Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques
Amino Acid Sequence
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Amino Acid Motifs
Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
National Library of Medicine (U.S.)
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Cell Surface Display Techniques
Sequence Analysis, Protein
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Small Molecule Libraries
Protein Structure, Secondary
High-Throughput Screening Assays
Directed Molecular Evolution
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
Binding Sites, Antibody
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Natriuretic Peptide, Brain
Surface Plasmon Resonance
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Library Collection Development
Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Peptide Nucleic Acids
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
Amino Acid Substitution
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
Library Technical Services
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
src Homology Domains
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Receptors, Formyl Peptide
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Drug Delivery Systems
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Atrial Natriuretic Factor
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Inhibitory Concentration 50
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Receptors, Cell Surface
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor II-derived peptides inhibit VEGF. (1/2643)Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) directly stimulates endothelial cell proliferation and migration via tyrosine kinase receptors of the split kinase domain family. It mediates vascular growth and angiogenesis in the embryo but also in the adult in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. The potential binding site of VEGF with its receptor was identified using cellulose-bound overlapping peptides of the extracytosolic part of the human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor II (VEGFR II). Thus, a peptide originating from the third globular domain of the VEGFR II comprising residues 247RTELNVGIDFNWEYP261 was revealed as contiguous sequence stretch, which bound 125I-VEGF165. A systematic replacement with L-amino acids within the peptide representing the putative VEGF-binding site on VEGFR II indicates Asp255 as the hydrophilic key residue for binding. The dimerized peptide (RTELNVGIDFNWEYPAS)2K inhibits VEGF165 binding with an IC50 of 0.5 microM on extracellular VEGFR II fragments and 30 microM on human umbilical vein cells. VEGF165-stimulated autophosphorylation of VEGFR II as well as proliferation and migration of microvascular endothelial cells was inhibited by the monomeric peptide RTELNVGIDFNWEYPASK at a half-maximal concentration of 3-10, 0.1, and 0.1 microM, respectively. We conclude that transduction of the VEGF165 signal can be interrupted with a peptide derived from the third Ig-like domain of VEGFR II by blockade of VEGF165 binding to its receptor. (+info)
Cell-specific peptide binding by human neutrophils. (2/2643)Analysis of peptide binding to human neutrophils (PMN) using phage display techniques has revealed cell-specific motifs reactive with the PMN surface. Phage libraries displaying either linear 9-mer or cyclic 10-mer and 6-mer peptides were incubated with normal human neutrophils followed by elution of bound phage with low pH (pH 2.2) and non-ionic detergent. Three rounds of selection generated several related peptide sequences that bound with high avidity to PMN. Using the linear 9-mer library, PMN-binding phage expressed peptides with the motif (G/A)PNLTGRW. The binding of phage bearing this motif was highly specific since no binding was observed on lymphocytes, fibroblasts, epithelial, or endothelial cells. Functional assays revealed that phage bearing the sequence FGPNLTGRW induced a pertussis toxin-sensitive increase in PMN cytosolic calcium analogous to that observed with Galphai coupled receptors. Other prominent motifs identified included phage bearing the consensus DLXTSK(M/L)X(V/I/L), where X represents a non-conserved position. Phage with this motif bound exclusively to a sub population of human PMN that comprised approximately 50% of the total and did not elicit a calcium response. The binding of such phage to PMN was prevented by co-incubation with competing peptides displaying identical or similar sequences (IC50 range from 0.6 micromol/L to 50 micromol/L for DLXTSK and GPNLTG, respectively). We speculate that these techniques will be useful in identifying functional cell-specific binding motifs and contribute to the development of new therapeutic and diagnostic strategies in human disease. (+info)
Identification of a domain in guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1 that interacts with a complex of guanylyl cyclase and tubulin in photoreceptors. (3/2643)The membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase in rod photoreceptors is activated by guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1 (GCAP-1) at low free [Ca2+]. GCAP-1 is a Ca2+-binding protein and belongs to the superfamily of EF-hand proteins. We created an oligopeptide library of overlapping peptides that encompass the entire amino acid sequence of GCAP-1. Peptides were used in competitive screening assays to identify interaction regions in GCAP-1 that directly bind the guanylyl cyclase in bovine photoreceptor cells. We found four regions in GCAP-1 that participate in regulating guanylyl cyclase. A 15-amino acid peptide located adjacent to the second EF-hand motif (Phe73-Lys87) was identified as the main interaction domain. Inhibition of GCAP-1-stimulated guanylyl cyclase activity by the peptide Phe73-Lys87 was completely relieved when an excess amount of GCAP-1 was added. An affinity column made from this peptide was able to bind a complex of photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase and tubulin. Using an anti-GCAP-1 antibody, we coimmunoprecipitated GCAP-1 with guanylyl cyclase and tubulin. Complex formation between GCAP-1 and guanylyl cyclase was observed independent of [Ca2+]. Our experiments suggest that there exists a tight association of guanylyl cyclase and tubulin in rod outer segments. (+info)
Cell-free immunology: construction and in vitro expression of a PCR-based library encoding a single-chain antibody repertoire. (4/2643)A novel cloning-independent strategy has been developed to generate a combinatorial library of PCR fragments encoding a murine single-chain antibody repertoire and express it directly in a cell-free system. The new approach provides an effective alternative to the techniques involving in vivo procedures of preparation and handling large libraries of antibodies. The possible use of the described strategy in the ribosome display is discussed. (+info)
A fast, stochastic threading algorithm for proteins. (5/2643)MOTIVATION: Sequences for new proteins are being determined at a rapid rate, as a result of the Human Genome Project, and related genome research. The ability to predict the three-dimensional structure of proteins from sequence alone would be useful in discovering and understanding their function. Threading, or fold recognition, aims to predict the tertiary structure of a protein by aligning its amino acid sequence with a large number of structures, and finding the best fit. This approach depends on obtaining good performance from both the scoring function, which simulates the free energy for given trial alignments, and the threading algorithm, which searches for the lowest-score alignment. It appears that current scoring functions and threading algorithms need improvement. RESULTS: This paper presents a new threading algorithm. Numerical tests demonstrate that it is more powerful than two popular approximate algorithms, and much faster than exact methods. (+info)
