Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Trifluoroethanol: A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein PrecursorsNatriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Thermolysin: A thermostable extracellular metalloendopeptidase containing four calcium ions. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) 3.4.24.27.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Crop, Avian: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type: A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Natriuretic Peptides: Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Antigens, Plant: Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gastrin-Releasing Peptide: Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Peptide PHI: A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Photoaffinity Labels: Biologically active molecules which are covalently bound to the enzymes or binding proteins normally acting on them. Binding occurs due to activation of the label by ultraviolet light. These labels are used primarily to identify binding sites on proteins.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Mice, Inbred BALB CCarboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Nerve Tissue ProteinsT-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Opioid Peptides: The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.PhotochemistrySignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Aptamers, Peptide: Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.

The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. The tryptic peptides. (1/33178)

The NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa was digested with trypsin, and peptides accounting for 441 out of the 452 residues of the polypeptide chain were isolated and substantially sequenced. Additional experimental detail has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50052 (11 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem J. (1975) 145, 5.  (+info)

Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. (2/33178)

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Peptides from digestion with a staphylococcal proteinase. (3/33178)

The extracellular proteinase of Staphylococcus aureus strain V8 was used to digest the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa. Of 35 non-overlapping peptides expected from the glutamate content of the polypeptide chain, 29 were isolated and substantially sequenced. The sequences obtained were valuable in providing overlaps for the alignment of about two-thirds of the sequences found in tryptic peptides [Wootton, J. C., Taylor, J, G., Jackson, A. A., Chambers, G. K. & Fincham, J. R. S. (1975) Biochem. J. 149, 739-748]. The blocked N-terminal peptide of the protein was isolated. This peptide was sequenced by mass spectrometry, and found to have N-terminal N-acetylserine by Howard R. Morris and Anne Dell, whose results are presented as an Appendix to the main paper. The staphylococcal proteinase showed very high specificity for glutamyl bonds in the NH4HCO3 buffer used. Partial splits of two aspartyl bonds, both Asp-Ile, were probably attributable to the proteinase. No cleavage of glutaminyl or S-carboxymethylcysteinyl bonds was found. Additional experimental detail has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50053 (5 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K, from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 1458 5.  (+info)

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (4/33178)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

Bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone is strikingly diminished in collagenase-resistant mutant mice. (5/33178)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone resorption by acting directly on osteoblasts/stromal cells and then indirectly to increase differentiation and function of osteoclasts. PTH acting on osteoblasts/stromal cells increases collagenase gene transcription and synthesis. To assess the role of collagenase in the bone resorptive actions of PTH, we used mice homozygous (r/r) for a targeted mutation (r) in Col1a1 that are resistant to collagenase cleavage of type I collagen. Human PTH(1-34) was injected subcutaneously over the hemicalvariae in wild-type (+/+) or r/r mice four times daily for three days. Osteoclast numbers, the size of the bone marrow spaces and periosteal proliferation were increased in calvariae from PTH-treated +/+ mice, whereas in r/r mice, PTH-induced bone resorption responses were minimal. The r/r mice were not resistant to other skeletal effects of PTH because abundant interstitial collagenase mRNA was detected in the calvarial periosteum of PTH-treated, but not vehicle-treated, r/r and +/+ mice. Calcemic responses, 0.5-10 hours after intraperitoneal injection of PTH, were blunted in r/r mice versus +/+ mice. Thus, collagenase cleavage of type I collagen is necessary for PTH induction of osteoclastic bone resorption.  (+info)

Caspase-mediated cleavage of p21Waf1/Cip1 converts cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis. (6/33178)

The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21waf1/Cip1 is a downstream effector of the p53-dependent cell growth arrest. We report herein that p21 was cleaved by caspase-3/CPP32 at the site of DHVD112L during the DNA damage-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. The cleaved p21 fragment could no more arrest the cells in G1 phase nor suppress the cells undergoing apoptosis because it failed to bind to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and lost its capability to localize in the nucleus. Thus, caspase-3-mediated cleavage and inactivation of p21 protein may convert cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis, leading to the acceleration of chemotherapy-induced apoptotic process in cancer cells.  (+info)

Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (7/33178)

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

Caspase 3 inactivation to suppress Fas-mediated apoptosis: identification of binding domain with p21 and ILP and inactivation machinery by p21. (8/33178)

The death mediator caspase acts as the dominant regulator during cell death induction. The CPP32 subfamily, including caspase 3 (CPP32/Yama/Apopain), is essential for the cell death signaling. We recently reported that activation of caspase 3 is regulated by complex formation with p21 or ILP. In the present study, we investigated the binding domain with p21 and ILP to further characterize the caspase 3 inactivation machinery. Our results show that caspase 3 contains p21 binding domain in the N-terminus and ILP binding domain in the active site. Further, the caspase 3 binding domain in p21 was independent of the Cdk- or PCNA-binding domain. We also found caspase 3 protection by p21 from the p3-site cleavage serineproteinase contributes to the suppression machinery. Here, we propose the caspase 3 inactivation system by p21 and ILP as new essential system in the regulation of cell death.  (+info)

*Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript

... peptide fragments". Peptides. 28 (10): 1945-53. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2007.07.022. PMID 17766010. cocaine- and amphetamine- ... "The activity of CART peptide fragments". Peptides. 27 (8): 1926-33. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.10.025. PMID 16730858. ... Peptides. 27 (6): 1328-34. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.10.016. PMID 16309793. Wierup N, Kuhar M, Nilsson BO, Mulder H, Ekblad E ... The peptide is found in several areas, among them the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain. When CART is injected into rat ...

*Major facilitator superfamily

These range from small oxyanions to large peptide fragments. Other MFS transporters are notable for a lack of selectivity, ... "Structural basis for dynamic mechanism of proton-coupled symport by the peptide transporter POT". Proceedings of the National ...

*Protein domain

"Folding of peptide fragments comprising the complete sequence of proteins. Models for initiation of protein folding. II. ... Since the peptide bonds themselves are polar they are neutralised by hydrogen bonding with each other when in the hydrophobic ... Zehfus, M. H (1997). "Identification of compact, hydrophobically stabilized domains and modules containing multiple peptide ...

*HLA-A*02

Some HLAs bind pathogenic peptide fragments with very high affinity. This in essence "supercharges" their immune system in ... Thus any alteration to the HLA that induces decreased binding to a certain peptide or increased binding to a certain peptide, ... If HLAs bind none of the peptides produced by a pathogen, then there is no way for the immune system to tell that a cell is ... This is a significant decrease and is almost certainly a result of the abnormally efficient binding of HLA-A*02 to peptides ...

*ANKS1A

Mercurio FA, Di Natale C, Pirone L, Scognamiglio PL, Marasco D, Pedone EM, Saviano M, Leone M (July 2015). "Peptide Fragments ...

*CALM2

Martoglio B, Graf R, Dobberstein B (1997). "Signal peptide fragments of preprolactin and HIV-1 p-gp160 interact with calmodulin ... "Identification of a calmodulin-binding and inhibitory peptide domain in the HIV-1 transmembrane glycoprotein". AIDS Res. Hum. ...

*Chromogranin A

A peptide fragment of ChgA located in the Vasostatin-1, namely ChgA29-42 has been identified as the antigenic epitope ... Chromogranin A is cleaved by an endogenous prohormone convertase to produce several peptide fragments. See chromogranin A ... These peptides negatively modulate the neuroendocrine function of the releasing cell (autocrine) or nearby cells (paracrine). ... Iacangelo AL, Eiden LE (August 1995). "Chromogranin A: current status as a precursor for bioactive peptides and a granulogenic/ ...

*Lipotropin

β-Lipotropin can be cleaved into smaller peptides. In humans, γ-lipotropin, β-MSH, and β-endorphin, are all possible fragments ... γ-lipotropin is the amino-terminal peptide fragment of β-lipotropin. In humans, it has 56 amino acids. Gamma lipotropin is ... Peptides Direct information page, accessed 26 August 2013 AFL Statement of Charges against James Hird and Essendon Football ... β-Lipotropin is a 90-amino acid polypeptide that is the carboxy-terminal fragment of POMC. It was initially reported to ...

*Protein mass spectrometry

It is the process of assigning amino acids from peptide fragment masses of a protein. De novo sequencing has proven successful ... Collision-induced dissociation is used in mainstream applications to generate a set of fragments from a specific peptide ion. ... An intermediate "middle-down" approach in which larger peptide fragments are analyzed may also sometimes be used. The ... Peptide mass fingerprinting uses the masses of proteolytic peptides as input to a search of a database of predicted masses that ...

