen at the level of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) of biosynthetically labeled intact molecules, although to a lesser extent, due to the intrinsic limitations of this technique in resolving fine structural differences. We have designated this new class II antigen as the fourth Ia subset. The fourth Ia subset seems to represent a small proportion of the human Ia pool. Comparative analysis by 2D-PM of the two cell lines showed the presence of structural variations in the alpha chains of the fourth Ia subset, suggesting the existence of polymorphism for these subunits. Cell surface iodination did not show ...
ICPLQuant has been developed to accurately quantify ICPL-labeled peptides on the MS level during LC-MALDI and peptide mass fingerprint experiments. The tool is able to generate a list of differentially regulated peptide precursors for subsequent MS/MS experiments, minimizing time consuming acquisition and interpretation of MS/MS data. ICPLQuant is based on two independent units. Unit 1 performs ICPL multiplex detection and quantification and proposes peptides to be identified by MS/MS. Unit 2 combines MASCOT MS/MS protein identification with the quantitative data and produces a protein/peptide list with all the relevant information accessible for further data mining.. ...
With the emergence of new protein therapeutics, including biosimilars, biobetters and ADCs, peptide mapping by LC/MS is becoming more commonly used for the identification of post-translational modifications (PTMs), glycosylation, and conjugation sites, as well as primary sequence confirmation.. The purpose of this study is to provide guidelines for developing optimal LC running conditions with Aeris™ PEPTIDE core-shell HPLC/UHPLC columns and determine the feasibility of transferring a method developed on UV to MS simply by adjusting the acidic modifier in the mobile phase.. ...
In this study, we demonstrate routine characterization of biotherapeutics through LC-MS peptide mapping using the Thermo Scientific™ Orbitrap Exploris™ 240 LC-MS/MS.
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UPLC separations and a family of optimally selective and resolving peptide separation chemistries provide unmatched resolution of complicated protein digests, exceptional glycopeptide resolution, and shorter analysis times.
BACKGROUND: Identifying druggable cavities on a protein surface is a crucial step in structure based drug design. The cavities have to present suitable size
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In the Toolbox you will find the Cloning and Restriction Sites tool that provides more control on the analysis, and gives you more output options such as a table of restriction sites. It also allows you to perform the same restriction map analysis on several sequences in one step ...
A standard technique to confirm the amino acid sequence of a molecule, Peptide Mapping Analysis uses multiple enzyme digest strategy to break apart a protein into smaller peptide fragments which are subsequently analysed on the mass spectrometer.. Peptide fragments digested with different enzymes will highly likely provide overlapping amino acid sequence data, allowing for the accurate determination and confirmation of the amino acid sequence of the full length of a target protein molecule.. An added value of Peptide Mapping Analysis is that modifications such as C-terminal truncations and/or N-terminal modifications may also be detected.. For more information please email [email protected] ...
Hudson, T H. and Johnson, G L., Peptide mapping of adenylate cyclase regulatory proteins that are cholera toxin substrates. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 3108 ...
well, in MALDI-TOF you get what is called PMF (peptide mass fingerprint) of your protein of interest (supposing you have separated your proteins with e.g. 2DE). Choosing to do MALDI-TOF-TOF (MS/MS) you select a number of those peptides and you break them to smaller fragments which - through certain algorithms - can be sequenced ...
HPLC Part: 00F-4506-AN Aeris™ 1.7 µm PEPTIDE XB-C18 100 Å, LC Column 150 x 2.1 mm, Ea Recomended Use: Peptides and Peptide Mapping Separation Mode: Reversed Phase Solid Support: Core-shell Silica* Format: Column
HPLC Part: 00G-4505-AN Aeris™ 2.6 µm PEPTIDE XB-C18 100 Å, LC Column 250 x 2.1 mm, Ea Recomended Use: Peptides and Peptide Mapping Separation Mode: Reversed Phase Solid Support: Core-shell Silica* Format: Column
Journal: ArXiv e-prints 2013, 1301.2528 Authors: Pujol A, Valls R, Radovanovic V, Guney E, Garcia-Garcia J, Domenech VC, Gonzalez LC, Mas JM, Oliva B. Systems Biology has emerged in the last years as a new holistic approach based on the global understanding of cells instead of only being focused on their individual parts (genes or proteins), to better understand the complexity of human cells. Since the Systems Biology still does not provide the most accurate answers to our questions due to the complexity of cells and the limited quality of available information to perform a good gene/protein map analysis, we have created simpler models to ensure easier analysis of the map that represents the human cell. Therefore, a virtual organism has been designed according to the main physiological rules for humans in order to replicate the human organism and its vital functions. This toy model was constructed by defining the topology of its genes/proteins and the biological functions associated to it. There ...
Summary Antigenic and structural variation in the major nucleocapsid protein, VPN41, from different strains of respiratory syncytial (RS) virus was observed using a combination of monoclonal antibodies and two-dimensional peptide mapping. Limited trypsin treatment of intact nucleocapsids produced two peptide fragments M r 27K and M r 14K. Two monoclonal antibodies, N1 and N2, reactive with primary sequence epitopes located on intact nucleocapsids also reacted with either the 27K fragment (N2) or the 14K fragment (N1). Competitive radioimmunoassay studies using N1 and N2 antibodies revealed two discrete antigenic groups among the seven human strains of RS virus examined. A bovine strain of RS virus, although antigenically similar to the human strain of RS virus, was placed in a separate group. Two-dimensional peptide mapping of 125I-labelled VPN41 purified by SDS-PAGE revealed extensive structural homology between all strains. However, several unique tryptic/chymotryptic peptides supported the grouping
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The 67 kDa calcimedin is a Ca2+-binding protein isolated from several muscle tissues. A recent report [Morse & Moore (1988) Biochem. J. 251, 171-174] indicated that the 67 kDa calcimedin is distinct from 67 kDa calelectrin, which is purified from various non-muscle cells. In the present study we have purified the 67 kDa protein from bovine aorta (i.e. 67 kDa calcimedin) and liver (i.e. 67 kDa calelectrin) and compared them by immunological and biochemical criteria. The aorta calcimedin is identical with the liver calelectrin by the following criteria. (1) The calcimedin co-electrophoresed with the calelectrin on SDS/5-15%-(w/v)-linear-gradient polyacrylamide gels. (2) The two proteins selectively cross-reacted with a chicken gizzard calcimedin antibody. (3) An antibody raised against the bovine aorta calcimedin also recognized the bovine liver calelectrin. (4) One-dimensional peptide maps of the two proteins revealed no significant difference. (5) The calcimedin appeared to have an amino acid ...
The induction of long-lived effector CD8+ T cells is key to the advancement of efficient cancer vaccines. the control of the Testosterone levels7 marketer (Body ?(Figure1A).1A). rOVA was filtered from Rabbit Polyclonal to AML1 the lysates using immobilized steel affinity chromatography (IMAC) and refined using anion-exchange chromatography (Body ?(Body1T,1B, lanes 1C5). The filtered proteins was examined by immunoblotting with an anti-His label antibody (Body ?(Body1T,1B, lanes 6C10). rlipo-OVA was filtered using IMAC (Body ?(Body1T,1B, lanes 11C14). The recombinant proteins NB-598 Maleate salt was discovered with an anti-His label antibody (Body ?(Body1T,1B, lanes 15C18). Body 1 Structure, creation and id of rOVA and rlipo-OVA rlipo-OVA and rOVA had been broken down with trypsin to monitor their peptide mass fingerprint scanning service (PMF) by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The outcomes verified that the main highs in the mass spectra corresponded to meters/z beliefs extracted from rlipo-OVA ...
Lim H, Eng J, Yates JR, Tollaksen SL, Giometti CS, Holden JF, Adams MWW, Reich CI, Olsen GJ, Hays LG. 2003. Identification of 2D-gel proteins: a comparison of MALDI/TOF peptide mass mapping to mu LC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry.. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 14(9):957-70. ...
