Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Penetration of a PEPTIC ULCER through the wall of DUODENUM or STOMACH allowing the leakage of luminal contents into the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.
An ulceration caused by prolonged pressure on the SKIN and TISSUES when one stays in one position for a long period of time, such as lying in bed. The bony areas of the body are the most frequently affected sites which become ischemic (ISCHEMIA) under sustained and constant pressure.
A skin ulcer is a breakdown of the skin's surface and underlying tissues, often caused by prolonged pressure, infection, or poor circulation, leading to a loss of continuity in the epidermis and dermis, potentially extending into deeper layers such as subcutaneous tissue, muscle, and bone.
Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
Control of bleeding performed through the channel of the endoscope. Techniques include use of lasers, heater probes, bipolar electrocoagulation, and local injection. Endoscopic hemostasis is commonly used to treat bleeding esophageal and gastrointestinal varices and ulcers.
Impaired digestion, especially after eating.
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
Vomiting of blood that is either fresh bright red, or older "coffee-ground" in character. It generally indicates bleeding of the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
A lesion in the skin and subcutaneous tissues due to infections by MYCOBACTERIUM ULCERANS. It was first reported in Uganda, Africa.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.
A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.
A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.
Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Inflammation of the DUODENUM section of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL). Erosive duodenitis may cause bleeding in the UPPER GI TRACT and PEPTIC ULCER.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Vagal denervation of that part of the STOMACH lined with acid-secreting mucosa (GASTRIC MUCOSA) containing the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Since the procedure leaves the vagal branches to the antrum and PYLORUS intact, it circumvents gastric drainage required with truncal vagotomy techniques.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
A variety of surgical reconstructive procedures devised to restore gastrointestinal continuity, The two major classes of reconstruction are the Billroth I (gastroduodenostomy) and Billroth II (gastrojejunostomy) procedures.
Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.
Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.
The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A nitrofuran derivative with antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. Furazolidone acts by gradual inhibition of monoamine oxidase. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p514)
INFLAMMATION, acute or chronic, of the ESOPHAGUS caused by BACTERIA, chemicals, or TRAUMA.
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A nitroimidazole antitrichomonal agent effective against Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia infections.
The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the ESOPHAGUS; the STOMACH; and the DUODENUM.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.
Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
The hindering of output from the STOMACH into the SMALL INTESTINE. This obstruction may be of mechanical or functional origin such as EDEMA from PEPTIC ULCER; NEOPLASMS; FOREIGN BODIES; or AGING.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
L-Tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide. The C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Proenzymes secreted by chief cells, mucous neck cells, and pyloric gland cells, which are converted into pepsin in the presence of gastric acid or pepsin itself. (Dorland, 28th ed) In humans there are 2 related pepsinogen systems: PEPSINOGEN A (formerly pepsinogen I or pepsinogen) and PEPSINOGEN C (formerly pepsinogen II or progastricsin). Pepsinogen B is the name of a pepsinogen from pigs.
A syndrome that is characterized by the triad of severe PEPTIC ULCER, hypersecretion of GASTRIC ACID, and GASTRIN-producing tumors of the PANCREAS or other tissue (GASTRINOMA). This syndrome may be sporadic or be associated with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
The S-isomer of omeprazole.
Gastrointestinal symptoms resulting from an absent or nonfunctioning pylorus.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poland" is not a medical term or concept; it is a country located in Central Europe. If you have any questions about medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help answer those!
GASTRITIS with atrophy of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS, and the mucosal glands leading to ACHLORHYDRIA. Atrophic gastritis usually progresses from chronic gastritis.
Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
A slow-growing mycobacterium that infects the skin and subcutaneous tissues, giving rise to indolent BURULI ULCER.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
A 4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methylpyridinyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.
A competitive histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Its main pharmacodynamic effect is the inhibition of gastric secretion.
Sequelae of gastrectomy from the second week after operation on. Include recurrent or anastomotic ulcer, postprandial syndromes (DUMPING SYNDROME and late postprandial hypoglycemia), disordered bowel action, and nutritional deficiencies.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).
Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.
Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.

The significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. (1/1017)

AIMS: To assess the significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in relation to inflammation and density of bacterial colonisation in vivo within a dyspeptic UK population. METHODS: Dyspeptic patients who were Helicobacter pylori positive had antral samples taken for histology and culture. Gastroduodenal pathology was noted. The grade of bacterial density and inflammation was assessed using the Sydney system. Bacterial DNA was extracted and the vacA alleles and the cagA/gene typed using PCR. RESULTS: 120 patients were studied. There was high rate of cagA positive strains in this population. Bacterial density did not correlate with the presence of peptic ulceration. There was a significant association between cagA positive strains and increased inflammation and bacterial density. The vacA s1 type independently correlated with extensive chronic inflammation but there was no association with bacterial density. The vacA m type did not correlate with extent of inflammation or bacterial density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cagA is important in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. These findings are in keeping with the hypothesis that cagA acts as a marker for a cag pathogenicity island which encodes several genes involved in inflammation. The vacA s1 allele correlates with inflammation independently of cagA, possibly through its enhanced ability to produce the vacuolating cytotoxin.  (+info)

Can restrictions on reimbursement for anti-ulcer drugs decrease Medicaid pharmacy costs without increasing hospitalizations? (2/1017)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of a policy restricting reimbursement for Medicaid anti-ulcer drugs on anti-ulcer drug use and peptic-related hospitalizations. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: In addition to U.S. Census Bureau data, all of the following from Florida: Medicaid anti-ulcer drug claims data, 1989-1993; Medicaid eligibility data, 1989-1993; and acute care nonfederal hospital discharge abstract data (Medicaid and non-Medicaid), 1989-1993. STUDY DESIGN: In this observational study, a Poisson multiple regression model was used to compare changes, after policy implementation, in Medicaid reimbursement for prescription anti-ulcer drugs as well as hospitalization rates between pre- and post-implementation periods in Medicaid versus non-Medicaid patients hospitalized with peptic ulcer disease. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following policy implementation, the rate of Medicaid reimbursement for anti-ulcer drugs decreased 33 percent (p < .001). No associated increase occurred in the rate of Medicaid peptic-related hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: Florida's policy restricting Medicaid reimbursement for anti-ulcer drugs was associated with a substantial reduction in outpatient anti-ulcer drug utilization without any significant increase in the rate of hospitalization for peptic-related conditions.  (+info)

Management and outcome of patients undergoing surgery after acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Steering Group for the National Audit of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage. (3/1017)

Most patients with acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage are managed conservatively or with endoscopic intervention but some ultimately require surgery to arrest the haemorrhage. We have conducted a population-based multicentre prospective observational study of management and outcomes. This paper concerns the subgroup of 307 patients who had an operation because of continued or recurrent haemorrhage or high risk of further bleeding. The principal diagnostic group was those with peptic ulcer. Of 2071 patients with peptic ulcer presenting with acute haemorrhage, 251 (12%) had an operative intervention with a mortality of 24%. In the non-operative group mortality was 10%. The operative intervention rate increased with risk score, ranging from 0% in the lowest risk categories to 38% in the highest. Much of the discrepancy between operative and non-operative mortality was explainable by case mix; however, for high-risk cases mortality was significantly higher in the operated group. In 78% of patients who underwent an operation for bleeding peptic ulcer there had been no previous attempt at endoscopic haemostasis. For patients admitted to surgical units, the operative intervention rate was about four times higher than for those admitted under medical teams. In patients with acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage operative intervention is infrequent and largely confined to the highest-risk patients. The continuing high mortality in surgically treated patients is therefore to be expected. The reasons for the low use of endoscopic treatment before surgery are not revealed by this study, but wider use of such treatments might further reduce the operative intervention rate. Physicians and surgeons have not yet reached consensus on who needs surgery and when.  (+info)

Reliability of the omeprazole hydroxylation index for CYP2C19 phenotyping: possible effect of age, liver disease and length of therapy. (4/1017)

AIMS: To evaluate the reliability of the omeprazole hydroxylation index as a marker for polymorphic CYP2C19 activity in a Japanese population of healthy young subjects (n = 78) and patients with peptic ulcer (n = 72). METHODS: Healthy subjects were administered a single dose of omeprazole (20 mg), whereas patients received 20 mg daily for at least 1 week. The ratio of the serum concentration of omeprazole to hydroxyomeprazole at 3 h postdose was determined and used as a measure of CYP2C19 activity. The CYP2C19 wild type (wt) gene and four mutant alleles associated with the poor metaboliser phenotype of (S)-mephenytoin, CYP2C19*2 in exon 5, CYP2C19*3 in exon 4, CYP2C19m4 in exon 9, and CYP2C19m3 in the initial codon were analysed. RESULTS: In the healthy volunteer study there was complete concordance between genotype and phenotype. However, eight of the patients who had the EM genotype had a high value for their hydroxylation index, and were classified as phenotypic PMs. No CYP2C19m4 and CYP2C19m3 mutations were detected in the eight mismatched patients. They were all genotypic heterozygous EMs, elderly (> or = 65 years) and/or had hepatic disease. Therefore, impaired CYP2C19 activity combined with partial saturation of omeprazole metabolism during multiple dosing may have contributed to the discrepancy between CYP2C19 genotyping and phenotyping. CONCLUSION: Although omeprazole has been used instead of mephenytoin as a probe for polymorphic CYP2C19, it does not appear to be reliable enough for clinical application in Japanese patients.  (+info)

PCR-based restriction pattern typing of the vacA gene provides evidence for a homogeneous group among Helicobacter pylori strains associated with peptic ulcer disease. (5/1017)

The results of PCR-based molecular typing of Helicobacter pylori strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a 1, 161-bp nucleotide sequence of the midregion of the vacA gene are reported. A total of 48 H. pylori strains isolated from gastric biopsy specimens obtained from 18 patients with peptic ulcer dyspepsia, 15 patients with nonulcer dyspepsia, and 15 asymptomatic H. pylori-infected subjects were studied. Highly heterogeneous restriction patterns were obtained by digestion of PCR products with SauII, BglII, and HhaI, whereas HaeIII digestion resulted in a strictly homogeneous profile for H. pylori strains isolated from 14 of 18 (77.7%) patients with peptic ulcer dyspepsia, but a strictly homogeneous profile was found for strains from only 8 of 15 (53.3%) patients with nonulcer dyspepsia (P = 0.163) and 5 of 15 (33.3%) asymptomatic H. pylori-infected subjects (P = 0.014). A potentially important aspect of the results obtained is the clinical relevance, since a single restriction pattern seems to be able to identify the majority of H. pylori strains associated with peptic ulcer disease.  (+info)

Allelic diversity of the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin gene in South Africa: rarity of the vacA s1a genotype and natural occurrence of an s2/m1 allele. (6/1017)

We describe the rarity of Helicobacter pylori strains of vacuolating cytotoxin type s1a (the type most commonly associated with peptic ulceration in the United States) among black and mixed-race South Africans. We also provide the first description of a naturally occurring strain with the vacA allelic structure s2/m1.  (+info)

Relationship between mucosal levels of Helicobacter pylori-specific IgA, interleukin-8 and gastric inflammation. (7/1017)

Mucosal IgA is important in local immune defence. Helicobacter pylori induces a specific IgA response in antral mucosa, but its immunopathology is unknown. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been suggested to be important in H. pylori-induced inflammation. Current information on the relationship between H. pylori-induced IgA and mucosal inflammation is limited. To investigate possible associations between mucosal-specific IgA, the toxinogenicity of H. pylori, mucosal levels of IL-8 and gastric inflammation, 52 endoscoped patients were studied. These comprised 28 patients with peptic ulcer and 24 with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Of these patients, 38 had H. pylori infection: 28 with peptic ulcer and 10 with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Antral biopsies were taken for histology, H. pylori culture and measurement of mucosal levels of IL-8 (pg/mg) and specific IgA (A450x1000) by ELISA. Mucosal H. pylori IgA was detectable in 35 out of 38 patients with H. pylori infection, with a median (interquartile) level of 220 (147, 531) units. There was no significant difference in mucosal levels of the IgA antibodies between patients infected with cytotoxin-positive or cagA-positive strains of H. pylori and those with toxin-negative or cagA-negative strains. The IgA levels in those patients with severe neutrophil infiltration were lower than in those with mild or moderate infiltration (P<0.05). There was a weak inverse correlation between antral mucosal IgA and IL-8 in infected patients (r=-0.36; P=0.04). H. pylori infection induced a significant local mucosal IgA response in most infected patients. The level of IgA antibodies does not appear to be correlated with the toxinogenicity of H. pylori. However, patients with severe active inflammation appear to have decreased levels of IgA. An inverse correlation between mucosal IL-8 and IgA may suggest that IL-8-induced inflammation compromises the mucosal IgA defence and renders the mucosa susceptible to further damage.  (+info)

High cure rate of Helicobacter pylori infection using tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate, furazolidone and clarithromycin triple therapy for 1 week. (8/1017)

BACKGROUND: When metronidazole is used in bismuth-based or proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy, the cure rate of Helicobacter pylori is usually high. However, metronidazole-resistant H. pylori strains, which are increasing in frequency, are a major cause of failed H. pylori eradication. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of non-metronidazole containing bismuth-based triple therapy for H. pylori infection. METHODS: One-hundred and eighty H. pylori-positive patients with endoscopically documented peptic ulcer disease or functional dyspepsia were randomly assigned to one of three 1-week regimens containing tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (also called colloidal bismuth subcitrate) 240 mg b.d. and two antibiotics: furazolidone 100 mg b.d. plus clarithromycin 250 mg b.d. (Group A); or clarithromycin 250 mg b.d. plus amoxycillin 1000 mg b.d. (Group B); or furazolidone 100 mg b.d. plus josamycin 1000 mg b.d. (Group C). H. pylori status was assessed by rapid urease test, histology and culture of gastric biopsy specimens taken from both the antrum and corpus, both before and at least 4 weeks after completion of therapy. RESULTS: Thirteen patients dropped out (3 in group A, 5 in group B and 5 in group C). Based on an intention-to-treat analysis, the eradication rates achieved in groups A, B and C were 88% (53/60), 58% (35/60) and 77% (46/60), respectively. These differences were significant between groups A and B (P < 0.001), as well as between groups B and C (P < 0.05). Side-effects occurred in 7 (12%) patients in group A, 3 (5%) in group B and 8 (13%) in group C, and were mild, with the exception of vomiting in one patient (group C) that resulted in withdrawal from the study. CONCLUSION: One-week triple therapy, consisting of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate, low-dose furazolidone and low-dose clarithromycin, achieves a high cure rate of H. pylori.  (+info)

A peptic ulcer is a sore or erosion in the lining of your stomach and the first part of your small intestine (duodenum). The most common causes of peptic ulcers are bacterial infection and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen.

The symptoms of a peptic ulcer include abdominal pain, often in the upper middle part of your abdomen, which can be dull, sharp, or burning and may come and go for several days or weeks. Other symptoms can include bloating, burping, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Severe ulcers can cause bleeding in the digestive tract, which can lead to anemia, black stools, or vomit that looks like coffee grounds.

If left untreated, peptic ulcers can result in serious complications such as perforation (a hole through the wall of the stomach or duodenum), obstruction (blockage of the digestive tract), and bleeding. Treatment for peptic ulcers typically involves medications to reduce acid production, neutralize stomach acid, and kill the bacteria causing the infection. In severe cases, surgery may be required.

Peptic ulcer hemorrhage is a medical condition characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract due to a peptic ulcer. Peptic ulcers are open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach, lower esophagus, or small intestine. They are usually caused by infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

When a peptic ulcer bleeds, it can cause symptoms such as vomiting blood or passing black, tarry stools. In severe cases, the bleeding can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition characterized by a rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and confusion. Peptic ulcer hemorrhage is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. Treatment may include medications to reduce stomach acid, antibiotics to eliminate H. pylori infection, and endoscopic procedures to stop the bleeding. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the ulcer or remove damaged tissue.