Molecular cloning, cell localization and binding affinity to DNA replication proteins of the p36/LACK protective antigen from Leishmania infantum. (6/2643)The p36/LACK antigen from Leishmania, an analogue of the receptor for activated protein kinase C (PKC), induces high levels of protection against parasite infection in the BALB/c mouse model. This protection is more than twice as high as that elicited by major parasite antigens such as soluble Leishmania antigen or the main surface protease gp63. We have cloned and purified p36/LACK from Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Europe. This protein belongs to the large family of WD 40 repeat proteins confined to eukaryotes and involved in numerous regulatory functions. Differential solubilization and immunofluorescence experiments indicate that p36/LACK is present close to the kinetoplast disc in the cell cytoplasm, probably bound to multiprotein complexes but not to membrane structures. These complexes probably also include cytoplasm PKC isoforms. The use of a genetically-encoded peptide library indicates that p36/LACK binds sequences present in several proteins involved in DNA replication and RNA synthesis. The recognition and binding sequences present in vacuolar proteins and at the beta-chain of major histocompatability complex (MHC) class II suggest the involvement of this regulatory protein in the early mechanisms triggering the protective immune response of the host against the parasite infection. (+info)
Combinatorial protein engineering by incremental truncation. (7/2643)We have developed a combinatorial approach, using incremental truncation libraries of overlapping N- and C-terminal gene fragments, that examines all possible bisection points within a given region of an enzyme that will allow the conversion of a monomeric enzyme into its functional heterodimer. This general method for enzyme bisection will have broad applications in the engineering of new catalytic functions through domain swapping and chemical synthesis of modified peptide fragments and in the study of enzyme evolution and protein folding. We have tested this methodology on Escherichia coli glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (PurN) and, by genetic selection, identified PurN heterodimers capable of glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylation. Two were chosen for physical characterization and were found to be comparable to the wild-type PurN monomer in terms of stability to denaturation, activity, and binding of substrate and cofactor. Sequence analysis of 18 randomly chosen, active PurN heterodimers revealed that the breakpoints primarily clustered in loops near the surface of the enzyme, that the breaks could result in the deletion of highly conserved residues and, most surprisingly, that the active site could be bisected. (+info)
Divergence time estimates for the early history of animal phyla and the origin of plants, animals and fungi. (8/2643)In the past, molecular clocks have been used to estimate divergence times among animal phyla, but those time estimates have varied widely (1200-670 million years ago, Ma). In order to obtain time estimates that are more robust, we have analysed a larger number of genes for divergences among three well-represented animal phyla, and among plants, animals and fungi. The time estimate for the chordate-arthropod divergence, using 50 genes, is 993 +/- 46 Ma. Nematodes were found to have diverged from the lineage leading to arthropods and chordates at 1177 +/- 79 Ma. Phylogenetic analyses also show that a basal position of nematodes has strong support (p > 99%) and is not the result of rate biases. The three-way split (relationships unresolved) of plants, animals and fungi was estimated at 1576 +/- 88 Ma. By inference, the basal animal phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora) diverged between about 1200-1500 Ma. This suggests that at least six animal phyla originated deep in the Precambrian, more than 400 million years earlier than their first appearance in the fossil record. (+info)
... overlapping peptide libraries, (2) truncation peptide libraries, (3) random libraries, (4) alanine scanning libraries, and (5) ... A peptide library is a tool for studying proteins. A peptide library contains a great number of peptides that have a systematic ... "Peptide Library services". www.genscript.com. Archived from the original on 2022-03-14. Retrieved 2022-07-21. Peptide library ... the peptide library is synthesized on a solid phase, mostly on resin, which can be made as a flat surface or beads. The peptide ...
Peptide spectral library
... which will continuously expand the coverage of peptide spectral library. For a peptide spectra library, to reach a maximal ... A peptide spectral library is a curated, annotated and non-redundant collection/database of LC-MS/MS peptide spectra. One ... the unknown spectra can be assigned the identity of the known peptide in the library. Spectral libraries have been used in the ... The research community focused peptide spectral library supports targeted research in a comprehensive fashion for a particular ...
September 2005). "Efficient synthesis of a β-peptide combinatorial library with microwave irradiation". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 ( ... A β-peptide can consist of only one kind of these amino acids (β2-peptides and β3-peptides), or have a combination of the two. ... Beta-peptides (β-peptides) are peptides derived from β-amino acids, in which the amino group is attached to the β-carbon (i.e. ... Generally speaking, β-peptides form a more stable helix than α-peptides. β-peptides are stable against proteolytic degradation ...
Split-intein circular ligation of peptides and proteins
As implemented there is also some constraint on the peptide sequence of the cyclic sequence; for example, libraries may use the ... Lennard KR1, Tavassoli A. (2014-08-18). "Peptides come round: using SICLOPPS libraries for early stage drug discovery". ... By contrast with the nonribosomal peptide synthetases that produces some cyclic peptides like gramicidin S, SICLOPPS offers the ... is a biotechnology technique that permits the creation of cyclic peptides. These peptides are produced by ribosomal protein ...
"Determination of substrate specificity for peptide deformylase through the screening of a combinatorial peptide library". ... methionyl peptide + formate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are formyl-L-methionyl peptide and H2O, whereas its two ... In enzymology, a peptide deformylase (EC 220.127.116.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction H2O + formyl-L-methionyl ... Pei D (2001). "Peptide deformylase: a target for novel antibiotics?". Emerging Therapeutic Targets. 5 (1): 23-40. doi:10.1517/ ...
Ball and chain inactivation
The Journal of Peptide Research. Wiley Online Library. 58 (3): 193-203. doi:10.1034/j.1399-3011.2001.00912.x. PMID 11576325. ... The peptide was built based on the sequence of a 20 amino acid residue from the Drosophila melanogaster's Shaker ShB protein ... The peptide restored inactivation to the channel, giving further support to the ball and chain model. In β2 proteins, the first ... Wiley Online Library. 59 (5): 380-393. doi:10.1002/1097-0282(20011015)59:5. 3.0.CO;2-T. PMID 11514941. Miyamoto K, Nakagawa T, ...
... isotopically-labelled peptides and peptide libraries. Sigma Advanced Genetic Engineering (SAGE) Labs is a division within Sigma ... ISOTEC provides isotopically labeled products for protein structure determination, peptide synthesis, proteomics, metabolic ... peptides, amino acids and their derivatives. Sigma RBI produces specialized products for use in the field of cell signaling and ...
... fruit with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries". Electrophoresis. 34 (2): 207-14. doi:10.1002/elps.201200389. PMID 23161558 ...
Gastrin-Releasing+Peptide at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Nosek, Thomas M. "Section 6/ ... Gastrin-releasing peptide is a regulatory human peptide that elicits gastrin release and regulates gastric acid secretion and ... 2003). "Expression of progastrin-releasing peptide and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor mRNA transcripts in tumor cells of ... National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ...
ISBN 3-527-29869-X. G. Jung (ed.): Combinatorial Peptide and Nonpeptide Libraries, A Handbook. WILEY-VCH, Weinheim. 1996. ISBN ... The sequence motifs of MHC-bound natural peptide libraries (major histocompatibility complex) has been determined for the first ... S. Stevanović, G. Jung (1993). "Multiple sequence analysis: pool sequencing of synthetic and natural peptide libraries". Anal ... peptide libraries, complete B- and T-cell epitope mapping of viral proteins, immunobiochemistry. ...