Lim H, Eng J, Yates JR, Tollaksen SL, Giometti CS, Holden JF, Adams MWW, Reich CI, Olsen GJ, Hays LG. 2003. Identification of 2D-gel proteins: a comparison of MALDI/TOF peptide mass mapping to mu LC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry.. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 14(9):957-70. ...
In this work, the separation of peptides obtained from a bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest is demonstrated. The retention time and peak area precisions are evaluated for repeated injections.
Two MAM approaches for biotherapeutic analysis are being implemented today; one focused on the analysis of monoclonal antibody (mAb) subunits, and the other focused on the analysis of peptides from a protein digest (peptide mapping workflow). Both have their advantages and disadvantages. Here, we explore MAM for mAb subunit analysis. ...
BioAssay record AID 632955 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of Abl using DAIpYAAPFAKKK phosphopeptide as substrate by MALDI-MS analysis.
Enhanced resolution and mass precision - for highly precise and accurate determinations of the monoisotopic masses of both the Light and Heavy Chains of mAbs on an LC timescale for automated confirmation of product identity and detection of impurities. Superb raw data quality allows for fast and easy detection of modifications (including deamidation) in biotherapeutic characterization without the need for time and cost intensive digestion and peptide mapping of the entire antibody. ...
Partially purified liver insulin receptors from full-term pregnant rats show decreased autophosphorylation rates if compared with receptors from virgins. We studied the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon, looking at possible structural and functional changes of several domains. The ATP-binding domain seems to be unaltered in receptors from pregnant rats since Km for ATP was similar to that observed in virgins. In contrast, the Vmax. is decreased some 45%, suggesting changes in the kinase domain. Truncation of a fragment of 10 kDa from the C-terminal tail does not normalize the kinase activity in receptors from pregnant rats, suggesting that this domain is not involved in the inhibitory regulation. Treatment with alkaline phosphatase increases the [32P]Pi incorporation into receptors from pregnant rats; however, the autophosphorylation remains lower than that observed in virgin rats. Tryptic phosphopeptide maps of phosphorylated receptors show that the same phosphopeptides are present in ...
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Two MAM approaches for biotherapeutic analysis are being implemented today; one focused on the analysis of monoclonal antibody (mAb) subunits, and the other focused on the analysis of peptides from a protein digest (peptide mapping workflow). Both have their advantages and disadvantages. Here, we explore MAM for mAb subunit analysis. ...
Peptide Mapping page allows the user to run a sub-search and super-search. In sub-search a given peptide is mapped against all peptides of CancerPPD. While super-search returns similar peptides of our database against protein sequence given as query. If no hit is found, then Result page will be empty. For more information see HELP page ...
Enhanced resolution and mass precision - for highly precise and accurate determinations of the monoisotopic masses of both the Light and Heavy Chains of mAbs on an LC timescale for automated confirmation of product identity and detection of impurities. Superb raw data quality allows for fast and easy detection of modifications (including deamidation) in biotherapeutic characterization without the need for time and cost intensive digestion and peptide mapping of the entire antibody. Further information: Intact and/or subunit analysis Bruker App-Note: LCMS-94. Back ...
Im looking for a commercially available peptide that is a model for a lysine-terminating tryptic peptide. Does anyone know of any options ...
Comparison of phosphopeptides is accomplished through the identification©Compare tool, as shown below: Figure 9.5.1: identification©Compare link The...
Phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) is an important component of insulin and cAMP-dependent signalling pathways. In order to study phosphorylation of PDE3B, we have used an adenoviral system to express recombinant flag-tagged PDE3B in primary rat adipocytes and H4IIE hepatoma cells. Phosphorylation of PDE3B after treatment of cells with insulin, cAMP-increasing agents, or the phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin A was analyzed by two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping and mass spectrometry. We found that PDE3B is multisite phosphorylated in adipocytes and H4IIE hepatoma cells in response to all these stimuli. Several sites were identified; serine (S)273, S296, S421, S424/5, S474 and S536 were phosphorylated in adipocyte as well as H4IIE hepatoma cells whereas S277 and S507 were phosphorylated in hepatoma cells only. Several of the sites were phosphorylated by insulin as well as cAMP-increasing hormones indicating integration of the two signalling pathways upstream of PDE3B, maybe at the level of ...
Proteins have long been known to persist in Quaternary bone fossils and are often targeted as a source of carbon used in radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analyses for determining provenance and obtaining dietary information. We have previously reported a technique using the dominant structural protein collagen (type I) as a source of genetic information for species identification in modern and relatively young (Holocene) archaeological samples. We report a systematic investigation of amino acid composition and collagen peptide mass fingerprints (PMF), for a range of samples dating back approximately 1.5 million years. Extrapolation from high temperature experimental decomposition rates predict that at a constant 10°C (the approximate mean annual air temperature in Britain today) it will take between 0.2 and 0.7 Ma for levels of collagen to fall to 1% of their original concentration in an optimal burial environment. Even when the glacial intervals of the British Quaternary are factored into ...
Free Essays from Cram | Raju Chandra et al; A reliable and reproducible reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed for the...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Mairi Kilkenny.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Experimental and Computational Aspects of Structural Biology and Applications to Drug Discovery series.. ...
Below is a very informational page I refer to often. Is very explanatory and an excellent reference tool for the beginner. I love this page. Main page Amino Acids Peptide Bond Peptide Builder Peptide Mass Calculator
Students, Staff and Visitors gathered in Comp Lab B in the School of Computer Science, where the posters and interactive demos were setup, and the session was officially opened by the Head of the School, Dr David Cobham. This demos session was the concluding session of the Showcasing week for the Undergraduate Projects work. Local companies, like Rockstar Games and Artgraphica, participated in the event and the judging panel. Posters have been in display around the lab and interactive demos included; Websites, Gesture-controlled Robots, Retinal Analysis, Map analysis for navigation, Healthy Eating through receipt analysis, and analysing Cheating in Games.. ...
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Date Scrapbook Page - PAPER CRAFTS, SCRAPBOOKING & ATCs (ARTIST TRADING CARDS) - Hello all, Im very new here (actually just signed up, but Ive been looking at crafts here for months). I just got finished with my first e
Peptide mapping and mutational analysis". J Biol Chem. 274 (46): 32936-32942. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.46.32936. PMID 10551860. ... 2. Energetics of insertion of small molecules, peptides, and proteins in membranes". Journal of Chemical Information and ...
Peptide mapping and mutational analysis". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (46): 32936-32942. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.46.32936 ... Oppenheim, J J, A Biragyn, L W Kwak and D Yang (2003). "Roles of antimicrobial peptides such as defensins in innate and ... Efremov R, Nolde D, Konshina A, Syrtcev N, Arseniev A (2004). "Peptides and proteins in membranes: what can we learn via ... Zhang W, Crocker E, McLaughlin S, Smith S (2003). "Binding of peptides with basic and aromatic residues to bilayer membranes: ...
"A structural homologue of the N-formyl peptide receptor. Characterization and chromosome mapping of a peptide chemoattractant ... Formyl peptide receptor 1 Formyl peptide receptor 2 N-Formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Synthesis and use of a novel N-formyl peptide derivative to isolate a human N-formyl peptide receptor cDNA". Biochemical and ... "The synthetic peptide Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-D-Met inhibits human monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation via formyl peptide ...
"A structural homologue of the N-formyl peptide receptor. Characterization and chromosome mapping of a peptide chemoattractant ... "A structural homologue of the N-formyl peptide receptor. Characterization and chromosome mapping of a peptide chemoattractant ... "A structural homologue of the N-formyl peptide receptor. Characterization and chromosome mapping of a peptide chemoattractant ... Eicosanoid receptor Formyl peptide receptor Lipoxin Resolvin Formyl peptide receptor 1 Formyl peptide receptor 3 GRCh38: ...
