Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A thermostable extracellular metalloendopeptidase containing four calcium ions. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Biologically active molecules which are covalently bound to the enzymes or binding proteins normally acting on them. Binding occurs due to activation of the label by ultraviolet light. These labels are used primarily to identify binding sites on proteins.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.

The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. The tryptic peptides. (1/33178)

The NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa was digested with trypsin, and peptides accounting for 441 out of the 452 residues of the polypeptide chain were isolated and substantially sequenced. Additional experimental detail has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50052 (11 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem J. (1975) 145, 5.  (+info)

Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. (2/33178)

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Peptides from digestion with a staphylococcal proteinase. (3/33178)

The extracellular proteinase of Staphylococcus aureus strain V8 was used to digest the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa. Of 35 non-overlapping peptides expected from the glutamate content of the polypeptide chain, 29 were isolated and substantially sequenced. The sequences obtained were valuable in providing overlaps for the alignment of about two-thirds of the sequences found in tryptic peptides [Wootton, J. C., Taylor, J, G., Jackson, A. A., Chambers, G. K. & Fincham, J. R. S. (1975) Biochem. J. 149, 739-748]. The blocked N-terminal peptide of the protein was isolated. This peptide was sequenced by mass spectrometry, and found to have N-terminal N-acetylserine by Howard R. Morris and Anne Dell, whose results are presented as an Appendix to the main paper. The staphylococcal proteinase showed very high specificity for glutamyl bonds in the NH4HCO3 buffer used. Partial splits of two aspartyl bonds, both Asp-Ile, were probably attributable to the proteinase. No cleavage of glutaminyl or S-carboxymethylcysteinyl bonds was found. Additional experimental detail has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50053 (5 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K, from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 1458 5.  (+info)

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (4/33178)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

Bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone is strikingly diminished in collagenase-resistant mutant mice. (5/33178)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone resorption by acting directly on osteoblasts/stromal cells and then indirectly to increase differentiation and function of osteoclasts. PTH acting on osteoblasts/stromal cells increases collagenase gene transcription and synthesis. To assess the role of collagenase in the bone resorptive actions of PTH, we used mice homozygous (r/r) for a targeted mutation (r) in Col1a1 that are resistant to collagenase cleavage of type I collagen. Human PTH(1-34) was injected subcutaneously over the hemicalvariae in wild-type (+/+) or r/r mice four times daily for three days. Osteoclast numbers, the size of the bone marrow spaces and periosteal proliferation were increased in calvariae from PTH-treated +/+ mice, whereas in r/r mice, PTH-induced bone resorption responses were minimal. The r/r mice were not resistant to other skeletal effects of PTH because abundant interstitial collagenase mRNA was detected in the calvarial periosteum of PTH-treated, but not vehicle-treated, r/r and +/+ mice. Calcemic responses, 0.5-10 hours after intraperitoneal injection of PTH, were blunted in r/r mice versus +/+ mice. Thus, collagenase cleavage of type I collagen is necessary for PTH induction of osteoclastic bone resorption.  (+info)

Caspase-mediated cleavage of p21Waf1/Cip1 converts cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis. (6/33178)

The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21waf1/Cip1 is a downstream effector of the p53-dependent cell growth arrest. We report herein that p21 was cleaved by caspase-3/CPP32 at the site of DHVD112L during the DNA damage-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. The cleaved p21 fragment could no more arrest the cells in G1 phase nor suppress the cells undergoing apoptosis because it failed to bind to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and lost its capability to localize in the nucleus. Thus, caspase-3-mediated cleavage and inactivation of p21 protein may convert cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis, leading to the acceleration of chemotherapy-induced apoptotic process in cancer cells.  (+info)

Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (7/33178)

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

Caspase 3 inactivation to suppress Fas-mediated apoptosis: identification of binding domain with p21 and ILP and inactivation machinery by p21. (8/33178)

The death mediator caspase acts as the dominant regulator during cell death induction. The CPP32 subfamily, including caspase 3 (CPP32/Yama/Apopain), is essential for the cell death signaling. We recently reported that activation of caspase 3 is regulated by complex formation with p21 or ILP. In the present study, we investigated the binding domain with p21 and ILP to further characterize the caspase 3 inactivation machinery. Our results show that caspase 3 contains p21 binding domain in the N-terminus and ILP binding domain in the active site. Further, the caspase 3 binding domain in p21 was independent of the Cdk- or PCNA-binding domain. We also found caspase 3 protection by p21 from the p3-site cleavage serineproteinase contributes to the suppression machinery. Here, we propose the caspase 3 inactivation system by p21 and ILP as new essential system in the regulation of cell death.  (+info)

There are several types of hypersensitivity reactions, including:

1. Type I hypersensitivity: This is also known as immediate hypersensitivity and occurs within minutes to hours after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the release of histamine and other chemical mediators from immune cells, leading to symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. Examples of Type I hypersensitivity reactions include allergies to pollen, dust mites, or certain foods.
2. Type II hypersensitivity: This is also known as cytotoxic hypersensitivity and occurs within days to weeks after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the immune system producing antibodies against specific proteins on the surface of cells, leading to their destruction. Examples of Type II hypersensitivity reactions include blood transfusion reactions and serum sickness.
3. Type III hypersensitivity: This is also known as immune complex hypersensitivity and occurs when antigens bind to immune complexes, leading to the formation of deposits in tissues. Examples of Type III hypersensitivity reactions include rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
4. Type IV hypersensitivity: This is also known as delayed-type hypersensitivity and occurs within weeks to months after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Examples of Type IV hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

The diagnosis of hypersensitivity often involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and elimination diets or challenges. Treatment depends on the specific type of hypersensitivity reaction and may include avoidance of the allergen, medications such as antihistamines or corticosteroids, and immunomodulatory therapy.

There are two main types of hemolysis:

1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.

Some common causes of hemolysis include:

1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.

The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease can vary from person to person and may progress slowly over time. Early symptoms may include memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with problem-solving. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience language difficulties, visual hallucinations, and changes in mood and behavior.

There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but there are several medications and therapies that can help manage its symptoms and slow its progression. These include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive training and behavioral therapy.

Alzheimer's disease is a significant public health concern, affecting an estimated 5.8 million Americans in 2020. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and its prevalence is expected to continue to increase as the population ages.

There is ongoing research into the causes and potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease, including studies into the role of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the immune system. Other areas of research include the development of biomarkers for early detection and the use of advanced imaging techniques to monitor progression of the disease.