*Hemorphin-4

"Peptide fragments derived from the beta-chain of hemoglobin (hemorphins) are centrally active in vivo". Peptides. 10 (4): 747- ... Casomorphin Brantl V, Gramsch C, Lottspeich F, Mertz R, Jaeger KH, Herz A (June 1986). "Novel opioid peptides derived from ... Hemorphin-4 is an endogenous opioid peptide of the hemorphin family which possesses antinociceptive properties and is derived ... Peptides. 13 (4): 623-31. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(92)90165-Y. PMID 1359507. Lantz I, Glämsta EL, Talbäck L, Nyberg F (August 1991 ...

*Hemorphin

"Peptide fragments derived from the beta-chain of hemoglobin (hemorphins) are centrally active in vivo". Peptides. 10 (4): 747- ... Casomorphin Brantl V, Gramsch C, Lottspeich F, Mertz R, Jaeger KH, Herz A (June 1986). "Novel opioid peptides derived from ... Hemorphins are a class of naturally occurring, endogenous opioid peptides which are found in the bloodstream, and are derived ...

*Hydrogen-deuterium exchange

Individual peptides are then analyzed for overall deuteration of each peptide fragment. Using this technique the resolution of ... For example, the location and relative amount of deuterium exchange along the peptide backbone can be determined roughly by ... It was soon discovered that CID causes "scrambling" of the deuterium position within the peptides. However, fragmentation ... "Electron capture dissociation proceeds with a low degree of intramolecular migration of peptide amide hydrogens". Journal of ...

*Peptide-mass fingerprint

... a fragmented peptide sample is loaded onto a matrix and ionized through the use of a high energy laser. The fragmented ions are ... In bio-informatics, a peptide-mass fingerprint or peptide-mass map is a mass spectrum of a mixture of peptides that comes from ... This spectrum shows the masses and relative abundances of the peptide fragments present in the sample. In reading a spectrum ... Cottrell, J. S. (1994-06-01). "Protein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting". Peptide Research. 7 (3): 115-124. ISSN ...

*Peptide mass fingerprinting

The mass of these peptide fragments is then calculated and compared to the peak list of measured peptide masses. The results ... The advantage of this method is that only the masses of the peptides have to be known. Time-consuming de novo peptide ... They then compare the masses of the peptides of the unknown protein to the theoretical peptide masses of each protein encoded ... The matrix molecules are required for the desorption of the peptide molecules. Matrix and peptide molecules co-crystallize on ...

*Genome-based peptide fingerprint scanning

"Identifying proteins from two-dimensional gels by molecular mass searching of peptide fragments in protein sequence databases ... Genome-based Peptide Fingerprint Scanning (GFS) Documentation Facebook link to "Genome-based Peptide Fingerprint Scanning" ... peptide molecular weights, tandem mass spectrometry from one or more peptide, and combination mass data with amino acid ... They applied peptide fingerprint scanning and MASCOT to the protein data to find regions that may not have been previously ...

*Proteomics

Due to the lack of specific protein identification, past researchers were forced to decipher the peptide fragments themselves. ... These methods offer various advantages, for instance they are often able to determine the sequence of a protein or peptide, ... One of the earliest method for protein analysis has been Edman degradation (introduced in 1967) where a single peptide is ... Here, the proteins within a complex mixture are labeled first isotopically, and then digested to yield labeled peptides. The ...

*Digestive enzyme

Pepsin breaks down the protein in the food into smaller particles, such as peptide fragments and amino acids. Protein digestion ... Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP): This peptide decreases gastric motility and is produced by duodenal mucosal cells. motilin: ... Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) is produced by the mucosal duodenal cells in response to chyme containing high amounts of ... Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a unique peptide released by the duodenal "I cells" in response to chyme containing high fat or ...

*HLA-A

Some HLAs bind pathogenic peptide fragments with very high affinity. This in essence "supercharges" their immune system in ... This changes the peptides produced via proteolysis, which changes the peptides able to be presented to the immune system by the ... This increases the likelihood that the peptide will find the groove. If the peptide's affinity for the HLA-A protein is great ... TAP then binds to the peptide loading complex along with another protein, called tapasin. At this point the peptide loading ...

*P3 peptide

... resulting the peptides p3 and Aβ respectively and releasing in both cases a cytoplasmic peptide fragment known as the APP ... p3 peptide also known as amyloid β- peptide (Aβ)17-40/42 is the peptide resulting from the α- and γ-secretase cleavage from the ... Szczepanik AM, Rampe D, Ringheim GE (2008). "Amyloid-β peptide fragments p3 and p4 induce pro-inflammatory cytokine and ... However, p3 peptide's role in these diseases is not truly known yet. There is little information related to the p3 peptides ...

*MHC class I

Their function is to display peptide fragments of non-self proteins from within the cell to cytotoxic T cells; this will ... The α1 and α2 domains fold to make up a groove for peptides to bind. MHC class I molecules bind peptides that are 8-10 amino ... The MHC class I molecule is then, in turn, loaded with peptides in the lumen of the ER. The peptide-loading process involves ... The two subunits form a peptide binding site and two ATP binding sites that face the cytosol. TAP binds peptides on the ...

*Growth hormone-releasing hormone

Sermorelin, a functional peptide fragment of GHRH, has been used in the diagnosis of deficiencies in growth hormone secretion. ... It is a 44-amino acid peptide hormone produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. GHRH first appears in the human ...

*Antigen processing

The endogenous pathway is used to present cellular peptide fragments on the cell surface on MHC class I molecules. If a virus ... there are instances where extracellular-derived peptides are presented in the context of MHC class I and cytosolic peptides are ... to prevent it from binding cellular peptides or peptides from the endogenous pathway. The invariant chain also facilitates MHC ... "Class II-associated invariant chain peptide" (CLIP) which still blocks the peptide binding cleft. An MHC class II-like ...

*Peptide synthesis

Another method is fragment condensation, in which peptide fragments are coupled. Although the former can elongate the peptide ... Fragment condensation is better than stepwise elongation for synthesizing sophisticated long peptides, but its use must be ... The biosynthesis of peptides or proteins (long peptides) in living organisms occurs in the opposite direction, and is known as ... In peptide synthesis, microwave irradiation has been used to complete long peptide sequences with high degrees of yield and low ...

*N-Terminal peptide of proopiomelanocortin

The N-terminal peptide/fragment of proopiomelanocortin (NPP; N-POMC), also known as pro-γ-MSH, is a naturally occurring, ...

*Telomerase reverse transcriptase

hTERT peptide fragments have been shown to induce a cytotoxic T-cell reaction against telomerase-positive tumor cells in vitro ...