Cybase Cyclic+Peptides at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (CS1 errors: missing periodical, ... Cyclic peptides in plants are synthesized via a two-step process; the translation of a linear peptide chain, and its subsequent ... Cyclic peptides can be classified according to the types of bonds that comprise the ring. Homodetic cyclic peptides, such as ... Other bicyclic peptides include echinomycin, triostin A, and Celogentin C. There are a number of bi and monocyclic peptides ...
Peptide+PHI at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Hormones, All stub articles, ... Peptide PHI, also known as peptide histidine isoleucine, is a peptide which functions as a hormone. This peptide contains a ... "Differential Effects of Peptide Histidine Isoleucine (PHI) and Related Peptides on Stimulation and Suppression of Neuroblastoma ... "Peptides that Regulate Food Intake Effect of peptide histidine isoleucine on consummatory behavior in rats". American Journal ...
"T7 displayed peptides as targets for selecting peptide specific scFvs from M13 scFv display libraries". J. Immunol. Methods. ... Peptides are usually fused to the N-terminus of pVIII. Usually peptides that can be fused to pVIII are 6-8 amino acids long. ... A patent by George Pieczenik claiming priority from 1985 also describes the generation of peptide libraries. Like the two- ... In 1990, Jamie Scott and George Smith described creation of large random peptide libraries displayed on filamentous phage. ...
These are added in sequence onto the growing peptide chain, which is attached to a solid resin support. Libraries of peptides ... "Past and future perspectives of synthetic peptide libraries". Current Protein & Peptide Science. 9 (5): 447-467. doi:10.2174/ ... However, not all peptide bonds are formed in this way. In a few cases, peptides are synthesized by specific enzymes. For ... In chemistry, peptides are synthesized by a variety of reactions. One of the most-used in solid-phase peptide synthesis uses ...
... peptide synthesis on chip allows the parallel synthesis of tens of thousands of peptides providing larger peptide libraries ... A peptide microarray (also commonly known as peptide chip or peptide epitope microarray) is a collection of peptides displayed ... Peptides are ideally covalently linked through a chemoselective bond leading to peptides with the same orientation for ... The assay principle of peptide microarrays is similar to an ELISA protocol. The peptides (up to tens of thousands in several ...
DNA-encoded chemical library
According to this split-and-pool protocol a peptide combinatorial library DNA-encoded of 106 members was generated. In 2001 ... A sub-library can be paired with a complementary oligonucleotide and used as a DNA encoded library displaying a single ... Microarray has been used for the successfully decoding of ESAC DNA-encoded libraries and PNA-encoded libraries. The coding ... peptide nucleic acids have been used to encode libraries prepared by "split-&-pool" method. A benefit of PNA-encoding is that ...
In vitro compartmentalization
"DNA display for in vitro selection of diverse peptide libraries". Nucleic Acids Research. 31 (19): 118e-118. doi:10.1093/nar/ ... When a protein/peptide is expressed in fusion with Agrobacterium protein VirD2, it will bind to its DNA coding sequence that ... The phenotype to be selected can range from RNA to peptide to protein. By selecting for binding, the most commonly evolved ... All the newly formed proteins/peptides will be in fusion with streptavidin molecules and bind to their biotinylated coding ...
"Use of a conformationally restricted secondary structural element to display peptide libraries: a two-stranded alpha-helical ... peptide therapeutics mimic such functions. Peptide Therapeutics are seen as relatively safe and well-tolerated as peptides can ... units to the peptide to help with peptide delivery to target sights. The introduction of carbohydrates to peptides can alter ... Peptide therapeutics are peptides or polypeptides (oligomers or short polymers of amino acids) which are used to for the ...
Chase, K., Watkins, M., Safavi-Hemami, H. & Olivera, B. M. (2022). Integrating venom peptide libraries into a phylogenetic and ...
Chase, K., Watkins, M., Safavi-Hemami, H. & Olivera, B. M. (2022). Integrating venom peptide libraries into a phylogenetic and ...
Chase, K., Watkins, M., Safavi-Hemami, H. & Olivera, B. M. (2022). Integrating venom peptide libraries into a phylogenetic and ...
6. Chase, K., Watkins, M., Safavi-Hemami, H. & Olivera, B. M. (2022). Integrating venom peptide libraries into a phylogenetic ...
Integrating venom peptide libraries into a phylogenetic and broader biological framework. Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences. 9 ...
Pathophysiology of spider bites
Escoubas P (November 2006). "Molecular diversification in spider venoms: a web of combinatorial peptide libraries". Molecular ...
Lewis C. Cantley
In later research, the oriented peptide library approach has also been used to characterize protease cleavage specificity. ... peptide library approach was extended to identify the substrate specificity of protein kinases toward synthetic peptides. This ... "Use of an oriented peptide library to determine the optimal substrates of protein kinases". Curr. Biol. 4 (11): 973-82. doi: ... "Determination of protease cleavage site motifs using mixture-based oriented peptide libraries". Nat. Biotechnol. 19 (7): 661-7 ...
Poreba M, Salvesen GS, Drag M (October 2017). "Synthesis of a HyCoSuL peptide substrate library to dissect protease substrate ... U.S. National Library of Medicine. Portals: Medicine Viruses COVID-19 (CS1 errors: missing periodical, Articles with short ... hybrid combinatorial substrate library technology). The leucine-like residue resulted in loss of a nearby contact with a ...
"Phage-encoded combinatorial chemical libraries based on bicyclic peptides". Nature Chemical Biology. 5 (7): 502-507. doi: ... Subscription or UK public library membership required.) (subscription required) "Sir Gregory P. Winter - Facts - 2018". ...
All peptide sequences obtained from biopanning using combinatorial peptide libraries have been stored in a special freely ... Libraries of peptides and proteins displayed on filamentous phage. Methods in Enzymology. 1993. 217:228-257 (Biochemistry ... Biopanning involves 4 major steps for peptide selection. The first step is to have phage display libraries prepared. This ... Mandecki W, Chen YC, and Grihalde N. A Mathematical Model for Biopanning (Affinity Selection) Using Peptide Libraries on ...
2001). "Characterization of glucokinase-binding protein epitopes by a phage-displayed peptide library. Identification of 6- ... National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ...
Uridine monophosphate synthase
National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ... Also, the linker peptide can be removed without inactivating catalysis. In Leishmania donovani, separate OPRTase does not have ... There must be an energy balance between the peptide new order and hydrogen bond formation in the loop, between the loop and the ... several experiments have been performed separating both domains and changing the linker peptide that keeps them together. In ...
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src
src+Gene at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) src-Family+Kinases at the US National Library ... Both the N-terminally attached myristic acid and the peptide sequences of the unique region are involved in the interaction. ... National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ...