"A structural homologue of the N-formyl peptide receptor. Characterization and chromosome mapping of a peptide chemoattractant ... "A structural homologue of the N-formyl peptide receptor. Characterization and chromosome mapping of a peptide chemoattractant ... "Entrez Gene: Formyl peptide receptor 1". Migeotte I, Communi D, Parmentier M (Dec 2006). "Formyl peptide receptors: a ... "Synthesis and use of a novel N-formyl peptide derivative to isolate a human N-formyl peptide receptor cDNA". Biochemical and ...
Cleveland, D.W.; Fischer, S.G.; Kirschner, M.W. & Laemmli, U.K. (1977). "Peptide mapping by limited proteolysis in sodium ... Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L. (August 18, 2006). "The Development of Cleveland Peptide Mapping by Don W. ... He also developed and published a peptide fingerprinting technique that was so popular that it became a citation classic ...
J Biol Chem 266:22549-22556 Zhen, Jing (2018). "Antibody characterization using novel ERLIC-MS/MS-based peptide mapping". mAbs ... Protein deamidation has been commonly analyzed by reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) through peptide mapping. Recently ... "Quantification and characterization of antibody deamidation by peptide mapping with mass spectrometry". International Journal ... Asparagine Aspartic acid Peptide bond Post-translational modification Clarke, S (2003). "Aging as war between chemical and ...
The Pepitope Server is used to map epitopes using affinity-selected peptides. Her work with autism genetic sequencing, which ... epitope mapping from affinity-selected peptides". Bioinformatics. 23 (23): 3244-3246. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btm493. ISSN ...
2-Iodoacetamide is an alkylating agent used for peptide mapping purposes. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate. It ... It is commonly used during the sample preparation for de novo (peptide) sequencing with protein mass spectrometry, but recent ...
Yates JR, Speicher S, Griffin PR, Hunkapiller T (1993). "Peptide mass maps: a highly informative approach to protein ... LC/ESI-MS and CE/ESI-MS are also great techniques for peptide mass fingerprinting. A small fraction of the peptide (usually 1 ... The advantage of this method is that only the masses of the peptides have to be known. Time-consuming de novo peptide ... They then compare the masses of the peptides of the unknown protein to the theoretical peptide masses of each protein encoded ...
Similarities and differences as adjudged by peptide mapping and N-terminal sequencing". The Biochemical Journal. 240 (1): 19-26 ... "An extended genetic linkage map of markers for human chromosome 10". Genomics. 3 (4): 389-92. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(88)90133-4 ...
Bazari WL, Matsudaira P, Wallek M, Smeal T, Jakes R, Ahmed Y (July 1988). "Villin sequence and peptide map identify six ...
1987). "Human gastrin-releasing peptide gene maps to chromosome band 18q21". Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 13 (1): 81-6. doi:10.1007/ ... Gastrin-releasing peptide is a regulatory human peptide that elicits gastrin release and regulates gastric acid secretion and ... 2003). "Expression of progastrin-releasing peptide and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor mRNA transcripts in tumor cells of ... "Human gastrin-releasing peptide gene maps to chromosome band 18q21". Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 13 (1): 81-6. doi:10.1007/ ...
In bio-informatics, a peptide-mass fingerprint or peptide-mass map is a mass spectrum of a mixture of peptides that comes from ... Yates, J. R.; Speicher, S.; Griffin, P. R.; Hunkapiller, T. (1993-11-01). "Peptide mass maps: a highly informative approach to ... Cottrell, J. S. (1994-06-01). "Protein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting". Peptide Research. 7 (3): 115-124. ISSN ... and determining the masses of the peptides through some form of mass spectrometry. Once formed, a peptide-mass fingerprint can ...
Active site mapping with peptide thioester substrates". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262 (8): 3444-3451. doi:10.1016/ ... Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequence of a peptide from C2a containing a free thiol group". The Biochemical Journal. ...
GFS (Genome Fingerprint Scanning) maps peptide mass fingerprint data to genomic sequences. It is built into VOCS. NAP ( ... Additional analysis tools such as BLAST searches, genome maps, genome or gene alignment, phylogenetic trees, etc. are provided ...
Unambiguous site mapping is possible for peptides with only one serine/threonine residue. The general procedure for this ... Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) is used for site mapping as ETD causes peptide backbone cleavage while leaving post- ... Testing various peptide sequences revealed that this modification slows proteasomal degradation of hydrophobic peptides, ... a CKII peptide that is a known OGT substrate, and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Upon O-GlcNAcylation of the CKII peptide, ...
... of amidinohydrolases among Pseudomonas and comparative studies of some purified enzymes by one-dimensional peptide mapping". ... This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically ...
The Proteolysis Map "Nomenclature and Symbolism for Amino Acids and Peptides. Recommendations 1983". European Journal of ... forms a peptide bond). A peptide bond can be broken by hydrolysis (the addition of water). The hydrolysis of peptide bonds in ... Peptides and proteins are chains of amino acids held together by peptide bonds (and sometimes by a few isopeptide bonds). ... However, not all peptide groups have the same effect on folding; nonnative isomers of other peptide groups may not affect ...
Spiess J, Mount CD, Nicholson WE, Orth DN (August 1982). "NH2-terminal amino acid sequence and peptide mapping of purified ... Peptides Direct information page, accessed 26 August 2013 Le Grand, Chip (2016). The straight dope : the inside story of ... β-Lipotropin can be cleaved into smaller peptides. In humans, γ-lipotropin, β-MSH, and β-endorphin, are all possible fragments ... γ-lipotropin is the amino-terminal peptide fragment of β-lipotropin. In humans, it has 56 amino acids. Gamma lipotropin is ...
1996). "Human neurotrophin-3: a one-step peptide mapping method and complete disulfide characterization of the recombinant ... 1998). "High resolution mapping of the binding site of TrkA for nerve growth factor and TrkC for neurotrophin-3 on the second ... Ozçelik T, Rosenthal A, Francke U (1991). "Chromosomal mapping of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 genes in ... Genes on human chromosome 12, Neurotrophic factors, Peptide hormones, Growth factors, Developmental neuroscience, Proteins, ...
Elkon KB, Hines JJ, Chu JL, Parnassa A (1990). "Epitope mapping of recombinant HeLa SmB and B' peptides obtained by the ...
... map mapping and peptide identification. It supports label-free and isotopic-label based quantification (such as iTRAQ and TMT ... map mapping and peptide identification. It supports label-free and isotopic-label based quantification (such as iTRAQ and TMT ... mass spectrometric heat maps (2D m/z vs RT) as well as a three-dimensional visualization of a mass spectrometry experiment. ...
The two were similar in NH2-terminal sequence, peptide map, subunit molecular weight, and isoelectronic point. In a different ... and are typically membrane bound and are inhibited by l-amino acids and peptides via a means of uncompetitive mechanism. These ...
Later, however, the identity of alleles in different species could be confirmed by peptide-mapping analysis of the antigenic ... Genetic mapping of the loci controlling the class I and class II antigens of the mouse showed them to be part of a cluster, ... Initially, genetic mapping of the mouse class I antigens suggested the existence of multiple class I loci in the H2 complex. ... The discovery of the class II genes had been fitted into the model by the demonstration that they mapped between the H2K and ...
2009). "Development of a novel peptide microarray for large-scale epitope mapping of food allergens". Journal of Allergy and ... A peptide microarray (also commonly known as peptide chip or peptide epitope microarray) is a collection of peptides displayed ... However, peptide synthesis on chip allows the parallel synthesis of tens of thousands of peptides providing larger peptide ... Peptides are ideally covalently linked through a chemoselective bond leading to peptides with the same orientation for ...