*Phage display

Peptides are usually fused to the N-terminus of pVIII. Usually peptides that can be fused to pVIII are 6-8 amino acids long. ... Multiple cloning sites are sometimes used to ensure that the fragments are inserted in all three possible reading frames so ... Castillo J, Goodson B, Winter J (November 2001). "T7 displayed peptides as targets for selecting peptide specific scFvs from ... when he demonstrated the display of peptides on filamentous phage by fusing the peptide of interest onto gene III of ...
Accumulation of the amyloid-beta peptide (alphabeta) in the cerebral cortex is a critical event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease. The b-amyloid protein precursor (APP) is cleaved by beta-secretase, producing a soluble derivative of the protein and a membrane anchored 99-amino acid carboxy-terminal fragment (C99). The C99 fragment serves as substrate for g-secretase to generate the 4 kDa amyloid-b peptide (alphabeta), which is deposited in the brains of all suffers of Alzheimers disease. ...
Interestingly, one of the fragments studied by Krimm (2,3-dihydroxynapthalene) was also tested at Abbott, but found to bind in site 2. The reason? In the Abbott study, this fragment (and a number of others) were tested in the presence of a fragment that binds to site 1. It seems that site 1 is a thermodynamic sink, or hot spot. Unless this site is filled, other fragments will bind there, even if they could also bind elsewhere on the protein. The implication is that, if you want to find fragments that bind to a new site on your protein, it may be worth screening in the presence of a fragment known to bind to an existing site ...
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A system offers potential completions for fragments of text. The system may obtain a text fragment and identify documents that include the text fragment. The system may locate sentences within the documents that include at least a portion of the text fragment, identify sentence endings associated with the located sentences, and present the sentence endings as potential completions for the text fragment.
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Hello, Id like to propose an extension of the current API to allow querying of named fragment shader varying out variables of shader programs. As to my knowledge it is not possible yet to get the user defined names of the fragment shader outputs, this is how it could get used: GLuint shaderProgram; ... GLint fragmentVaryingOutCount; glGetProgramiv( shaderProgram, GL_FRAGMENT_VARYING_OUT_ARB, &fragmentVaryingOutCount ); GLint longestFragmentVaryingOutName;
Background Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of heart failure and vascular events. Small increases in circulating N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated with an increased risk of a cardiovascular event, and high levels signal left ventricular dysfunction. Data on the effects of tumour necrosis factor α(TNFα) blocking agents on circulating NT-proBNP levels in patients with active RA are lacking but may be informative.. Methods 171 consecutive patients with RA (28-joint disease activity score ,3.2) without congestive heart failure (NYHA class III or IV) were scheduled to receive adalimumab once every 2 weeks. Serum NT-proBNP concentrations were measured simultaneously on stored baseline and 16-week samples. Paired sample t tests were used to observe differences in biomarkers before and after adalimumab administration. Correlations between the biomarkers and changes in circulating log NT-proBNP levels were evaluated with the Pearson test ...
Introduction: Increased plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration reflects cardiac overload and is used to diagnose and stage congestive heart failure. While NT-proBNP exhibits beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system via vasodilatation and diuresis, increased amounts of circulating NT-proBNP also promote release of norepinephrine, which is known to affect blood pressure. Cross-sectional studies report positive associations of NT-pro-BNP with blood pressure, but the prospective association of increased NT-proBNP with risk of hypertension is not well characterized. Thus, the study aim was to evaluate the association of NT-proBNP with incident hypertension in the community-based ARIC Study.. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort analysis of 3,849 participants aged 53-75 years with measured NT-proBNP at ARIC Visit 4 (1996-98) and normal blood pressure; participants with a history of hypertension (medication use or measured BP ≥140/90 mmHg), ...
article{f11d08e8-ad91-4917-ae93-8e3b89b2c1b0, abstract = {BACKGROUND:,br/,,br, Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is regarded as a sensitive marker of cardiovascular disease. Vascular disease plays an important role in cognitive impairment.,br/,,br, ,br/,,br, METHOD:,br/,,br, In 447 elderly patients with mental illness, serum NT-proBNP level and the presence or absence of vascular disease according to the medical record were used to categorize patients in different subgroups of vascular disease.,br/,,br, ,br/,,br, RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:,br/,,br, Patients with vascular disease and elevated serum NT-proBNP level had a lower cognition level, shorter survival time, lower renal function and a higher percentage of pathological brain imaging than patients with vascular disease and normal NT-proBNP level. Thus, elevated serum NT-proBNP level might be helpful to detect patients who have a more severe cardiovascular disease.}, author = {Nilsson, Karin and Gustafson, Lars and ...
Background: Cardiac dysfunction is a well-known complication of sepsis, but its characteristics and consequences, especially on a longer term, remain unclear. The aim of this thesis was to study the characteristics and the implications of cardiac dysfunction for outcome in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock.. Purpose: First, to assess the ability of a cardiac biomarker to predict outcome in ICU patients. Second, to characterise cardiac dysfunction in septic shock using speckle tracking echocardiography. Third, to investigate the reliability of echocardiographic methods used to describe cardiac dysfunction in septic shock. Fourth, to study long-term cardiac outcome in severe sepsis and septic shock patients.. Materials and methods: The cardiac biomarker amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) was collected in 481 patients on ICU admission and its ability to predict death was assessed. In 50 patients with septic shock, echocardiography was performed on ICU ...
Objective: To assess the long-term prognostic value of plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) after major vascular surgery.. Design: A single-centre prospective cohort study.. Patients: 335 patients who underwent abdominal aortic aneurysm repair or lower extremity bypass surgery.. Interventions: Prior to surgery, baseline NT-proBNP level was measured. Patients were also evaluated for cardiac risk factors according to the Revised Cardiac Risk Index. Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) was performed to detect stress-induced myocardial ischaemia.. Main outcome measures: The prognostic value of NT-proBNP was evaluated for the endpoints all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during long-term follow-up.. Results: In this patient cohort (mean age: 62 years, 76% male), median NT-proBNP level was 186 ng/l (interquartile range: 65-444 ng/l). During a mean follow-up of 14 (SD 6) months, 49 patients (15%) died and 50 (15%) experienced a MACE. Using receiver ...
The cardiovascular response to septic shock is peripheral vasodilatation resulting in systemic hypotension, hyporesponsiveness to vasopressors, and reduced systemic vascular resistance. Cytokines and endotoxins from Gram-negative microorganisms may lead to myocardial depression and ventricular dilatation.21 A circulating myocardial depressant substance was first proposed ,50 years ago.22 Later, it was shown that tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 are cardiodepressant.23 Myocardial depression has been defined by different measures of cardiac performance such as cardiac output, depressed ejection fraction, or ventricular dilation.24 Several studies have shown that laboratory markers such as cyclic guanosine monophosphate, ANP, endothelin, or the cardiac-specific protein TNI may reflect cardiac dysfunction or myocardial cell damage in severe sepsis.14,15,25. The present study demonstrated that NT-proBNP may be a valuable laboratory marker to allow risk stratification of sepsis patients. ...
In this prospective study of asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria, without known CAD, risk stratification with NT-proBNP and CAC, alone and in combination, predicted CVD and all-cause mortality on top of established risk factors. According to our previously defined risk criteria based on NT-proBNP and CAC, 24 of 26 deaths occurred in the high risk group during 6.1 years of follow-up and in these patients the adjusted HR for fatal or nonfatal CVD was 10.6 (95 % CI 2.4-46.3). Both risk markers added independent predictive value in the assessment of risk for future events. Identifying diabetic subjects at risk of CVD and death at an early stage and initiating more aggressive therapy in these individuals could improve outcome.. We demonstrated that patients stratified into a high-risk group (NT-proBNP ≥45.2 ng/L and/or CAC ≥ 400) had a significantly higher risk of CVD events and mortality compared to low-risk patients. Findings were similar when comparing each of the ...
Methods Between 1997 and 2001, serum NT-proBNP was measured in 6040 participants (mean age 69 years, 57% women) free of heart-failure and dementia from the Rotterdam Study. Participants were continuously followed-up for incident dementia until 2012, for 56 616 person-years. Cognition was assessed at baseline and reassessed between 2002 and 2006 by Letter-Digit-Substitution-task, Stroop test and Word-Fluency test. Associations of NT-proBNP with dementia (555 cases), Alzheimers disease (357 cases) and vascular dementia (32 cases) were assessed linearly, and in quartiles using Cox regression. Associations of NT-proBNP with cognitive-decline were assessed using multiple linear regression. All analyses were repeated after excluding patients with CVD. ...
In patients presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain, the observation of ischemic changes in the electrocardiogram or troponin elevation prompts hospitalisation and, generally, invasive management. However, decision on admission or discharge is uncertain in the remaining patients. The spectrum of these patients spans from individuals without coronary artery disease to some with high risk unstable angina. An early exercise test is usually performed with the aim of guiding the decision. However, the exercise test is not available 24 hours per day/ 7 days per week, around 40% of the patients show contraindication to exercise and there are inconclusive as well as false-positive results. The limitations of the exercise test can lead to unnecessary hospitalisations. Therefore, there is room for alternative tools. Our objective was to compare a new strategy combining clinical history and NT-proBNP levels versus the usual care, consisting of early exercise testing, for decision ...
Methods and Results-A total of 3104 community-dwelling Japanese individuals aged ≥40 years without history of CVD were followed up for 5 years. A total of 127 CVD events were identified. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of CVD increased with increasing N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels (,55, 55-124, 125-399, and ≥400 pg/mL) at baseline and was significantly higher even in subjects with a modest increase. This association remained robust even after adjustment for other potential risk factors (55-124 pg/mL: multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio=1.85 [95% CI 1.07-3.18], P=0.03; 125-399 pg/mL: 2.98 [95% CI 1.65-5.39], P,0.001; ≥400 pg/mL: 4.54 [95% CI 2.22-9.29], P,0.001). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for the development of total CVD and its subtypes, coronary heart disease and stroke, were significantly increased by a 1 SD increment of the log NT-proBNP concentrations and were nearly equal among CVD subtypes. Similar findings were observed for stroke ...
The role of preoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for the risk stratification has not been well investigated yet. We compared the predictive power of TTE with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a representative biomarke
(KudoZ) English to Portuguese translation of N-terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide [diagnostics/cardiology - Medical: Pharmaceuticals (Medical)].
With the exception of IL-6, all biomarkers were higher in TIA patients than in controls. NT-proBNP was significantly related to the presence or new diagnosis of AF at all time points analyzed. Furthermore, the baseline NT-proBNP level was significantly higher than values at the 7-day and 90-day follow-up. For this reason, different cut-off values were obtained at different times: 313 pg/ml at baseline [odds ratio (OR) = 18.99, P , 0.001], 181 pg/ml at 7 days (OR = 11.4, P = 0.001) and 174 pg/ml (OR = 8.46, P , 0.001) at 90 days. ...