Peptic ulcer perforation is a serious and sightful gastrointestinal complication characterized by the penetration or erosion of an acid-peptic ulcer through the full thickness of the stomach or duodenal wall, resulting in spillage of gastric or duodenal contents into the peritoneal cavity. This leads to chemical irritation and/or bacterial infection of the abdominal cavity, causing symptoms such as sudden severe abdominal pain, tenderness, rigidity, and potentially life-threatening sepsis if not promptly diagnosed and treated with surgical intervention, antibiotics, and supportive care.

A stomach ulcer, also known as a gastric ulcer, is a sore that forms in the lining of the stomach. It's caused by a breakdown in the mucous layer that protects the stomach from digestive juices, allowing acid to come into contact with the stomach lining and cause an ulcer. The most common causes are bacterial infection (usually by Helicobacter pylori) and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Stomach ulcers may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, heartburn, and nausea. If left untreated, they can lead to more serious complications like internal bleeding, perforation, or obstruction.

A duodenal ulcer is a type of peptic ulcer that develops in the lining of the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum. It is characterized by a break in the mucosal layer of the duodinal wall, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Duodenal ulcers are often caused by an imbalance between digestive acid and mucus production, which can be exacerbated by factors such as bacterial infection (commonly with Helicobacter pylori), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, smoking, and stress. Symptoms may include gnawing or burning abdominal pain, often occurring a few hours after meals or during the night, bloating, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Complications can be severe, including bleeding, perforation, and obstruction of the duodenum. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy, and treatment may include antibiotics (if H. pylori infection is present), acid-suppressing medications, lifestyle modifications, and potentially surgery in severe cases.

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately 50% of the global population. It is closely associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. H. pylori infection is usually acquired in childhood and can persist for life if not treated. The bacterium's spiral shape and flagella allow it to penetrate the mucus layer and adhere to the gastric epithelium, where it releases virulence factors that cause inflammation and tissue damage. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection can be made through various tests, including urea breath test, stool antigen test, or histological examination of a gastric biopsy. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors to eradicate the bacteria and promote healing of the stomach lining.

Helicobacter infections are caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which colonizes the stomach lining and is associated with various gastrointestinal diseases. The infection can lead to chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and gastric cancer.

The spiral-shaped H. pylori bacteria are able to survive in the harsh acidic environment of the stomach by producing urease, an enzyme that neutralizes gastric acid in their immediate vicinity. This allows them to adhere to and colonize the epithelial lining of the stomach, where they can cause inflammation (gastritis) and disrupt the normal functioning of the stomach.

Transmission of H. pylori typically occurs through oral-oral or fecal-oral routes, and infection is more common in developing countries and in populations with lower socioeconomic status. The diagnosis of Helicobacter infections can be confirmed through various tests, including urea breath tests, stool antigen tests, or gastric biopsy with histology and culture. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors to eradicate the bacteria and reduce stomach acidity.

A leg ulcer is a chronic wound that occurs on the lower extremities, typically on the inner or outer ankle. It's often caused by poor circulation, venous insufficiency, or diabetes. Leg ulcers can also result from injury, infection, or inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. These ulcers can be painful, and they may take a long time to heal, making them prone to infection. Proper diagnosis, treatment, and wound care are essential for healing leg ulcers and preventing complications.

A pressure ulcer, also known as a pressure injury or bedsore, is defined by the National Pressure Injury Advisory Panel (NPIAP) as "localized damage to the skin and/or underlying soft tissue usually over a bony prominence or related to a medical or other device." The damage can be caused by intense and/or prolonged pressure or shear forces, or a combination of both. Pressure ulcers are staged based on their severity, ranging from an initial reddening of the skin (Stage 1) to full-thickness tissue loss that extends down to muscle and bone (Stage 4). Unstageable pressure ulcers are those in which the base of the wound is covered by yellow, tan, green or brown tissue and the extent of tissue damage is not visible. Suspected deep tissue injury (Suspected DTI) describes intact skin or non-blanchable redness of a localized area usually over a bony prominence due to pressure and/or shear. The area may be preceded by tissue that is painful, firm, mushy, boggy, warmer or cooler as compared to adjacent tissue.

A skin ulcer is a defined as a loss of continuity or disruption of the skin surface, often accompanied by inflammation and/or infection. These lesions can result from various causes including pressure, venous or arterial insufficiency, diabetes, and chronic dermatological conditions. Skin ulcers are typically characterized by their appearance, depth, location, and underlying cause. Common types of skin ulcers include pressure ulcers (also known as bedsores), venous leg ulcers, arterial ulcers, and diabetic foot ulcers. Proper evaluation, wound care, management of underlying conditions, and prevention strategies are crucial in the treatment of skin ulcers to promote healing and prevent complications.

Anti-ulcer agents are a class of medications that are used to treat and prevent ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. These medications work by reducing the production of stomach acid, neutralizing stomach acid, or protecting the lining of the stomach and duodenum from damage caused by stomach acid.

There are several types of anti-ulcer agents, including:

1. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): These medications block the action of proton pumps in the stomach, which are responsible for producing stomach acid. PPIs include drugs such as omeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole.
2. H-2 receptor antagonists: These medications block the action of histamine on the H-2 receptors in the stomach, reducing the production of stomach acid. Examples include ranitidine, famotidine, and cimetidine.
3. Antacids: These medications neutralize stomach acid and provide quick relief from symptoms such as heartburn and indigestion. Common antacids include calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide.
4. Protective agents: These medications form a barrier between the stomach lining and stomach acid, protecting the lining from damage. Examples include sucralfate and misoprostol.

Anti-ulcer agents are used to treat conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. It is important to take these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as they can have side effects and interactions with other medications.

Gastritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the lining of the stomach. It can be caused by various factors, including bacterial infections (such as Helicobacter pylori), regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), excessive alcohol consumption, and stress.

Gastritis can present with a range of symptoms, such as abdominal pain or discomfort, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and bloating. In some cases, gastritis may not cause any noticeable symptoms. Depending on the severity and duration of inflammation, gastritis can lead to complications like stomach ulcers or even stomach cancer if left untreated.

There are two main types of gastritis: acute and chronic. Acute gastritis develops suddenly and may last for a short period, while chronic gastritis persists over time, often leading to atrophy of the stomach lining. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy and tissue biopsy to assess the extent of inflammation and rule out other potential causes of symptoms. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, or lifestyle modifications.

Hemostasis, in general, refers to the process of stopping bleeding or hemorrhage, either naturally or through medical intervention. In the context of endoscopy, endoscopic hemostasis is the use of endoscopic techniques and devices to control gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding.

Endoscopes are flexible tubes with a light and camera at the tip, which are inserted into the body to visualize internal organs. In the case of GI endoscopy, the endoscope is inserted through the mouth or rectum to examine the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, or rectum.

Endoscopic hemostasis techniques can be broadly categorized into two types:
- Mechanical methods: These involve the use of devices that physically occlude or constrict blood vessels to stop bleeding. Examples include hemoclips, which are metal clips that are deployed through the endoscope to grasp and compress a bleeding vessel, and band ligation, where a rubber band is used to strangulate a bleeding vessel.
- Thermal methods: These use heat to coagulate (seal) blood vessels and stop bleeding. Examples include monopolar and bipolar electrocoagulation, argon plasma coagulation, and laser coagulation.

Endoscopic hemostasis is an important tool in the management of acute GI bleeding, as well as prevention of rebleeding in patients with chronic or recurrent GI bleeding.

Dyspepsia is a medical term that refers to discomfort or pain in the upper abdomen, often accompanied by symptoms such as bloating, nausea, belching, and early satiety (feeling full quickly after starting to eat). It is also commonly known as indigestion. Dyspepsia can have many possible causes, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, gastritis, and functional dyspepsia (a condition in which there is no obvious structural or biochemical explanation for the symptoms). Treatment for dyspepsia depends on the underlying cause.

Omeprazole is defined as a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastric ulcers, and other conditions where reducing stomach acid is desired. It works by blocking the action of the proton pumps in the stomach, which are responsible for producing stomach acid. By inhibiting these pumps, omeprazole reduces the amount of acid produced in the stomach, providing relief from symptoms such as heartburn and pain caused by excess stomach acid.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and oral suspension, and is typically taken once or twice a day, depending on the condition being treated. As with any medication, omeprazole should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, and its potential side effects and interactions with other medications should be carefully considered before use.

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that work to reduce gastric acid production by blocking the action of proton pumps in the parietal cells of the stomach. These drugs are commonly used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and other conditions where excessive stomach acid is a problem.

PPIs include several different medications such as omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, and esomeprazole. They are usually taken orally, but some PPIs are also available in intravenous (IV) form for hospital use.

By inhibiting the action of proton pumps, PPIs reduce the amount of acid produced in the stomach, which can help to relieve symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing. They are generally considered safe and effective when used as directed, but long-term use may increase the risk of certain side effects, including bone fractures, vitamin B12 deficiency, and Clostridium difficile infection.

Gastroscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a gastroscope, which is a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end, through the mouth and into the digestive tract. The gastroscope allows the doctor to visually examine the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) for any abnormalities such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors.

The procedure is usually performed under sedation to minimize discomfort, and it typically takes only a few minutes to complete. Gastroscopy can help diagnose various conditions, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastritis, stomach ulcers, and Barrett's esophagus. It can also be used to take tissue samples for biopsy or to treat certain conditions, such as bleeding or the removal of polyps.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a medical procedure that allows direct visualization of the inner lining of the digestive tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), and sometimes the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum). This procedure is performed using an endoscope, a long, thin, flexible tube with a light and camera at its tip. The endoscope is inserted through the mouth for upper endoscopy or through the rectum for lower endoscopy (colonoscopy), and the images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor for the physician to view.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy can help diagnose various conditions, such as inflammation, ulcers, tumors, polyps, or bleeding in the digestive tract. It can also be used for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps, taking tissue samples (biopsies), treating bleeding, and performing other interventions to manage certain digestive diseases.

There are different types of gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures, including:

1. Upper Endoscopy (Esophagogastroduodenoscopy or EGD): This procedure examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
2. Colonoscopy: This procedure examines the colon and rectum.
3. Sigmoidoscopy: A limited examination of the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon) using a shorter endoscope.
4. Enteroscopy: An examination of the small intestine, which can be performed using various techniques, such as push enteroscopy, single-balloon enteroscopy, or double-balloon enteroscopy.
5. Capsule Endoscopy: A procedure that involves swallowing a small capsule containing a camera, which captures images of the digestive tract as it passes through.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy is generally considered safe when performed by experienced medical professionals. However, like any medical procedure, there are potential risks and complications, such as bleeding, infection, perforation, or adverse reactions to sedatives used during the procedure. Patients should discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy.

Hematemesis is the medical term for vomiting blood. It can range in appearance from bright red blood to dark, coffee-ground material that results from the stomach acid digesting the blood. Hematemesis is often a sign of a serious condition, such as bleeding in the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum, and requires immediate medical attention. The underlying cause can be various, including gastritis, ulcers, esophageal varices, or tumors.

Gastric mucosa refers to the innermost lining of the stomach, which is in contact with the gastric lumen. It is a specialized mucous membrane that consists of epithelial cells, lamina propria, and a thin layer of smooth muscle. The surface epithelium is primarily made up of mucus-secreting cells (goblet cells) and parietal cells, which secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, and chief cells, which produce pepsinogen.

The gastric mucosa has several important functions, including protection against self-digestion by the stomach's own digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid. The mucus layer secreted by the epithelial cells forms a physical barrier that prevents the acidic contents of the stomach from damaging the underlying tissues. Additionally, the bicarbonate ions secreted by the surface epithelial cells help neutralize the acidity in the immediate vicinity of the mucosa.

The gastric mucosa is also responsible for the initial digestion of food through the action of hydrochloric acid and pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. The intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells plays a crucial role in the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine.

The gastric mucosa is constantly exposed to potential damage from various factors, including acid, pepsin, and other digestive enzymes, as well as mechanical stress due to muscle contractions during digestion. To maintain its integrity, the gastric mucosa has a remarkable capacity for self-repair and regeneration. However, chronic exposure to noxious stimuli or certain medical conditions can lead to inflammation, erosions, ulcers, or even cancer of the gastric mucosa.

Melena is a medical term that refers to the passage of black, tarry stools. It's not a specific disease but rather a symptom caused by the presence of digested blood in the gastrointestinal tract. The dark color results from the breakdown of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells, by gut bacteria and stomach acids.

Melena stools are often associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, which can occur due to various reasons such as gastric ulcers, esophageal varices (dilated veins in the esophagus), Mallory-Weiss tears (tears in the lining of the esophagus or stomach), or tumors.

It is essential to differentiate melena from hematochezia, which refers to the passage of bright red blood in the stool, typically indicating lower gastrointestinal bleeding. A healthcare professional should evaluate any concerns related to changes in bowel movements, including the presence of melena or hematochezia.

Histamine H2 antagonists, also known as H2 blockers, are a class of medications that work by blocking the action of histamine on the H2 receptors in the stomach. Histamine is a chemical that is released by the body during an allergic reaction and can also be released by certain cells in the stomach in response to food or other stimuli. When histamine binds to the H2 receptors in the stomach, it triggers the release of acid. By blocking the action of histamine on these receptors, H2 antagonists reduce the amount of acid produced by the stomach, which can help to relieve symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and stomach ulcers. Examples of H2 antagonists include ranitidine (Zantac), famotidine (Pepcid), and cimetidine (Tagamet).

Buruli ulcer is a neglected tropical disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans. It mainly affects the skin and occasionally the bones and joints. The infection typically begins with a painless nodule or papule that may progress to a large, painful ulcer with undermined edges if left untreated. In severe cases, it can lead to permanent disfigurement and disability. Buruli ulcer is primarily found in rural areas of West and Central Africa, but also occurs in other parts of the world including Australia, Asia, and South America. It is transmitted through contact with contaminated water or soil, although the exact mode of transmission is not fully understood. Early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics can cure the disease and prevent complications.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage is a term used to describe any bleeding that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. The bleeding can range from mild to severe and can produce symptoms such as vomiting blood, passing black or tarry stools, or having low blood pressure.

GI hemorrhage can be classified as either upper or lower, depending on the location of the bleed. Upper GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs above the ligament of Treitz, which is a point in the small intestine where it becomes narrower and turns a corner. Common causes of upper GI hemorrhage include gastritis, ulcers, esophageal varices, and Mallory-Weiss tears.

Lower GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs below the ligament of Treitz. Common causes of lower GI hemorrhage include diverticulosis, colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and vascular abnormalities such as angiodysplasia.

The diagnosis of GI hemorrhage is often made based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, CT scan, or radionuclide scanning. Treatment depends on the severity and cause of the bleeding and may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Cimetidine is a histamine-2 (H2) receptor antagonist, which is a type of medication that reduces the production of stomach acid. It works by blocking the action of histamine on the H2 receptors in the stomach, which are responsible for stimulating the release of stomach acid. By blocking these receptors, cimetidine reduces the amount of stomach acid produced and can help to relieve symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and stomach ulcers.

Cimetidine is available by prescription in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid. It is typically taken two or three times a day, depending on the specific condition being treated. Common side effects of cimetidine may include headache, dizziness, diarrhea, and constipation.

In addition to its use in treating stomach acid-related conditions, cimetidine has also been studied for its potential anti-cancer properties. Some research suggests that it may help to enhance the immune system's response to cancer cells and reduce the growth of certain types of tumors. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and determine the optimal dosage and duration of treatment.

Amoxicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which is necessary for their growth and survival. By disrupting this process, amoxicillin can kill bacteria and help to clear up infections.

Amoxicillin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, ear infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. It is available as a tablet, capsule, chewable tablet, or liquid suspension, and is typically taken two to three times a day.

Like all antibiotics, amoxicillin should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, and it is important to take the full course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can make infections more difficult to treat in the future.

Gastric acid, also known as stomach acid, is a digestive fluid produced in the stomach. It's primarily composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium chloride (NaCl). The pH of gastric acid is typically between 1.5 and 3.5, making it a strong acid that helps to break down food by denaturing proteins and activating digestive enzymes.

The production of gastric acid is regulated by the enteric nervous system and several hormones. The primary function of gastric acid is to initiate protein digestion, activate pepsinogen into the active enzyme pepsin, and kill most ingested microorganisms. However, an excess or deficiency in gastric acid secretion can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders such as gastritis, ulcers, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Ranitidine is a histamine-2 (H2) blocker medication that works by reducing the amount of acid your stomach produces. It is commonly used to treat and prevent ulcers in the stomach and intestines, and to manage conditions where the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

Ranitidine is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and other conditions in which acid backs up from the stomach into the esophagus, causing heartburn. Additionally, ranitidine can be used to prevent and treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by stress or injury in critically ill patients.

The medication is available in both prescription and over-the-counter forms, and it comes in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. As with any medication, ranitidine should be taken as directed by a healthcare professional, and its potential side effects and interactions with other medications should be carefully monitored.

Clarithromycin is a antibiotic medication used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including respiratory, skin, and soft tissue infections. It is a member of the macrolide antibiotic family, which works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Clarithromycin is available by prescription and is often used in combination with other medications to treat conditions such as Helicobacter pylori infection and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection.

The medical definition of clarithromycin is:

"A antibiotic medication used to treat various types of bacterial infections, belonging to the macrolide antibiotic family. It works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis and is available by prescription."

2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles is a class of chemical compounds that have both a pyridinylmethylsulfinyl group and a benzimidazole ring in their structure. Pyridinylmethylsulfinyl refers to a functional group consisting of a sulfinyl group (-S(=O)-) attached to a methyl group (-CH2-) that is, in turn, attached to a pyridine ring. Benzimidazoles are heterocyclic compounds containing a fused benzene and imidazole ring.

These types of compounds have been studied for their potential biological activity, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antitumor properties. However, it's important to note that medical definitions typically refer to specific substances or classes of substances that have established clinical use or are under investigation for therapeutic purposes. As such, 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles do not have a recognized medical definition in this sense.

Antacids are a type of medication that is used to neutralize stomach acid and provide rapid relief from symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and stomach discomfort. They work by chemically reacting with the stomach acid to reduce its acidity. Antacids may contain one or more active ingredients, including aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, and sodium bicarbonate.

Antacids are available over-the-counter in various forms, such as tablets, chewable tablets, liquids, and powders. They can provide quick relief from acid reflux and related symptoms; however, they may not be effective for treating the underlying cause of these symptoms. Therefore, if you experience frequent or severe symptoms, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

In anatomical terms, the stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in digestion. The stomach's primary functions include storing food, mixing it with digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid to break down proteins, and slowly emptying the partially digested food into the small intestine for further absorption of nutrients.

The stomach is divided into several regions, including the cardia (the area nearest the esophagus), the fundus (the upper portion on the left side), the body (the main central part), and the pylorus (the narrowed region leading to the small intestine). The inner lining of the stomach, called the mucosa, is protected by a layer of mucus that prevents the digestive juices from damaging the stomach tissue itself.

In medical contexts, various conditions can affect the stomach, such as gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach or duodenum), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and stomach cancer. Symptoms related to the stomach may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and difficulty swallowing.

Gastric juice is a digestive fluid that is produced in the stomach. It is composed of several enzymes, including pepsin, which helps to break down proteins, and gastric amylase, which begins the digestion of carbohydrates. Gastric juice also contains hydrochloric acid, which creates a low pH environment in the stomach that is necessary for the activation of pepsin and the digestion of food. Additionally, gastric juice contains mucus, which helps to protect the lining of the stomach from the damaging effects of the hydrochloric acid. The production of gastric juice is controlled by hormones and the autonomic nervous system.

Duodenoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a duodenoscope, which is a flexible, lighted tube with a camera and tiny tools on the end, through the mouth and down the throat to examine the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum) and the opening of the bile and pancreatic ducts.

During the procedure, the doctor can take tissue samples for biopsy, remove polyps or other abnormal growths, or perform other interventions as needed. Duodenoscopy is commonly used to diagnose and treat conditions such as gastrointestinal bleeding, inflammation, infection, and cancer.

It's important to note that duodenoscopes have been associated with the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in some cases, so healthcare providers must follow strict cleaning and disinfection protocols to minimize this risk.

Endoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. The endoscope is inserted through a natural opening in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through a small incision. The images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the physician to visualize the internal structures and detect any abnormalities, such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. Endoscopy can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as taking tissue samples for biopsy, or for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps or performing minimally invasive surgeries.

Metronidazole is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. Metronidazole works by interfering with the DNA of these organisms, which inhibits their ability to grow and multiply.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, creams, and gels, and is often used to treat conditions such as bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, amebiasis, giardiasis, and pseudomembranous colitis.

Like all antibiotics, metronidazole should be taken only under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse can lead to antibiotic resistance and other complications.

Lansoprazole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It works by reducing the amount of acid produced in the stomach. The medical definition of Lansoprazole is:

A substituted benzimidazole that is a selective gastric proton pump inhibitor, which suppresses gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. It is used as an effective therapy for various gastrointestinal disorders, including gastric and duodenal ulcers, erosive esophagitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Lansoprazole is available in the form of capsules or oral granules for delayed-release oral administration.

Here's a brief overview of its mechanism of action:

* Lansoprazole is absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the parietal cells in the stomach, where it is converted into its active form.
* The active form of lansoprazole binds to and inhibits the H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system, which is responsible for pumping hydrogen ions (protons) from the cytoplasm of the parietal cell into the lumen of the stomach, where they combine with chloride ions to form hydrochloric acid.
* By inhibiting this proton pump, lansoprazole reduces the amount of acid produced in the stomach, which helps to relieve symptoms and promote healing of gastrointestinal disorders.

A vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves cutting or blocking the vagus nerve, which is a parasympathetic nerve that runs from the brainstem to the abdomen and helps regulate many bodily functions such as heart rate, gastrointestinal motility, and digestion. In particular, vagotomy is often performed as a treatment for peptic ulcers, as it can help reduce gastric acid secretion.

There are several types of vagotomy procedures, including:

1. Truncal vagotomy: This involves cutting the main trunks of the vagus nerve as they enter the abdomen. It is a more extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion significantly but can also lead to side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.
2. Selective vagotomy: This involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the stomach, leaving the rest of the nerve intact. It is a less extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects.
3. Highly selective vagotomy (HSV): Also known as parietal cell vagotomy, this involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the acid-secreting cells in the stomach. It is a highly targeted procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.

Vagotomy is typically performed using laparoscopic or open surgical techniques, depending on the patient's individual needs and the surgeon's preference. While vagotomy can be effective in treating peptic ulcers, it is not commonly performed today due to the development of less invasive treatments such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that reduce gastric acid secretion without surgery.

Duodenitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine that receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach. The inflammation can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.

Duodenitis can be caused by various factors, including bacterial infections (such as Helicobacter pylori), regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), excessive alcohol consumption, and autoimmune disorders like Crohn's disease. In some cases, the cause may remain unidentified, leading to a diagnosis of "non-specific duodenitis."

Treatment for duodenitis typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as eradicating H. pylori infection or discontinuing NSAID use. Acid-suppressing medications and antacids may also be prescribed to alleviate symptoms and promote healing of the duodenal lining. In severe cases, endoscopic procedures or surgery might be necessary to manage complications like bleeding, perforation, or obstruction.

Gastrointestinal diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the organs from the mouth to the anus, responsible for food digestion, absorption, and elimination of waste. These diseases can affect any part of the GI tract, causing various symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Common gastrointestinal diseases include:

1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) - a condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
2. Peptic ulcers - sores that develop in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infection or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestine, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) - a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits.
5. Celiac disease - an autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine.
6. Diverticular disease - a condition that affects the colon, causing diverticula (small pouches) to form and potentially become inflamed or infected.
7. Constipation - a common gastrointestinal symptom characterized by infrequent bowel movements, hard stools, and difficulty passing stools.
8. Diarrhea - a common gastrointestinal symptom characterized by loose, watery stools and frequent bowel movements.
9. Food intolerances and allergies - adverse reactions to specific foods or food components that can cause various gastrointestinal symptoms.
10. Gastrointestinal infections - caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can lead to a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

A proximal gastric vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves selectively cutting the vagus nerve (the tenth cranial nerve) close to its origin in the stomach. The vagus nerve plays an important role in controlling the motor functions and secretions of the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach.

In a proximal gastric vagotomy, the nerve branches that innervate the proximal part of the stomach are selectively cut, which reduces acid secretion from the stomach. This type of vagotomy is often performed as part of a surgical treatment for peptic ulcers, particularly those located in the upper part of the stomach or in the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine).

It's worth noting that there are different types of vagotomies, and the specific type used depends on the individual patient's needs and medical history. Other types of vagotomy include truncal vagotomy, selective vagotomy, and highly selective vagotomy. Each of these procedures has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of procedure depends on various factors such as the location and severity of the ulcer, the patient's overall health, and the risk of complications.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Stomach neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the stomach that can be benign or malignant. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Gastric adenomas: These are benign tumors that develop from glandular cells in the stomach lining.
2. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that can be found in the stomach and other parts of the digestive tract. They originate from the stem cells in the wall of the digestive tract.
3. Leiomyomas: These are benign tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells in the stomach wall.
4. Lipomas: These are benign tumors that develop from fat cells in the stomach wall.
5. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs): These are tumors that develop from the neuroendocrine cells in the stomach lining. They can be benign or malignant.
6. Gastric carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the glandular cells in the stomach lining. They are the most common type of stomach neoplasm and include adenocarcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, and others.
7. Lymphomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the immune cells in the stomach wall.

Stomach neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. The diagnosis of stomach neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests, endoscopy, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.

Gastroenterostomy is a surgical procedure that creates an anastomosis (a connection or junction) between the stomach and the small intestine, usually between the stomach's lesser curvature and the jejunum (the second part of the small intestine). This procedure is often performed to bypass a diseased or obstructed portion of the gastrointestinal tract, such as in the case of gastric ulcers, tumors, or other conditions that prevent normal digestion and absorption.

There are different types of gastroenterostomy procedures, including:
1. Billroth I (or "gastroduodenostomy"): The stomach is connected directly to the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine).
2. Billroth II (or "gastrojejunostomy"): The stomach is connected to the jejunum, bypassing the duodenum.
3. Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy: A more complex procedure in which a portion of the jejunum is separated and reconnected further down the small intestine, creating a Y-shaped configuration. This type of gastroenterostomy is often used in bariatric surgery for weight loss.

The choice of gastroenterostomy technique depends on the specific medical condition being treated and the patient's overall health status.

Electrocoagulation is a medical procedure that uses heat generated from an electrical current to cause coagulation (clotting) of tissue. This procedure is often used to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as:

* Gastrointestinal bleeding: Electrocoagulation can be used to control bleeding in the stomach or intestines by applying an electrical current to the affected blood vessels, causing them to shrink and clot.
* Skin lesions: Electrocoagulation can be used to remove benign or malignant skin lesions, such as warts, moles, or skin tags, by applying an electrical current to the growth, which causes it to dehydrate and eventually fall off.
* Vascular malformations: Electrocoagulation can be used to treat vascular malformations (abnormal blood vessels) by applying an electrical current to the affected area, causing the abnormal vessels to shrink and clot.

The procedure is typically performed using a specialized device that delivers an electrical current through a needle or probe. The intensity and duration of the electrical current can be adjusted to achieve the desired effect. Electrocoagulation may be used alone or in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or medication.

It's important to note that electrocoagulation is not without risks, including burns, infection, and scarring. It should only be performed by a qualified medical professional who has experience with the procedure.

Stomach diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the stomach, a muscular sac located in the upper part of the abdomen and is responsible for storing and digesting food. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, indigestion, loss of appetite, and bloating. Some common stomach diseases include:

1. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining that can cause pain, irritation, and ulcers.
2. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and damage to the esophageal lining.
3. Peptic ulcers: Open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infections or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. Stomach cancer: Abnormal growth of cancerous cells in the stomach, which can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
5. Gastroparesis: A condition where the stomach muscles are weakened or paralyzed, leading to difficulty digesting food and emptying the stomach.
6. Functional dyspepsia: A chronic disorder characterized by symptoms such as pain, bloating, and fullness in the upper abdomen, without any identifiable cause.
7. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A condition where eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, accumulate in the esophagus, causing inflammation and difficulty swallowing.
8. Stomal stenosis: Narrowing of the opening between the stomach and small intestine, often caused by scar tissue or surgical complications.
9. Hiatal hernia: A condition where a portion of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the chest cavity, causing symptoms such as heartburn and difficulty swallowing.

These are just a few examples of stomach diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the stomach. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing these conditions and preventing complications.

Endoscopy of the digestive system, also known as gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, is a medical procedure that allows healthcare professionals to visually examine the inside lining of the digestive tract using a flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it, called an endoscope. This procedure can help diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the digestive system, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and cancer.

There are several types of endoscopy procedures that focus on different parts of the digestive tract:

1. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD): This procedure examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It is often used to investigate symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, abdominal pain, or bleeding in the upper GI tract.
2. Colonoscopy: This procedure explores the large intestine (colon) and rectum. It is commonly performed to screen for colon cancer, as well as to diagnose and treat conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, or polyps.
3. Sigmoidoscopy: Similar to a colonoscopy, this procedure examines the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon) and rectum. It is often used as a screening tool for colon cancer and to investigate symptoms like rectal bleeding or changes in bowel habits.
4. Upper GI endoscopy: This procedure focuses on the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, using a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it. It is used to diagnose and treat conditions such as GERD, ulcers, and difficulty swallowing.
5. Capsule endoscopy: This procedure involves swallowing a small capsule containing a camera that captures images of the digestive tract as it passes through. It can help diagnose conditions in the small intestine that may be difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes.

Endoscopy is typically performed under sedation or anesthesia to ensure patient comfort during the procedure. The images captured by the endoscope are displayed on a monitor, allowing the healthcare provider to assess the condition of the digestive tract and make informed treatment decisions.

Bismuth is a heavy, brittle, white metallic element (symbol: Bi; atomic number: 83) that is found in various minerals and is used in several industrial, medical, and household products. In medicine, bismuth compounds are commonly used as antidiarrheal and anti-ulcer agents due to their antibacterial properties. They can be found in medications like Pepto-Bismol and Kaopectate. It's important to note that bismuth itself is not used medically, but its compounds have medical applications.

The pylorus is the lower, narrow part of the stomach that connects to the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). It consists of the pyloric canal, which is a short muscular tube, and the pyloric sphincter, a circular muscle that controls the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum. The pylorus regulates the entry of chyme (partially digested food) into the small intestine by adjusting the size and frequency of the muscular contractions that push the chyme through the pyloric sphincter. This process helps in further digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Furazolidone is defined as an antimicrobial agent with nitrofuran structure. It is primarily used in the treatment of intestinal amebiasis, traveller's diarrhea, and other types of bacterial diarrhea. Furazolidone works by inhibiting certain enzymes necessary for the survival of bacteria, thereby killing or stopping the growth of the microorganisms. It is also used as a preservative in some food products.