National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ... The peptide cleaved from the C terminal of Ten-m3, TCAP-3, stimulates the production of cAMP and the proliferation of neurons. ... The TCAP is the resulting peptide from cleaving a putative furin cleavage site found immediately on the N-terminal of TCAP. The ... The embryonic Drosophila cDNA library was screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a primer derived from the EGF-like ...
This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain. v t e v t e ... Zhang Z, Henzel WJ (October 2004). "Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites". ... LILRA3+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview of all the structural ... National Library of Medicine. Torkar M, Haude A, Milne S, Beck S, Trowsdale J, Wilson MJ (December 2000). "Arrangement of the ...
It is a pore-forming peptide, as it can puncture a microbial cell wall, allowing for other death-inducing enzymes to enter the ... National Library of Medicine. Dotiwala F, Lieberman J (October 2019). "Granulysin: killer lymphocyte safeguard against microbes ... Granulysin (GNLY) is a protein expressed in most mammals which functions as an antimicrobial peptide released by killer ... May 2008). "In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of granulysin-derived peptides against Vibrio cholerae". The Journal of ...
National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ... An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. The gene PSMD7 ... Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin- ... "Inhibitors of the proteasome block the degradation of most cell proteins and the generation of peptides presented on MHC class ...
National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ... Jin H, Kendall E, Freeman TC, Roberts RG, Vetrie DL (Feb 2000). "The human family of Deafness/Dystonia peptide (DDP) related ... 2001). "Role of the deafness dystonia peptide 1 (DDP1) in import of human Tim23 into the inner membrane of mitochondria". J. ...
T cells that show a high affinity for self MHC/peptide complexes can undergo clonal deletion in the thymus. Thymic dendritic ... Clonal+deletion at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Articles with short description, Short ... B and T lymphocytes are tested for their affinity for self MHC/peptide complexes before leaving the primary lymphoid organs and ... interaction with self MHC/peptides. Thus, through this process, superantigens can effectively prevent maturation of cognate T ...
National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ... Lin Z, Crockett DK, Lim MS, Elenitoba-Johnson KS (2004). "High-throughput analysis of protein/peptide complexes by ...
It has been described as a "second-generation" GnRH modulator due to its non-peptide and small-molecule nature and its oral ... U.S. National Library of Medicine. Portal: Medicine (Webarchive template wayback links, Articles with short description, Short ... Elagolix was the first member of a new class of GnRH modulators described as "second-generation" due to their non-peptide and ... Elagolix is a small-molecule and non-peptide compound. This is in contrast to GnRH analogues such as leuprorelin and cetrorelix ...
Tetratricopeptide repeat protein 39B
National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ... since the TTC39B protein does not contain a signal peptide, it is unlikely that this glycosylation actually occurs. According ... "Structure of human O-GlcNAc transferase and its complex with a peptide substrate". Nature. 469 (7331): 564-7. Bibcode:2011Natur ...
National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ... Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Human CYP2B6 and Characterization of Glutathione and Peptide Adducts". Drug Metabolism and ... CYP2B6 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CYP2B6 genome location and CYP2B6 gene ... This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain. Portal: ...
Based on this scenario, NaKtide, a peptide Src inhibitor derived from the Na⁺-K⁺ pump, was developed as a functional ouabain-Na ... Sodium,+Potassium+ATPase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) RCSB Protein Data Bank: Sodium- ... July 2009). "NaKtide, a Na/K-ATPase-derived peptide Src inhibitor, antagonizes ouabain-activated signal transduction in ...
Seibert C, Cadene M, Sanfiz A, Chait BT, Sakmar TP (Aug 20, 2002). "Tyrosine sulfation of CCR5 N-terminal peptide by ... tyrosylprotein+sulfotransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology ( ...
U.S. National Library of Medicine. Portal: Medicine (CS1: long volume value, CS1 Russian-language sources (ru), Articles with ... Sumatriptan's primary therapeutic effect is related in its inhibition of the release of Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP ... "Sumatriptan Causes Parallel Decrease in Plasma Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) Concentration and Migraine Headache ...
National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ... proteins in human nasal lavage fluid from non-smokers and smokers using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass ...
The protein has N- and C- terminal carbohydrate-binding domains connected by a link peptide. Multiple alternatively spliced ... end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Matsumoto R, Matsumoto H ... National Library of Medicine. Wada J, Kanwar YS (February 1997). "Identification and characterization of galectin-9, a novel ...
National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ... Evidence suggests that the peptides serve as a membrane anchor for the enzyme. Moreover, the study of cDNA clones made possible ... Thromboxane-A+Synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (CS1: long volume ... 1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1-2): 149- ...
This refers to the use of music in a "library" for which a one-time royalty has been negotiated. It is an alternative to needle ... proteins and peptide fragments, expression systems, cells, and antibodies, for the field of plant disease The comparability ... With respect to music, royalties for performance rights in the United States are set by the Library of Congress' Copyright ... which is administered by the Library of Congress. No person or entity, other than the copyright owner, can use or employ the ...
U.S. National Library of Medicine. Portal: Medicine (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Use ... The peptide endothelin constricts muscles in blood vessels, increasing blood pressure. Ambrisentan, which relaxes those muscles ... Vatter H, Seifert V (2006). "Ambrisentan, a non-peptide endothelin receptor antagonist". Cardiovascular Drug Reviews. 24 (1): ...
... as Detected via Combinatorial Peptide Ligand Libraries". Journal of Proteome Research. 10 (5): 2684-2686. doi:10.1021/pr2001447 ...
National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ... gastroinhibitory peptide), VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide), glucagon and calcitonin. The presence of gastrin stimulates ... Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in ... In humans, the GAS gene is located on the long arm of the seventeenth chromosome (17q21). Gastrin is a linear peptide hormone ...
National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ... after removal of 21-amino acid signal peptide) that mediates the endocytosis of cholesterol-rich low-density lipoprotein (LDL ... Description of LDL receptor pathway at the Brown - Goldstein Laboratory webpage LDL+Receptor at the US National Library of ...
National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ... "Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides". Nat. ...
Robert Stevens (scientist)
subscription required) Robert Stevens author profile page at the ACM Digital Library Malone, J.; Brown, A.; Lister, A. L.; Ison ... A tool for automated and large-scale prediction of proteases involved in naturally occurring peptide generation". Proteomics. ...
RNA-targeting small molecule drugs
The lead analogue was found to bind to the 5'-UTR of HIV with an IC50 of 40 μM for displacing a Tat-derived peptide. The ... They docked a library of small molecules onto RNA dynamic structures generated by NMR and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. ... Garcia-Lopez, A; Llamusi, B; Orzaez, M; Perez-Paya, E; Artero, R. D (2011). "In vivo discovery of a peptide that prevents CUG- ... In that same year, Miller and coworkers screened a library of compounds to find a small molecule drug that could improve ...