Overall, Alzheimer's disease is a complex and multifactorial disorder that poses significant challenges for individuals, families, and healthcare systems. However, with ongoing research and advances in medical technology, there is hope for improving diagnosis and treatment options in the future.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

... fragment-based discovery; structural bioinformatics; molecular mechanics and dynamics; peptide modeling; structural biology; ... Main application areas in MOE include structure-based design, fragment-based design, ligand-based design, pharmacophore ... Erlanson, Daniel A.; McDowell, Robert S.; O'Brien, Tom (2004). "Fragment-Based Drug Discovery". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry ... Official website MOE Structure-Based Design MOE Fragment-Based Design MOE Pharmacophore Discovery MOE Medicinal Chemistry ...
Another method is fragment condensation, in which peptide fragments are coupled. Although the former can elongate the peptide ... Fragment condensation is better than stepwise elongation for synthesizing sophisticated long peptides, but its use must be ... Chemical peptide synthesis most commonly starts at the carboxyl end of the peptide (C-terminus), and proceeds toward the amino- ... Nyfeler R (7 November 1994). Peptide synthesis via fragment condensation. Methods in Molecular Biology. Vol. 35. New Jersey: ...
... peptide fragments". Peptides. 28 (10): 1945-53. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2007.07.022. PMID 17766010. S2CID 40284900. cocaine-+and ... "The activity of CART peptide fragments". Peptides. 27 (8): 1926-33. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.10.025. PMID 16730858. S2CID ... Peptides. 27 (6): 1328-34. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.10.016. PMID 16309793. S2CID 27440114. Wierup N, Kuhar M, Nilsson BO, ... The peptide is found in several areas, among them the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain. When CART was injected into ...
The preparation of protected peptide fragments". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. American Chemical Society (ACS). 45 (7): ... He also used peptide design to demonstrate that melittin adopts an amphiphilic helical structure, which is responsible for its ... DeGrado, William F.; Kezdy, F. J.; Kaiser, E. T. (1981). "Design, synthesis, and characterization of a cytotoxic peptide with ... DeGrado, William F.; Kaiser, Emil Thomas (1980). "Polymer-bound oxime esters as supports for solid-phase peptide synthesis. ...
The N-terminal peptide/fragment of proopiomelanocortin (NPP; N-POMC), also known as pro-γ-MSH, is a naturally occurring, ... Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) Bicknell AB (May 2016). "60 YEARS OF POMC: N-terminal POMC peptides and adrenal growth". Journal of ...
Three different types of backbone bonds can be broken to form peptide fragments: alkyl carbonyl (CHR-CO), peptide amide bond ( ... For example, a precursor peptide with a molecular weight of 774 has 21,909,046 possible peptides. Even though it is done in the ... In mass spectrometry, de novo peptide sequencing is the method in which a peptide amino acid sequence is determined from tandem ... Given previously predicted partial peptide sequence, neural-network-based de novo peptide sequencing models will repeatedly ...
... and fragmented in a mass spectrometer; the mass spectra corresponding to the fragments of peptide precursor is recorded. Tandem ... A peptide spectral library is a curated, annotated and non-redundant collection/database of LC-MS/MS peptide spectra. One ... neutral losses from fragments and various additional specific fragments, the process of spectra searching will be more specific ... which will continuously expand the coverage of peptide spectral library. For a peptide spectra library, to reach a maximal ...
"Effects of cell-permeating peptide binding on the distribution of 125I-labeled Fab fragment in rats". Bioconjugate Chemistry. ... These features are important for new peptide design. Helical β-peptides mimic antimicrobial activities of host defense peptides ... "A Noncovalent Peptide-Based Strategy for Peptide and Short Interfering RNA Delivery". Handbook of Cell-Penetrating Peptides, ... Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptides that facilitate cellular intake and uptake of molecules ranging from ...
... is then continually fragmented into different peptides, including α-endorphin, β-endorphin, and γ-endorphin. Peptide convertase ... FELDBERG, W.; SMYTH, D.G. (July 1977). "C-Fragment of Lipotropin-An Endogenous Potent Analgesic Peptide". British Journal of ... McLaughlin, Patricia J.; Zagon, Ian S. (2013), "POMC-Derived Opioid Peptides", Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides, ... which is not a peptide. Opioid peptides are classified based on their precursor propeptide: all endorphins are synthesized from ...
These range from small oxyanions to large peptide fragments. Other MFS transporters are notable for a lack of selectivity, ... "Structural basis for dynamic mechanism of proton-coupled symport by the peptide transporter POT". Proceedings of the National ...
B 46, 6700 Huang, Lulu; Massa, Lou; Karle, Jerome (2005). "Kernel energy method illustrated with peptides". International ... Effective fragment molecular orbital (EFMO) method combines some features of the effective fragment potentials (EFP) and FMO. A ... Alternatively, configuration analysis for fragment interaction (CAFI) and fragment interaction analysis based on local MP2 ( ... The fragment molecular orbital method (FMO) was developed by K. Kitaura and coworkers in 1999. FMO is deeply interconnected ...
Renin is a circulating enzyme that acts on a circulating peptide, angiotensinogen. Renin cleaves the peptide at the Leu10-Val11 ... Ferrario, C. M.; Iyer, S. N. (1998). "angiotensin-(1-7): A bioactive fragment of the renin-angiotensin system". Regulatory ... This generation consists of two groups of compounds, either peptide analogues of the prosegment of renin or peptide analogues ... Non-peptide substances were known to be able to solve the problems of poor pharmacokinetic properties and low specificity. This ...
Dyson HJ, Sayre JR, Merutka G, Shin HC, Lerner RA, Wright PE (August 1992). "Folding of peptide fragments comprising the ... Since the peptide bonds themselves are polar they are neutralised by hydrogen bonding with each other when in the hydrophobic ... Zehfus MH (June 1997). "Identification of compact, hydrophobically stabilized domains and modules containing multiple peptide ...
Some HLAs bind pathogenic peptide fragments with very high affinity. This in essence "supercharges" their immune system in ... Thus any alteration to the HLA that induces decreased binding to a certain peptide or increased binding to a certain peptide, ... If HLAs bind none of the peptides produced by a pathogen, then there is no way for the immune system to tell that a cell is ... This is a significant decrease and is almost certainly a result of the abnormally efficient binding of HLA-A*02 to peptides ...
Cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4, Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) is a peptide fragment derived from the larger peptide hormone ... Since it is a peptide, CCK-4 must be administered by injection, and is rapidly broken down once inside the body so has only a ... García-López MT, González-Muñiz R, Martín-Martínez M, Herranz R (2007). "Strategies for design of non peptide CCK1R agonist/ ... Kalindjian SB, McDonald IM (2007). "Strategies for the design of non-peptide CCK2 receptor agonist and antagonist ligand". ...