It's important to note that Furazolidone has been associated with rare but serious side effects such as lung and liver toxicity, so its use is generally restricted to short-term therapy and under close medical supervision.

Esophagitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and irritation of the esophageal lining, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. This inflammation can cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, heartburn, and acid reflux.

Esophagitis can be caused by various factors, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), infection, allergies, medications, and chronic vomiting. Prolonged exposure to stomach acid can also cause esophagitis, leading to a condition called reflux esophagitis.

If left untreated, esophagitis can lead to complications such as strictures, ulcers, and Barrett's esophagus, which is a precancerous condition that increases the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Treatment for esophagitis typically involves addressing the underlying cause, managing symptoms, and protecting the esophageal lining to promote healing.

The pyloric antrum is the distal part of the stomach, which is the last portion that precedes the pylorus and the beginning of the duodenum. It is a thickened, muscular area responsible for grinding and mixing food with gastric juices during digestion. The pyloric antrum also helps regulate the passage of chyme (partially digested food) into the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter, which controls the opening and closing of the pylorus. This region is crucial in the gastrointestinal tract's motor functions and overall digestive process.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Tinidazole is an antiprotozoal and antibacterial medication used to treat various infections caused by parasites or bacteria. According to the Medical Dictionary, it is defined as:

"A synthetic nitroimidazole antimicrobial agent, similar to metronidazole, that is active against a wide range of anaerobic bacteria and protozoa, both pathogenic and nonpathogenic. It is used in the treatment of various clinical conditions, including bacterial vaginosis, amebiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, and pseudomembranous colitis."

Tinidazole works by interfering with the DNA of the microorganisms, which leads to their death. It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed for a duration of 2-5 days, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Common side effects may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, headache, and changes in taste sensation.

The Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract refers to the segment of the digestive system that includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. This region is responsible for the initial stages of digestion, such as mechanical breakdown of food by chewing and churning, and chemical breakdown through enzymes and acids. It's also where the majority of nutrient absorption occurs. Various medical conditions, including infections, inflammation, and cancers, can affect the upper GI tract.

Gastrins are a group of hormones that are produced by G cells in the stomach lining. These hormones play an essential role in regulating gastric acid secretion and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most well-known gastrin is known as "gastrin-17," which is released into the bloodstream and stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.

Gastrins are stored in secretory granules within G cells, and their release is triggered by several factors, including the presence of food in the stomach, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and vagus nerve stimulation. Once released, gastrins bind to specific receptors on parietal cells, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and the activation of enzymes that promote hydrochloric acid secretion.

Abnormalities in gastrin production can lead to several gastrointestinal disorders, including gastrinomas (tumors that produce excessive amounts of gastrin), which can cause severe gastric acid hypersecretion and ulcers. Conversely, a deficiency in gastrin production can result in hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid levels) and impaired digestion.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Urease is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In medicine, urease is often associated with certain bacterial infections, such as those caused by Helicobacter pylori, which can produce large amounts of this enzyme. The presence of urease in these infections can lead to increased ammonia production, contributing to the development of gastritis and peptic ulcers.

The term "diabetic foot" refers to a condition that affects the feet of people with diabetes, particularly when the disease is not well-controlled. It is characterized by a combination of nerve damage (neuropathy) and poor circulation (peripheral artery disease) in the feet and lower legs.

Neuropathy can cause numbness, tingling, or pain in the feet, making it difficult for people with diabetes to feel injuries, cuts, blisters, or other foot problems. Poor circulation makes it harder for wounds to heal and increases the risk of infection.

Diabetic foot ulcers are a common complication of diabetic neuropathy and can lead to serious infections, hospitalization, and even amputation if not treated promptly and effectively. Preventive care, including regular foot exams, proper footwear, and good blood glucose control, is essential for people with diabetes to prevent or manage diabetic foot problems.

A Gastrectomy is a surgical procedure involving the removal of all or part of the stomach. This procedure can be total (complete resection of the stomach), partial (removal of a portion of the stomach), or sleeve (removal of a portion of the stomach to create a narrow sleeve-shaped pouch).

Gastrectomies are typically performed to treat conditions such as gastric cancer, benign tumors, severe peptic ulcers, and in some cases, for weight loss in individuals with morbid obesity. The type of gastrectomy performed depends on the patient's medical condition and the extent of the disease.

Following a gastrectomy, patients may require adjustments to their diet and lifestyle, as well as potential supplementation of vitamins and minerals that would normally be absorbed in the stomach. In some cases, further reconstructive surgery might be necessary to reestablish gastrointestinal continuity.

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, immediately following the stomach. It is a C-shaped structure that is about 10-12 inches long and is responsible for continuing the digestion process that begins in the stomach. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach through the pyloric valve and mixes it with digestive enzymes and bile produced by the pancreas and liver, respectively. These enzymes help break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules, allowing for efficient absorption in the remaining sections of the small intestine.

Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a medical condition that refers to the blockage of the passage from the stomach to the small intestine, also known as the pylorus. This blockage can be caused by various factors, including tumors, scar tissue, or gallstones. As a result, food and digestive enzymes cannot pass through the pylorus into the small intestine, leading to symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal pain, bloating, and weight loss. In severe cases, GOO can lead to malnutrition, dehydration, and other complications if left untreated. Treatment options for GOO depend on the underlying cause of the obstruction and may include medication, endoscopic procedures, or surgery.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Tetragastrin is not a medical condition but a synthetic peptide hormone that is used in medical research and diagnostic tests. It is composed of four amino acids (glutamic acid, proline, tryptophan, and methionine) and is similar to the natural hormone gastrin, which is produced by the stomach and helps regulate digestion.

Tetragastrin is used in medical research to study the function of the stomach and intestines, and it is also used in diagnostic tests to stimulate the release of gastric acid from the stomach. This can help diagnose conditions such as pernicious anemia, a condition in which the body cannot absorb vitamin B12 due to a lack of intrinsic factor, a protein produced by the stomach.

In summary, Tetragastrin is a synthetic hormone that mimics the function of natural gastrin and is used for research and diagnostic purposes related to the digestive system.

A gastric fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the stomach and another organ or the skin surface. This condition can occur as a result of complications from surgery, injury, infection, or certain diseases such as cancer. Symptoms may include persistent drainage from the site of the fistula, pain, malnutrition, and infection. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the fistula and management of any underlying conditions.

A breath test is a medical or forensic procedure used to analyze a sample of exhaled breath in order to detect and measure the presence of various substances, most commonly alcohol. The test is typically conducted using a device called a breathalyzer, which measures the amount of alcohol in the breath and converts it into a reading of blood alcohol concentration (BAC).

In addition to alcohol, breath tests can also be used to detect other substances such as drugs or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may indicate certain medical conditions. However, these types of breath tests are less common and may not be as reliable or accurate as other diagnostic tests.

Breath testing is commonly used by law enforcement officers to determine whether a driver is impaired by alcohol and to establish probable cause for arrest. It is also used in some healthcare settings to monitor patients who are being treated for alcohol abuse or dependence.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Pepsinogens are inactive precursor forms of the enzyme pepsin, which is produced in the stomach. They are composed of two types: Pepsinogen I (or gastric intrinsic factor) and Pepsinogen II. When exposed to acid in the stomach, these pepsinogens get converted into their active form, pepsin, which helps digest proteins in food. Measurement of pepsinogens in blood can be used as a diagnostic marker for certain stomach conditions, such as atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer.

Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) is a rare digestive disorder that is characterized by the development of one or more gastrin-secreting tumors, also known as gastrinomas. These tumors are usually found in the pancreas and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). Gastrinomas produce excessive amounts of the hormone gastrin, which leads to the overproduction of stomach acid.

The increased stomach acid can cause severe peptic ulcers, often multiple or refractory to treatment, in the duodenum and jejunum (the second part of the small intestine). ZES may also result in diarrhea due to the excess acid irritating the intestines. In some cases, gastrinomas can be malignant and metastasize to other organs such as the liver and lymph nodes.

The diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome typically involves measuring serum gastrin levels and performing a secretin stimulation test. Imaging tests like CT scans, MRI, or endoscopic ultrasounds may be used to locate the tumors. Treatment usually includes medications to reduce stomach acid production (such as proton pump inhibitors) and surgery to remove the gastrinomas when possible.

Aspirin is the common name for acetylsalicylic acid, which is a medication used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX), which is involved in the production of prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that cause inflammation and pain. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet effect, which means it can help prevent blood clots from forming. This makes it useful for preventing heart attacks and strokes.

Aspirin is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and chewable tablets. It is also available in prescription strengths for certain medical conditions. As with any medication, aspirin should be taken as directed by a healthcare provider, and its use should be avoided in children and teenagers with viral infections due to the risk of Reye's syndrome, a rare but serious condition that can affect the liver and brain.

Esomeprazole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It works by reducing the amount of acid produced in the stomach. Esomeprazole is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and other conditions in which the stomach produces too much acid. It is also used to promote healing of erosive esophagitis, a condition in which the esophagus becomes damaged by stomach acid.

Esomeprazole is available in delayed-release capsule and suspension forms, and it is typically taken once a day. It may be prescribed or taken over-the-counter. Common side effects of esomeprazole include headache, diarrhea, nausea, and stomach pain.

It's important to note that long-term use of PPIs like esomeprazole has been associated with an increased risk of certain health problems, such as bone fractures, vitamin B12 deficiency, and Clostridium difficile infection. As with any medication, it is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking esomeprazole.

Dumping syndrome, also known as rapid gastric emptying, is a condition that typically occurs in people who have had surgery to remove all or part of their stomach (gastrectomy) or have had a procedure called a gastrojejunostomy. These surgeries can lead to the stomach's contents entering the small intestine too quickly, causing symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, dizziness, and sweating.

There are two types of dumping syndrome: early and late. Early dumping syndrome occurs within 30 minutes after eating, while late dumping syndrome occurs 1-3 hours after eating. Symptoms of early dumping syndrome may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, bloating, dizziness, and fatigue. Late dumping syndrome symptoms may include hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), which can cause sweating, weakness, confusion, and rapid heartbeat.

Treatment for dumping syndrome typically involves dietary modifications, such as eating smaller, more frequent meals that are low in simple sugars, and avoiding fluids during meals. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help slow down gastric emptying or manage symptoms. If these treatments are not effective, surgery may be necessary to correct the problem.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poland" is not a medical term. It is a country in Central Europe. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!

Atrophic gastritis is a condition characterized by the inflammation and atrophy (wasting away) of the stomach lining, specifically the mucous membrane called the gastric mucosa. This process involves the loss of glandular cells in the stomach, which can result in decreased acid production and potential vitamin B12 deficiency due to reduced intrinsic factor production. Atrophic gastritis can be caused by various factors, including autoimmune disorders, chronic bacterial infection (usually with Helicobacter pylori), and the use of certain medications such as proton pump inhibitors. It can increase the risk of developing stomach cancer, so regular monitoring is often recommended.

Duodenal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. Here are some examples of duodenal diseases:

1. Duodenitis: This is inflammation of the duodenum, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating. Duodenitis can be caused by bacterial or viral infections, excessive use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or chronic inflammation due to conditions like Crohn's disease.
2. Peptic ulcers: These are sores that develop in the lining of the duodenum, usually as a result of infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria or long-term use of NSAIDs. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, bloating, and heartburn.
3. Duodenal cancer: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the duodenum. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, weight loss, and blood in the stool.
4. Celiac disease: This is an autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the lining of the small intestine in response to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. This can lead to inflammation and damage to the duodenum.
5. Duodenal diverticulosis: This is a condition in which small pouches form in the lining of the duodenum. While many people with duodenal diverticulosis do not experience symptoms, some may develop complications such as inflammation or infection.
6. Duodenal atresia: This is a congenital condition in which the duodenum does not form properly, leading to blockage of the intestine. This can cause symptoms such as vomiting and difficulty feeding in newborns.

"Mycobacterium ulcerans" is a slow-growing mycobacterium that is the causative agent of a chronic infection known as Buruli ulcer. This bacterium is naturally found in aquatic environments and can infect humans through minor traumas or wounds on the skin. The infection typically begins as a painless nodule or papule, which may progress to form necrotic ulcers if left untreated. The bacteria produce a unique toxin called mycolactone, which is responsible for the extensive tissue damage and destruction observed in Buruli ulcers.

Cytotoxins are substances that are toxic to cells. They can cause damage and death to cells by disrupting their membranes, interfering with their metabolism, or triggering programmed cell death (apoptosis). Cytotoxins can be produced by various organisms such as bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, and they can also be synthesized artificially.

In medicine, cytotoxic drugs are used to treat cancer because they selectively target and kill rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells. Examples of cytotoxic drugs include chemotherapy agents such as doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate. However, these drugs can also damage normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, hair loss, and immune suppression.

It's important to note that cytotoxins are not the same as toxins, which are poisonous substances produced by living organisms that can cause harm to other organisms. While all cytotoxins are toxic to cells, not all toxins are cytotoxic. Some toxins may have systemic effects on organs or tissues rather than directly killing cells.

Rabeprazole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The medical definition of Rabeprazole is:

A substituted benzimidazole that acts as a prodrug, being selectively converted to the active form in the acidic environment of gastric parietal cells. It suppresses gastric acid secretion by inhibiting the H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. Rabeprazole is used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. It is available by prescription in various forms, including tablets and sodium salt for oral administration.

In simpler terms, Rabeprazole works by reducing the amount of acid produced in the stomach, which helps to prevent and heal damage to the esophagus and stomach caused by excessive acid production.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Gastric acidity determination is a medical test used to measure the amount of acid in the stomach. This test is often performed to diagnose or monitor conditions such as gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The test involves measuring the pH level of the stomach contents using a thin, flexible tube called a catheter that is passed through the nose and down into the stomach. In some cases, a small sample of stomach fluid may also be collected for further testing.

The normal range for gastric acidity is typically considered to be a pH level below 4. A higher pH level may indicate that the stomach is producing too little acid, while a lower pH level may suggest that it is producing too much. Based on the results of the test, healthcare providers can develop an appropriate treatment plan for the underlying condition causing abnormal gastric acidity.

Organometallic compounds are a type of chemical compound that contain at least one metal-carbon bond. This means that the metal is directly attached to carbon atom(s) from an organic molecule. These compounds can be synthesized through various methods, and they have found widespread use in industrial and medicinal applications, including catalysis, polymerization, and pharmaceuticals.

It's worth noting that while organometallic compounds contain metal-carbon bonds, not all compounds with metal-carbon bonds are considered organometallic. For example, in classical inorganic chemistry, simple salts of metal carbonyls (M(CO)n) are not typically classified as organometallic, but rather as metal carbonyl complexes. The distinction between these classes of compounds can sometimes be subtle and is a matter of ongoing debate among chemists.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A bandage is a medical dressing or covering applied to a wound, injury, or sore with the intention of promoting healing or preventing infection. Bandages can be made of a variety of materials such as gauze, cotton, elastic, or adhesive tape and come in different sizes and shapes to accommodate various body parts. They can also have additional features like fasteners, non-slip surfaces, or transparent windows for monitoring the condition of the wound.

Bandages serve several purposes, including:

1. Absorbing drainage or exudate from the wound
2. Protecting the wound from external contaminants and bacteria
3. Securing other medical devices such as catheters or splints in place
4. Reducing swelling or promoting immobilization of the affected area
5. Providing compression to control bleeding or prevent fluid accumulation
6. Relieving pain by reducing pressure on sensitive nerves or structures.

Proper application and care of bandages are essential for effective wound healing and prevention of complications such as infection or delayed recovery.