National Library of Medicine. 9: 79. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-79. PMC 2698836. PMID 19486523. Aucott JN (June 2015). " ... a whole-cell sonicate enzyme immunoassay followed by a VlsE C6 peptide enzyme immunoassay". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 53 (6 ... "Lyme Disease". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 9 July 2021. Lyme disease at eMedicine Steere AC, Sikand VK, ...
Heart-type fatty acid binding protein
National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library ... In HIV, a synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunosuppressive domain (amino acids 574-592) of HIV-1 gp41 downregulates the ... its peptide sequence and chromosomal localization". The Biochemical Journal. 276 (Pt 1): 203-7. doi:10.1042/bj2760203. PMC ... expression of fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) in peptide-treated PBMCs. H-FABP is a sensitive biomarker for myocardial ...
Akil continued research in the area of opioid peptides and their receptors at the University of Michigan Mental Health Research ... that was given to her by one of the French nuns at the library. She refers to this instance as a "turning point" in her life ... Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda; Walker, J. Michael (1980). "Anatomical and biochemical studies of the opioid peptides and ... After characterizing the anatomy of four opioid peptides, beta-endorphin, dynorphin, methionine enkephalin, and leucine ...
Peptide Library Design Guide | GenScript
Prior to purchasing your peptide library, consider this design guide to ensure you choose the best options for your research ... choosing the right peptide library design can make a big difference in your results. Prior to purchasing your peptide library, ... peptide libraries are ideal for in vitro immune monitoring. To find out more about how peptide libraries accelerate vaccine ... Peptide libraries have been used for a variety of proteomics applications, such as for proteolytic peptide screening or immune ...
British Library EThOS: Gastric secretory responses to gastrin peptides in vivo and in vitro.
Supramolecular peptide library - DankersLab
Supramolecular peptide library. Creation of a supramolecular peptide library to induce renal epithelial monolayer formation for ... Peptide synthesis. • Supramolecular functionalization of peptides. • Chemical analysis methods (NMR, LC-MS etc.). • Cell ... will be conjugated to supramolecular moieties to create a versatile library. The library is then employed to create a renal ... In this project several peptides mimicking extra cellular matrix components (e.g. collagens, fibronectin, and laminin) ...
Epitope mapping - SB-PEPTIDE - Peptide libraries
Peptide library synthesis is useful for epitope mapping which allows to identify the peptide sequence on an antigen that elicit ... Peptide library synthesis is useful for epitope mapping. Epitope mapping allows to identify the peptide sequences on an antigen ... T-cell cultures or purified receptors are added to the peptide library. If there is binding, the peptide can be considered as ... Peptide libraries will display multiple peptide fragments to deduce epitopes. The most common applications of epitope mapping ...
CycloPs: generating virtual libraries of peptides
CycloPs is a software for generating virtual libraries of cyclized and constrained peptides including nonnatural amino acids.. ... We introduce CycloPs, software for the generation of virtual libraries of constrained peptides including natural and nonnatural ... The stand-alone software is capable of filtering the virtual libraries using empirical measurements, including peptide ... Library Linux Lipids Literature Maestro Management MAPS Materials Matlab Md Simulations Membrane Mobile Apps Modeling Namd ...
Purified Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries virions were analyzed by | Peptide Solubility
Peptide Solubility. The former are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via second messengers.. Search. Main ... Purified Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries virions were analyzed by. Posted on December 30, 2014. by admin ... The sections had been then handled with 1 a hundred bioactive small molecule library diluted anti UL31 sera for 1 h at 37 C and ... Purified Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries virions were analyzed by Western blotting. Immunofluorescence picture evaluation of ...
Details for: Journal of Peptide Research › WHO HQ Library catalog
Journal of Peptide Research [electronic resource] Contributor(s): American Peptide SocietyMaterial type: Computer file ... Tags from this library: No tags from this library for this title. Log in to add tags. ... Other Libraries (WorldCat) Other Databases (Google Scholar) Online Stores (Bookfinder.com) Open Library (openlibrary.org) ... IRIS GIFT HINARI PubMed Global Health Library AFRO (AIM) EMRO (IMEMR) PAHO (LILACS) SEARO (IMSEAR) WIPRO (WPRIM) ...
Automated Flow Synthesis of Tumor Neoantigen Peptides for Personalized Immunotherapy | Collection - State Library of NSW
Improving the selectivity of engineered protease inhibitors: Optimizing the P2 prime residue using a versatile cyclic peptide...
Optimizing the P2 prime residue using a versatile cyclic peptide library.. *Post by: CIPPS ... Optimizing the P2 prime residue using a versatile cyclic peptide library.. ... Optimizing the P2 prime residue using a versatile cyclic peptide library. ... 2021 - ARC Centre of Excellence for Innovations in Peptide and Protein Science ...
Pentelute Lab MIT | Abiotic peptides as carriers of information for the encoding of small-molecule library synthesis
... machines for efficient drug delivery into cells and to create new machines to rapidly and efficiently manufacture peptides and ... Abiotic peptides as carriers of information for the encoding of small-molecule library synthesis. SIMON L. RÖSSLER, NATHALIE M ... Abiotic peptides as carriers of information for the encoding of small-molecule library synthesis. ... Abiotic peptides as carriers of information for the encoding of small-molecule library synthesis ...
Proteomic analysis of archival breast cancer clinical specimens identifies biological subtypes with distinct survival outcomes ...
The pooled control also included an isoDoping peptide library (Supplementary Data 1b) comprised of 706 synthetic peptides, with ... Design of synthetic peptides and isoDoping library. Due to stochastic sampling in data-dependent acquisition used in the SP3- ... Abundances for isodoped peptides were corrected based on the ratio of the median abundance of all isodoped peptides over ... The eluted peptides were recovered by clearing the supernatant with a magnetic rack and the supernatant containing the peptides ...
Projects Z: Bioactive Peptides - Universität Ulm
Body distribution of toxic peptides in larvae of a pergid and an argid sawfly species - RBINS Open Access Library
Peptide Enzyme Substrates
AnaSpec peptide enzyme substrates include non-fluorescent, fluorogenic substrates and FRET substrates ... Peptide Libraries (2) Renin/Angiotensin (RAS) Cascade (8) Tissue Remodeling/MMPs (22) ... Peptide Enzyme Substrates Peptide Enzyme Substrates. AnaSpec peptide enzyme substrates include non-fluorescent, fluorogenic ... Custom Peptides Synthesis. From macrocyclic to fluorescent or other highly modified peptides ...