714 Relationship between serial measurements of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide and ambulatory cardiac filling pressures in outpatients with chronic heart failure. Braunschweig, F.; Fahrleitner, A.; Mangiavacchi, M.; Ghio, S.; Fotuhi, P.; Hoppe, U.C.; Harrison, M.; Linde, C. // European Journal of Heart Failure. Supplements;Jun2004, Vol. 2 Issue 1, p149 An abstract of the study "Relationship Between Serial Measurements of N-Terminal Pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Ambulatory Cardiac Filling Pressures in Outpatients With Chronic Heart Failure," by F. Braunschweig and colleagues is presented. ...
Although patients can present with non-specific symptoms and minimal clinical signs, generally, in the community, patients with heart failure present with symptoms of dyspnoea or fluid retention. In order to confirm (or refute) the diagnosis, NICE recommends natriuretic peptide testing (ideally N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide; NT-proBNP) in all patients with suspected heart failure. An NT-proBNP level , 2,000 ng/L is highly suggestive of heart failure and NICE recommends echocardiography and specialist review within 2 weeks. Conversely, an NT-proBNP level , 400 ng/L suggests that a diagnosis of heart failure is unlikely. Patients with an NT-proBNP of 400-2,000 ng/L should have echocardiography and specialist assessment within 6 weeks. ...
Fox PR, Oyama MA, Reynolds C, Rush JE, DeFrancesco T, Keene BW, Atkins C, MacDonald K, Schober KE, Bonagura JD, Stepien R, Kellihan H, Ngyen T, Lehmkuhl L, Lefbom B, Moise NS, Hogan DF. Utility of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP) to distinguish between congestive heart failure and non-cardiac causes of acute dyspnea in cats (multicenter study). J Vet Cardiol 2009;11:S51-S61. ...
Background:N-terminal fragment B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) prognostic utility is commonly determined post hoc by identifying a single optimal discrimination threshold tailored to the individual study population. The authors aimed to determine how using these study-specific post hoc thresholds impacts meta-analysis results. Methods: The authors conducted a systematic review of studies reporting the ability of preoperative NT-proBNP measurements to predict the composite outcome of all-cause mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction at 30 days after noncardiac surgery. Individual patient-level data NT-proBNP thresholds were determined using two different methodologies. First, a single combined NT-proBNP threshold was determined for the entire cohort of patients, and a meta-analysis conducted using this single threshold. Second, study-specific thresholds were determined for each individual study, with meta-analysis being conducted using these study-specific thresholds. Results: The ...
The present study shows that plasma NT-proBNP is a powerful prognostic indicator of mortality in hypertension, independent of (and superior to) 2 easily obtainable ECG markers, the Sokolov index and the RaVL amplitude. In addition, it can also be used in patients with no detectable ECG LVH, that is, in the majority of hypertensive patients seen in primary care, to improve risk stratification.. LVH detection is important for risk stratification; in all of the current guidelines, the first step relies on ECG that, by several indexes, allows for estimating the presence of this condition. Because our study aimed at evaluating a strategy for routine evaluation of hypertensive patients by noncardiologist physicians, echocardiography was not considered in the analysis. Moreover, we favored the use of a very widespread ECG index of hypertrophy, that is, the Sokolov-Lyon index. Because of its known limitations, like, for example, the interaction with body mass index,18 we also used the amplitude of R ...
N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) is well established as a predictor of prognosis in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Although a similar prognostic significance has been suggested in 1 study of right ventricular failur
适用: 人 - 样品类型: Serum, Plasma. - 1张图片 - 1个PubMed引用 | Order Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-ProBNP) ELISA Kit (ABIN492015).
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The proteolytic processing of neuropeptides has an important regulatory function and the peptide fragments resulting from the enzymatic degradation often exert essential physiological roles. The proteolytic processing generates, not only biologically inactive fragments, but also bioactive fragments that modulate or even counteract the response of their parent peptides. Frequently, these peptide fragments interact with receptors that are not recognized by the parent peptides. This review discusses tachykinins, opioid peptides, angiotensins, bradykinins, and neuropeptide Y that are present in the central nervous system and their processing to bioactive degradation products. These well-known neuropeptide systems have been selected since they provide illustrative examples that proteolytic degradation of parent peptides can lead to bioactive metabolites with different biological activities as compared to their parent peptides. For example, substance P, dynorphin A, angiotensin I and II, bradykinin, ...
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BioAssay record AID 656250 submitted by ChEMBL: Binding affinity to PS1 Carboxy-terminal fragment in human HeLa cell membrane at 20 nM by photo-affinity in-gel fluorescence method in presence of GSI L458.
Sixty-six paired NT-proBNP and CCE values were obtained. Patients in the SB group and in the CPAP group were 10 and 12, respectively. In both groups there was a trend towards an increase in NT-proBNP values after extubation, an opposite trend was observed regarding CCE values (P , 0.05). NT-proBNP levels showed an increase after extubation (T2, T3) compared with T1; conversely, CCE showed an inverse trend. Overall, a negative correlation was found between NT-proBNP and CCE values (R = -0.81, P , 0.001). Significant inverse correlations were found between NT-proBNP and CCE at T1, T2, and T3 (R = -0.91, -0.75 and -0.73 respectively; P , 0.001). The overall correlation between NT-proBNP and CCE was -0.74 in the SB group and -0.86 in the CPAP group. Standard hemodynamic and ventilatory data did not show significant changes during the study. ...
This gene encodes a dual-function 65 kDa protein that undergoes proteolytic cleavage to produce a 45 kDa N-terminal fragment with a paired-like homeodomain and a 20 kDa C-terminal fragment with a proline-rich domain. The C-terminal fragment localizes to the cytoplasm while the N-terminal fragment localizes exclusively to the nucleus. In contrast to human, the mouse homolog has a novel PN/PF motif in the C-terminus and is paternally imprinted in placental tissue. This gene likely plays a role in placental development and spermatogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010 ...
Results. There were no statistical differences in serum NT-proBNP between patients stratified according to the GOLD staging system for COPD severity or BODE index and mMRC breathlessness scale. The concentration of NT-proBNP was statistically significantly higher in the patients with coexisting cardiovascular diseases (220.8 ± 258.1 vs. 95.4±56.1 pg/ml). The group of patients with NT-proBNP concentration > 125 pg/ml (n = 36) was statistically significantly older (67.5 ± 6 years old vs. 63.2 ± 7.1 years old; p = 0.009) and had statistically significantly lower PaO2 (67.4 ± 11.8 mm Hg vs. 73.0 ± 11.6 mm Hg; p = 0.04 ...
Rabbit polyclonal BNP antibody validated for WB, ELISA, RIA, IHC and tested in Human and Rat. Referenced in 4 publications and 2 independent reviews.
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RESULTS Mean NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher in case than in control subjects. In logistic regression analyses, NT-proBNP values ,26.46 pg/mL were independently associated with a 2.56-fold increased risk of all complications. Odds ratios of CVD (3.95 [95% CI 1.26-12.35]), nephropathy (4.38 [1.30-14.76]), and distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (4.32 [1.41-13.23]) were significantly increased in patients with NT-proBNP values in the highest quartile (,84.71 pg/mL), independently of renal function and known risk factors. These associations were no longer significant after inclusion of TNF-α into the model. ...
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Peptides , Amyloid Peptides , Beta-Amyloid Peptide Fragments , Beta-Amyloid (1-17)-Cys, Human; This peptide amino acids 1 to 17 is a modified fragment of the b-amyloid peptide, with cysteine substituted for valine at position 17.; DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLC; H-Asp-Ala-Glu-Phe-Arg-His-Asp-Ser-Gly-Tyr-Glu-Val-His-His-Gln-Lys-Leu-Cys-OH
Peptides , Amyloid Peptides , Beta-Amyloid Peptide Fragments , Beta-Amyloid (1-17)-Cys, Human; This peptide amino acids 1 to 17 is a modified fragment of the b-amyloid peptide, with cysteine substituted for valine at position 17.; DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLC; H-Asp-Ala-Glu-Phe-Arg-His-Asp-Ser-Gly-Tyr-Glu-Val-His-His-Gln-Lys-Leu-Cys-OH
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3fragment ligation- troubleshooting - posted in Molecular Biology: Hello All I have cloned tanc1(approximately 5.6kb in size) into pbuescript vector(3kb approx.) successfully. Tanc1 was big enough and so I looked at the restriction sites and cut it into two fragments- one 2kb A fragment and another 4 kb B fragment. The 2kb fragment had Sal1 and Hind3 ends and the 4kb fragment has Xho, Hind3 ends so that A and B can ligate together through the Hind3 ends. I got the A insert and B insert s...
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Below is the html fragment in case the one that got emailed to you got messed up in the mail. Here is the html fragment below, just replace the ***SITE ID*** with your site ID that you get when you got emailed after you joined the ring, and replace the ***SITE TITLE*** with your site name and Email. ...
OBJECTIVES Due to different release mechanisms, mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR proANP) may be superior to N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT proBNP) in the diagnosis of acute heart failure (AHF) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We compared MR proANP and NT proBNP for their diagnostic value in patients with AF and sinus rhythm (SR). DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING University hospital, emergency department. PATIENTS 632 consecutive patients presenting with acute dyspnoea. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES MR proANP and NT proBNP plasma levels were determined. The diagnosis of AHF was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists using all available data. Patients received long-term follow-up. RESULTS AF was present in 151 patients (24%). MR proANP and NT proBNP levels were significantly higher in the AF group compared with the SR group (385 (258-598) versus 201 (89-375) pmol/l for MR proANP, p|0.001 and 4916 (2169-10285) versus 1177 (258-5166) pg/ml, p|0.001 for
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the cyanogen bromide fragments of the β chain of human haptoglobin. AU - Kurosky, Alexander. AU - Hay, Regine E.. AU - Kim, Han Hwa. AU - Touchstone, Billy. AU - Rasco, Marilyn A.. AU - Bowman, Barbara H.. PY - 1976. Y1 - 1976. N2 - Characterization of the cyanogen bromide (CNBr) fragments of the β chain of human haptoglobin revealed five major fragments resulting from cleavage of four methionyl residues. The fragments were isolated by gel filtration in guanidine-HCl on Sepharose 6B and Bio-Gel P10 and P60. Compositional analyses of the five cyanogen bromide fragments accounted for 248-253 amino acid residues in agreement with the number of residues determined for the intact β chain. Most of the carbohydrate was attached to CNBr II. Automated amino-terminal sequence analysis and carboxyl-terminal hydrolysis with carboxypeptidase of the haptoglobin β chain and cyanogen bromide fragments identified 139 residues, or about 55% of the β-chain molecule. The ...
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing acute left main (LM) coronary artery revascularization have a high mortality and natriuretic peptides such as N-terminal pro-B-type (NT-proBNP) have been shown to have prognostic value in patients with acute coronary syndromes. The present study looked at the prognostic value of NT-proBNP in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied all consecutive patients undergoing acute LM coronary artery percutaneous coronary intervention between January 2005 and December 2008 in whom NT-proBNP was measured (n=71). We analyzed the clinical characteristics and the short- and long-term outcomes in relation to NT-proBNP level at admission. Median NT-proBNP was 1,364 ng/L, ranging from 46 to 70,000 ng/L. NT-proBNP was elevated in 63 (89%) patients and was ≥1,000ng/L in 42 (59%). Log NT-proBNP (hazard ratio [HR] 3.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.55-7.97, P=0.003) and left ventricular ejection fraction (HR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.99, P=0.007) were predictors for all-cause ...