Famotidine is a type of medication called an H2 blocker, or histamine-2 receptor antagonist. It works by reducing the amount of acid produced in the stomach. Famotidine is commonly used to treat and prevent ulcers in the stomach and intestines, and to manage conditions where the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. It is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and other conditions in which acid backs up from the stomach into the esophagus, causing heartburn.

Famotidine is available by prescription and over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid. It is important to take famotidine exactly as directed by a healthcare professional, and to talk to them about any potential risks or side effects.

Postgastrectomy syndromes refer to a group of clinical manifestations that can occur as complications or sequelae following a gastrectomy, which is the surgical removal of all or part of the stomach. These syndromes are relatively common and can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life.

There are several types of postgastrectomy syndromes, including:

1. Dumping syndrome: This occurs when the remaining portion of the stomach is unable to adequately regulate the passage of food into the small intestine, leading to symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, dizziness, and sweating.
2. Gastroparesis: This is a condition where the stomach is unable to empty properly due to decreased motility, leading to symptoms such as bloating, nausea, vomiting, and early satiety.
3. Nutritional deficiencies: Following gastrectomy, there can be malabsorption of certain nutrients, including vitamin B12, iron, calcium, and folate, leading to anemia, osteoporosis, and other health problems.
4. Afferent loop syndrome: This is a rare complication that occurs when the afferent loop, which carries digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the liver to the small intestine, becomes obstructed or narrowed, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice.
5. Alkaline reflux gastritis: This occurs when the alkaline contents of the small intestine reflux into the remnant stomach, causing inflammation and ulceration.
6. Bile reflux: This is a condition where bile from the small intestine flows back into the stomach, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and heartburn.

Treatment of postgastrectomy syndromes depends on the specific type and severity of the syndrome, and may include dietary modifications, medication, or surgical intervention.

'Campylobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, including birds and mammals. These bacteria are a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni being the most frequently identified species associated with human infection.

Campylobacter infection, also known as campylobacteriosis, typically causes symptoms such as diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. The infection is usually acquired through the consumption of contaminated food or water, particularly undercooked poultry, raw milk, and contaminated produce. It can also be transmitted through contact with infected animals or their feces.

While most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting and resolve within a week without specific treatment, severe or prolonged infections may require antibiotic therapy. In rare cases, Campylobacter infection can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infection), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Preventive measures include proper food handling and cooking techniques, thorough handwashing, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

Gastroenterology is a branch of medicine that deals with the study, diagnosis, management, and treatment of disorders and diseases of the digestive system, also known as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and bile ducts.

Physicians who specialize in this field are called gastroenterologists. They undergo extensive training in internal medicine and then complete a fellowship in gastroenterology, where they gain expertise in using various diagnostic techniques such as endoscopy, colonoscopy, and radiologic imaging to evaluate GI tract disorders.

Gastroenterologists treat a wide range of conditions affecting the digestive system, including but not limited to:

1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
2. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
3. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
4. Celiac disease
5. Hepatitis and other liver diseases
6. Pancreatic disorders, such as pancreatitis
7. Gastrointestinal cancers, like colon, rectal, and esophageal cancer
8. Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), which include chronic abdominal pain, bloating, and difficulty with bowel movements

By focusing on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of digestive diseases, gastroenterologists play a crucial role in maintaining overall health and well-being for their patients.

Esophageal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. Here are some common esophageal diseases with their brief definitions:

1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A chronic condition in which stomach acid or bile flows back into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing.
2. Esophagitis: Inflammation of the esophageal lining, often caused by GERD, infection, or medication.
3. Esophageal stricture: Narrowing of the esophagus due to scarring or inflammation, which can make swallowing difficult.
4. Esophageal cancer: Cancer that forms in the tissues of the esophagus, often as a result of long-term GERD or smoking.
5. Esophageal motility disorders: Disorders that affect the normal movement and function of the esophagus, such as achalasia, diffuse spasm, and nutcracker esophagus.
6. Barrett's esophagus: A condition in which the lining of the lower esophagus changes, increasing the risk of esophageal cancer.
7. Esophageal diverticula: Small pouches that form in the esophageal wall, often causing difficulty swallowing or regurgitation.
8. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE): A chronic immune-mediated disorder characterized by inflammation of the esophagus due to an allergic reaction.

These are some of the common esophageal diseases, and their diagnosis and treatment may vary depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Antitrichomonatal agents are a group of medications specifically used to treat infections caused by the protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis. The most common antitrichomonal agent is metronidazole, which works by disrupting the parasite's ability to reproduce and survive within the human body. Other antitrichomonal agents include tinidazole and secnidazole, which also belong to the nitroimidazole class of antibiotics. These medications are available in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, or topical creams, and are typically prescribed by healthcare professionals for the treatment of trichomoniasis, a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) that can affect both men and women. It is important to note that these medications should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider, as they may have potential side effects and drug interactions.

Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by preventing the growth and multiplication of bacteria. It is a part of the tetracycline class of antibiotics, which also includes doxycycline, minocycline, and others.

Tetracycline is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as some atypical organisms such as rickettsia, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and spirochetes. It is commonly used to treat respiratory infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and other bacterial infections.

Tetracycline is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. It should be taken orally with a full glass of water, and it is recommended to take it on an empty stomach, at least one hour before or two hours after meals. The drug can cause tooth discoloration in children under the age of 8, so it is generally not recommended for use in this population.

Like all antibiotics, tetracycline should be used only to treat bacterial infections and not viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Overuse or misuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which makes it harder to treat infections in the future.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the retrograde movement of stomach contents into the esophagus, which can cause discomfort and symptoms. It occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter (a ring of muscle between the esophagus and stomach) relaxes inappropriately, allowing the acidic or non-acidic gastric contents to flow back into the esophagus.

Gastroesophageal reflux becomes gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) when it is more severe, persistent, and/or results in complications such as esophagitis, strictures, or Barrett's esophagus. Common symptoms of GERD include heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain, difficulty swallowing, and chronic cough or hoarseness.

The digestive system, also known as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is a series of organs that process food and liquids into nutrients and waste. Digestive system diseases refer to any conditions that affect the normal functioning of this system, leading to impaired digestion, absorption, or elimination of food and fluids.

Some common examples of digestive system diseases include:

1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing.
2. Peptic Ulcer Disease: Sores or ulcers that develop in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infection or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the intestines, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.
5. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine, impairing nutrient absorption.
6. Diverticular Disease: A condition that affects the colon, characterized by the formation of small pouches or sacs (diverticula) that can become inflamed or infected.
7. Constipation: A common digestive system issue where bowel movements occur less frequently than usual or are difficult to pass.
8. Diarrhea: Loose, watery stools that occur more frequently than normal, often accompanied by cramps and bloating.
9. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, causing pain, inflammation, and potential blockages of the bile ducts.
10. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, often caused by viral infections or toxins, leading to symptoms such as jaundice, fatigue, and abdominal pain.

These are just a few examples of digestive system disorders that can affect overall health and quality of life. If you experience any persistent or severe digestive symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

An emergency is a sudden, unexpected situation that requires immediate medical attention to prevent serious harm, permanent disability, or death. Emergencies can include severe injuries, trauma, cardiac arrest, stroke, difficulty breathing, severe allergic reactions, and other life-threatening conditions. In such situations, prompt medical intervention is necessary to stabilize the patient's condition, diagnose the underlying problem, and provide appropriate treatment.

Emergency medical services (EMS) are responsible for providing emergency care to patients outside of a hospital setting, such as in the home, workplace, or public place. EMS personnel include emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and other first responders who are trained to assess a patient's condition, provide basic life support, and transport the patient to a hospital for further treatment.

In a hospital setting, an emergency department (ED) is a specialized unit that provides immediate care to patients with acute illnesses or injuries. ED staff includes physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who are trained to handle a wide range of medical emergencies. The ED is equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide prompt diagnosis and treatment for critically ill or injured patients.

Overall, the goal of emergency medical care is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further harm, and provide timely and effective treatment to improve outcomes and save lives.