"Peptide fragments derived from the beta-chain of hemoglobin (hemorphins) are centrally active in vivo". Peptides. 10 (4): 747- ... Casomorphin Brantl V, Gramsch C, Lottspeich F, Mertz R, Jaeger KH, Herz A (June 1986). "Novel opioid peptides derived from ... Hemorphin-4 is an endogenous opioid peptide of the hemorphin family which possesses antinociceptive properties and is derived ... Peptides. 13 (4): 623-31. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(92)90165-Y. PMID 1359507. S2CID 32330624. Lantz I, Glämsta EL, Talbäck L, ...
"Peptide fragments derived from the beta-chain of hemoglobin (hemorphins) are centrally active in vivo". Peptides. 10 (4): 747- ... Casomorphin Brantl V, Gramsch C, Lottspeich F, Mertz R, Jaeger KH, Herz A (June 1986). "Novel opioid peptides derived from ... Hemorphins are a class of naturally occurring, endogenous opioid peptides which are found in the bloodstream, and are derived ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Opioid peptides). ...
β-Lipotropin can be cleaved into smaller peptides. In humans, γ-lipotropin, β-MSH, and β-endorphin, are all possible fragments ... γ-lipotropin is the amino-terminal peptide fragment of β-lipotropin. In humans, it has 56 amino acids. Gamma lipotropin is ... Peptides Direct information page, accessed 26 August 2013 Le Grand, Chip (2016). The straight dope : the inside story of ... Birdsall and Hulme demonstrated that the C-fragment of lipotropin (β-endorphin) has a high affinity for opiate receptors in the ...
In mass spectrometry analysis, proteins/peptides are fragmented. Then, peptides are ionized through either electrospray ... a mass analyzer generates information-rich ion mass spectra from fragmented peptides. Four types of mass analyzers include: ion ...
The Fc fragment is digested into small peptides. Fab fragments are generated by cleavage of IgG with papain instead of pepsin. ... Fab fragments and an intact Fc fragment. The fragments can be purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, or affinity ... Use of F(ab')2 or Fab fragments ensures that the antibodies are binding to the antigen and not Fc receptors. These fragments ... To produce an F(ab')2 fragment, IgG is digested with pepsin, which cleaves the heavy chains near the hinge region. One or more ...
In some brain areas, amidorphin is extensively further reduced into smaller fragments, such as the non-opioid peptide ... Opioid peptide Seizinger BR; Liebisch DC; Gramsch C; et al. (1985). "Isolation and structure of a novel C-terminally amidated ... The 26-residue peptide named amidorphin is found in several species including bovine (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), and pig ... Amidorphin is an endogenous, C-terminally amidated, opioid peptide generated as a cleavage product of proenkephalin A in some ...
Isemura S, Saitoh E, Sanada K (April 1980). "The amino acid sequence of a salivary proline-rich peptide, P-C, and its relation ... Schlesinger DH, Hay DI (January 1981). "Primary structure of the active tryptic fragments of human and monkey salivary anionic ... International Journal of Peptide and Protein Research. 27 (4): 373-9. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3011.1986.tb01030.x. PMID 3710693. ... proline-rich proteins". International Journal of Peptide and Protein Research. 17 (1): 34-41. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3011.1981. ...
... a fragmented peptide sample is loaded onto a matrix and ionized through the use of a high energy laser. The fragmented ions are ... In bio-informatics, a peptide-mass fingerprint or peptide-mass map is a mass spectrum of a mixture of peptides that comes from ... This spectrum shows the masses and relative abundances of the peptide fragments present in the sample. In reading a spectrum ... Cottrell, J. S. (1994-06-01). "Protein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting". Peptide Research. 7 (3): 115-124. ISSN ...
Alternatively, peptides can be fragmented with MS/MS to more definitively identify them. MS is also the preferred method for ... It is the process of assigning amino acids from peptide fragment masses of a protein. De novo sequencing has proven successful ... Collision-induced dissociation is used in mainstream applications to generate a set of fragments from a specific peptide ion. ... An intermediate "middle-down" approach in which larger peptide fragments are analyzed may also sometimes be used. The ...
Individual peptides are then analyzed for overall deuteration of each peptide fragment. Using this technique the resolution of ... Bache N, Rand KD, Roepstorff P, Jørgensen TJ (August 2008). "Gas-phase fragmentation of peptides by MALDI in-source decay with ... In this regard, the conclusions have been mixed, while it is possible to obtain UVPD fragments which has not undergone ... For example, the location and relative amount of deuterium exchange along the peptide backbone can be determined roughly by ...
Dwulet FE, Putnam FW (Feb 1981). "Complete amino acid sequence of a 50,000-dalton fragment of human ceruloplasmin". Proceedings ... I. Amino acid sequence of the cyanogen bromide peptides". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 255 (7): 2878-85. doi:10.1016/ ... Kingston IB, Kingston BL, Putnam FW (Apr 1980). "Primary structure of a histidine-rich proteolytic fragment of human ...
The mass of these peptide fragments is then calculated and compared to the peak list of measured peptide masses. The results ... LC/ESI-MS and CE/ESI-MS are also great techniques for peptide mass fingerprinting. A small fraction of the peptide (usually 1 ... The advantage of this method is that only the masses of the peptides have to be known. Time-consuming de novo peptide ... They then compare the masses of the peptides of the unknown protein to the theoretical peptide masses of each protein encoded ...
... fragments refer to fragments of proteins that are used to identify or quantify the source protein. Often these are the ... renal peptides, respiratory peptides, opiate peptides, neurotrophic peptides, and blood-brain peptides. Some ribosomal peptides ... fungal peptides, invertebrate peptides, amphibian/skin peptides, venom peptides, cancer/anticancer peptides, vaccine peptides, ... immune/inflammatory peptides, brain peptides, endocrine peptides, ingestive peptides, gastrointestinal peptides, cardiovascular ...
"Identifying proteins from two-dimensional gels by molecular mass searching of peptide fragments in protein sequence databases ... Genome-based Peptide Fingerprint Scanning (GFS) Documentation Facebook link to "Genome-based Peptide Fingerprint Scanning" ... peptide molecular weights, tandem mass spectrometry from one or more peptide, and combination mass data with amino acid ... They applied peptide fingerprint scanning and MASCOT to the protein data to find regions that may not have been previously ...
Peptides. 32 (7): 1530-5. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2011.05.028. PMID 21672568. S2CID 19982289. Lambert DG (August 2008). "The ... "Antinociceptive effects of spinally administered nociceptin/orphanin FQ and its N-terminal fragments on capsaicin-induced ... Nociceptin is a peptide related to the opioid class of compounds (ex. morphine and codeine), but it does not act at the classic ... Okuda-Ashitaka E, Minami T, Tachibana S, Yoshihara Y, Nishiuchi Y, Kimura T, Ito S (March 1998). "Nocistatin, a peptide that ...