Early diagnosis and treatment can help people who have heart failure live longer, more active lives.. A test for B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is primarily used to help detect, diagnose, and evaluate the severity of heart failure. It can be used, along with other cardiac biomarker tests, to detect heart stress and damage and/or along with lung function tests to distinguish between causes of shortness of breath. Chest X-rays and an ultrasound test called echocardiography(also available in the 4th Practice) may also be performed.. BNP and NT-proBNP are substances that are produced in the heart and released when the heart is stretched and working hard to pump blood. (For more on this, see the "What is being tested?" section.). Heart failure can be confused with other conditions, and it may co-exist with them. BNP and NT-proBNP levels can help doctors differentiate between heart failure and other problems, such as lung disease. An accurate ...
In this population-based cohort study, we found that NT-proBNP has independent prognostic value for first cardiovascular events beyond the classic risk factors. An increase in the risk not only for heart failure but also for coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke was seen, resulting in a doubling of the risk for first cardiovascular events in subjects with a NT-proBNP above the 80th percentile. Furthermore, NT-proBNP improved the prediction of 10-year cardiovascular risk, reflected by an improvement in the C statistic. The addition of NT-proBNP to a model including the classic risk factors improved risk classification, with an NRI of 9% in men and 13% in women. Our findings indicate that the addition of NT-proBNP to a risk model on the basis of the classic risk factors improves the risk prediction of first fatal and nonfatal CVD in healthy older individuals.. In our study, a 1-SD increase in log NT-proBNP was associated with a 47% increase in first fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events in ...
We assessed the predictive ability of selected biomarkers using N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) as the benchmark and tried to establish a multi-biomarker approach to heart failure (HF) in hypertensive patients. In 120 hypertensive patients with or without overt heart failure, the incremental predictive value of the following biomarkers was investigated: Collagen III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP), cystatin C (CysC), lipocalin-2/NGAL, syndecan-4, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1 receptor type I (IL1R1), galectin-3, cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The highest discriminative value for HF was observed for NT-proBNP (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.873) and TGF-β (AUC = 0.878). On the basis of ROC curve analysis we found that CT-1 | 152 pg/mL, TGF-β | 7.7 ng/mL, syndecan | 2.3 ng/mL, NT-proBNP | 332.5 pg/mL, CysC | 1 mg/L and NGAL | 39.9 ng/mL were
Methods and Results-A total of 16 492 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a history of, or at risk of, cardiovascular events were randomized to saxagliptin or placebo (mean follow-up, 2.1 years). The primary end point was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. Hospitalization for heart failure was a predefined component of the secondary end point. Baseline N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide was measured in 12 301 patients. More patients treated with saxagliptin (289, 3.5%) were hospitalized for heart failure compared with placebo (228, 2.8%; hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence intercal, 1.07-1.51; P=0.007). Corresponding rates at 12 months were 1.9% versus 1.3% (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.88; P=0.002), with no significant difference thereafter (time-varying interaction, P=0.017). Subjects at greatest risk of hospitalization for heart failure had previous heart failure, an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤60 ...
AIMS Cardiovascular events are the most relevant events in patients with diabetes mellitus. We aimed to compare the predictive values of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and the state-of-the-art marker, albuminuria, for cardiac events in diabetic patients. METHODS In this prospective observational study we recruited 1071 patients with diabetes mellitus. NT-proBNP and albuminuria ⊟ defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio |30 mg/g were measured at baseline. Patients were followed during a mean observation period of 33.1 months. A total of 103 patients reached the defined endpoint (unplanned hospitalization due to a cardiac event or death). RESULTS The mean duration of diabetes was 15 ± 12 years and the mean HbA(1c) was 7.5 ± 3.1%. At baseline, 23.7% of the patients presented with albuminuria and 36.6% had plasma NT-proBNP values |125 pg/ml. Multiple Cox regression analysis including age, gender, duration of diabetes HbA(1c), albuminuria, and lnNT-proBNP revealed that lnNT
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1HPY: Solution structures of human parathyroid hormone fragments hPTH(1-34) and hPTH(1-39) and bovine parathyroid hormone fragment bPTH(1-37).
Methods and Results- We evaluated data from 4128 patients in the I-PRESERVE trial (Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction Study). Multivariable Cox regression models were developed using 58 baseline demographic, clinical, and biological variables to model the primary outcome of all-cause mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization (1505 events), all-cause mortality (881 events), and HF death or hospitalization (716 events). Log N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, age, diabetes mellitus, and previous hospitalization for HF were the most powerful factors associated with the primary outcome and with the HF composite. For all-cause mortality, log N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, age, diabetes mellitus, and left ventricular EF were the strongest independent factors. Other independent factors associated with poor outcome included quality of life, a history of chronic obstructive lung disease, log neutrophil count, heart rate, and estimated glomerular filtration ...
Impact Of Body Mass Index On The Accuracy Of N-terminal Pro-brain Natriuretic Peptide And Brain Natriuretic Peptide For Predicting Outcomes In Patients With Chronic Heart Failure And Reduced Ejection Fraction Insights From The Paradigm-hf Study (prospective Comparison Of Arni With Acei To Determine Impact On Global Mortality And Morbidity In Heart Failure Trial ...
Elevated plasma natriuretic peptide levels after AMI (acute myocardial infarction) are associated with adverse outcome. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of plasma N-ANP (N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide) and N-BNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) with mortality and heart failure following AMI. We studied 403 patients with AMI. Blood was sampled for measurement of N-ANP and N-BNP on a single occasion between 72 and 96 h after symptom onset. Natriuretic peptide levels were related to all-cause mortality and heart failure episodes. During follow up (median, 462 days; range 5-764), 43 (10.7%), 25 (6.2%) and 49 (12.2%) patients suffered death, heart failure hospitalization and outpatient heart failure respectively. Only N-BNP (P,0.0005), N-ANP (P=0.005) and previous AMI (P=0.016) were independently predictive of death. N-BNP, but not N-ANP, predicted 30-day mortality. N-ANP, but not N-BNP, predicted mortality after 30 days. N-BNP was the better ...
pharmacodynamic modeling of acute N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide after doxorubicin infusion in breast cancer. Br J Clin Pharmacol.(2016) 82, 773-783. [PMID 27128712]. Sanghavi K*, Wiseman A*, Kirstein M, Cao Q, Brundage R, Jensen K, Rosgosheske J, Kurtzweil A, Long-Boyle J, Wagner J, Warlick E, Brunstein CG, Weisdorf D, Jacobson PA. Personalized Fludarabine Dosing To Reduce Non-Relapse Mortality In Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients Receiving Reduced Intensity Conditioning. Transl Research. 2016 Sep;175:103-115.e4. Epub 2016 Mar 31. [PMID 27094990]. OettingWS, SchladtDP, Guan W, Miller MB, RemmelRP, DorrC*, SanghaviK*, MannonRB, HerreraB, MatasAJ, SalomonDR, KwokPY, KeatingBJ, IsraniAK, JacobsonPA for the DeKAF Investigators. Genome wide association study of tacrolimus concentrations in African American kidney transplant recipients identifies multiple CYP3A5 alleles. Am J Transplant 2016 Feb;16(2):574-82. [PMID 26485092]. Wasko J, Westholder JS, Jacobson ...
The baseline clinical and echocardiographic characteristics are listed in Table 1. In 11 (26.2%) of 42 patients, the etiology of the pericardial effusion was unknown. The three most frequent identifiable causes were: malignancy in 15 (35.7%), tuberculosis in 9 (21.4%), and hypothyroidism in 4 (9.5%). Three (7.2%) patients had other unusual causes: rupture of an ulcerated aortic aneurysm, connective tissue disease, and purulent pericarditis complicated by mediastinal empyema, respectively. Effusion was moderate in 23 patients and large in 19 patients. On the basis of clinical and echocardiographic findings, 5 patient had overt clinical tamponade (19%), 13 patients (31.0%) had echocardiographic cardiac tamponade, and 29 (69.0%) patients had no tamponade physiology (Table 2). All patients with cardiac tamponade underwent pericardiocentesis and exhibited subsequent clinical and hemodynamic improvement. Diagnostic pericardiocentesis was carried out in 13 patients who were without cardiac tamponade. ...
The measurement of natriuretic peptides for the diagnosis of heart failure has been a major breakthrough in cardiology (1)(2). B-Type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is synthesized as preproBNP mainly in the ventricular myocardium. On ventricular myocyte stretch, preproBNP is enzymatically cleaved to proBNP and released in the form of the hormonally active BNP and the inactive N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP). Both BNP and NT-proBNP have been shown to reflect heart failure severity (1), but studies on their sensitivity and specificity for different degrees of heart failure produced conflicting results (3)(4)(5)(6). Both BNP and NT-proBNP can be used for the diagnosis of heart failure, but there are important differences between the two tests, particularly regarding influence of age and renal function (1). In addition to glomerular filtration, BNP is eliminated from plasma mainly through natriuretic peptide receptors and degraded by neutral endopeptidases (7)(8)(9). In contrast, NT-proBNP possibly is ...
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CONTEXT: Prior studies have demonstrated conflicting results regarding how much information novel biomarkers add to cardiovascular risk assessment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of contemporary biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular risk when added to conventional risk factors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Cohort study of 5067 participants (mean age, 58 years; 60% women) without cardiovascular disease from Malmö, Sweden, who attended a baseline examination between 1991 and 1994. Participants underwent measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP), cystatin C, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase 2, midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (N-BNP) and underwent follow-up until 2006 using the Swedish national hospital discharge and cause-of-death registers and the Stroke in Malmö register for first cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary death). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ...
BACKGROUND: The natriuretic peptides are counterregulatory hormones involved in volume homeostasis and cardiovascular remodeling. The prognostic significance of plasma natriuretic peptide levels in apparently asymptomatic persons has not been established.. METHODS: We prospectively studied 3346 persons without heart failure. Using proportional-hazards regression, we examined the relations of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide to the risk of death from any cause, a first major cardiovascular event, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke or transient ischemic attack, and coronary heart disease.. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 5.2 years, 119 participants died and 79 had a first cardiovascular event. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, each increment of 1 SD in log B-type natriuretic peptide levels was associated with a 27 percent increase in the risk of death (P=0.009), a 28 percent increase in the risk of a first cardiovascular ...