1996). "A third P-domain peptide gene (TFF3), human intestinal trefoil factor, maps to 21q22.3". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 72 (4 ... TFF comprises the gastric peptides (TFF1), spasmolytic peptide (TFF2), and the intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3, this protein). ... Peptides. 25 (5): 771-7. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2004.01.018. PMID 15177871. S2CID 23122603. Barrera GJ, Sanchez G, Gonzalez JE ... 2003). "Ocular TFF-peptides: new mucus-associated secretory products of conjunctival goblet cells". Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 506 ( ...
This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon activation by a wide ... Wu J, Michel H, Rossomando A, Haystead T, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Sturgill TW (1992). "Renaturation and partial peptide ... MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for ... Chen, Z; Cobb M H (May 2001). "Regulation of stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways by TAO2". J. ...
For example, trypsin-activated gold (Au/trypsin) probe tips can be used for the peptide mapping of the hen egg lysozyme. ... Functionalized probes can be used in Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM) to measure intermolecular forces and map chemical ... Dogruel, David.; Williams, Peter.; Nelson, Randall W. (December 1995). "Rapid Tryptic Mapping Using Enzymically Active Mass ... as they can map surface structure and material properties at molecular or atomic dimensions. The history of the probe tip can ...
In biological applications, benzophenones have been used extensively as photophysical probes to identify and map peptide- ...
It is flexible in its open state and can hardly be seen in electronic density maps for some OPRTases. For catalysis to occur, a ... Also, the linker peptide can be removed without inactivating catalysis. In Leishmania donovani, separate OPRTase does not have ... There must be an energy balance between the peptide new order and hydrogen bond formation in the loop, between the loop and the ... The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "FluoropyrimidineActivity_WP1601". Orotidine 5'-phosphate ...
Users can use three dimensional structure of a protein and the peptides selected from phage display experiment to map ... Peptides are usually fused to the N-terminus of pVIII. Usually peptides that can be fused to pVIII are 6-8 amino acids long. ... Castillo J, Goodson B, Winter J (November 2001). "T7 displayed peptides as targets for selecting peptide specific scFvs from ... by fusing the virus's capsid protein to one peptide out of a collection of peptide sequences. This displayed the different ...
During World War II, the Japanese army sometimes used dried sea-firefly as a light source to discreetly read maps in their dim ... The luciferase enzyme consists of a 555-amino acid-long peptide with a molecular mass of 61627 u, while the luciferine vargulin ...
The peptide cleaved from the C terminal of Ten-m3, TCAP-3, stimulates the production of cAMP and the proliferation of neurons. ... Ben-Zur T, Wides R (May 1999). "Mapping Homologs of Drosophila odd Oz(odz):Doc4/Odz4 to Mouse Chromosome 7, Odz1 to Mouse ... The TCAP is the resulting peptide from cleaving a putative furin cleavage site found immediately on the N-terminal of TCAP. The ... This creates a high dorsal to low ventral gradient topography mapping between the two structures. In Ten-m3 null mutant mice, ...
Bruce Merrifield, using solid phase peptide synthesis, one amino acid at a time. He later won the Nobel Prize in chemistry. ... Type I IFNs further activate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) to induce gene transcription. Antiviral and ... Higher MHC I expression increases presentation of viral and abnormal peptides from cancer cells to cytotoxic T cells, while the ... Higher MHC II expression increases presentation of these peptides to helper T cells; these cells release cytokines (such as ...
2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... Lin Z, Crockett DK, Lim MS, Elenitoba-Johnson KS (2004). "High-throughput analysis of protein/peptide complexes by ...
March 1993). "Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy maps to chromosome ... Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, Cerebrovascular diseases, Skin conditions resulting from errors ...
The peptide mixture is then loaded directly onto a microcapillary column and the peptides are separated by hydrophobicity and ... Klose J (1975). "Protein mapping by combined isoelectric focusing and electrophoresis of mouse tissues. A novel approach to ... As the peptides elute from the column, they are ionized and separated by m/z in the first stage of tandem mass spectrometry. ... Peptides that are degenerate (shared by two or more proteins in the database) makes it difficult to unambiguously identify the ...
Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1968;60:886. ... Resistance to herpes stromal keratitis conferred by an IgG2a-derived peptide. Nature 376: 431-434. Weber GF, Ashkar S, Glimcher ...
1993). "Mapping of the human thromboxane synthase gene (TBXAS1) to chromosome 7q34-q35 by two-color fluorescence in situ ... Evidence suggests that the peptides serve as a membrane anchor for the enzyme. Moreover, the study of cDNA clones made possible ...
The Extended Signal Peptide Region (ESPR) is found in the N-terminus of the signal peptides of proteins belonging to the Type V ... 2011). "Mapping of the Neisseria meningitidis NadA cell-binding site: relevance of predicted {alpha}-helices in the NH2- ... The signal peptide on the N-terminus acts as a temporary tether to hold it in place. Next, it must move to the outer membrane. ... Function: There are several roles that the Extended Signal Peptide Region is thought to hold. First, biogenesis of proteins in ...
... chromosomal mapping of the loci for the low density lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase ... after removal of 21-amino acid signal peptide) that mediates the endocytosis of cholesterol-rich low-density lipoprotein (LDL ... The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "Statin_Pathway_WP430". GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000130164 ...
2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... "Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides". Nat. ...
... and chemical cross-linking and isolation by pull down to map binding sites (Chem-CLIP-Map). These studies showed in cells that ... The lead analogue was found to bind to the 5'-UTR of HIV with an IC50 of 40 μM for displacing a Tat-derived peptide. The ... Garcia-Lopez, A; Llamusi, B; Orzaez, M; Perez-Paya, E; Artero, R. D (2011). "In vivo discovery of a peptide that prevents CUG- ... In 2011, Artero and coworkers discovered that a peptide could reduce the toxicity associated with r(CUG) repeats in Drosophila ...
"Lyme Disease Maps: Most Recent Year , Lyme Disease , CDC". 20 May 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2022. "Reported cases ... a whole-cell sonicate enzyme immunoassay followed by a VlsE C6 peptide enzyme immunoassay". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 53 (6 ... "Lyme Disease risk areas map". Risk of Lyme disease to Canadians. Government of Canada. 27 January 2015. Archived from the ...
Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. ... 1996). "A second gene for cerulean cataracts maps to the beta crystallin region on chromosome 22". Genomics. 35 (3): 539-42. ...
"Mapping the human erythrocyte beta-spectrin dimer initiation site using recombinant peptides and correlation of its phasing ... Davis LH, Bennett V (1990). "Mapping the binding sites of human erythrocyte ankyrin for the anion exchanger and spectrin". J. ... sequencing and chromosome mapping of a non-erythroid spectrin, human alpha-fodrin". Differentiation. 34 (1): 68-78. doi:10.1111 ... sequencing and chromosome mapping of a non-erythroid spectrin, human alpha-fodrin". Differentiation. 34 (1): 68-78. doi:10.1111 ...
Frontispiece map + viii + 163 pp. + Plates A-C, 1-32. (Crotalus h. horridus, pp. 149-151 + Plate 31, figures 88A & 89; C. h. ... Other components found in the venom include a small basic peptide that works as a myotoxin, a fibrinogen-clotting enzyme that ... 233-235 + Plate 35 + Map 178.) Brown WS (1991). Female Reproductive Ecology in a Northern Population of the Timber Rattlesnake ... 2001v1 Range Map". Gap Analysis Project. doi:10.5066/F7BR8R5P. McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T (1999). Snake Species of the ...
2002). "Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF)-derived peptides can induce HLA-A2-restricted and tumor-specific ... to human chromosome 8q24.23 by radiation hybrid mapping". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 90 (3-4): 234-5. doi:10.1159/000056776. PMID ...
The nucleotide sequence predicts a large prepro-peptide with homology to pro-peptides of other chymotrypsin-like enzymes". The ... Alpha-lytic protease was also recently reported to find utility as part of a method to map endogenous SUMO modification sites ... This enzyme is a serine protease that catalyses the breakage of peptide bonds using a hydrolysis chemical reaction. Alpha-lytic ... This protease was recently applied to proteome digestion for production of peptides for mass spectrometry-based proteomics, ...