Peptides are usually fused to the N-terminus of pVIII. Usually peptides that can be fused to pVIII are 6-8 amino acids long. ... Multiple cloning sites are sometimes used to ensure that the fragments are inserted in all three possible reading frames so ... Castillo J, Goodson B, Winter J (November 2001). "T7 displayed peptides as targets for selecting peptide specific scFvs from ... by fusing the virus's capsid protein to one peptide out of a collection of peptide sequences. This displayed the different ...
FLEISCHMAN, JB; PORTER, RR; PRESS, EM (August 1963). "THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE PEPTIDE CHAINS IN GAMMA-GLOBULIN". The Biochemical ... Press, EM; Hogg, NM (23 August 1969). "Comparative study of two immunoglobulin G Fd-fragments". Nature. 223 (5208): 808-10. doi ...
BriX is a database containing some protein fragments from 4 to 14 residue from non-homologous proteins. There are very few ... and their distance between residues that flank the top of the peptide. Currently, the system also encourages user submitted ... v t e (Biological databases, Protein structure, Peptides, Computer-related introductions in 2010, All stub ...
This is a form of asexual reproduction where an organism splits into fragments and then each of these fragments develop into ... "Identification of ICAD-derived Peptides Capable of Inhibiting Caspase-activated DNase." FEBS Journal 279.16 (2012): 2917-928. ... The key to cloning a DNA fragment is to link it to a vector DNA molecule that can replicate within a host cell. After a single ... For the purposes of DNA cloning, purified DNA ligase is used to covalently join the ends of a restriction fragment and vector ...
The charged fragments are separated in the second stage of tandem mass spectrometry. The "fingerprint" of each peptide's ... The peptide mixture is then loaded directly onto a microcapillary column and the peptides are separated by hydrophobicity and ... As the peptides elute from the column, they are ionized and separated by m/z in the first stage of tandem mass spectrometry. ... Peptides that are degenerate (shared by two or more proteins in the database) makes it difficult to unambiguously identify the ...
... proteins and peptide fragments, expression systems, cells, and antibodies, for the field of plant disease The comparability ...
It is a highly sensitive process for small and large molecules like peptides, proteins and lipids that can be coupled to a ... Multiple methods can be used to fragment molecules producing fragmentation for structural information: electron transfer ... This ionization technique is highly sensitive to small molecules, peptides and proteins. The analyte is dissolved in the ... Peptide, and Protein Ions in the Positive and Negative Mode Observed Directly from Surfaces". Journal of the American Society ...
... gastroinhibitory peptide), VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide), glucagon and calcitonin. The presence of gastrin stimulates ... "Purification and structural determination of urinary NH2-terminal big gastrin fragments". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in ... In humans, the GAS gene is located on the long arm of the seventeenth chromosome (17q21). Gastrin is a linear peptide hormone ...
Pre-made phage display library is a laboratory technique for the study of protein-protein, protein-peptide, and protein-DNA ... Fab construction is a complex technique as Fab fragments contain both variable domains and constant regions. The same heavy and ... Fukunaga, K; Taki, M (2012). "Practical Tips for Construction of Custom Peptide Libraries and Affinity Selection by Using ... "Therapeutic anti-IgE monoclonal antibody single chain variable fragment (scFv) safety and immunomodulatory effects after one ...
These non-peptide inhibitors can be more stable than inhibitors containing peptide bonds, because they will not be substrates ... Ciulli A, Abell C (December 2007). "Fragment-based approaches to enzyme inhibition". Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 18 (6): ... This will produce a set of peptides that can be analysed using a mass spectrometer. The peptide that changes in mass after ... The structure of ritonavir, a peptidomimetic (peptide mimic) protease inhibitor containing three peptide bonds, as shown in the ...
SBDβ contains the peptide binding pocket while SBDα serves as a lid to cover the substrate binding cleft. The ATP binding ... In later stages of apoptosis the entire cell becomes fragmented, forming a number of plasma membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies ... In order to properly fold non-native proteins, Hsp70 chaperones interact with the hydrophobic peptide segments of proteins in ... "Crystal structure of the stress-inducible human heat shock protein 70 substrate-binding domain in complex with peptide ...
CX3CL1 is a soluble fragment of fractalkine protein that serves as a find-me signal for monocytes. A soluble fragment of ... and formyl peptides (including N-formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine, fMLP). The correlation between the early stages of cell ... It has also been suggested that S1P kinase 2 (SphK2) is a target of caspase 1, and that a cleaved fragment of SphK2 is what is ... EMAPII, a fragment of tyrosyl tRNA synthetase, has also been shown to attract monocytes. This molecule has inflammatory ...
... peptide - peptide bond - peptide elongation factor - peptide elongation factor tu - peptide fragment - peptide initiation ... calcitonin gene-related peptide - calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor - calcitonin receptor - calcitriol receptor - ... vasoactive intestinal peptide - vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor - vasopressin - vasopressin receptor - venom - ... factor - peptide receptor - peptide termination factor - peripheral membrane protein - pesticide - pH - phage display - ...
It was observed that Hirano bodies are a specific site of a C-terminal fragment of β-amyloid precursor proteins. University of ... "Macroautophagy-a novel β-amyloid peptide-generating pathway activated in Alzheimer's disease". J Cell Biol. 171 (1): 87-98. doi ...
McKenna and Davies found that 10 mM or greater HClO is necessary to fragment proteins in vivo. Consistent with these results, ... most organic chloramines decayed by internal rearrangement and that fewer available NH2 groups promoted attack on the peptide ...
It stabilises APP and inhibits production of proteolytic APP fragments including the A beta peptide that is deposited in the ... Sumioka A, Imoto S, Martins RN, Kirino Y, Suzuki T (2003). "XB51 isoforms mediate Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide production ...
Overall, the SNX8 protein is integrated by one unique peptide chain that has 465 amino acids with a molecular mass of 52.569 Da ... the neuroprotective soluble fragment sAPPα is produced as a product of APP cleavage by α-secretases. Lately, APP that reaches ... Insoluble accumulations of β-amyloid peptide in brain regions related to memory and cognition are a defining characteristic of ... peptide that accumulates in extracellular locations forming senile plaques. SNX8 promotes non-amyloidogenic transport from the ...