Medical Xpress - peptide fragmentMedical Xpress - peptide fragment

Medical Xpress is a web-based medical and health news service that features the most comprehensive coverage in the fields of neuroscience, cardiology, cancer, HIV/AIDS, psychology, psychiatry, dentistry, genetics, diseases and conditions, medications and more.
more infohttps://medicalxpress.com/tags/peptide+fragment/sort/date/12h/

Polymer-Encapsulated Aβ Peptide Fragments as an Oligomeric-S...: Ingenta ConnectPolymer-Encapsulated Aβ Peptide Fragments as an Oligomeric-S...: Ingenta Connect

Polymer-Encapsulated Aβ Peptide Fragments as an Oligomeric-Specific Vaccine for Alzheimers Disease ... β vaccination trials may be successfully addressed by using micelle-encapsulated peptides. These shorter Aβ fragments are also ... β1-42 peptide. We studied different encapsulated forms of shortened Aβ peptides with and without the entire T cell epitope in ... β-specific AD vaccination using polymer micelle-encapsulated peptide fragments, which overcome many problems of vaccination ...
more infohttp://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/asp/jbn/2016/00000012/00000007/art00006

Experts and Doctors on peptide fragments in United StatesExperts and Doctors on peptide fragments in United States

Genomes and Genes about Experts and Doctors on peptide fragments in United States ... Datta B, Ghosh A, Majumdar A, Datta R. Autoproteolysis of rat p67 generates several peptide fragments: the N-terminal fragment ... Experts and Doctors on peptide fragments in United States. Summary. Locale: United States ... You are here: Locale , Experts and Doctors on peptide fragments in United States ...
more infohttp://www.labome.org/locale/experts-and-doctors-on-peptide-fragments-in-united-states-5342.html

topic:Peptide Fragments - chemistry found 22 records • Arctic Healthtopic:"Peptide Fragments - chemistry" found 22 records • Arctic Health

Peptide Fragments - chemistry - genetics - metabolism Peptide Hydrolases - metabolism Plaque, Amyloid - chemistry - metabolism ... We have examined the structures of fragment 11-28 of the native peptide and its E22G variant. This fragment was chosen because ... Peptide Fragments - chemistry Rats Rats, Inbred BN Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt Triticum - immunology Abstract. Increase in ... Peptide Fragments - chemistry - metabolism Precipitin Tests Protein Processing, Post-Translational Sequence Analysis Sweden ...
more infohttps://arctichealth.org/en/list?q=topic%3A%22Peptide+Fragments+-+chemistry%22&p=1&ps=&sort=title_sort+asc

hgh peptide fragment 176 191 results -  hgh peptide fragment 176 191 results online Wholesalershgh peptide fragment 176 191 results - hgh peptide fragment 176 191 results online Wholesalers

... hgh peptide fragment 176 191 results online Wholesalers - choose hgh peptide fragment 176 191 results from 1393 list of China ... hgh peptide fragment 176 191 results. All hgh peptide fragment 176 191 results wholesalers & hgh peptide fragment 176 191 ... HGH Fragment 176-191 2mg Lyophilized Peptide High Purity HGH Human Growth Peptide Quick Detail: Product Name HGH Fragment 176- ... HGH Peptide Fragment 176-191 Fat Loss 2mg Quick Detail Product Name: Growth Hormone peptide fragment Appearance: White Powder ...
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Synthesis and antiviral activity of PB1 component of the influenza A RNA polymerase peptide fragments - SciPeopleSynthesis and antiviral activity of PB1 component of the influenza A RNA polymerase peptide fragments - SciPeople

The antiviral activity of the peptides synthesized was studied in MDCK cell cultures against the pandemic influenza strain A/ ... This study is devoted to the antiviral activity of peptide fragments from the PB1 protein - a component of the influenza A RNA ... We found that peptide fragments 6-13, 6-14, 26-30, 395-400, and 531-540 of the PB1 protein were capable of suppressing viral ... Thus, short peptide fragments of the PB1 protein could serve as leads for future development of influenza prevention and/or ...
more infohttp://scipeople.ru/publication/119240/

Type-specific immunogenicity of a chemically synthesized peptide fragment of type 5 streptococcal M protein. | JEMType-specific immunogenicity of a chemically synthesized peptide fragment of type 5 streptococcal M protein. | JEM

Type-specific immunogenicity of a chemically synthesized peptide fragment of type 5 streptococcal M protein.. J B Dale, J M ... Type-specific immunogenicity of a chemically synthesized peptide fragment of type 5 streptococcal M protein. ... The synthetic peptides, designated S-M5(1-20) and S-M5(20-40), represent the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the native ... Initial studies showed that neither of the synthetic peptides was able to bind purified heart-reactive M5 antibodies. In ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/158/5/1727

Scaffolded multimers of hIAPP(20-29) peptide fragments fibrillate faster and lead to different fibrils compared to the free...Scaffolded multimers of hIAPP(20-29) peptide fragments fibrillate faster and lead to different fibrils compared to the free...