RSK2 is normally activated by the ERK MAP kinase. Mutated RSK2 may be deficient for activation by ERK, or its kinase activity ... Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, Rare genetic syndromes, Syndromes affecting the heart). ...
TOXMAP uses maps of the United States to help users visually explore data from the United States Environmental Protection ... Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body ... basic peptides found in snake and lizard venoms, They cause muscle tissue damage by a non-enzymatic receptor based mechanism. ... the venom of the cone snail can contain over 100 unique peptides, which target specific nerve channels or receptors). Biotoxins ...
Further mapping and mutation screening of two candidate genes". Diabetes. 50 (1): 204-8. doi:10.2337/diabetes.50.1.204. PMID ... Purification and characterization of a membrane-bound carboxypeptidase that cleaves peptide hormones". The Journal of ... Kas K, Schoenmakers EF, Van de Ven WJ (November 1995). "Physical map location of the human carboxypeptidase M gene (CPM) distal ... large-scale mapping of mRNA start sites". EMBO Reports. 2 (5): 388-93. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kve085. PMC 1083880. PMID ...
These non-peptide inhibitors can be more stable than inhibitors containing peptide bonds, because they will not be substrates ... "A comprehensive map of molecular drug targets". Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery. 16 (1): 19-34 (Figure 1C). doi:10.1038/nrd. ... This will produce a set of peptides that can be analysed using a mass spectrometer. The peptide that changes in mass after ... The structure of ritonavir, a peptidomimetic (peptide mimic) protease inhibitor containing three peptide bonds, as shown in the ...
2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3: 89. doi: ... "Inhibition of pRb phosphorylation and cell-cycle progression by a 20-residue peptide derived from p16CDKN2/INK4A" (PDF). ...
NODs transduce signals in the pathway of NF-κB and MAP kinases via the serine-threonine kinase called RIP2. NODs signal via N- ... bacterial peptides (flagellin, microtubule elongation factors), peptidoglycans and lipoteichoic acids (from Gram-positive ... TLR-independent signaling such as Dectin 1, and Dectin 2 - mincle signaling lead to MAP kinase and NFkB activation. Membrane ... dependent pathway and triggers the signaling through NF-κB and the MAP kinase pathway and therefore the secretion of pro- ...
Kenmochi N, Kawaguchi T, Rozen S, Davis E, Goodman N, Hudson TJ, Tanaka T, Page DC (May 1998). "A map of 75 human ribosomal ... Protein and Peptide Letters. 10 (1): 91-7. doi:10.2174/0929866033408273. PMID 12625830. Yu Y, Ji H, Doudna JA, Leary JA (June ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3 (1): 89. doi: ...
SBDβ contains the peptide binding pocket while SBDα serves as a lid to cover the substrate binding cleft. The ATP binding ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... In order to properly fold non-native proteins, Hsp70 chaperones interact with the hydrophobic peptide segments of proteins in ... "Crystal structure of the stress-inducible human heat shock protein 70 substrate-binding domain in complex with peptide ...
2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... 2004). "An unusual peptide deformylase features in the human mitochondrial N-terminal methionine excision pathway". J. Biol. ...
... coli peptide deformylase and methionine aminopeptidase fitted into the cryo-EM density map of the complex ... Crystal structure of E. coli peptide deformylase and methionine aminopeptidase fitted into the cryo-EM density map of the ... Peptide deformylase. A [auth P]. 169. Escherichia coli K-12. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: def, fms, b3287, JW3248. EC: ... The event includes two enzymatic pathways: deformylation of the N-terminal methionine by the enzyme peptide deformylase (PDF), ...
... columns are used in peptide mapping to improve the resolution of highly complex peptide mixtures. It is commonly assumed that ... Peptide mapping is used to determine the amino acid sequence of large proteins (or peptides) that are not amenable to direct ... In this article, studies were performed using peptides and peptide maps to compare fully porous and core-shell sub-2-µm UHPLC ... Peptide mapping specific core-shell columns (Aeris Peptide, Phenomenex) of various particle sizes were compared to commercially ...
We observe that number and quality of the peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) that map to a candidate ORF can be highly informative ... Since PSMs are explicitly mapped to genomic locations, it furthermore facilitates the integration of transcriptomics data and ... as potential sources of peptides, thus allowing the discovery of novel, unannotated proteins. Typically this results in large ... A workflow to identify novel proteins based on the direct mapping of peptide-spectrum-matches to genomic locations. Access & ...
Typical analysis workflow begins with the peptide feature detection ... PhD Seminar • Bioinformatics - DeepIso: A Deep Learning Model for Peptide Feature Detection from LC-MS map. ... Typical analysis workflow begins with the peptide feature detection and quantification from LC-MS map. ... to detect peptide features of different charge states and estimate their abundance by scanning LC-MS map. Existing tools are ...
Creative Proteomics provides high-quality peptide mapping services. ... Figure 1. Workflow of Peptide Mapping Service at Creative Proteomics. As peptide mapping service compares the peptide masses ... Points of Interest in Peptide Mapping Services. Our peptide mapping service can help clients to comply with ICH Q6B guidelines ... peptide mapping services have different uses, including but not limited:. *Amino acid sequence. Peptide mapping is a valuable ...
Platelet-activating factor triggers the phosphorylation and activation of MAP-2 kinase and S6 peptide kinase activity in human ... Platelet-activating factor triggers the phosphorylation and activation of MAP-2 kinase and S6 peptide kinase activity in human ... Platelet-activating factor triggers the phosphorylation and activation of MAP-2 kinase and S6 peptide kinase activity in human ... Platelet-activating factor triggers the phosphorylation and activation of MAP-2 kinase and S6 peptide kinase activity in human ...
Method details for the routine peptide mapping of a biotherapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) protein by high-resolution ... Starter method details for routine biotherapeutic peptide mapping analysis using information dependent acquisition (IDA) with ... Download the flyer to learn more: SCIEX OS Peptide Mapping by IDA Method Flyer ... Routine biotherapeutic accurate mass peptide mapping analysis on the X500B QTOF System ...
... *TentaGel Resins for the Synthesis of Multiple Antigen Peptides*Resin-bound ... Resins for Protected Peptide Amides*TOPPA - A Novel Resin for Synthesis of Protected Peptide Amides*Protected Peptide Amides ... Resins for Multiple Antigen Peptides - MAP´S TentaGel® resins are grafted copolymers consisting of a low crosslinked ... Preloaded Resins for Fmoc Peptide Synthesis*Resins for Peptide Acids*Wang Type Resins - PHB Resins (Oxybenzyl Ester)*Fmoc-AA- ...
Starch Phosphorylase: An Overview of Biochemical Characterization, Immobilization and Peptide Mapping.. Authors: Jain, Ritu. ... Peptide mapping reports of various proteins have also been assessed in this review. ... Starch Phosphorylase: An Overview of Biochemical Characterization, Immobilization and Peptide Mapping. British Biotechnology ...
Anatomical and biochemical studies of the opioid peptides and related substances in the brain by S. Watson et al. ... Opioid peptide enkephalin: immunohistochemical mapping in rat central nervous system.. *R. Simantov, M. Kuhar, G. Uhl, S. H. ... Proopiomelanocortin peptide immunocytochemistry in rhesus monkey brain. *H. Khachaturian, M. E. Lewis, S. Haber, H. Akil, S. ... Evidence for two separate opiate peptide neuronal systems. *S. Watson, H. Akil, C. Richard, J. Barchas ...
Developments in peptide mapping technology for the biopharmaceutical industry ... Peptide mapping resource center. *Use the Digestion Time Calculator - see how quickly the SMART Digest Kit can digest proteins ...
Peptide mapping by limited proteolysis in sodium dodecyl sulfate and analysis by gel electrophoresis. scientific article ( ... Peptide mapping by limited proteolysis in sodium dodecyl sulfate and analysis by gel electrophoresis (English) ...