... containing fragment (MurNAc-L-Ala-γ-D-Gln-DAP-D-Ala-D-Ala). m-DAP is present in the third position of peptidoglycan peptide in ... cross-linked by short peptides, the main component of bacterial cell wall. The smallest peptidoglycan fragment that binds to ... This site binds muramyl-tripeptide (MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoGln-L-Lys), but can also accommodate larger peptidoglycan fragments, such ... Thus, PGLYRP3 C-terminal PGRP domain has a preference for binding peptidoglycan fragments from Gram-positive cocci. Binding of ...
Juvenile rainbow trout exposed to polystyrene fragments show toxic effects in the form of substantial histomorphometrical ... divinylbenzene can be used for cross-linking the polystyrene chains to give the polymer used in solid phase peptide synthesis. ...
Petersen TN, Brunak S, von Heijne G, Nielsen H (September 2011). "SignalP 4.0: discriminating signal peptides from ... Aligned Fragment Pairs) with Twists), CE (combinatorial extension)) and DeepAlign (protein structure alignment beyond spatial ... Short signal peptides direct certain proteins to a particular location such as the mitochondria, and various tools exist for ... "A comparison of signal sequence prediction methods using a test set of signal peptides". Bioinformatics. 16 (8): 741-2. doi: ...
It works like a GGQ-release factor itself, releasing the peptide from tRNA. At the same time, it fits into the mRNA tunnel to ... When the ribosome pauses, during translation, the fragments that started to translate before the pause took place are ... Some forms of ribosomal pause are reversible without needing to discard the translated peptide and mRNA. This sort, usually ... Ribosome profiling is a method that can reveal pausing sites through sequencing the ribosome protected fragments (RPFs or ...
Bellemore SM, Nikoopour E, Au BC, Krougly O, Lee-Chan E, Haeryfar SM, Singh B (2014). "Anti-atherogenic peptide Ep1.B derived ... dendritic cells phagocytose pathogens and degrade their proteins into small pieces and upon maturation present those fragments ... Monocytes can be induced to differentiate into dendritic cells by a self-peptide Ep1.B derived from apolipoprotein E. These are ... "Dendritic cell differentiation induced by a self-peptide derived from apolipoprotein E." (PDF). J Immunol. 181 (10): 6859-71. ...
In contrast, FSL Kode constructs usually use specifically selected peptide fragments (up to 40 amino acids), thereby overcoming ... Furthermore, typical immunoassays use recombinant peptides rather than discrete peptide antigens. As the recombinant peptide is ... Simple FSL peptide synthesis - there is a reactive-functional-group FSL Kode construct with maleimide as its functional group ... Henry, Stephen; Komarraju, Sarvani; Heathcote, Damien; Rodinov, Igor L (2011). "Designing peptide-based FSL constructs to ...
Peptide omega analysis - check for non-planar peptide bonds. Temperature factor variance analysis - GLN and ASN B-factor ... Ideal DNA/RNA - build an ideal DNA or RNA fragment. Find ligands - find and fit a model to any small molecule which may be ... flip peptide, flip sidechain, cis <-> trans) Tools for adding atoms to the model: Find waters - add ordered solvent molecules ...
... , also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that ... and a DNA fragment (D3S1) by in situ hybridization". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... I. A CD conformational study". Journal of Peptide Science. 8 (2): 66-79. doi:10.1002/psc.370. PMID 11860030. S2CID 20438890. ... Simonetti M, Di BC (February 2002). "Structural motifs in the maturation process of peptide hormones. The somatostatin ...
Nomenclature for the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family". Pharmacological Reviews. 61 (2): 119-61. doi:10.1124/pr.109.001578 ... and various proteins such as the amino acid 1 to 42 fragment of Amyloid beta, Humanin, and the N-terminally truncated form of ... formyl peptide receptor-like 1) - FPR2; receptor for Lipoxin A4 and 15-epi-Lipoxin A4 (or AT-LxA4) eicosanoids but also many ... chemerin C-terminal peptide>18R-hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid (18R-EPE)>eicosapentaenoic acid (http://www.guidetopharmacology. ...
Dominant negative p120ctn fragments, which failed to interact with ABP and GRIP, impaired the stabilization of GluR2 and GluR3 ... Glutamate binding to NMDA upregulates the production of N-cadherin's intracellular domain peptide, N-cad/CTF2, an effect ... Additionally, treating neurons with NMDAR agonist causes cleavage of the β-catenin N-terminus, and the C-terminal fragments ...
Exons are DNA fragments that provide the code for a protein structure. CFTR functions as phosphorylation and ATP-gated anion ... Wang S, Raab RW, Schatz PJ, Guggino WB, Li M (May 1998). "Peptide binding consensus of the NHE-RF-PDZ1 domain matches the C- ...
"Highly enantioselective enone epoxidation catalyzed by short solid phase-bound peptides: Dominant role of peptide helicity". ... It has been suggested that poly-amino acid fragments analogous to the Juliá-Colonna catalyst may have been initiated by ... imidazole or cyanide derivatives, and the resulting fragments may have played a catalytic role in the origin of enantiomeric ...
They have reported that chimeras exploit signal peptides and transmembrane domains to alter the cellular localization of the ... such as misalignment or random pairing of transcript fragments. Some caution needs to be applied in the interpretation of trans ... They significantly exploit signal peptides and transmembrane proteins which can alter the localization of proteins, possibly ...
We also trade for HGH Fragment Peptide that is transported to different parts of the world. ... Kraco Pharma are a name that is one of the leading exporters of quality HGH Fragment Peptide in Tirana, Albania. ... For fragment peptide and for supply to different parts of the world, we are a name that many would suggest to you. ... The product fragment peptide comes in with a recommended dosage of 600mcg per day but you should definitely consult your doctor ...
Imperial Peptides sells High-Quality American Peptides and Research Chemicals, made in the USA.Buy Clonazolam, Flualprazolam, ... Flubromazolam, Epithalon and HGH Fragment at Imperial Peptides. ... HGH FRAGMENT 176-191 10mg For Sale Online at Imperial Peptides ... HGH Fragment for sale, HGH Fragment Peptide, online peptides, order peptides online, peptide, peptide buy, peptides, peptides ... Category: Research Peptides Tags: buy HGH Fragment, buy peptide, buy peptides, buy peptides online, buy peptides usa, buy ...
Researchers have come upon Fragment 176-191 peptide, which is a part of the human growth hormone (HGH). The following will look ... Fragment 176-191 Peptide and Studies in Weight Loss. by Dr. Marinov , Mar 17, 2021 , peptides , 0 comments ... Fragment 176-191, a modified AOD 9604 peptide, is a human growth hormone fragment. The 176th to the 191st aminos are separated ... Fragment 176-191 Peptide Research. Researchers suggest Fragment 176-191 may exhibit an ability to burn fat tissue. Research has ...
N-terminal peptide fragment constitutes core of amyloid deposition of serum amyloid A: An imaging mass spectrometry study. ... N-terminal peptide fragment constitutes core of amyloid deposition of serum amyloid A: An ... four trypsin-digested peptides in the range of SAA2-67 were visualized and the N-terminal peptide; SAA2-15, was selectively ... The C-terminal peptides; SAA47-62, SAA48-62, and SAA63-67 were detected not only in the Congo red-positive region but also in ...