EGF Receptor Substrate 2 [DADE-pY-LIPQQG], 5-FAM labeled - 5 mg
Labeled peptide is used to assay PTB upon the removal of the phosphate group. ... SARS-CoV-2 derived peptides. Range of peptides and peptides libraries to study SARS-CoV-2 ... Kinase Substrates Library, Group I, biotinylated, 180 distinct peptide mixtures - 1 Set. Cat.Number : AS-62017-1 ... The labeled peptide is used to assay PTB based on marked fluorescence increase upon the removal of the phosphate group (Em = ...
1tzs.1 | SWISS-MODEL Template Library
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1tzs.1. Crystal Structure of an activation intermediate of Cathepsin E ... Peptides. Cathepsin E: AD. activation peptide from Cathepsin E: BE. 23-mer peptide from PelB-IgG kappa light chain fusion ... 23-mer peptide from PelB-IgG kappa light chain fusion protein. Toggle Identical (CF). ...
Pharmaceutics | Free Full-Text | Cell Penetrating Peptides, Novel Vectors for Gene Therapy
The cargoes they can deliver range from other small peptides, full-length proteins, nucleic acids including RNA and DNA, ... Since their initial description and characterization, the field of cell penetrating peptides as vectors has exploded. ... or naturally occurring peptides, able to carry variety of cargoes across the cellular membranes in an intact, functional form. ... Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), also known as protein transduction domains (PTDs), first identified ~25 years ago, are small ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Analytical-processes; Fungi; Toxins; Microorganisms; Author Keywords: Aflatoxin; phage-displayed peptide; phage peptide library ... a random-8-peptide library was constructed and used as a source of peptides that mimic aflatoxins (termed as mimotopes). Five ... mimotope peptides were obtained by panning-elution from the library and were successfully used in an indirect competitive ELISA ...
Peptides For Muscle Growth : The Tribune India
... you may have heard of Paradigm Peptides. Short for selective androgen receptor modulators, SARMs are a class of medications ... Row erupts as Bathinda MC issues notice to library 1 day ago ... Features of Paradigm Peptides: Paradigm Peptides are a new ... What are Paradigm Peptides? If youre looking for an edge in your fitness routine, you may have heard of Paradigm Peptides. ... Alternatives to Paradigm Peptides: There are many alternatives to Paradigm Peptides on the market today. Some of the most ...
Frontiers | Peptide Folding and Binding Probed by Systematic Non-canonical Mutagenesis
These developments are timely, as the insights they provide can guide the optimization of de novo cyclic peptides, a promising ... These developments are timely, as the insights they provide can guide the optimization of de novo cyclic peptides, a promising ... returning peptide structure-activity relationships with unprecedented depth and detail. ... returning peptide structure-activity relationships with unprecedented depth and detail. ...
Global Drug Discovery Outsourcing Market Gaining Momentum
Compound libraries of antibodies, proteins, and peptides are in high demand. Similarly, antibody fragments that are smaller in ... However, this type of R&D work, especially the construction of small molecule compound libraries, has now been considered to be ... Until now, the most desirable technology in drug discovery research has been compound libraries with diverse structures. A Jim ... have been the main places for global drug companies to look for focused compound libraries of small molecules that possess ...
CCCC 1995, Volume 60, Issue 12, Abstracts pp. 2147-2155, Cited by | Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications
Synthesis of a Scaffold for the Creation of Non-Peptide Libraries. Alexander Kasal, Ladislav Kohout and Michal Lebl Institute ... Lam Kit S., Lebl Michal, Krchňák Viktor: The "One-Bead-One-Compound" Combinatorial Library Method. Chem. Rev. 1997, 97, 411. , ... Synthesis of a Scaffold for the Creation of Non- Peptide Libraries. ChemInform 2010, 27, no. ,https://doi.org/10.1002/chin. ... Stanková Magda, Lebl Michal: Library generation through successive substitution of trichlorotriazine. Mol Divers 1996, 2, 75. , ...
General - Table of Contents
FragBuilder: an efficient Python library to setup quantum chemistry calculations on peptides models. Modeling of the chemical ... FragBuilder: an efficient Python library to setup quantum chemistry calculations on peptides models. Modeling of the chemical ... In this article, a powerful Python library is presented, to quickly and efficiently generate realistic peptide model structures ... In this article, a powerful Python library is presented, to quickly and efficiently generate realistic peptide model structures ...
SciELO - Brazil - Characterization of Leiurus abdullahbayrami (Scorpiones: Buthidae) venom: peptide profile, cytotoxicity and...
Scorpion venoms are rich bioactive peptide libraries that offer promising molecules that may lead to the discovery and ... Possani LD, de la Vega RC R: Scorpion venom peptides.In Handbook of biologically active peptides. 1° edition Edited by Kastin ... Almaaytah A, Albalas Q: Scorpion venom peptides with no disulfide bridges: a review. Peptides 2014,51:35-45. ... MCE peptide bands at 6 and 7 kDa have a perfect match to MS determined peptide masses in 6-7 kDa range. Also, from a practical ...
Targeted disruption of key disease-linked protein-protein interactions with highly selective cell-penetrating peptide...
Library * Contact us The University of Glasgow is a registered Scottish charity: Registration Number SC004401 ... Targeted disruption of key disease-linked protein-protein interactions with highly selective cell-penetrating peptide ... Targeted disruption of key disease-linked protein-protein interactions with highly selective cell-penetrating peptide ...
Fumito Ito, MD, PhD | Keck School of Medicine of USC
Home | Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces
C-Peptide Test: MedlinePlus Medical Test
A C-peptide test measures the level of C-peptide in your blood or urine. It can help find the cause of low blood sugar and ... National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National ... Why do I need a C-peptide test?. You may need a C-peptide test if:. *You have been diagnosed with hypoglycemia (low blood sugar ... What happens during a C-peptide test?. A C-peptide test usually uses a sample of your blood. But the test may also be done on a ...
Is the New Natriuretic Peptide Better Than the Old Ones For Diagnosing CHF - American College of Cardiology
ACC Anywhere: The Cardiology Video Library. *ACCSAP. *ACCEL. *CardioSource Plus for Institutions and Practices ... The most important members of this family include atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B- type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and ... Comparison of midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in the diagnosis of ... Comparison with plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide. Circulation 1996; 93:1963-9. ...