... peptide fragments fibrillate faster and lead to different fibrils compared to the free hIAPP(20-29) peptide fragment.. [Heidi F ... Attachment of the peptide to the templates resulted in multimers containing six peptide fragments at different positions. ThT ... However, the conjugate fibrils formed more rapidly than the free peptide and were long and thin, as opposed to the thick and ... Applying fibril-forming peptides in nanomaterial design is still challenged by the difficulties in understanding and ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/26284878

Surface adsorption of fibronectin-derived peptide fragments: the influence of electrostatics and hydrophobicity for endothelial...Surface adsorption of fibronectin-derived peptide fragments: the influence of electrostatics and hydrophobicity for endothelial...

Endothelial cell cultures on the peptide-functionalized materials highlight their tunable pro- or anti-angiogenic potential. ... The adsorption on hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica-based surfaces of the integrin-binding PHSRN peptide and the single- ... title={Surface adsorption of fibronectin-derived peptide fragments: the influence of electrostatics and hydrophobicity for ... T1 Surface adsorption of fibronectin-derived peptide fragments: the influence of electrostatics and hydrophobicity for ...
more infohttp://publications.lib.chalmers.se/publication/151529-surface-adsorption-of-fibronectin-derived-peptide-fragments-the-influence-of-electrostatics-and-hydr

Powerful Fat Burning Peptide Fragment Powder 176-191 Hormone - Wuhan Pharma Chemical Co.,Ltd - ecplaza.netPowerful Fat Burning Peptide Fragment Powder 176-191 Hormone - Wuhan Pharma Chemical Co.,Ltd - ecplaza.net

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KAKEN - Research Projects | Analysis of Receptor-G Protein Interactions by using Receptor Peptide Fragments (KAKENHI-PROJECT...KAKEN - Research Projects | Analysis of Receptor-G Protein Interactions by using Receptor Peptide Fragments (KAKENHI-PROJECT...

Publications] H.Kusunoki: NMR Studies of G Protein-Bound Receptor Peptide Fragments J.Cellular.Biochem.21B. 47- (1995). *. ... Publications] H.Kusunoki, et al.: NMR Studies of G Protein-Bound Receptor Peptide Fragments J.Cellular.Biochem.21B. 47 ( ... Analysis of Receptor-G Protein Interactions by using Receptor Peptide Fragments. Research Project ... 2.Expression and stable isotope labeling of peptides : To analyze interactions between receptor-mimetic peptides and G proteins ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-06680642/

Eglin c and Fragments Peptide | Eglin c and Fragments ProductsEglin c and Fragments Peptide | Eglin c and Fragments Products

Bio-Synthesis offers high quality Eglin c and Fragments for such as Eglin c is an 8.1 kDa protein proteinase inhibitor first ... Eglin C fragments:. In a study, various peptide fragments related to eglin c, which consists of 70 amino acid residues, were ... Synthesis of peptide fragments related to eglin c and studies on the relationship between their structure and effects on human ... The reactive site peptide bond of eglin is intact, and Ser221 OG of the enzyme is 2.81 A apart from the carbonyl carbon 2.. ...
more infohttps://www.biosyn.com/catalog-peptides/eglin-c-and-fragments.aspx

Synthesis and protein binding studies of a peptide fragment of clathrin assembly protein AP180 bearing an O-linked β-N...Synthesis and protein binding studies of a peptide fragment of clathrin assembly protein AP180 bearing an O-linked β-N...

binding studies of a peptide fragment of clathrin assembly. protein. AP180 bearing an O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminyl-6- ... binding studies of a peptide fragment of clathrin assembly. protein. AP180 bearing an O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminyl-6- ... in rat brain lysate using pull down experiments with peptide fragments of AP180. ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2012/OB/c2ob07139h

Plasma concentrations of the vasoactive peptide fragments mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin, C-terminal pro-endothelin 1 and...Plasma concentrations of the vasoactive peptide fragments mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin, C-terminal pro-endothelin 1 and...

In conclusion, vasoactive peptide fragments are elevated in hemodialysis patients because of accumulation and, most likely, ... In conclusion, vasoactive peptide fragments are elevated in hemodialysis patients because of accumulation and, most likely, ... The plasma concentrations of all vasoactive peptide fragments correlated with time on dialysis and plasma β2-microglobulin ... The plasma concentrations of all vasoactive peptide fragments correlated with time on dialysis and plasma β2-microglobulin ...
more infohttps://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/102793/

Peptide Fragments | Colorado PROFILESPeptide Fragments | Colorado PROFILES

"Peptide Fragments" by people in this website by year, and whether "Peptide Fragments" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Peptide Fragments" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Peptide Fragments" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Peptide Fragments". ...
more infohttps://profiles.ucdenver.edu/display/211256

Bio-Peptide HGH Fragment - Qijian Biopharmaceutical Co.,Ltd. - ecplaza.netBio-Peptide HGH Fragment - Qijian Biopharmaceutical Co.,Ltd. - ecplaza.net

A kind of peptide hormone with species specificity, it is secreted by Anterior pituitary and to be the main hormone of people. ...
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A short synthetic peptide fragment of human interleukin 1 with immunostimulatory but not inflammatory activity. - Semantic...A short synthetic peptide fragment of human interleukin 1 with immunostimulatory but not inflammatory activity. - Semantic...

One of these peptides, a fragment of nine residues of human IL 1 beta (VQGEESNDK, fragment 163-171), showed high T cell ... Thus we propose that this peptide may represent one of the portions of hu IL 1 beta responsible for its immunostimulatory ... On the other hand, the 163-171 peptide was devoid of prostaglandin-inducing capacity in vitro and pyrogenic activity in vivo, ... Short peptide fragments of human and murine interleukin 1 (IL 1) were synthesized on the basis of their predicted exposure on ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/A-short-synthetic-peptide-fragment-of-human-1-with-Antoni-Presentini/b1da865d7891b202a170f62dc87b68fb8d54e9f1

Biomolecules | Free Full-Text | Prion Fragment Peptides Are Digested with Membrane Type Matrix Metalloproteinases and Acquire...Biomolecules | Free Full-Text | Prion Fragment Peptides Are Digested with Membrane Type Matrix Metalloproteinases and Acquire...

We synthesized 21 prion fragment peptides. Each purified peptide was individually incubated with recombinant MT1-MMP or MT3-MMP ... The C-terminal peptides had higher resistance than the central region. The data obtained from this study suggest that MT-MMPs ... Keywords: prion protein; fragment peptide; MT1-MMP; MT3-MMP; MMP-7; Cu2+; degradation prion protein; fragment peptide; MT1-MMP ... We synthesized 21 prion fragment peptides. Each purified peptide was individually incubated with recombinant MT1-MMP or MT3-MMP ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/4/2/510

Membrane proximal cleavage of L-selectin: identification of the cleavage site and a 6-kD transmembrane peptide fragment of L...Membrane proximal cleavage of L-selectin: identification of the cleavage site and a 6-kD transmembrane peptide fragment of L...

Membrane proximal cleavage of L-selectin: identification of the cleavage site and a 6-kD transmembrane peptide fragment of L- ... identification of the cleavage site and a 6-kD transmembrane peptide fragment of L-selectin.. J Cell Biol 15 April 1994; 125 (2 ... which would predict a transmembrane fragment consistent in size with the observed 6-kD fragment. A Ser-Phe-Ser motif adjacent ... indicating that this is a transmembrane peptide of L-selectin. That the 6-kD species is derived from L-selectin was confirmed ...
more infohttps://rupress.org/jcb/article/125/2/461/14864/Membrane-proximal-cleavage-of-L-selectin

Membrane proximal cleavage of L-selectin: identification of the cleavage site and a 6-kD transmembrane peptide fragment of L...Membrane proximal cleavage of L-selectin: identification of the cleavage site and a 6-kD transmembrane peptide fragment of L...

Membrane proximal cleavage of L-selectin: identification of the cleavage site and a 6-kD transmembrane peptide fragment of L- ... identification of the cleavage site and a 6-kD transmembrane peptide fragment of L-selectin.. J Cell Biol 15 April 1994; 125 (2 ... which would predict a transmembrane fragment consistent in size with the observed 6-kD fragment. A Ser-Phe-Ser motif adjacent ... indicating that this is a transmembrane peptide of L-selectin. That the 6-kD species is derived from L-selectin was confirmed ...
more infohttps://rupress.org/jcb/article-standard/125/2/461/14864/Membrane-proximal-cleavage-of-L-selectin

Functional characterization of a peptide fragment, Os(3-12), derived from the carboxy-terminal region of a defensin from the...Functional characterization of a peptide fragment, Os(3-12), derived from the carboxy-terminal region of a defensin from the...