... is an omen of perforated peptic ulcer disease. Peptic ulcers are a form of acid-peptic disorder. Peptic ulcers can be ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Peptic ulcers. Gastric ulcer images "Peptic Ulcer". MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library ... it can still delay ulcer healing for those who already have a peptic ulcer. Peptic ulcers caused by NSAIDs differ from those ... Peptic ulcers resulted in 267,500 deaths in 2015, down from 327,000 in 1990. The first description of a perforated peptic ulcer ...
Experiments in producing artificial gastric ulcer and genuine induced peptic ulcer". Journal of the American Medical ... This is a timeline of the events relating to the discovery that peptic ulcer disease and some cancers are caused by H. pylori. ... ISBN 978-0-86793-035-1. Xiao, Shu Dong (2002). "How we discovered in China in 1972 that antibiotics cure peptic ulcer". In ... Susser, M.; Z. Stein (1962). "Civilization and peptic ulcer". Lancet. 1 (7221): 115-9. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(62)91127-3. PMID ...
The ulcer is known initially as a peptic ulcer before the ulcer burns through the full thickness of the stomach or duodenal ... Perforated peptic ulcer is a serious condition with an overall reported mortality of 5%-25%, rising to as high as 50% with age ... "Peptic ulcers - treatment". Retrieved 2008-01-21. "Surgical-tutor.org.uk - a free online surgical resource". Archived from the ... The first symptom of a perforated peptic ulcer is usually sudden, severe, sharp pain in the abdomen. The pain is typically at ...
Lanas A, Chan FK (August 2017). "Peptic ulcer disease". The Lancet. 390 (10094): 613-624. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32404-7. ... Textbook of Gastroenterology, Tadataka Yamada, 2008, Ch.40, Peptic Ulcer Disease, page 941 Higuchi K, Umegaki E, Watanabe T, ... Peptic ulcer or stomach bleeding Uncontrolled hypertension Kidney disease People with inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's ... ulcers of the stomach or duodenum and internal bleeding can result. The discovery of COX-2 led to research to the development ...
... treat peptic ulcer and minimize its relapse. He also pioneered the use of endoscopic procedure in treating ulcer bleeding, ... Sung, Joseph (March 2020). "Peptic ulcer disease". In Firth, John; Conlon, Christopher; Cox, Timothy (eds.). Oxford Textbook of ... As a gastroenterologist, his research spans intestinal bleeding, Helicobacter pylori infection, peptic ulcer, and ...
"Peptic ulcer: Symptoms". MayoClinic.com. 2011-01-06. Retrieved 2012-01-31. MD, Scott Moses (Nov 5, 2017). "Peptic Ulcer Disease ... Peptic ulcer disease-divided into either duodenal or gastric ulcers, most common causes include: Non steroidal anti- ... Peptic ulcer disease alone can be divided into multiple causes, but is generally initially controlled primarily with a proton ... induced peptic ulcer disease, however, removing radiation from a cancer patient is not always practical within a treatment ...
"Stomach Ulcer Surgery and its Complications (Peptic Ulcer) , Doctor". patient.info. 26 August 2022. Retrieved 2023-03-28. " ... and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). In the past, 89-90% of ulcer-related GOO patients required surgery. As the development of ... Peptic ulcer disease (PUD): The disease is characterized by ulcers developed either by impaired mucus protection or an excess ... "Peptic Ulcer Disease Treatment". www.hopkinsmedicine.org. 2021-10-01. Retrieved 2023-03-28. Weiland, Douglas; Dunn, Daniel H.; ...
"Peptic ulcer disease" (PDF). The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2020. Burisch, Johan; ... and peptic ulcer disease, and is a carcinogen for gastric cancer.: 904 The small intestine contains a trace amount of ... Injury to the stomach lining, leading to ulcers, develops when gastric acid overwhelms the defensive properties of cells and ... Reduced protective properties of the stomach lining increase vulnerability to further injury and ulcer formation by stomach ...
Br J Surg 1947,35:218 BARRETT NR (October 1950). "Chronic peptic ulcer of the oesophagus and 'oesophagitis'". Br J Surg. 38 ( ... Allison, P. R. (1 March 1948). "Peptic Ulcer of the Oesophagus". Thorax. 3 (1): 20-42. doi:10.1136/thx.3.1.20. ISSN 0040-6376. ... Allison, Philip Rowland (1946). "Peptic Ulcer of the Esophagus". Journal of Thoracic Surgery. 15 (5): 308-317. doi:10.1016/ ... and suggested that ulcers in this structure be called "Barrett's ulcers". Seven years after his initial article Barrett ...
After the war Kay returned to a surgical post at the Western Infirmary, and began research into the cause of peptic ulcer ... It became widely used in the investigation and management of peptic ulcers. His paper describing this test, Effect of Large ... Kurata, J. H.; Haile, B. M. (1984). "Epidemiology of peptic ulcer disease". Clinics in Gastroenterology. 13 (2): 289-307. doi: ... Grossman, Morton I. (1960). "The pathologic physiology of peptic ulcer". The American Journal of Medicine. 29 (5): 748-753. doi ...
Peptic ulcer disease may cause perforation of the bowel but rarely requires bowel resection. Peptic ulcer disease is caused by ... Some common causes of perforation are cancer, diverticulitis, and peptic ulcer disease. When caused by cancer, bowel ... Chung, Kin Tong; Shelat, Vishalkumar G. (2017-01-27). "Perforated peptic ulcer - an update". World Journal of Gastrointestinal ...
... prominently for peptic ulcer patients. In an early study, milk was found to have a short-lived gastric acid neutralising effect ... Bland diets are often recommended following stomach or intestinal surgery, or for people with conditions such as ulcers, acid ... Studies in Patients with Duodenal Ulcer and Normal Subjects". Annals of Internal Medicine. 84 (3): 286-289. doi:10.7326/0003- ...
... "calling the chronic peptic ulcer crater of the esophagus a 'Barrett's ulcer'", but added this name did not imply agreement with ... Allison PR (March 1948). "Peptic ulcer of the oesophagus". Thorax. 3 (1): 20-42. doi:10.1136/thx.3.1.20. PMC 1018255. PMID ... Barrett NR (October 1950). "Chronic peptic ulcer of the oesophagus and 'oesophagitis'". The British Journal of Surgery. 38 (150 ... The condition is named after Australian thoracic surgeon Norman Barrett (1903-1979), who in 1950 argued that "ulcers are found ...
Cleave T.L Peptic Ulcer. Bristol: John Wright, 1962. Cleave T.L, Campbell C. Diabetes, Coronary Thrombosis and the Saccharine ...
Surgical Treatment of Perforated Peptic Ulcer at eMedicine Kuremu RT (September 2002). "Surgical management of peptic ulcer ... It is one of the treatments of peptic ulcer. Vagotomy is an essential component of surgical management of peptic (duodenal and ... This was done with the hope that it would treat or prevent peptic ulcers. It also had the effect of reducing or eliminating ... pylori is responsible for most peptic ulcers, because H. pylori can be treated much less invasively. One potential side effect ...
2002). Peptic Ulcer: Rise and Fall. Wellcome Witnesses to Contemporary Medicine. History of Modern Biomedicine Research Group. ...
Peptic Ulcer Disease and Related Disorders. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, eds. ...
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2002). Peptic Ulcer: Rise and Fall. Wellcome Witnesses to Contemporary Medicine. History of Modern Biomedicine Research Group. ...
Timeline of peptic ulcer disease and Helicobacter pylori Basil Rigas; Chris Feretis; Efstathios D Papavassiliou (1 November ... He treated patients who had peptic ulcer disease with antibiotics long before it was commonly recognized that bacteria were a ... After treating himself for peptic ulcer disease with antibiotics in 1958 and finding the treatment effective, Lykoudis began ... Michael Phillips (1 January 2000). "John Lykoudis and peptic ulcer disease". The Lancet. 355 (9198): 150. doi:10.1016/S0140- ...
2002). Peptic Ulcer: Rise and Fall. Wellcome Witnesses to Contemporary Medicine. History of Modern Biomedicine Research Group. ...
... and gastrointestinal stromal tumours In a peptic ulcer it is believed to be a result of edema and scarring of the ulcer, ... Benign Peptic ulcer disease Infections, such as tuberculosis; and infiltrative diseases, such as amyloidosis. A rare cause of ... A history of previous peptic ulcers and loss of weight is not uncommon. In advanced cases, signs to look for on physical ... "Peptic Ulcer: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment". Doherty GM, Way LW, editors. Current Surgical Diagnosis & Treatment. 12th ...
... is an antimuscarinic that is used to treat peptic ulcers. "Poldine". PubChem. U.S. National Library of Medicine. ... Hunt JN, Price TM (January 1967). "Poldine and peptic ulcers". The Practitioner. 198 (183): 156-62. PMID 6071996. v t e ( ...
... may be caused by: Peptic ulcer. This may be related to Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, which causes severe disease. ... It may be caused by ulcers, tumors of the stomach or esophagus, varices, prolonged and vigorous retching, gastroenteritis, ... to treat stomach ulcers if they are present. This is given until endoscopy can be arranged. Blood transfusions may be given if ...
Differential diagnosis of GERD can also include dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, esophageal and gastric cancer, and food ... "Vagotomy and Double Pyloroplasty for Peptic Ulcer". Annals of Surgery. 181 (1): 40-46. doi:10.1097/00000658-197501000-00010. ... inflammation of esophageal epithelium which can cause ulcers near the junction of the stomach and esophagus Esophageal ...
Peptic Ulcer Disease and Related Disorders". Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (18th ed.). Accessmedicine.com. ...
He developed a new surgical procedure (surgical vagotomy) for duodenal ulcers (resulting from peptic ulcer disease). He was a ... Peptic ulcer and the adrenal stress syndrome. Arch. Surg., 65:809-15. 1953 With S. O. Evans, Jr., J. M. Zubiran, J. D. McCarthy ... Supra-diaphragmatic section of vagus nerves and gastric secretion in patients with peptic ulcer. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 59 ... 1936 Acid ulcer. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 62:118-20. With J. Van Prohaska and H. P. Harms. Observations on a substance in ...
Once H. pylori is detected in a person with a peptic ulcer, the normal procedure is to eradicate it and allow the ulcer to heal ... Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer disease (Report). NIH Consensus Statement Online. Vol. 12. 7-9 January 1994. pp. 1-23. ... Such a therapy has revolutionized the treatment of peptic ulcers and has made a cure to the disease possible. Previously, the ... However, individuals infected with H. pylori have a 10% to 20% lifetime risk of developing peptic ulcers. Acute infection may ...
Jones, F. A. (1957). "Clinical and Social Problems of Peptic Ulcer". BMJ. 1 (5021): 719-723, contd. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5021.719 ... Clinical and Social Problems of Peptic Ulcer 1957 Leslie Charles Hill, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 1958 John St. Clair ...
Ivanikov IO, Brekhova ME, Samonina GE, Myasoedov NF, Ashmarin IP (July 2002). "Therapy of peptic ulcer with semax peptide". ... Medical uses for Semax include treatment of stroke, transient ischemic attack, memory and cognitive disorders, peptic ulcers, ...
... is an omen of perforated peptic ulcer disease. Peptic ulcers are a form of acid-peptic disorder. Peptic ulcers can be ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Peptic ulcers. Gastric ulcer images "Peptic Ulcer". MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library ... it can still delay ulcer healing for those who already have a peptic ulcer. Peptic ulcers caused by NSAIDs differ from those ... Peptic ulcers resulted in 267,500 deaths in 2015, down from 327,000 in 1990. The first description of a perforated peptic ulcer ...
Peptic ulcer disease affects 10% of men and 4% of women in the United States at some time in their lives. A peptic ulcer is a ... mucosal break of greater than or equal to 3 mm in size with depth, that can involve the stomach (gastric ulcer) or duodenum ( ...
A peptic ulcer is an open sore or raw area in the lining of the stomach or intestine. ... A peptic ulcer is an open sore or raw area in the lining of the stomach or intestine. ... Ulcer - peptic; Ulcer - duodenal; Ulcer - gastric; Duodenal ulcer; Gastric ulcer; Dyspepsia - ulcers; Bleeding ulcer; ... peptic ulcer; Gastrointestinal hemorrhage - peptic ulcer; G.I. bleed - peptic ulcer; H. pylori - peptic ulcer; Helicobacter ...
Abdel-Sater published Herbal Treatment of Peptic Ulcer: Guilty or Innocent , Find, read and cite all the research you need on ... Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ... treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer and delay ulcer ... including peptic ulcer. This article reviews the antiacid/anti-peptic, gastroprotective and/or antiulcer properties of the most ...
Peptic ulcers can be cured by yoga and the inflammation of the inner organs of the body ... How to cure peptic ulcer by yoga?. Peptic ulcers can be cured by yoga and the inflammation of the inner organs of the body can ... Peptic ulcers are generally caused by the viruses of h pylori. This virus causes burning sensation in the inner intestine and ... These peptic ulcers are found in most people and could be hereditary. It causes imbalance in the normal digestive cycle which ...
Doctors say peptic ulcer disease is easily treated, but when left untreated can cause internal bleeding, holes in the stomach ... Bruce Springsteen postpones all 2023 tour dates due to peptic ulcer disease by: Megan Hatch, Alix Martichoux ... The most common symptom of peptic ulcer disease is stomach pain, though some people dont even report symptoms, according to ... "Stress and spicy foods do not cause peptic ulcers. However, they can make your symptoms worse," the Mayo Clinic reports. ...
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... recovery and follow-up care for Peptic ulcer. ... Learn about Peptic ulcer, find a doctor, complications, ... Peptic ulcer. Ulcer - peptic; Ulcer - duodenal; Ulcer - gastric; Duodenal ulcer; Gastric ulcer; Dyspepsia - ulcers; Bleeding ... peptic ulcer; Gastrointestinal hemorrhage - peptic ulcer; G.I. bleed - peptic ulcer; H. pylori - peptic ulcer; Helicobacter ... one possibility is that you have a peptic ulcer. Lets talk about peptic ulcers. A peptic ulcer is a defect in the lining of ...
The number of elective operations for peptic ulcer disease dropped more than 70% in the 1980s; 80% of these procedures were ... surgery has a very limited role and elective peptic ulcer surgery has been virtually abandoned. ... Because of the success of medical therapy in the management of peptic ulcer disease (PUD), ... encoded search term (Surgical Treatment of Perforated Peptic Ulcer) and Surgical Treatment of Perforated Peptic Ulcer What to ...
Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer disease: NIH Consensus Development Panel on Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer disease. ... Sonnenberg A. Peptic ulcer. In: Everhart JE, ed. Digestive diseases in the United States: epidemiology and impact. Washington, ... Health impact of peptic ulcer in the United States. Am J Gastroenterol 1997;92:614-20. * NIH Consensus Conference. ... Knowledge About Causes of Peptic Ulcer Disease -- United States, March-April 1997 MMWR 46(42);985-987 Publication date: 10/24/ ...
Peptic Ulcer Disease - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer ... Symptoms of Peptic Ulcer Disease Symptoms of peptic ulcer disease can vary with the location of the ulcer and the persons age ... Complications of Peptic Ulcer Disease Most peptic ulcers can be cured without complications. However, in some cases, peptic ... to Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease Introduction to Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease Gastritis and peptic ulcer disease ...
Doctors say peptic ulcer disease is easily treated, but when left untreated can cause internal bleeding, holes in the stomach ... Bruce Springsteen postpones all 2023 tour dates due to peptic ulcer disease by: Megan Hatch, Alix Martichoux ... The most common symptom of peptic ulcer disease is stomach pain, though some people dont even report symptoms, according to ... "Stress and spicy foods do not cause peptic ulcers. However, they can make your symptoms worse," the Mayo Clinic reports. ...
Information on how to treat Peptic Ulcer condition naturally. ... Smaller Peptic Ulcers may not cause any pain, or the pain may ... There are three types of Peptic Ulcers and they include: Gastric ulcers, which occur on the inside of the stomach; Esophageal ... Title: Infomation about Peptic Ulcer URL: https://www.dherbs.com/store/conditions.html?slug=peptic-ulcer ... The most common symptom of a Peptic Ulcer is a burning pain in the abdomen that can extend up to the chest. The pain exists ...
2. Why Peptic Ulcers Are Developed. According to the Merck Manual, "Peptic ulcer occurs only if the stomach secretes acid." It ... Why Peptic Ulcers Are Developed. Support our website, and your well being, by purchasing our 2380 pages megabook. Raw Food ... 2.7 Requirements To Heal Peptic Ulcers. REST. That is the main requirement. When the stomach is given to a total rest, the ... The end result is a worsening of the toxicosis that is already present in all peptic ulcer patients. We should strive to ...
The course of peptic ulcer disease ranges from spontaneous resolution to the development of potentially serious complications, ... Peptic ulcers are defects in the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa that extend through the muscularis mucosae into deeper layers of ... In uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease (PUD), the clinical findings are few and nonspecific. Upper abdominal pain is the most ... Fast Five Quiz: Review Key Aspects of Peptic Ulcer Disease - Medscape - May 11, 2017. ...
Duodenal ulcers, which form in the upper small intestine. Both types of peptic ulcers are most commonly caused either by ... They are: Gastric ulcers, which form in the lining of the stomach. ... There are two different types of peptic ulcers. ...
NIH Consensus Development Panel on Helicobacter pylori in Peptic Ulcer Disease ... Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer disease. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Helicobacter pylori in Peptic Ulcer Disease ...
Management of complicated peptic ulcer disease. Arch Surg. 2005;140:201-8. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Role of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the prevention of peptic ulcer bleeding relapse. Digestion. 1994;55:19-23. DOIPubMed ... Opposing time trends of peptic ulcer and reflux disease. Gut. 1998;43:327-33. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Temporal trends and geographical variations of peptic ulcer disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1995;9(Suppl 2):3-12. PubMedGoogle ...
Doctors say peptic ulcer disease is easily treated, but when left untreated can cause internal bleeding, holes in the stomach ... Bruce Springsteen postpones all 2023 tour dates due to peptic ulcer disease by: Megan Hatch, Alix Martichoux ... The most common symptom of peptic ulcer disease is stomach pain, though some people dont even report symptoms, according to ... "Stress and spicy foods do not cause peptic ulcers. However, they can make your symptoms worse," the Mayo Clinic reports. ...
Introduction to Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck ... or peptic ulcer disease Peptic Ulcer Disease A peptic ulcer is a round or oval sore where the lining of the stomach or duodenum ... and peptic ulcer disease Peptic Ulcer Disease A peptic ulcer is a round or oval sore where the lining of the stomach or ... Peptic ulcers can result from infection with Helicobacter... read more involve damage to the lining of the stomach or duodenum ...
Natural Remedies for Peptic Ulcers, as well as knowledgeable support from our friendly staff. Discover true health the natural ... Supplements by Health ConditionPeptic Ulcer Natural Treatment for Peptic Ulcers. Click here to read our article on Peptic Ulcer ... Read our detailed Peptic Ulcer article. Need Advice?. We understand there can be a lot to take in at first! If you would like ... Above, we detail targeted remedy recommendations for Peptic Ulcer, but we further suggest that you view the core regime article ...
... receptor blockers are standard treatment for peptic ulcers and GERD, but lifestyle changes and OTC products can help ... Peptic ulcer disease affects 10% of men and 4% of women in the United States at some point in their lives. The two most common ... PPIs heal peptic ulcers more rapidly than H2-blockers or any other drug. Prilosec (omeprazole) generally is as effective as any ... Peptic ulcers respond to acid-reducer medications. December 1, 2008. Elaine Zablocki ...