SynthesisProteinsBioactiveAntigenProteinPhageAntimicrobial activityImmunizationCyclicEpitopesSynthetic2000OverlappingNovoEpitopeMolecularSequencesReceptorsAntibodyFragmentsVitroAntibodiesPharmacologyScreeningGenerateResponsesBoundAmino acidImmunogenicAlternativesCharacterizationSequenceAlanineVersatileMeasurementELISAHighlyMethodsCompoundsCancerResearchPotentialGeneration
- Peptide library synthesis is useful for epitope mapping . (sb-peptide.com)
- For more information about our peptide library synthesis service , please visit this link . (sb-peptide.com)
- The stand-alone software is capable of filtering the virtual libraries using empirical measurements, including peptide synthesizability by standard peptide synthesis techniques, stability, and the druglike properties of the peptide. (drugdesign.gr)
- Technologies such as DNA-encoded libraries have transformed the process of drug discovery by enabling the rapid synthesis of vast collections of molecules, each encoded with a unique appendant DNA tag, and their subsequent screening in affinity selection experiments. (pentelutelabmit.com)
- As a consequence, chemical transformations developed for DNA-encoded library synthesis have to be optimized for oligonucleotide compatibility rather than reaction efficiency and scope. (pentelutelabmit.com)
- A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale. (bvsalud.org)
- The Pentelute Lab aims to invent new chemistry for the efficient and selective modification of proteins, to 'hijack' these biological machines for efficient drug delivery into cells and to create new machines to rapidly and efficiently manufacture peptides and proteins. (pentelutelabmit.com)
- The cargoes they can deliver range from other small peptides, full-length proteins, nucleic acids including RNA and DNA, liposomes, nanoparticles, and viral particles as well as radioisotopes and other fluorescent probes for imaging purposes. (mdpi.com)
- Many proteins and peptides fold upon binding another protein. (frontiersin.org)
- Animal venoms compose a complex mixture of ions, small organic molecules, peptides and proteins, which evolved through millions of years of natural selection aiming at prey capture and defense mechanisms. (scielo.br)
- Scorpion venoms are composed of inorganic salts, free amino acids, nucleotides, biogenic amines, peptides and proteins [ 4 Quintero-Hernández V, Jiménez-Vargas JM, Gurrola GB, Valdivia HH, Possani LD: Scorpion venom components that affect ion-channels function.Toxicon 2013,76:328-342. (scielo.br)
- Modeling of the chemical properties of proteins is a challenging task in modern computational biochemistry, leading researchers to focus on the properties of small, representative, protein-like structures, such as peptides. (peerj.com)
- In gene, recombinant and peptide vaccines, the immunogen is a single protein or a small assembly of epitopes from antigenic proteins. (who.int)
- In intracellular eukaryotic parasites like Trypanosoma cruzi , proteins that are secreted may be a major source of peptides for the MHC class I presentation pathway (3). (who.int)
- Cleavage site-specific proteases and transporter proteins involved in the processing of protein antigens into peptides also seem to play a role in the selection of antigenic peptides. (who.int)
- Proteasomes, which generate peptides from cytoplasmic proteins for the class I pathway, seem to have preferred cleavage sites flanking dominant CD8+ T cell epitopes in protein sequences (4). (who.int)
- Peptides corresponding to tumor associated antigens (TAA) are displayed in a library format and bioactive peptides are screened. (genscript.com)
- Our biomaterials are on a supramolecular basis which allows for an easy mix and match of the base biomaterial and bioactive compounds such as adhesion peptides. (dankerslab.nl)
- The sections had been then handled with 1 a hundred bioactive small molecule library diluted anti UL31 sera for 1 h at 37 C and washed with PBS. (peptide-solubility.com)
- Scorpion venoms are rich bioactive peptide libraries that offer promising molecules that may lead to the discovery and development of new drugs. (scielo.br)
- A significant part of this rich mixture is composed of bioactive peptides. (scielo.br)
- Due to their remarkable structural and functional variety, these bioactive peptides offer almost limitless possibilities for the development of new therapeutic agents [ 1 Lewis RJ, Garcia ML: Therapeutic potential of venom peptides.Nat Rev Drug Discov 2003,2(10):790-802. (scielo.br)
- Arachnid species including scorpions and spiders are of great interest for bioactive peptide research since the complex venom of these animals contain many peptide toxins [ 3 Possani LD, de la Vega RC R: Scorpion venom peptides.In Handbook of biologically active peptides. (scielo.br)
- Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are examples of such cells, and peptide libraries are invaluable for identifying the antigenic sequences against which to design the T cell receptor. (genscript.com)
- Epitope mapping allows to identify the peptide sequences on an antigen that elicit an immune response. (sb-peptide.com)
- This involves scanning the entire sequence of the antigen with overlapping peptides ( peptide scan), which are then probed for binding to the respective antibody. (sb-peptide.com)
- To search for an alternative to using protein conjugated aflatoxin as a coating antigen in aflatoxin detection by an ELISA method, a random-8-peptide library was constructed and used as a source of peptides that mimic aflatoxins (termed as mimotopes). (cdc.gov)
- Chen Y-C , Delbrook K , Dealwis C , Mimms L , Mushahwar I , Mandecki W . Discontinuous epitopes of hepatitis B surface antigen derived from a filamentous phage peptide library. (cdc.gov)
- Since most immune responses against protein and peptide antigens are T-cell dependent, the molecular target of such vaccines is to generate at least 50-100 complexes between MHC molecule and the antigenic peptide per antigen-presenting cell, sensitizing a T cell population of appropriate clonal size and effector characteristics. (who.int)
- Thus, the immunobiology of antigen recognition by T cells must be taken into account when designing new generation peptide- or gene-based vaccines. (who.int)
- A large number of factors influence dominance and crypticity of peptide epitopes, basically availability for MHC binding, MHC binding itself, and the recognition of the MHC:peptide complex by T cells via their antigen receptors (1). (who.int)
- While peptide vaccines may bind directly to the MHC, recombinant vaccines must undergo proteolytic processing through the MHC class II pathway in endosomal vesicles, and expression products of DNA vaccines enter both the cytoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum MHC class I pathway and can also be uptaken by professional antigen-presenting cells (2). (who.int)
- Peptide libraries have quickly become an invaluable tool for a variety of research applications, including protein binding studies, cancer immunotherapy and proteomics. (genscript.com)
- Since libraries can span an entire protein sequence, no important epitopes will be missed. (genscript.com)
- Individually aliquoted peptide sequences that comprise a larger protein can be ideal for a variety of biological assays. (genscript.com)
- Identification of antibody binding peptides may be based on the primary structure of the protein antigens used to raise the antibodies (knowledge- or sequence-based approach). (sb-peptide.com)
- Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), also known as protein transduction domains (PTDs), first identified ~25 years ago, are small, 6-30 amino acid long, synthetic, or naturally occurring peptides, able to carry variety of cargoes across the cellular membranes in an intact, functional form. (mdpi.com)
- Folding upon binding reactions are necessarily multistep: Peptide and protein must diffuse into the same vicinity, the peptide must fold, interactions must form between peptide and partner protein, and the partner protein may change conformation-not necessarily in this order. (frontiersin.org)
- Therefore, binding affinity can be captured by a single thermodynamic value, K D or Δ G °. However, this strength of binding depends on numerous inter- and intra-chain interactions as well as the conformational preferences of the peptide and protein. (frontiersin.org)