Chinas leading Human Growth Hormone Peptide HGH Fragment 176-191 AOD 9604 2mg / 5mg / 10mg product market, With strict quality ... control Human Growth Hormone Peptide factories, Producing high quality Human Growth Hormone Peptide products. ... High quality Human Growth Hormone Peptide HGH Fragment 176-191 AOD 9604 2mg / 5mg / 10mg factory from China, ... Human Growth Hormone Peptide HGH Fragment 176-191 AOD 9604 2mg / 5mg / 10mg HGH Fragment 176-191 is delivered quickly and ...
Mesoscopic Simulation of Phospholipid Membranes, Peptides, and Proteins with Molecular Fragment Dynamics. ...
Peptide Fragments * fibrin fragment D * lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor * prothrombin fragment 1.2 ... Before and after therapy blood samples for analysis of MPs, TF antigen and activity, prothrombin fragment F1+2 and D-dimer were ...
... Filter those results▼ ... Aggregation properties of the peptide fragments derived from the 17-29 region of the human and rat IAPP: A comparative study ... A doppel alpha-helix peptide fragment mimics the copper(II) interactions with the whole protein (1135 views). La Mendola D, ... A doppel alpha-helix peptide fragment mimics the copper(II) interactions with the whole protein. The doppel protein (Dpi) is ...
Crystal Structure of MTIP from Plasmodium falciparum in complex with a peptide-fragment chimera. Help ...
Nomenclature de peptides de synthèse représentant des fragments de chaînes dimmunoglobulines  Sous-Comité de nomenclature ...
his arginine-rich TAT peptide penetrates plasma membrane directly. Fragment of the HIV transactivator protein (TAT) ... This is a fluorescent (TAMRA)-labeled TAT peptide, Abs/Em=541/568 nm. TAT is the most characterized fragment of the HIV ... Custom Peptides Synthesis. From macrocyclic to fluorescent or other highly modified peptides ... With over 25 years of peptide manufacturing experience, AnaSpec is your trusted source of highly complex peptides. ...
The ratios of intact hormone to peptide fragments may vary from individual to individual as well as between patients with ... human serum contains both the intact molecule and several fragments. The biologically active N-terminal fragment has a half- ... The concentration of metabolically inactive PTH fragments increases in renal failure. There were no changes to the equipment, ... Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an 84 amino acid peptide produced by the parathyroid gland. Since the PTH molecule undergoes ...
... membrane-associated peptide) as 2 overlapping fragments (primer sequences available upon request from the authors). ...
Recombinant Fragment. Plants. African elephant. Rhesus. Medaka. Cow. Squirrel. Opossum. Sheep. Virus. Horse. Guinea Pig. Gerbil ... Synthetic Peptides. All peptides are manufactured in the San Diego, California. Custom peptide services include long peptides ... Blocking Peptides. The majority of Abcepta antibodies are produced using peptide immunogens. These immuno-specific peptides can ... SARS Peptides. Individual peptides for SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein. In order to study the specificity of cellular immune ...
What exactly are copper peptides and how can they boost skin rejuvenation? Generally speaking, peptides are small fragments of ... The resulting compound consisting of a peptide and a copper atom has become known as a copper peptide. The benefits of copper ... He found and patented a number of specific copper peptides (in particular, GHK copper peptides or GHK-Cu) that were ... In one small study, copper peptides stimulated collagen production in the intact skin. In fact, in that study copper peptides ...
Peptides. Fab-fragment of monoclonal antibody: A. Fab-fragment of monoclonal antibody: B. SMTL:PDB. SMTL Chain Id:. PDB Chain ... Pletnev, V.Z. et al., [A new crystal form of the Fab fragment of a monoclonal antibody to human interleukin-2: the three- ...
These proteins attach to protein fragments (peptides) outside the cell. MHC class II proteins display these peptides to the ... If the immune system recognizes the peptides as foreign (such as viral or bacterial peptides), it triggers a response to attack ... This complex displays foreign peptides to the immune system to trigger the bodys immune response. ...
N-terminal fragment of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP): A new response criterion in AL amyloidosis. Amyloid. 2010. 17:84 ... 37] Imaging and some biomarkers like N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), ... Aβ peptide is known as a factor in the pathology of Alzheimer disease. Aβ aggregation is dependent on monomer concentration, ... Proteolysis and protein fragments. In some types of amyloidosis (eg, always in AA, often in AL and ATTR), the amyloid ...
The simulation results match well the experimental data and provide new insights into the possible role of the lid fragment in ... Without a priori knowledge of the p53 peptide structure or its binding site, we obtained near-native models of the p53-MDM2 ... The large size of the highly flexible MDM2 fragments makes p53-MDM2 intractable for exhaustive binding dynamics studies using ... Recently, we have developed the CABS-dock method for flexible protein-peptide docking that enables large-scale rearrangements ...
... or N-terminal PTH or PTH-related peptide fragments or analogs; (4) females only; changes in hormone replacement therapy within ... Like many other hormonally active peptides, PTH (1 84); NATPARA is parenterally administered. In this protocol when a specific ...
Studying short peptides allows bypassing the complexity of working with full-length proteins and may provide important ... To solve this problem, several research groups have chosen to focus on short fragments of amyloid proteins, sequences that have ... that these techniques can provide and at highlighting their strengths and weaknesses when studying amyloid fragments. ... Aβ1-28 fragment of the amyloid peptide predominantly adopts a polyproline II conformation in an acidic solution ...
Workflow and Tools for Crystallographic Fragment Screening at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin ... Analysis of Histone Antibody Specificity with Peptide Microarrays The JoVE video player is compatible with HTML5 and Adobe ...
The serum compositional changes after MWCNT exposure have been identified as a surge of fragmented endogenous peptides, likely ... with MMP blockade abrogating MWCNT-derived serum peptide fragments. The serum, in turn, exhibited differential potency in terms ... However, serum peptidomic analysis revealed differential peptide compositional profiles, ... Peptides; Endothelial cells; Blood serum; Toxic effects; Toxic materials; Bioactivation; Cellular effects; Cell function; ...
For the main search peptide and peptide fragment, mass tolerances were set to 4.5 and 20 ppm, respectively. ... Proteolytic peptides were desalted by stop-and-go extraction with C18 tips.24 The purified peptides were dried by vacuum ... Label-free quantification of proteins required at least two ratio counts of razor peptides. Only unique peptides were used for ... The ten most intense peptide ions per full MS scan were selected for peptide fragmentation (resolution, 15,000; isolation width ...