In this study, a peptide fragment Os(3-12), based on a defensin from the tick Ornithodoros savignyi, was amidated at the C- ... Functional characterization of a peptide fragment, Os(3-12), derived from the carboxy-terminal region of a defensin from the ... Functional characterization of a peptide fragment, Os(3-12), derived from the carboxy-terminal region of a defensin from the ... The amidated peptide was found to be non-toxic towards human erythrocytes and Caco-2 cells. Os(3-12)NH2 showed strong ...
more infohttps://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/49614

High-resolution imaging and proteomics of peptide fragments by TOF-SIMSHigh-resolution imaging and proteomics of peptide fragments by TOF-SIMS

... and the peptides formed were identified through comparison with the peptides of the thyroglobulin reference sample. The ... Thyroglobulin was digested by trypsin in distilled water and the resulting peptides were identified by TOF-secondary ion mass ... thyroglobulin fragments were localized in the thyroid follicle cells with a spatial resolution of 3 microns, a mass resolution ... spectrometry, using TFA as a matrix to catalyze the ionization of the peptides. Cryostate sections of pig thyroid glands were ...
more infohttps://research.chalmers.se/publication/179326

High-resolution imaging and proteomics of peptide fragments by TOF-SIMSHigh-resolution imaging and proteomics of peptide fragments by TOF-SIMS

... and the peptides formed were identified through comparison with the peptides of the thyroglobulin reference sample. The ... Thyroglobulin was digested by trypsin in distilled water and the resulting peptides were identified by TOF-secondary ion mass ... thyroglobulin fragments were localized in the thyroid follicle cells with a spatial resolution of 3 microns, a mass resolution ... spectrometry, using TFA as a matrix to catalyze the ionization of the peptides. Cryostate sections of pig thyroid glands were ...
more infohttps://research.chalmers.se/en/publication/?id=179326

CARRIER PEPTIDE FRAGMENT AND USE THEREOF - Patent applicationCARRIER PEPTIDE FRAGMENT AND USE THEREOF - Patent application

... peptide fragment. The carrier peptide fragment comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO. 1 can be most suitably used for ... carrier peptide fragment. For example, if the foreign substance is a polypeptide, the peptide chain can be designed to contain ... between the carrier peptide fragment and the foreign peptide motif. [0066] Among artificial polypeptides (constructs for ... known transcellular carrier peptides, and that is a carrier peptide fragment with a relatively short chain length that can ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20120122210
  • This fusion peptide framework may thus provide a straightforward design for immobilizing bioactive sequences on hydroxyapatite for biomaterials, tissue engineering, and vaccine applications. (labome.org)
  • The adsorption on hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica-based surfaces of the integrin-binding PHSRN peptide and the single-residual-mutated analogues, PHSEN and PHSFN, is investigated by comparative QCM-D, XPS, SFG measurements and molecular dynamics calculations. (chalmers.se)
  • N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the fragment indicated that the protease cleaves LAPP at the Abeta-N-terminus. (arctichealth.org)
  • In a study, various peptide fragments related to eglin c, which consists of 70 amino acid residues, were synthesized by a conventional solution method and their inhibitory effects on leukocyte elastase, cathepsin G and alpha-chymotrypsin were examined. (biosyn.com)
  • Frag 176-191, Fragment 176-191 Peptide, Fragment 176-191 Vials manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Pharmaceutical Chemical Peptides Fragment 176-191 for Bodybuilding, High Purity Finished Water Base Vials Dbo for Muscle Strength, Injectable Finished Vials Bold Undecylenate/Equipoise for Pure Steroid Muscle Gain and so on. (made-in-china.com)
  • When the LAPP was treated with chondroitinase ABC prior to proteolysis, the activity to generate the fragment was inhibited, but pretreatment with heparitinase resulted in no effect. (arctichealth.org)
  • The antiviral activity of the peptides synthesized was studied in MDCK cell cultures against the pandemic influenza strain A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) pdm09. (scipeople.ru)
  • Peptide PB1 (6 - 14) with both termini modified showed maximum antiviral activity, its inhibitory activity manifesting itself during the early stages of viral replication. (scipeople.ru)
  • The broad range of virus-inhibiting activity of PB1 (6-14) peptide was confirmed using a panel of influenza A viruses of H1, H3 and H5 subtypes including those resistant to oseltamivir, the leading drug in anti-influenza therapy. (scipeople.ru)
  • Although still less potent than Os, the determined minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for each peptide indicated that amidation increases the bactericidal activity of Os(3-12) by 16-fold against Escherichia coli and by 8-fold against both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. (up.ac.za)
  • In comparison amidation enhanced the activity of the peptide towards Staphylococus aureus by only 2-fold. (up.ac.za)
  • 2. BACKGROUND Recently, a large number of peptides have been identified which exhibit an ability to inhibit fusion-associated events, and, importantly, also exhibit potent antiviral activity. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Several fragments of CART have been tested to try and uncover the pharmacophore, but the natural splicing products CART 55-102 and CART 62-102 are still of highest activity, with the reduced activity of smaller fragments thought to indicate that a compact structure retaining all three of CART's disulphide bonds is preferred. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chimeric peptides of statherin and osteopontin that bind hydroxyapatite and mediate cell adhesion. (labome.org)
  • In this study, a peptide fragment Os(3-12), based on a defensin from the tick Ornithodoros savignyi, was amidated at the C-terminus. (up.ac.za)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential retinoprotective effects of different PACAP fragments (PACAP 4-13, 4-22, 6-10, 6-15, 11-15, and 20-31) and related peptides (secretin, glucagon) in BCCAO-induced ischemic retinopathy. (hindawi.com)
  • ThT fluorescence, CD and FTIR spectroscopy, and AFM and TEM imaging reveal that in both conjugates the peptide retained its fibrillating properties and formed fibrils. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our results revealed significant neuroprotection by PACAP 1-38 but did not reveal retinoprotective effect of the PACAP fragments or related peptides. (hindawi.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Peptide Fragments" by people in this website by year, and whether "Peptide Fragments" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ucdenver.edu)
  • As shown in Table 2, the increase of unique peptide identification is negligible (23133 to 23095) for Mascot with the use of DeMix (possibly due to the high cutoff), indicating that the increase for other database search engine is possibly mostly low-score ones. (sharedproteomics.com)
  • Neprilysin (NEP), insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) and plasmin play a major role in Abeta catabolism, therefore we compared the ability of these enzymes to degrade wild type and mutant monomeric Abeta peptides. (arctichealth.org)
  • It is also the reason we used the type of ion-counting method in peptide identification. (sharedproteomics.com)
  • We have developed a new method for an oligomeric A β -specific AD vaccination using polymer micelle-encapsulated peptide fragments, which overcome many problems of vaccination associated with the direct use of the A β 1-42 peptide. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Our results suggest that the safety and efficacy issues previously encountered in other A β vaccination trials may be successfully addressed by using micelle-encapsulated peptides. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Once the structure of an AMP is altered it is altered it is necessary to revaluate the properties of this AMP compared to the unaltered peptide. (up.ac.za)
  • Applying fibril-forming peptides in nanomaterial design is still challenged by the difficulties in understanding and controlling how fibrils form. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Analysis of fish IL-1beta and derived peptide sequences indicates conserved structures with species-specific IL-1 receptor binding: implications for pharmacological design. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Peptide Fragments" by people in Profiles. (ucdenver.edu)
  • CART expression is regulated by several peripheral peptide hormones involved in appetite regulation, including leptin, cholecystokinin and ghrelin, with CART and cholecystokinin having synergistic effects on appetite regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1993, Tetrahedron Letters 49:9307-9320) no techniques currently exist which can be utilized for large scale, economical production of easily purified peptides such as T-1249. (allindianpatents.com)
  • These range from small oxyanions to large peptide fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vasopressin, endothelin and adrenomedullin are vasoactive peptides that regulate vascular tone and might play a role in hypertensive diseases. (uzh.ch)
  • This led to suggestions that CART may play a role - though not being the only peptide - in satiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conclusion, vasoactive peptide fragments are elevated in hemodialysis patients because of accumulation and, most likely, increased release. (uzh.ch)
  • Native lymphocyte APP (LAPP) prepared from normal or AD-derived lymphoblastoid cells was degraded by the protease, generating a 16 kDa Abeta-bearing C-terminal fragment of APP. (arctichealth.org)
  • After performing BCCAO, the right eyes of the animals were treated with PACAP fragments or related peptides intravitreal (100 pM), while the left eyes were injected with saline serving as control eyes. (hindawi.com)