IgE binding epitope mapping with TL1A tagged peptides. Zhang, Yuzhu; Bhardwaj, Shilpa R; Vilches, Ana; Breksa, Andrew; Lyu, Shu ... IgE binding epitope mapping with TL1A tagged peptides. ... Ara h 2; Dot blot; Epitope mapping; Food allergen; Peptide ... The vector was used to make overlapping peptides derived from peanut allergens Ara h 2. All the peptides were successfully ... The resulting peptides were applied to identify IgE binding epitopes of Ara h 2 using four sera samples from individuals with ...
Peptide mapping. *Protein identification. *Characterization of post-translational modifications. Cut sites for Elastase, Pepsin ...
The apparent molecular mass of Nivulian-II is 43670.846 Da (MALDI TOF/MS). Peptide mass fingerprint analysis revealed peptide ... MALDI-TOF mass spectrum of trypsin-digested peptide map of Nivulian-II. ... a) Peptides of Nivulian-II matched with Maturase K (Q52ZV1_9MAGN) of Banksia quercifolia. (b) Peptides of Nivulian-II matched ... Peptide Analysis. For peptide mass fingerprinting, the targeted protein band (spot) was manually excised from the gel and was ...
Application Brief: Confident peptide mapping and disulfide bond analysis of an IgG2 monoclonal antibody ... Confident peptide mapping and disulfide bond analysis of an IgG2 monoclonal antibody. ... Monoisotopic masses for subunit analysis, or sequence coverage for peptide mapping analyses, are easily performed and ... sequence coverage for peptide mapping analyses. The powerful and highly visual data processing capabilities of BioPharma Finder ...
MAP Kinase (5) MAP peptide (1) Mastoparan (1) Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) (21) ... SARS-CoV-2 derived peptides. Range of peptides and peptides libraries to study SARS-CoV-2 ...
The recognition of this MHC2-peptide complex by T-helper cells then determines the subsequent immune response (Watts, 2004; ... Nedialkova, L. V., Amat, M. A., Kevrekidis, I. G., and Hummer, G. (2014). Diffusion maps, clustering and fuzzy markov modeling ... In the endosome, the protein is then cleaved into small peptide fragments by endolysosomal proteases, such as cathepsin S ( ... 2011). Sensitization prevalence, antibody cross-reactivity and immunogenic peptide profile of Api g 2, the non-specific lipid ...
Comprehensive mapping of the antigenic peptide repertoire during bacterial infection Rupert Mayer (UGent) , Teresa Maia (UGent ... Simple peptide quantification approach for MS-based proteomics quality control Teresa Maia (UGent) , An Staes (UGent) , Kim ...
Our aim was to investigate the role of MAP in T1D development by evaluating levels of antibodies directed against MAP epitopes ... 9,52% HCs) and decreasing trends were observed upon time-point analyses for most peptides. Similarly, classical ZnT8 Abs and ... A higher prevalence was detected for MAP/ZnT8 pairs (62,96% T1D vs. 7,14% HCs; p < 0.0001) compared to MAP/PI epitopes (22, ... sex and concomitant autoimmune disorders contributed to a stronger seroreactivity suggesting a possible implication of MAP in ...
in peptide mapping and protein analysis by gel electrophoresis.. *to utilize in designing formulations and its effect on ...
for Experimental Medical Research, OUS: Interaction mapping using peptide arrays *Steinar Paulsen, MabCent - SFI, UiT The ... O-GlcNAc site-mapping of liver X receptor-α and O-GlcNAc transferase (Fan et al. 2018 Biochem Biophys Res Commun ). ... Ola Ween, Møreforsking AS: In vitro digestion of marin proteins and peptides and bioactivity assays. ...
Peptide mapping studies on muscarinic receptors: Receptor structure and location of the ligand binding site. Wheatley, M., ...
Unique domains were defined and aligned by using high-resolution peptide mapping of iodinated peptides on cellulose plates. The ... Sequences derived from large peptides mapping near the amino terminal show homology to the amino-terminal actin-binding site of ... Difference maps between actin and actin decorated with other proteins provides a way to look for novel structural changes in ... Click the image to view the interactive version of the map in iPath. % proteins involved. KEGG pathway ID. Description. ...
Ahmed N, Dobler D, Dean M, Thornalley PJ: Peptide mapping identifies hotspot site of modification in human serum albumin by ...
Serology and Antibody Epitope Mapping Findings Figure 4. Figure 4. N protein (p40) peptide microarray-based epitope mapping of ... Mapping of the epitope to the 3D-structure 1N93 of the viral p40 nucleoprotein showed that the peptide is part of the N ... Epitope mapping of the protein A-purified CSF antibodies revealed a single spot signal on the peptide microarray corresponding ... N protein (p40) peptide microarray-based epitope mapping of variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 from patient who died of limbic ...
Mesoporous SiO2 microspheres ; Peptide mapping analysis ;Microwave-assisted digestion ; MALDI-TOF MS ...
OGAP maps over a million peptides discovered in different tissues and disease states onto 15,000 human genes. "You would have ... OGeS banks on ordered peptide arrays for validation, a mass spec-based approach that uses isotopicallylabeled reference ... peptides to quantify each candidate biomarker protein in a sample.. Rohlffs aim for the year is to build two or three ...
Protein identification by MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mapping: a new strategy. Analytical Chemistry 74 (8), S. 1760 - 1771 (2002) ... Transformation and other factors of the peptide mass spectrometry pairwise peak-list comparison process. BMC Bioinformatics 6, ...