Peptides scoring ,20 were automatically rejected, ensuring all protein identifications were based on reliable peptide ... Tryptic fragments from the products of genes 92, 100, 114, and 116 included plausible N-terminal sequences (Supplementary Table ... Peptide solution (5 μl) was loaded onto a C18 reversed-phase capillary column (100 μm ID × 30 cm, Zaplous αPep C18; AMR, Tokyo ... The eluted peptides were ionized through a CaptiveSpray source (Bruker Daltonics) and introduced into a Maxis 3G Q-TOF mass ...
MBM peptides are deeply plugged into the cavity comprising two short fragments MBM1 and MBM2. They are separated by a 7 residue ... The MBM2 peptide is positively charged and binds in a region proximal to the MBM1 binding site and provides additional ...
Cleaves type IV and type V collagen into large C-terminal three quarter fragments and shorter N-terminal one quarter fragments ... Proteins and Peptides. By product type. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Cell lines and ... Synthetic peptide within Human MMP9 aa 600-700 (C terminal). The exact sequence is proprietary.. Database link: P14780 ... The dissociation of the cysteine from the zinc ion upon the activation-peptide release activates the enzyme. ...
The MHC molecules do this by presenting fragments of proteins (peptides) belonging to the invader on the surface of the cell. ... In uninfected healthy cells the MHC molecule presents peptides from its own cell (self peptides), to which T cells do not ... A virus particle is nothing but a fragment of DNA in a protective coat. The virus comes in contact with a cell, attaches itself ... The T cell recognizes the foreign peptide attached to the MHC molecule and binds to it, an action that stimulates the T cell to ...
With UbiFast, protein samples from cells or tissues are cleaved to peptide fragments, and an antibody is used to enrich for ... Labeled peptides from multiple samples can be analyzed in one run using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to ...
  • With its history as an original manufacturer, Abcepta has a deep and practical understanding of the production process for antibodies, peptides, and recombinant proteins. (
  • Generally speaking, peptides are small fragments of proteins. (
  • These proteins attach to protein fragments (peptides) outside the cell. (
  • MHC class II proteins display these peptides to the immune system. (
  • To solve this problem, several research groups have chosen to focus on short fragments of amyloid proteins, sequences that have been found to be of great importance for the amyloid formation process. (
  • Studying short peptides allows bypassing the complexity of working with full-length proteins and may provide important information relative to critical segments of amyloid proteins. (
  • Labeled peptides from multiple samples can be analyzed in one run using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to identify the modified proteins. (
  • N-terminal peptide fragment constitutes core of amyloid deposition of serum amyloid A: An imaging mass spectrometry study. (
  • Polymorphisms that slightly vary native peptides or inflammatory processes set the stage for abnormal protein folding and amyloid fibril deposition. (
  • Understanding amyloid fibril formation using protein fragments: structural investigations via. (
  • This review aims at underlining the information that these techniques can provide and at highlighting their strengths and weaknesses when studying amyloid fragments. (
  • MBM peptides are deeply plugged into the cavity comprising two short fragments MBM1 and MBM2. (
  • Fragment 176-191, a modified AOD 9604 peptide, is a human growth hormone fragment. (
  • The 176th to the 191st aminos are separated from the chain, with one more amino acid (Tyrosine) added to the fragment. (
  • With the addition of amino acid 176, the fragment becomes a growth-hormone releasing factor (GRF) analog. (
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an 84 amino acid peptide produced by the parathyroid gland. (
  • Since the PTH molecule undergoes extensive proteolytic modifications, human serum contains both the intact molecule and several fragments. (
  • The serum compositional changes after MWCNT exposure have been identified as a surge of fragmented endogenous peptides, likely derived from matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. (
  • In the present study, we utilize a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, Marimastat, along with a previously described oropharyngeal aspiration model of MWCNT administration to investigate the role of MMPs in MWCNT-derived serum peptide generation and endothelial bioactivity. (
  • However, serum peptidomic analysis revealed differential peptide compositional profiles, with MMP blockade abrogating MWCNT-derived serum peptide fragments. (
  • Top Antibody & Peptide Supplier! (
  • A new crystal form of the Fab fragment of a monoclonal antibody to human interleukin-2: the three-dimensional structure at 2.7 A resolution]. (
  • With UbiFast, protein samples from cells or tissues are cleaved to peptide fragments, and an antibody is used to enrich for ubiquitin modification sites. (
  • In order to study the specificity of cellular immune responses against SARS CoV-2 and potential immunity caused by other human Corona Viruses, Abcepta provides Spike peptide individually, as pools and in plate. (
  • If the immune system recognizes the peptides as foreign (such as viral or bacterial peptides), it triggers a response to attack the invading viruses or bacteria. (
  • This complex displays foreign peptides to the immune system to trigger the body's immune response. (
  • The H1 histone of goldfish and its N-terminally derived peptide , termed histone H1(2-38) ( AEVAPAASAPPAKAPKKKSAAKAKKAGPAVGDLIVKA ), show antimicrobial activity and probably plays a role in innate immune responses of goldfish . (
  • Phospholipase C, immune inhibitor A, chitin-binding protein and a single peptide match to chain A crystal structure of selenomethionine were observed in the secretions of L. infantum pro- mastigotes. (
  • Therefore, these peptide antigens require formulation with an immune stimulant and/or vaccine delivery platform to improve their immunogenicity. (
  • Before and after therapy blood samples for analysis of MPs, TF antigen and activity, prothrombin fragment F1+2 and D-dimer were obtained. (
  • These peptides can be used for antigen specific T-cell stimulation in T-cell assays or T-cell expansion. (
  • And, since GRF is part of a huge family of peptide hormones & similar molecules, an analog of GRF that is both bioactive and stable would make for a great testing substance for research. (
  • Functional amyloids play a beneficial role in a variety of physiologic processes (eg, long-term memory formation, gradual release of stored peptide hormones). (
  • Like unmodified GH, HGH fragment 176-191 stimulates lipolysis (decomposes fat) and inhibits lipogenesis (formation of fatty acids and other lipids in the body). (
  • HGH FRAGMENT 176-191 10mg for sale online at Imperial Peptides where you can buy Peptides safely and securely from a trusted USA Peptide and Research Chemical Manufacturer. (
  • Treatment using HGH's 176-191 peptide fragment could be linked to glycogen synthase phosphatase inactivation in the muscle tissue of rodents, which may then alters within cells the active glycogen synthase concentration. (
  • Researchers suggest Fragment 176-191 may exhibit an ability to burn fat tissue. (
  • In this study, we investigated the tissue distribution of SAA derived peptides in formalin -fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens of human myocardium with amyloidosis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry ( MALDI -IMS). (