Perforated peptic ulcer. Changes in age-incidence and sex-distribution in the last 150 years. Lancet 1940;1:395-8, and 444-7. ... The age delay in infection with H pylori was assumed to play a role only in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer, but not gastric ... For the purpose of the birth-cohort analysis, moreover, the fact that the subjects died from gastric cancer or peptic ulcer is ... The time of birth carries a specific risk for developing gastric cancer or peptic ulcer. In both instances, this time of birth ...
... conventional wisdom held that peptic ulcers were caused by stress and unhealthy eating habits. But the vast majority are caused ... Peptic ulcers are mainly caused by bacteria. For decades, conventional wisdom held that peptic ulcers were the product of an ... Common symptoms of a peptic ulcer range from abdominal pain to nausea and pain associated with eating, according to the ... Bruce Springsteen cited symptoms of peptic ulcer disease in taking a break from his international tour. The singer, who says ...
14, 2022 (HealthDay News) -- Eradication of Helicobacter pylori reduces the incidence of peptic ulcer bleeding in older adults ... Eradicating H. pylori Cuts Aspirin-Related Peptic Ulcer Bleeding in the Short Term. Nov 14, 2022 ... 14, 2022 (HealthDay News) - Eradication of Helicobacter pylori reduces the incidence of peptic ulcer bleeding in older adults ... time to hospitalization or death due to definite or probable peptic ulcer bleeding) in the active eradication group versus ...
If you have peptic ulcer disease, the gastroenterologists at Florida Medical Clinic can help you find the relief you need - ... Peptic ulcer disease refers to painful sores or ulcers in the lining of the stomach or the first part of the small intestine, ... We also offer nutritional counseling to patients with peptic ulcer disease. While dietary changes dont heal ulcers, avoiding ... Peptic Ulcer Disease Treatment Care Team at this location:. *Robert P. Gilbert, MD - Suite 207 - North Entrance ...
The risk of ulcer recurrence in people with a history of NSAID induced ulcers who must continue to use NSAIDs can be reduced by ... In general, eliminating or minimizing lifestyle habits that have been associated with an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease ... Prevention of the initial occurrence of non-NSAID induced ulcers is difficult as they are primarily caused by h. pylori.. ... Non-NSAID induced ulcer recurrence can be prevented by making sure you are compliant with the prescribed antibiotic regimen. ...
Armstrong at CDHFs 2016 Healthy Gut Summit on h. pylori infections, acid reflux, and peptic ulcers. ... Acid Reflux HCP Presentations Peptic Ulcer & H. Pylori. H. pylori Infections, Acid Reflux and Peptic Ulcers. Written by: CDHF ... Acid Reflux HCP Presentations Peptic Ulcer & H. Pylori. H. pylori Infections, Acid Reflux and Peptic Ulcers. ...
ERAS vs Conventional Approach in Peptic Perforation-RCT (ERASE) Emergencies , Peptic Ulcer Perforation , Post-Op Complication ... Outcome After Laparoscopic Surgery for Peptic Ulcer Perforation Pneumonia , Intraabdominal Abscess After Procedure , Leakage , ... The LAMA Trial: Laparoscopic Correction of Perforated Peptic Ulcer Versus Open Correction (LAMA) ... Early Oral Feeding Versus Traditional Delayed Oral Feeding Post-perforated Peptic Ulcer Repair ...
ULCERUL PEPTIC. AfecțiuniBy vision. decembrie 29, 2015. Ulcerul peptic apare ca zone circumscrise de eroziune cu localizare la ... Prevalența în populația generală se estimează la 10 - 20 %. Ulcerul peptic poate să… ...
  • An ulcer in the stomach is called a gastric ulcer, while one in the first part of the intestines is a duodenal ulcer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common symptoms of a duodenal ulcer are waking at night with upper abdominal pain, and upper abdominal pain that improves with eating. (wikipedia.org)
  • A defect in your duodenum is called a duodenal ulcer. (mountsinai.org)
  • Ng EK , Lam YH , Sung JJ , Yung MY , To KF , Chan AC , Eradication of Helicobacter pylori prevents recurrence of ulcer after simple closure of duodenal ulcer perforation: randomized controlled trial. (cdc.gov)
  • Aim The aim of this epidemiological study was to follow the time trends of mortality from gastric cancer and compare them with those of gastric and duodenal ulcer. (bmj.com)
  • The rise and fall of gastric cancer preceded similar birth-cohort patterns of gastric and duodenal ulcer by about 10-30 years. (bmj.com)
  • Whereas previous publications by the author dealt with the time trends of gastric and duodenal ulcer, 3 the present analysis is focused primarily on the time trends of gastric cancer, which have not been presented before. (bmj.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori duodenal colonization is a strong risk factor for the development of duodenal ulcer. (medscape.com)
  • A peptic ulcer refers to an eroded lesion in the inner lining of the stomach and the adjoining intestinal tract called the duodenum- The ulcer located in the stomach is known as a gastric ulcer, and that located in the duodenum is called a duodenal ulcer. (healthplace.com)
  • Duodenal ulcer pain usually occurs between meals when the stomach is empty. (healthplace.com)
  • In Parinamsoola (Duodenal ulcer) - The pain in the Parinamasoola is in the upper quadrants of the stomach which is predominant during the digestion of food. (saranyaayurveda.com)
  • Research within the United States of America states that approximately 10% of the people are likely to develop a duodenal ulcer during their lifetime. (healthhearty.com)
  • Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the inner lining of the stomach, the first part of the small intestine, or sometimes the lower esophagus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A history of heartburn or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and use of certain medications can raise the suspicion for peptic ulcer. (wikipedia.org)
  • SYRACUSE, N.Y. ( WSYR ) - Bruce Springsteen is postponing all remaining 2023 tour dates with The E Street Band out of an abundance of caution related to his peptic ulcer disease. (wgntv.com)
  • Doctors say peptic ulcer disease is easily treated , but when left untreated can cause internal bleeding, holes in the stomach wall or even stomach cancer. (wgntv.com)
  • The most common symptom of peptic ulcer disease is stomach pain, though some people don't even report symptoms, according to the Mayo Clinic . (wgntv.com)
  • Bruce Springsteen has continued to recover steadily from peptic ulcer disease over the past few weeks and will continue treatment through the rest of the year on doctor's advice. (wgntv.com)
  • Because of the success of medical therapy in the management of peptic ulcer disease (PUD), surgery currently plays only a very limited role, and elective peptic ulcer surgery has been virtually abandoned. (medscape.com)
  • For more information, please see Peptic Ulcer Disease . (medscape.com)
  • An estimated 25 million persons in the United States have had peptic ulcer disease (PUD) during their lifetimes (1). (cdc.gov)
  • The diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease is based on symptoms of stomach pain and on the results of an examination of the stomach with a flexible viewing tube (upper endoscopy) and of Helicobacter pylori testing. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Introduction to Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease Gastritis and peptic ulcer disease involve damage to the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first segment of the small intestine). (merckmanuals.com)
  • stomach inflammation) may develop into ulcer disease. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Doctors found a higher incidence of ulcer disease in Japan after an earthquake and in New York after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. (merckmanuals.com)
  • In uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease (PUD), the clinical findings are few and nonspecific. (medscape.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer disease. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of Helicobacter pylori and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on peptic ulcer disease: a systematic review. (cdc.gov)
  • Management of complicated peptic ulcer disease. (cdc.gov)
  • el-Serag HB , Sonnenberg A . Opposing time trends of peptic ulcer and reflux disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Hospitalization and mortality rates from peptic ulcer disease and GI bleeding in the 1990s: relationship to sales of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acid suppression medications. (cdc.gov)
  • Munnangi S , Sonnenberg A . Time trends of physician visits and treatment patterns of peptic ulcer disease in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Medications for the Treatment of Stomach Acid Stomach acid plays a role in a number of disorders of the stomach, including peptic ulcer, gastritis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). (merckmanuals.com)
  • Peptic ulcer disease affects 10% of men and 4% of women in the United States at some point in their lives. (managedhealthcareexecutive.com)
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which is the chronic reflux of acid into the esophagus, can lead to esophagitis, esophageal ulcers, and changes in the lining of the esophagus that increase the risk of developing cancer. (managedhealthcareexecutive.com)
  • 3 It has been observed in the time trends of essentially all morbidity parameters associated with peptic ulcer disease, such as hospitalisation, disability pensions, and mortality. (bmj.com)
  • Bruce Springsteen cited symptoms of peptic ulcer disease in taking a break from his international tour. (kanw.com)
  • Bruce Springsteen has canceled plans to play a slate of arena concerts this month, saying the move was recommended by his medical team due to "symptoms of peptic ulcer disease. (kanw.com)
  • Peptic ulcer disease refers to painful sores or ulcers in the lining of the stomach or the first part of the small intestine, the duodenum. (floridamedicalclinic.com)
  • At Florida Medical Clinic, we can help you find effective ways to manage pain, bloating, nausea, and other related gastrointestinal symptoms caused by peptic ulcer disease. (floridamedicalclinic.com)
  • Most patients who turn to Florida Medical Clinic for peptic ulcer disease treatment find relief from conservative, nonsurgical treatments. (floridamedicalclinic.com)
  • We also offer nutritional counseling to patients with peptic ulcer disease. (floridamedicalclinic.com)
  • In some situations, peptic ulcer disease might not improve with conservative treatment, at which point surgery might become necessary. (floridamedicalclinic.com)
  • We'll connect you with a peptic ulcer disease treatment specialist near you. (floridamedicalclinic.com)
  • In general, eliminating or minimizing lifestyle habits that have been associated with an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) such as smoking, stress, diet, and alcohol use can help reduce the risk of developing PUD. (shen-nong.com)
  • Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) is a common cause of epigastric pain. (obgproject.com)
  • Ruigomez A, Johansson S, Nagy P, Martín-Perez M, Rodriguez LA. Risk of uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease in a cohort of new users of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. (medscape.com)
  • When an individual has chronic peptic ulcers, it is known as peptic ulcer disease (PUD). (digestivespecialists.com)
  • Sometimes, peptic ulcer disease has more severe symptoms. (digestivespecialists.com)
  • Along with medication, these lifestyle changes may be helpful in assisting to control the pain of peptic ulcer disease. (digestivespecialists.com)
  • Peptic Ulcer Disease is a medical condition that involves the formation of open sores or ulcers on the stomach's lining and/or the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum). (nursestudy.net)
  • Most patients with peptic ulcer disease PUD have stomach pain as the first symptom. (nursestudy.net)
  • Smoking , eating spicy foods, drinking alcohol, and chronic stress may worsen the symptoms of peptic ulcer disease. (nursestudy.net)
  • This is suspected in severe peptic ulcer disease wherein there is evidence of dark red or black tarry stools, and/or vomiting blood. (nursestudy.net)
  • People with H. pylori infections such as peptic ulcer disease has a greater risk of developing gastric cancer. (nursestudy.net)
  • Peptic ulcer disease means ulcers in the stomach or first part of small intestine. (sclhealth.org)
  • Peptic ulcer disease only infrequently requires surgery. (sclhealth.org)
  • Peptic ulcer is a chronic disease affecting up to 10% of the world's population. (saranyaayurveda.com)
  • Peptic ulcer disease is a common medical problem in the United States. (idahogastro.com)
  • Less common symptoms of peptic ulcer disease are nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, or becoming full quickly while eating. (idahogastro.com)
  • A serious complication of peptic ulcer disease is bleeding. (idahogastro.com)
  • In databases and in product monographs for corticosteroids, peptic ulcer disease and GI bleeding may or may not be described as possible adverse effectsfrom peptic ulcers. (gigaroxx.com)
  • The reason most studies have not been able to establish an association between peptic ulcers and peptic ulcer disease is that the data used in such studies may not be sufficient to establish a causal relationship. (gigaroxx.com)
  • Other evidence presented in the review suggests that incidence of hospitalisation for peptic ulcer disease is less than half of that observed in the general medical population, so that the overall risk of peptic ulcer disease remains small, anabolism examples. (gigaroxx.com)
  • 2, disease steroid ulcer use peptic. (gigaroxx.com)
  • Peptic ulcers, or peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a condition wherein ulcers are formed in the esophagus, stomach, and the duodenum lining. (healthhearty.com)
  • Peptic ulcer disease is very common all across the globe, affecting approximately 4.6 million people every year, including both men and women. (healthhearty.com)
  • Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) consists of open sores (ulcers) on the lining of the stomach and the top portion of your small intestine (duodenum). (jerseyshoregastro.com)
  • What Are the Common Symptoms of Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)? (jerseyshoregastro.com)
  • The most common symptom of peptic ulcer disease is burning stomach pain. (jerseyshoregastro.com)
  • If you notice that acidic foods and being on an empty stomach make the pain worse, that's a sign of peptic ulcer disease. (jerseyshoregastro.com)
  • Overuse of NSAIDs is the second most common cause of peptic ulcer disease. (jerseyshoregastro.com)
  • Am I At Risk for Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)? (jerseyshoregastro.com)
  • How Is Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) Diagnosed? (jerseyshoregastro.com)
  • If peptic ulcer disease is suspected after discussing your symptoms with your physician, certain tests may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis. (jerseyshoregastro.com)
  • Malik TF, Gnanapandithan K, Singh K. Peptic Ulcer Disease. (thegidocs.com)
  • Formation of H. pylori cell surface-bound plasmin may be important to provide a powerful proteolytic mechanism for gastric tissue penetration in type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, since plasmin degrades not only fibrin but also extracellular matrix proteins such as various collagens and fibronectin. (lu.se)
  • Psychological factors in dyspepsia of unknown cause: A comparison with peptic ulcer disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • The most common cause of ulcers is infection of the stomach by bacteria called Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most authors recommend simple oversewing of the ulcer in addition to treating the underlying Helicobacter pylori infection or cessation of NSAIDs for bleeding PUD. (medscape.com)
  • Peptic ulcers can result from infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria or from use of medications, such as aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), that weaken the lining of the stomach or duodenum. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Labenz J , Borsch G . Role of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the prevention of peptic ulcer bleeding relapse. (cdc.gov)
  • The occurrence of birth-cohort phenomena in gastric cancer and peptic ulcer suggests that additional secular trends besides changes in the infection with Helicobacter pylori must have contributed to the peculiar long-term behaviour of these diagnoses. (bmj.com)
  • MONDAY, Nov. 14, 2022 (HealthDay News) - Eradication of Helicobacter pylori reduces the incidence of peptic ulcer bleeding in older adults receiving daily aspirin, but the advantage does not persist after the first 2.5 years of follow-up, according to a study published online Nov. 5 in The Lancet . (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori Infection Helicobacter pylori infection is a bacterial infection that causes inflammation of your stomach lining and ulcers (sores) in your stomach or intestine. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Lansoprazole reduces ulcer relapse after eradication of Helicobacter pylori in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users--a randomized trial. (medscape.com)
  • Vergara M, Catalán M, Gisbert JP, Calvet X. Meta-analysis: role of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the prevention of peptic ulcer in NSAID users. (medscape.com)
  • Some ulcers may be associated with infection from a bacterium called Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori). (digestivespecialists.com)
  • We have also found that treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection can stop most ulcer recurrences. (sclhealth.org)
  • The primary cause of peptic ulcers is a bacterial infection called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). (lestgodo.com)
  • The two most common causes of peptic ulcers are arthritis-type medications known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and a bacteria that can be present in the lining of the stomach known as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). (idahogastro.com)
  • Perforated peptic ulcers are mostly caused by a bacterium known as Helicobacter pylori , which is a corkscrew-shaped bacterium. (healthhearty.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori bacteria are the most common cause of gastric ulcers. (thegidocs.com)
  • rarely, an ulcer can lead to a gastric or duodenal perforation, which leads to acute peritonitis and extreme, stabbing pain, and requires immediate surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severe abdominal pain with or without evidence of bleeding may indicate a perforation of the ulcer through the stomach or duodenum. (mountsinai.org)
  • Evidence of perforation (rupture) of an ulcer through the stomach wall. (sclhealth.org)
  • Even though there is considerable Pitta vitiation, the treatment should be planned after proper investigations to rule out the H Pylori infection, the intensity of ulcer and also to rule out further complications like perforation or leakage. (saranyaayurveda.com)
  • If left untreated, peptic ulcers can lead to complications such as bleeding, perforation (a hole in the wall of the stomach or intestine), and obstruction (a blockage in the digestive tract). (lestgodo.com)
  • It occurs when acid erodes lining of the stomach or small intestine, creating an ulcer. (wgntv.com)
  • A peptic ulcer is an open sore or raw area in the lining of the stomach (gastric) or the upper part of the small intestine (duodenal). (mountsinai.org)
  • A peptic ulcer is a defect in the lining of your stomach or the first part of your small intestine, the duodenum. (mountsinai.org)
  • Ulcers penetrate into the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). (merckmanuals.com)
  • and Duodenal Ulcers, which occur in the upper portion of the small intestine. (dherbs.com)
  • So a peptic ulcer is a sore in the lining of your stomach or the first part of your small intestine (an area called the duodenum). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Ulcers in the first part of the small intestine are called duodenal ulcers. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The scope can view the throat, stomach and small intestine and detect an ulcer. (digestivespecialists.com)
  • Gastric ulcers are located in the stomach and Duodenal ulcers are found at the duodenum (beginning of small intestine). (saranyaayurveda.com)