  • Peptide mapping is used to determine the amino acid sequence of large proteins (or peptides) that are not amenable to direct characterization by LC coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). Peptides are digested with a sequence-specific proteolytic enzyme (often trypsin) to generate a mixture of smaller peptides that can be run on an LC-MS system. (
  • All reagents were obtained from Sigma Chemical including peptides and proteins, as well as sequencing grade proteolytic enzymes and mobile phase additives. (
  • Some global regulators, like the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA), have developed guidelines to ask for providing peptide mapping to confirm the amino acid sequence of drug substance proteins. (
  • As peptide mapping service compares the peptide masses with protein databases, only proteins from the database can be identified using this method. (
  • Peptide mapping is a valuable method to confirm the amino acid sequence of purified proteins, like drug substance protein, in accordance with ICH Q6B. (
  • Peptide mapping reports of various proteins have also been assessed in this review. (
  • In vitro digestion of marin proteins and peptides and bioactivity assays. (
  • From an immunological point of view, vaccination with short and well-defined peptides may be preferential to immunizing with whole viral proteins. (
  • Hydrogen deuterium exchange by mass spectrometry is a powerful analytical approach that can be used to map higher order structures of proteins. (
  • You can select any locally available Fasta file, but we advise against choosing a very large database, such as NCBIprot, even with a restricted taxonomy, because the huge number of proteins mapping to each peptide sequence will make compression, searching, and reporting very much slower than with a less redundant file, such as SwissProt or a UniProt complete proteome. (
  • Even if this was not the case, the entries in a library are peptides, not proteins, so taxonomy assignment would be tricky. (
  • The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS , patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases. (
  • As the Nair Lab continues to map out and visualize proteins, the lab's researchers are excited for future so-called 'accidents' to turn into full-blown breakthroughs that advance the medicinal field. (
  • Precursor ion scanning for fragment ions of oxidized amino acid residues was investigated as a label-free MS approach to mapping specific oxPTMs in a complex mixture of proteins. (
  • The method was used successfully to map these oxPTMs in a mixture of nine proteins that had been treated with HOCl, thereby demonstrating its potential for application to complex biological samples. (
  • IgE binding epitope mapping with TL1A tagged peptides. (
  • Herein, a recognized peptide immunogen based on the hemagglutinin protein of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 was chosen as a backbone and modified to evaluate if the construction of branched peptides, lipidation, the addition of cysteine residues, or mutations could indeed alter epitope reactivity. (
  • Induction of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes by Immunization with Dengue Virus - Derived, Modified Epitope Peptide, Using Dendritic Cells as a Peptide Delivery System. (
  • This technique works for large molecules such as antibodies, the characterization of protein-ligand interactions, mutation effects, and epitope mapping (8-12). (
  • For example, in new medicines laboratories, HDX-MS can rapidly perform epitope mapping to tie up intellectual property in the paratope and epitope (14). (
  • We used novel epitope mapping strategies, by combining phage display with VLPs, to identify the important A-strand epitopes with strong neutralizing activity. (
  • In this study, the linear epitope of a specific monoclonal antibody mAb (N06) was subsequently identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) using the synthesized overlapping peptides as antigens. (
  • It is a fast and very economical method used for epitope mapping, libraries, protein characterization and more. (
  • The authors reference a study that supports the single multiplex concept which used epitope mapping of key B. burgdorferi antigen targets from both in vivo and in vitro expressed antigens. (
  • This automated process results in the production of huge numbers of peptides making this a fast and economical alternative to other methods that aim for deep T- and B-cell epitope discovery, MS-based proteomics relying on heavy & light reference peptides, antigen target identification and others. (
  • This short sequence (YPYDVPDYA) encodes a peptide which is the epitope of a very efficient and specific monoclonal antibody. (
  • Synthetic Biomolecules is specialized in the synthesis of custom peptides. (
  • The natural role of these peptides as found in human plasma includes supporting a wide range of skin health functions like maintaining normal immune function, collagen synthesis, fibroblast production and anti-inflammatory responses. (
  • The SPOT peptide synthesis technique is an ultra-high-throughput synthesis method for hundreds to thousands of peptides in parallel. (
  • After synthesis peptides can remain on the membrane for an easy and inexpensive peptide array (PepSpots) or be separated from the mebrane and used as individual peptides (PepTrack Fast Track), pooled (SpotMix) or used to print on glass slides (PepStar). (
  • For recombinant protein drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), peptide mapping can be used for identification, primary structural characterization, and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC). (
  • Our peptide mapping service is not only for structural characterization and confirmation, but provides a whole suite of information to help inform the drug development process. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Starch Phosphorylase: An Overview of Biochemical Characterization, Immobilization and Peptide Mapping. (
  • This paper describes the biochemical characterization, of this cysteine like protease with respect to peptide fingerprinting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. (
  • Peptide mapping, the principal technique for confirming a protein's primary structure (amino acid sequence), can be used in drug discovery and throughout the manufacturing process. (
  • These cover the prediction of secondary structure, disordered regions, transmembrane helices, signal peptides and GO annotations. (
  • The level of C-peptide in the blood can show how much insulin is being made by the pancreas . (
  • A person with type 2 diabetes can have a normal or high level of C-peptide. (
  • A person with an insulinoma will have a high level of C-peptide in the blood when they have a high level of insulin. (
  • A high level of C-peptide with a low blood glucose level may mean that an insulin-producing tumour of the pancreas (insulinoma) is present. (
  • A low level of C-peptide with a high blood glucose level is found in people with type 1 diabetes . (
  • This test measures the level of C-peptide in a sample of your blood or urine (pee). (
  • However, to date most of these synthetic peptides are not highly immunogenic. (
  • Mimotopes offeres high quality purified peptides conjugated to immunogenic protein carriers such as Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH). (
  • To understand the CD8+ T cell immunity related to viral protection and disease severity in COVID-19, we evaluated the complete SARS-CoV-2 genome (3141 MHC-I binding peptides) to identify immunogenic T cell epitopes, and determine the level of CD8+ T cell involvement using DNA-barcoded peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) multimers. (
  • Proteases are enzymes which potentially hydrolyze anything that contains peptide bond, from a dipeptide up to a large protein, containing thousands of amino acids and, thus, it comprises a group of hydrolases that are the most relevant in technological terms. (
  • Proteases may degrade the peptides before they reach their intended targets, and there is also the risk of formation of dimers and other types of aggregates (via reactive terminal cysteine residues) [ 6 ]. (
  • the outcomes of competitivity assays clearly demonstrate their cross-reactivity 12 , 13 and allow to hypothesize the role of molecular mimicry through which MAP contribution to T1D development may occur. (
  • Thus, the principle of protein or peptide haptenation could be used in in vitro assays to predict the sensitization potential of a new chemical entity. (
  • Typical analysis workflow begins with the peptide feature detection and quantification from LC-MS map. (
  • Comprehensive peptide mapping and intact protein analysis workflow solutions will be demonstrated. (
  • Using chemically synthesized peptides attached to membranes and microarray experiments is one approach for determining predominant epitopes that has seen success. (
  • The labeling is quenched chemically, and deuterium incorporation can be localized to short stretches (e.g., 5 to 10 amino acids) of the primary structure by measuring the resultant mass change in that peptide (6). (
  • By examining the changes over the course of an experiment, different protein states can be compared with each other to understand protein binding, to map epitopes, to understand the effect of modifications or small molecule binding, or even to manage the effects of formulation (5). (
  • The lab demonstrated that this particular YcaO protein (MusD) is able to cut a peptide using a molecule called ATP as a co-factor. (
  • In this scholarly study, we describe the good specificity of Fc-specific nTreg by tests their response to overlapping peptides within the whole Fc molecule. (
  • The remarkable similarity of the peptide-binding motifs and repertoires for Mamu-B*08 and HLA-B*2705 suggests that the nature of the peptide bound by the MHC class I molecule may play an important role in control of immunodeficiency virus replication. (
  • At Creative Proteomics, we have developed a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based peptide mapping platform for confirmation of protein primary structure. (
  • At Creative Proteomics, peptide mapping can be performed without reduction to determine the positions of disulfide bridges and/or free thiols (sulfhydryl groups). (
  • With professional and experienced staff, Creative Proteomics provides high-quality peptide mapping services. (
  • Epitopes with population coverage of 100% and fulfilling set parameters were selected for docking with human leukocyte antigen molecules, and binding affinity of each peptide was analyzed. (
  • In summary, we mapped the vaccine-induced antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and showed a booster-specific activation and enrichment of memory T cells that could be important for long-term disease protection in this patient group. (