  • The benefits of copper peptides for tissue regeneration were discovered by Dr. Loren Pickart in the 1970s. (
  • A distinctive feature of GHK copper peptides is that they reduce scar tissue formation while stimulating normal skin remodeling. (
  • This peptide, then, is considered a GH releasing hormone, and may function partly as a growth hormone release regulator as well. (
  • Custom peptide services include long peptides (>100 aa), cyclic peptides, difficult sequences, fluorescent labels, phospho-peptides and other post-translational modifications. (
  • This is a fluorescent (TAMRA)-labeled TAT peptide, Abs/Em=541/568 nm. (
  • Synthetic peptide within Human MMP9 aa 600-700 (C terminal). (
  • We investigated polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) and polymer-coated liposomes as self-adjuvanting delivery vehicles for a GAS B cell peptide epitope conjugated to a universal T-helper epitope and a synthetic toll-like receptor 2-targeting moiety lipid core peptide-1 (LCP-1). (
  • The large size of the highly flexible MDM2 fragments makes p53-MDM2 intractable for exhaustive binding dynamics studies using atomistic models. (
  • Copper peptides: Can you 'repair' a wrinkle? (
  • A good example of a wound-healing agent that appears to also have anti-wrinkle potential is the class of compounds called copper peptides. (
  • What exactly are copper peptides and how can they boost skin rejuvenation? (
  • Certain kinds of peptides have an avid affinity for copper, to which they bind very tightly. (
  • The resulting compound consisting of a peptide and a copper atom has become known as a copper peptide. (
  • He found and patented a number of specific copper peptides (in particular, GHK copper peptides or GHK-Cu) that were particularly effective in healing wounds and skin lesions as well as some gastrointestinal conditions. (
  • The mechanism of copper peptide action is relatively complex. (
  • Can copper peptides be useful for regular skin protection and rejuvenation? (
  • However, while the wound healing effects of copper peptide have been investigated and documented in many studies, much less research has been done so far on their cosmetic and anti-aging use. (
  • Since copper peptides optimize healing and improve skin remodeling, then can augment the effect of treatments based on various forms of controlled skin injury. (
  • In particular, copper peptides can be useful after various forms of laser resurfacing, dermabrasion, and chemical peels. (
  • IMPORTANT: If you are considering using copper peptides after a particular procedure, make sure to discuss it with your physician. (
  • Copper peptides are effective against various forms of skin irritation, mainly due to their anti-inflammatory effects. (
  • In many cases, copper peptides can reduce or eliminate the irritation and help maximize treatment benefits. (
  • While it remain to be further researched, it appears that copper peptide can help minimize the damage from daily wear and tear of the skin. (
  • It is mainly due to the recent successes of peptide-based therapies and the fact that peptides have a number of advantages over conventional small molecule drugs, such as high selectivity, low toxicity and smaller potential for adverse effects 1 . (
  • Protein-peptide interactions are often associated with large-scale conformational changes that are difficult to study either by classical molecular modeling or by experiment. (
  • The concentration of metabolically inactive PTH fragments increases in renal failure. (
  • Development of a peptide-based subunit vaccine offers a promising solution, negating the safety issues of live-attenuated or inactive vaccines. (
  • With over 25 years of peptide manufacturing experience, AnaSpec is your trusted source of highly complex peptides. (
  • Without a priori knowledge of the p53 peptide structure or its binding site, we obtained near-native models of the p53-MDM2 complex. (
  • The product fragment peptide comes in with a recommended dosage of 600mcg per day but you should definitely consult your doctor for any specific dosage you might require. (
  • Fragment 176-191 could also be used to explore the presumed functions of either growth hormone or GRF in aging or other processes, as well as the response to altered feeding patterns of non-human subjects. (
  • The HGH fragment is a modified form of amino acids 176-191 of the C-terminal region of human growth hormone (HGH). (
  • Subunit vaccines administer small peptide fragments (antigens), which are typically poorly immunogenic. (
  • Research has indicated that the peptide fragment provides significant, positive effects than its previous version. (
  • Of particular note is that in the study, HGH fragment 176-191 has the ability to increase IGF-1 levels, which translates into the ability of the fragment to confer anti-aging effects. (
  • This growth hormone peptide (HGH) fragment has displayed potential in fat loss, a role linked to HGH for the first time in the late 1950s. (
  • The protein-peptide binding process frequently involves significant conformational rearrangements of protein receptor and peptide chains. (
  • The ratios of intact hormone to peptide fragments may vary from individual to individual as well as between patients with hyperparathyroidism or chronic renal failure. (
  • Conclusions: Thus, MWCNT exposure induced pulmonary inflammation that was largely independent of MMP activity but generated circulating bioactive peptides through predominantly MMP-dependent pathways. (
  • Roles of the C-terminal peptides require further investigation. (
  • The development of peptide therapeutics is a rapidly expanding field of rational drug design strategies. (
  • The minimum quantity to be ordered through HGH fragment peptide exporter from Albania is 100 boxes. (
  • In vivo studies on animals exploring the HGH fragment properties have found that the fragment may disturb glycogen synthase management, which can cause changes in circulating glucose levels. (
  • Studies in rodents that have undergone long-term Fragment 176-191 treatment have proposed that it can activate weight loss, which is directly associated with its ability to breakdown fat, though researchers don't completely understand why. (
  • Recently, we have developed the CABS-dock method for flexible protein-peptide docking that enables large-scale rearrangements of the protein chain. (
  • As HGH fragment peptide exporter we ensure you get quality product which helps in burning the body fat. (
  • These immuno-specific peptides can be used as blocking agents when using the complementary antibodies in a range of applications. (
  • HGH fragment 176-191 is frequently considered an imitation of HGH's C-terminal. (
  • The simulation results match well the experimental data and provide new insights into the possible role of the lid fragment in p53 binding. (
  • This study highlights the capability of a PEI-liposome system to act as a self-adjuvanting vehicle for the delivery of GAS peptide antigens and protection against GAS infection. (
  • The presented case study demonstrates that CABS-dock methodology opens up new opportunities for protein-peptide docking with large-scale changes of the protein receptor structure. (
  • That's why, in vivo, shortened versions of growth hormone, such as the HGH fragment, may disturb the normal metabolism of glycogen or glucose. (