- Screening for peptide drugs from the natural repertoire of biodiverse protein folds. (bvsalud.org)
- An abundant protein has a higher chance of yielding peptides available for presentation. (who.int)
- These libraries can be used to identify peptides that have antimicrobial activity, direct stem cell differentiation, or even monitor pharmacologic activity. (genscript.com)
- Improving the selectivity of engineered protease inhibitors: Optimizing the P2 prime residue using a versatile cyclic peptide library. (cipps.org.au)
- These developments are timely, as the insights they provide can guide the optimization of de novo cyclic peptides, a promising new modality for chemical probes and therapeutic agents. (frontiersin.org)
- Paradigm Peptides are synthetic medications that mimic the effects of testosterone in the body. (tribuneindia.com)
- 2006). The LLNA is based upon characterization of chemicals comprising allergens of different potencies and non- induced proliferative responses in draining lymph nodes allergenic chemicals were evaluated for their ability to react with following topical exposure of mice to chemicals (Gerberick reduced glutathione (GSH) or with two synthetic peptides et al. (cdc.gov)
- It was used technique of documentation based on literature available at Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library Online) and MEDLINE between 2000 and 2010. (bvsalud.org)
- Potential antigens are sequenced and separated into overlapping peptides. (genscript.com)
- This chapter describes chemically synthesized combinatorial, as well as randomly generated peptide libraries, collectively called de novo approaches, and their application for antibody epitope mapping. (sb-peptide.com)
- Considering the molecular weight-function relationship of previously identified venom peptides, future bioactivity studies may lead to the discovery of novel potassium and chloride ion channel inhibitors as well as new antimicrobial peptides from L. abdullahbayrami venom. (scielo.br)
- When positive T cell or antibody binding is confirmed, these peptide sequences can then be used to design targeted therapeutics. (genscript.com)
- In this short review, we will discuss the several concepts related to selection of amino acid sequences to be included in DNA and peptide vaccines. (who.int)
- T-cell cultures or purified receptors are added to the peptide library . (sb-peptide.com)
- Vaccination with DNA- or peptide-based vaccines relies on T cell recognition, either in the afferent (T cell-dependent antibody-mediated responses) or in both the afferent and effector limbs of the immune response (T cell-mediated responses - e.g., delayed hypersensitivity). (who.int)
- Phenotypic screening of phylomer peptide libraries derived from genome fragments to identify and validate new targets and therapeutics. (bvsalud.org)
- Antibodies are added to the peptide library and binding can be assessed by ELISA. (sb-peptide.com)
- So far, more than 600 scorpion peptides were described in the UniProt database [ 6 King GF, Hardy MC: Spider-venom peptides: structure, pharmacology, and potential for control of insect pests. (scielo.br)
- Peptide libraries have been used for a variety of proteomics applications, such as for proteolytic peptide screening or immune monitoring. (genscript.com)
- The software is written in the cross-platform Python programming language, and features include generating virtual libraries in one-dimensional SMILES and three-dimensional SDF formats, suitable for virtual screening. (drugdesign.gr)
- The software and accompanying Web interface is designed to enable the rapid generation of large, structurally diverse, synthesizable virtual libraries of constrained peptides quickly and conveniently, for use in virtual screening experiments. (drugdesign.gr)
- The results of these investigations reveal that measurement of peptide reactivity has considerable potential the development of alternative methods for skin sensitization utility as a screening approach for skin sensitization testing, and testing. (cdc.gov)
- In this article, a powerful Python library is presented, to quickly and efficiently generate realistic peptide model structures. (peerj.com)
- Position-Scanning Peptide Libraries as Particle Immunogens for Improving CD8+ T-Cell Responses Adv Sci (Weinh). (usc.edu)
- In most immunological systems, including post-infectious protective immune responses, only some peptides from a large number of potential candidates are actually the target of a vigorous immune response. (who.int)
- the peptide is bound and folded, or unbound and disordered. (frontiersin.org)
- The central event in the cellular immune response to invading microorganisms is the specific recognition of foreign peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules by the a ß T cell receptor (TCR). (who.int)
- We need a thorough understanding of how amino acid sequence affects the binding of these peptides. (frontiersin.org)
- If there is binding, the peptide can be considered as capable of being immunogenic. (sb-peptide.com)
- There are many alternatives to Paradigm Peptides on the market today. (tribuneindia.com)
- Since their initial description and characterization, the field of cell penetrating peptides as vectors has exploded. (mdpi.com)
- Several factors influence the availability of a given peptide sequence for processing and presentation, at both the quantitative and qualitative levels. (who.int)
- Here we describe the various approaches to mutagenesis, as applied to peptide folding and binding: traditional one-at-a-time alanine scanning, mutations to non-canonical amino acids, and state-of-the-art methods that allow huge numbers of mutations to be analyzed in parallel. (frontiersin.org)
- In this project several peptides mimicking extra cellular matrix components ( e.g. collagens, fibronectin, and laminin) will be conjugated to supramolecular moieties to create a versatile library. (dankerslab.nl)
- A C-peptide test can provide an accurate measurement, even if you take insulin for diabetes. (medlineplus.gov)
- Five mimotope peptides were obtained by panning-elution from the library and were successfully used in an indirect competitive ELISA for analyzing total aflatoxin concentration. (cdc.gov)
- With over 25 years of peptide manufacturing experience, AnaSpec is your trusted source of highly complex peptides. (anaspec.com)
- Microfluidic capillary electrophoresis indicated the presence of 6 to 7 kDa peptides and proved to be a highly practical peptidomics tool with better resolution when compared to conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (scielo.br)
- These libraries are commonly combined with mass spectrometry (MS) to study reaction progress, to screen for important biomarkers, or to identify post-translational modifications (Picotti, 2012, Nature Methods). (genscript.com)
- Furthermore, these high-throughput mutagenesis methods have been expanded to include mutations to non-canonical amino acids, returning peptide structure-activity relationships with unprecedented depth and detail. (frontiersin.org)
- In the present study, the peptide profile of the venom was investigated by electrophoretic methods, size-exclusion and reversed-phase chromatography and mass spectroscopy. (scielo.br)
- Paradigm Peptides are a new generation of performance-enhancing compounds that have been designed to provide superior results with fewer side effects than traditional steroids. (tribuneindia.com)
- Designing targeted therapeutics is critical for effective elimination of cancer cells, and peptide libraries are commonly used to quickly identify important biomarkers on cancer cells. (genscript.com)
- Prior to purchasing your peptide library, consider this design guide to ensure you choose the best options for your research application. (genscript.com)
- Given the vast potential of encoded library technologies in drug discovery, complementary platforms addressing the limitations of DNA encoding by leveraging carriers of information with higher stability and versatility are desirable. (pentelutelabmit.com)
- Stanková Magda, Lebl Michal: Library generation through successive substitution of trichlorotriazine. (cas.cz)