  • Our aim was to investigate the role of MAP in T1D development by evaluating levels of antibodies directed against MAP epitopes and their human homologs corresponding to ZnT8 and proinsulin (PI) in 54 T1D at-risk children from mainland Italy and 42 healthy controls (HCs). (
  • Good anti-peptide antibodies make great reagents for the rapid development of immunoassays. (
  • Anti-phosphorylated peptide antibodies have become very useful reagents in the study of cell signal transduction. (
  • Mimotopes obtains affinity enhanced anti-peptide antibodies from rabbits immunized with a carrier protein-peptide conjugate. (
  • Affinity enhancement is performed to remove antibodies specific to the non-phosphorylated version of the peptide. (
  • An understanding that other specific anti-peptide antibodies, not involving the phosphorylated residues, may be generated is crucial to how the phosphorylated peptide antisera are used, and to the interpretation of results obtained using these antibodies. (
  • OGAP maps over a million peptides discovered in different tissues and disease states onto 15,000 human genes. (
  • In addition, the ribosomal S6 peptide kinase activity (S6PK) was increased after PAF stimulation of the B cells. (
  • Synthetic Biomolecules, San Diego Custom Peptides, FMOC Chemistry to synthetics peptides and HPLC trace specialists. (
  • The use of synthetic peptides as immunogens represents an exciting alternative to traditional vaccines. (
  • Vaccines made from survivin peptide may help the body build an effective immune response to kill cancer cells that express survivin. (
  • Conformational mapping of the N-terminal peptide of HIV-1 gp41 in lipid detergent and aqueous environments using 13C-enhanced Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. (
  • OK-101 is a lipid conjugated chemerin peptide agonist of the ChemR23 G-protein coupled receptor which is typically found on immune cells of the eye responsible for the inflammatory response. (
  • With cryoEM images providing a road map, the Nair Lab carried out biochemical studies to pinpoint the active site elements that enabled the unusual peptide cutting activity in ribosomal peptide biosynthesis. (
  • Paired pre/post vaccination samples from N = 20 healthy adults, and post-vaccine samples from an additional N = 13 individuals were used to immunoprecipitate IgG targets expressed by a bacterial display random peptide library, and preferentially recognized peptides were mapped to the spike primary sequence. (
  • Engineered anti-inflammatory peptides inspired by mapping an evasin-chemokine interaction. (
  • Peptide Mass Fingerprinting and N-Terminal Amino Acid Sequencing of Glycosylated Cysteine Protease of Euphorbia nivulia Buch. (
  • Longitudinal analysis of CD8+ T cells using DNA-barcoded peptide-MHC multimers covering the full SARS-CoV-2 Spike-protein (415 peptides) showed vaccine-specific T cell activation and persistence of memory T cells up to six months post-vaccination. (
  • Analysis of a panel of approximately 900 peptides revealed that despite substantial sequence differences between Mamu-B*08 and HLA-B*2705, the peptide-binding repertoires of these two MHC class I molecules share a remarkable degree of overlap. (
  • With biologically active shape restored, the stapled BH3 peptides bound directly to BAX and triggered its killer activity. (
  • High levels of both C-peptide and blood glucose are found in people with type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance (such as from Cushing's syndrome ). (
  • Low levels of both C-peptide and blood glucose are found in liver disease, a severe infection, Addison's disease , or insulin therapy. (
  • C-peptide doesn't affect your blood glucose levels, but it stays in your blood longer than insulin, so it's easier to measure accurately. (
  • Depending upon the requirements of the customer, peptides can be HPLC purified to >98% pure or the crude, cleaved peptides can be provided. (
  • All purified peptides synthesized by Synthetic Biomolecules are accompanied by an HPLC chromatograph and a mass spectrum, as verifications of purity and identity. (
  • Table 1A HNP 1-3 peptides were identified by peptide mapping (on-chip trypsin digest). (
  • The apparent molecular mass of Nivulian-II is 43670.846 Da (MALDI TOF/MS). Peptide mass fingerprint analysis revealed peptide matches to Maturase K (Q52ZV1_9MAGN) of Banksia quercifolia . (
  • in peptide mapping and protein analysis by gel electrophoresis. (
  • The result of the sequence analysis and the restriction map shows that an open reading frame of the carp growth hormone gene contains 630 base pairs which code for a polypeptide of 210 amino acids including 22 amino acids of the signal peptide and 188 amino acids of the nature growth hormone. (
  • Other analytical services such as amino acid analysis and the determination of peptide content are also available per customer request. (
  • Using HOCl-oxidized lysozyme as a model system, it was found that the immonium ions of oxidized tyrosine and tryptophan formed in MS(2) analysis could not be used as diagnostic ions, owing to the occurrence of isobaric fragment ions from unmodified peptides. (
  • The software RStudio® version 2022.02.3 was used for the analysis and QGIS® version 3.22 were used to prepare the maps. (
  • We will use yeast libraries displaying a given HLA loaded with up to 10^8-10^9 diverse peptides in order to initially identify mimotopes (mimetics + epitopes) that resemble the cognate antigens for the candidate T cell clones. (
  • The superior diversity of the yeast display libraries allows us to identify multiple mimotopes, some of which can potentially map to multiple, cross-reacted antigens. (
  • However, the overall expense of this approach and the inherent challenges in scaling up the production and purification of synthetic peptides precludes the general application of this approach. (
  • Because man-made (synthetic) insulin does not have C-peptide, a person with a low blood sugar level from taking too much insulin will have a low C-peptide level but a high level of insulin. (
  • Membrane interactions of the synthetic N-terminal peptide of HIV-1 gp41 and its structural analogs. (
  • With almost two decades of peptide production and application experience, Synthetic Biomolecules can rapidly produce and deliver custom peptides to our customers at value that is unsurpassed in the industry. (
  • Through the use of state-of-the-art instrumentation and techniques, Synthetic Biomolecules can provide peptides with lengths ranging from 2 to 100 amino acids, in quantities from milligrams to grams. (
  • If C-peptide levels are high after an insulinoma is taken out, it may mean that the tumour has returned or that the tumour has spread to other parts of the body (metastasized). (
  • Peptidases in which the nucleophile that attacks the scissile peptide bond is the sulfhydryl group of a cysteine residue are known as cysteine-type peptidase. (
  • OGeS banks on ordered peptide arrays for validation, a mass spec-based approach that uses isotopicallylabeled reference peptides to quantify each candidate biomarker protein in a sample. (
  • Table 1B The measured masses of the HNP 1-3 peptides were approximately 6 Daltons lower than the expected theoretical masses. (
  • Using a double quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer, precursor ion scanning was combined with detection of MS(3) fragment ions from the immonium ions and collisionally-activated decomposition peptide sequencing to achieve selectivity for the oxPTMs. (
  • Determination of primary protein structure has long been manageable and increasingly automated by the hyphenated technique of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Higher order structure (HOS) can now also be mapped with the same tools, such as disulfide bond mapping, due to the increased power and capabilities of LC-MS (1). (
  • The plan was to adjust the potency of the stapled BH3 peptide so that, according to Walensky, "it was good enough to bind BAX, yet activate it just a bit more slowly so that we could actually study the interaction. (
  • for example, Immunoglobin Ig-G is 150 kilodalton in size and generates a complex mixture of peptides. (
  • This is because insulin and C-peptide are linked when first made by the pancreas. (
  • A person whose pancreas does not make any insulin (type 1 diabetes) has a low level of insulin and C-peptide. (
  • Complete removal of the pancreas (pancreatectomy) causes a C-peptide level so low it can't be measured. (
  • During the process of making insulin, your pancreas produces C-peptide. (
  • That's because your C-peptide levels depend on how much insulin your pancreas makes. (
  • Transformation and other factors of the peptide mass spectrometry pairwise peak-list comparison process. (
  • Crude peptides will just come with the mass spectra. (
  • As Sardinian populations display a high genetic homogeneity stemming from the shared ancestry coupled with evolutionary forces 16 and resulting in susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes, our objective was to evaluate responses against the same peptide selection in subjects from a different biogeographical background. (
  • Of greatest significance is the fact that short peptides elicit only moderate immune responses at best [ 5 ]. (
  • What is more, most subjects who progressed to diabetes were reactive to MAP and the homolgous human peptides. (
  • The amino-terminal peptide of HIV-1 glycoprotein 41 fuses human erythrocytes. (
  • We therefore defined a detailed peptide-binding motif for Mamu-B*08 and investigated binding similarities between the macaque and human MHC class I molecules. (
  • Semaglutide acts like human glucagon-like peptide-1 such that it increases insulin secretion, thereby . (
  • And we can provide the peptide mapping service to analyze the sequence of biopharmaceuticals and confirm complete expression of recombinant protein in compliance with ICH Q6B. (
  • Our recent study investigated Abs levels during the prediabetes period in a small Sardinian cohort 14 revealing that anti-MAP and anti-ZnT8/PI Abs frequently appear right after birth preceding the first classical ZnT8 and insulin autoantibodies undetectable before six months of age 15 . (
  • Measuring C-peptide is an accurate way to find out how much insulin your body is making. (
  • C-peptide and insulin enter your bloodstream at the same time and in equal amounts. (
  • A C-peptide test can provide important information to help understand, monitor, and/or treat disorders that involve how well your body makes insulin, such as hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) and diabetes . (
  • A C-peptide test can tell you whether too much insulin is involved in your condition. (
  • A C-peptide test can provide an accurate measurement, even if you take insulin for diabetes. (