  • Peptic ulcers are a common and painful condition affecting the stomach lining, small intestine, or esophagus. (lestgodo.com)
  • Ulcers form in the lining of the esophagus, stomach and/or the small intestine. (idahogastro.com)
  • Peptic ulcers are open sores that can occur in the stomach, esophagus, and small intestine. (healthhearty.com)
  • These can occur in the stomach (gastric ulcers), esophagus (esophageal ulcers), and the upper portion of the small intestine (duodenal ulcers). (healthhearty.com)
  • Peptic ulcers affect the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine, called the duodenum (pronounced: doo-uh-DEE-num). (kidshealth.org)
  • Ulcers formed in the stomach are known as gastric ulcers , and ulcers formed in the duodenum, which is the upper portion of the small intestine, are known as duodenal ulcers . (healthhearty.com)
  • These ulcers can cause swelling in the stomach, thereby preventing the food to pass on to the small intestine. (healthhearty.com)
  • There are two types of peptic ulcers-gastric ulcers are open sores on the stomach lining, and duodenal ulcers are open sores on the upper part of your small intestine. (jerseyshoregastro.com)
  • Peptic ulcers are sores that develop inside the stomach lining and in the upper portion of the small intestine. (thegidocs.com)
  • Smoking-Smoking can increase the risk of peptic ulcers for those who are infected with H. pylori. (digestivespecialists.com)
  • Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can also increase the risk of peptic ulcers by weakening the protective mucus layer and increasing acid production in the stomach. (lestgodo.com)
  • Older people are more sensitive to the ulcer-causing effects of NSAIDs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medicines associated with peptic ulcer include NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) that inhibit cyclooxygenase and most glucocorticoids (e.g., dexamethasone and prednisolone). (wikipedia.org)
  • Your ulcer is caused by taking aspirin or NSAIDs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A major cause of peptic ulcer, although far less common than H.pylori or NSAIDS, is Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. (mountsinai.org)
  • However, most people who take NSAIDs do not develop peptic ulcers. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The risk of ulcer recurrence in people with a history of NSAID induced ulcers who must continue to use NSAIDs can be reduced by using H2-blockers, Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), or a medication called misoprostol. (shen-nong.com)
  • Treatment for peptic ulcers typically involves a combination of antibiotics to eradicate H. pylori, acid-reducing medications such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or H2 blockers, and lifestyle changes such as avoiding NSAIDs and alcohol, quitting smoking, and reducing stress. (lestgodo.com)
  • Another common cause of peptic ulcers is the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. (lestgodo.com)
  • Medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) usually help prevent the recurrence of these ulcers. (healthhearty.com)
  • If taken in high doses over a long period of time, NSAIDs can cause ulcers in some people. (kidshealth.org)
  • Acetaminophen does not cause stomach ulcers and is a good alternative to NSAIDs. (kidshealth.org)
  • Most people with peptic ulcers have these bacteria living in their digestive tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This could be one reason for an abnormal secretion of hydrochloric acid in people with peptic ulcers. (rawfoodexplained.com)
  • However, the increased risks from peptic ulcers and the relatively small overall risk suggest that there is a need for larger trials to verify the effectiveness of peptic ulcer treatment to prevent death in people with peptic ulcers, symptoms of anabolic steroid withdrawal. (gigaroxx.com)
  • A gastric ulcer would give epigastric pain during the meal, associated with nausea and vomiting, as gastric acid production is increased as food enters the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • A rare condition, called Zollinger-Ellison syndrome , causes the stomach to produce too much acid, leading to stomach and duodenal ulcers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These tumors are usually malignant, must be removed and acid production suppressed to relieve the recurrence of the ulcers. (mountsinai.org)
  • A peptic ulcer is a round or oval sore where the lining of the stomach or duodenum has been eaten away by stomach acid and digestive juices. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Ulcers develop when the normal defense and repair mechanisms of the lining of the stomach or duodenum are weakened, making the lining more likely to be damaged by stomach acid. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Although alcohol increases stomach acid production, drinking moderate amounts of alcohol does not seem to cause ulcers or delay their healing. (merckmanuals.com)
  • An Ulcer is an area of open sores in the digestive system where tissue has been destroyed by stomach acid and gastric juices. (dherbs.com)
  • Ulcers occur when the acid and pepsin erode the mucosal wall by overcoming the gastrointestinal defense mechanisms. (dherbs.com)
  • According to the Merck Manual , "Peptic ulcer occurs only if the stomach secretes acid. (rawfoodexplained.com)
  • The primary treatments for peptic ulcers are medications that suppress the flow of gastric acid, together with antibiotics to eradicate H. pylori . (managedhealthcareexecutive.com)
  • For decades, conventional wisdom held that peptic ulcers were the product of an unfortunate cycle of stress, unhealthy eating habits and excess stomach acid. (kanw.com)
  • Dr. Armstrong at CDHF's 2016 Healthy Gut Summit on h. pylori infections, acid reflux, and peptic ulcers. (cdhf.ca)
  • Peptic" has to do with digestion related to pepsin and acid. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Pathophysiology is due to discontinuation of the inner lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to gastric acid secretion or pepsin causing an ulcer. (obgproject.com)
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is a rare disorder that can cause gastric or duodenal ulcers (usually multiple) from excessive acid secretion. (medscape.com)
  • A peptic ulcer is a sore that occurs in the lining of a part of the gastrointestinal tract that is exposed to pepsin and acid secretions. (mheducation.com)
  • A peptic ulcer is the result of hyperacidity, which is caused by an increase in the hydrochloric acid in the stomach. (healthplace.com)
  • The diet of the patient suffering from a peptic ulcer should be so planned as to provide adequate nutrition, while affording rest to the disturbed organs, maintaining continuous neutralisation of the gastric acid, inhibiting the production of acid, and reducing mechanical and chemical irritation. (healthplace.com)
  • If the mucus decreases or the acid increases, an ulcer can result. (digestivespecialists.com)
  • However, increased stomach acid and/or the destruction of this coating may result to the development of peptic ulcers. (nursestudy.net)
  • Excess acid in the stomach causes your ulcers. (sclhealth.org)
  • We usually treat ulcers with medications to decrease the acid in the stomach. (sclhealth.org)
  • According to the old hypothesis, acid secretion was thought to be the sole cause of ulcer formation and reduction in acid secretion was thought to be the major approach towards therapy. (saranyaayurveda.com)
  • Now treatment of ulcer mainly targets the potentiation of the defensive system along with lowering of acid secretion. (saranyaayurveda.com)
  • This damage allows stomach acid and digestive juices to irritate and erode the underlying tissue, forming ulcers. (lestgodo.com)
  • While stress may not directly cause peptic ulcers, it can worsen symptoms by increasing acid production and delaying healing. (lestgodo.com)
  • Peptic ulcer is the discontinuity in the mucosa of GI tract due to excessive gastric acid secretion. (drvikassingla.com)
  • Treatment of ulcers related to arthritis-type medications includes stopping the offending medication if possible and starting medications that significantly decrease the acid levels in the stomach. (idahogastro.com)
  • Peptic ulcers are caused by disruption in the normal balance of the protective mucus lining and the corrosive gastric acid causing damage to the intestinal lining, leading to ulceration. (naturopathic-health.co.uk)
  • Acid and bacteria irritate this lining, causing ulcers. (kidshealth.org)
  • Smoking increases the risk of ulcers because nicotine causes the stomach to make more acid. (kidshealth.org)
  • Unlike the common belief that an ulcer is an outcome of too much production of digestive acid in the stomach affecting the mucous lining, the fact is that an ulcer can form even in the presence of minimal acid. (healthhearty.com)
  • Peptic ulcers form when the acid or other noxious agents in the upper gastrointestinal tract slowly eat away at the stomach lining or duodenum. (jerseyshoregastro.com)
  • Prevention of peptic ulcers with esomeprazole in patients at risk of ulcer development treated with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid: a randomized, controlled trial (OBERON). (janusinfo.se)
  • Gastric ulcers (stomach ulcers) are less common and usually occur in the lower part of the stomach. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Peptic ulcers in your stomach are called gastric ulcers. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 90% of all duodenal ulcers and 80% of all gastric ulcers are caused by H. pylori infection. (mheducation.com)
  • Ulcers in the stomach are also called stomach ulcers or gastric ulcers. (kidshealth.org)
  • You have an ulcer without an H pylori infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • With the discovery of the association between H. pylori infection and PUD, appropriate antibiotic regimens can now successfully eradicate gastrointestinal infection with this organism and permanently cure ulcers in a high proportion of patients. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1994, a National Institutes of Health consensus development conference panel concluded that patients with ulcers caused by H. pylori infection require treatment with antimicrobial agents (7). (cdc.gov)
  • H. pylori infection is present in 50 to 70% of people with duodenal ulcers and in 30 to 50% of people with stomach ulcers. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Some people may be genetically susceptible to H. pylori infection or a weaker protective mucus layer in their stomachs, making them more prone to developing ulcers. (lestgodo.com)
  • While the two leading causes of PUD are H. pylori infection and NSAID use, other external factors can place you at a higher risk of developing peptic ulcers. (jerseyshoregastro.com)
  • this can occur due to bleeding directly from a gastric ulcer or from damage to the esophagus from severe/continuing vomiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ulcers may extend to the lower esophagus, distal duodenum or jejunum. (obgproject.com)
  • The doctors can see the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum to check for possible ulcers. (kidshealth.org)
  • The most common location of a peptic ulcer is the duodenum, whereas, ulcers in the esophagus are relatively rare. (healthhearty.com)
  • This happens to be the most commonly observed symptom indicating the presence of peptic ulcers - be it in the stomach, duodenum, or the esophagus. (healthhearty.com)
  • Peptic ulcers are nothing but sores in the lining of the stomach, esophagus, or the duodenum. (healthhearty.com)
  • Bleeding ulcers may be treated by endoscopy, with open surgery typically only used in cases in which it is not successful. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some ulcers can cause serious bleeding. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An actively bleeding ulcer may also be cauterized (blood vessels are sealed with a burning tool) during a gastroscopy procedure. (mountsinai.org)
  • Endoscopic therapy can be used to stop bleeding from the ulcer. (mountsinai.org)
  • In 2020, the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) released guidelines for management of perforated and bleeding peptic ulcers. (medscape.com)
  • Generally, 5% of bleeding ulcers require operative management at some point. (medscape.com)
  • Comparison of p.o. or i.v. proton pump inhibitors on 72-h intragastric pH in bleeding peptic ulcer. (medscape.com)
  • Causes of mortality in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding: a prospective cohort study of 10,428 cases. (medscape.com)
  • Bleeding ulcers that cannot be controlled with endoscopy. (sclhealth.org)
  • However, if one ends up vomiting blood, or if the vomit appears to be dark brown or black in color, then this is an alarming sign that may indicate internal bleeding caused by the ulcer. (healthhearty.com)
  • This birth-cohort pattern with its characteristic rise and fall has shaped the time trends of peptic ulcer in most Western countries. (bmj.com)
  • Undertaking the posture of uddiyana bandha and taking up breathing exercises vigorously helps to kick the germs out of the body with the thrust of the air, thereby provides freedom from the infection which might cause peptic ulcers. (yogawiz.com)
  • More likely, your ulcer is caused by a stomach infection with a type of bacteria called H. pylori. (mountsinai.org)
  • and 27% (95% CI=25%-29%), that a bacterial infection caused ulcers. (cdc.gov)
  • Similarly to gastric cancer, gastric and duodenal ulcers are both linked to upper gastrointestinal infection with H pylori . (bmj.com)
  • Both gastric and duodenal ulcers can be caused by the infection of the bacteria H.pylori, which is usually considered as a part of the normal flora of the upper digestive tract. (nursestudy.net)
  • To detect an ulcer, you may need a test called an upper endoscopy (esophagogastroduodenoscopy or EGD). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The endoscopy revealed that Harold had a peptic ulcer. (mheducation.com)
  • To diagnose a peptic ulcer, doctors may perform tests such as endoscopy (a procedure that uses a flexible tube with a camera to look inside the digestive tract), biopsy (taking a tissue sample for analysis), and blood tests for H. pylori antibodies. (lestgodo.com)
  • More direct studies to evaluate for a peptic ulcer are an upper GI endoscopy or upper GI x-ray (a patient drinks white, chalky liquid while x-ray pictures are taken). (idahogastro.com)
  • With an upper endoscopy, biopsies of the ulcer can be done. (idahogastro.com)
  • Another common test to look for an ulcer is an endoscopy (pronounced: en-DOSS-kuh-pee). (kidshealth.org)
  • Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the development of ulcers (sores that damage the lining of the stomach) and their complications. (merckmanuals.com)
  • As the mucosal wall begins to erode and weaken, painful sores can appear, and these are peptic ulcers. (jerseyshoregastro.com)
  • Larger ulcers can cause abdominal pain, a feeling of fullness in the stomach, and nausea. (mountsinai.org)
  • The pain associated with a stomach ulcer is a burning chest pain, which may last 2 or 3 hours and may be accompanied by indigestion, nausea, vomiting that may or may not coincide with eating. (naturopathic-health.co.uk)
  • Yet, many people who have these bacteria in their stomach do not develop an ulcer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tissue samples may be obtained to check for H pylori bacteria, a cause of many peptic ulcers. (mountsinai.org)
  • Honey contains glucose oxidase, an enzyme in honey that produces hydrogen peroxide, which can kill the bacteria that cause Peptic Ulcers. (dherbs.com)
  • But that idea was turned on his head in the 1980s , when Australian researchers proved the vast majority of ulcers are actually caused by bacteria. (kanw.com)
  • Why don't most other types of bacteria produce ulcers? (mheducation.com)
  • Antibiotics are the best choice if the peptic ulcer is associated with H. pylori bacteria. (thegidocs.com)
  • Antibiotics will kill the bacteria and prevent the reoccurrence of peptic ulcers. (thegidocs.com)
  • Non-NSAID induced ulcer recurrence can be prevented by making sure you are compliant with the prescribed antibiotic regimen. (shen-nong.com)
  • About 10% of people develop a peptic ulcer at some point in their life. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who smoke are more likely to develop a peptic ulcer than people who do not smoke, and their ulcers heal more slowly and are likely to return. (merckmanuals.com)
  • People who smoke are more likely to develop a peptic ulcer. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The symptoms of peptic ulcer are sharp and severe pain and discomfort in the upper part of the abdomen. (healthplace.com)
  • citation needed] In people over the age of 45 with more than two weeks of the above symptoms, the odds for peptic ulceration are high enough to warrant rapid investigation by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marshall BJ , Warren JR . Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration. (cdc.gov)
  • Consider ZES if a patient has severe peptic ulceration, kidney stones, watery diarrhea, or malabsorption. (medscape.com)
  • Whereas in Ayurveda Ulceration of the stomach lining, which is the classic description of a peptic ulcer, is clearly due to excessive amounts of heat or prakupita pitta in the body. (saranyaayurveda.com)
  • How do doctors treat peptic ulcers? (msdmanuals.com)
  • By understanding these various causes, we can take steps to prevent and treat peptic ulcers, improving our overall digestive health. (lestgodo.com)
  • Stress and spicy foods do not cause peptic ulcers. (wgntv.com)
  • For instance, avoiding spicy foods, limiting alcohol intake, and eating smaller meals can be beneficial for individuals with peptic ulcers. (floridamedicalclinic.com)
  • And contrary to popular belief, while stress and spicy foods can aggravate ulcers, they do not cause them. (digestivespecialists.com)
  • Contrary to common belief, spicy foods do not result to peptic ulcers, but they can aggravate the symptoms and make them even worse. (nursestudy.net)
  • Conclusions The time trends of mortality from gastric cancer are shaped by an underlying birth-cohort pattern that resembles similar patterns of peptic ulcer mortality. (bmj.com)
  • Almond Milk: Milk prepared from blanched almonds in a blender is very useful as a treatment for peptic ulcers. (healthplace.com)
  • What are the complications of peptic ulcers? (msdmanuals.com)
  • NSAID users have four times the risk of complications of peptic ulcer, and two times in aspirin users. (saranyaayurveda.com)
  • The most common symptom of a Peptic Ulcer is a burning pain in the abdomen that can extend up to the chest. (dherbs.com)
  • Burning stomach pain is the most common symptom of peptic ulcers and may come and go for a few days or weeks. (digestivespecialists.com)
  • Indigestion is another common symptom of peptic ulcer that causes a burning sensation somewhere in the middle of the chest. (healthhearty.com)
  • Stomach pain is the most common symptom of peptic ulcers. (thegidocs.com)
  • If left untreated, peptic ulcers can create a hole in the stomach or small intestine's lining. (nursestudy.net)
  • Certain drugs, such as aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, reserpine, and possibly corticosteroids may initiate the formation of an ulcer. (rawfoodexplained.com)
  • Reducing or eliminating the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is one way that peptic ulcers can be prevented. (idahogastro.com)
  • Prospective study of the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on mortality incidence for peptic ulcers. (gigaroxx.com)
  • Other common ulcer risks include smoking cigarettes, drinking a lot of alcohol, or regularly using NSAID pain relievers like aspirin and ibuprofen. (mountsinai.org)
  • NSAID use causes more than 50% of peptic ulcers. (merckmanuals.com)
  • More specifically, NSAID induced ulcers can be prevented by using an alternative medication for pain such as acetaminophen. (shen-nong.com)
  • Prevention of the initial occurrence of non-NSAID induced ulcers is difficult as they are primarily caused by h. pylori . (shen-nong.com)
  • Furthermore, typical ulcers tend to heal and recur, and as a result the pain may occur for few days and weeks and then wane or disappear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most ulcers occur in the first, inner surface, layer of the inner lining. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ulcers can occur at any age, including infancy and childhood, but are most common among middle-aged adults. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Duodenal ulcers, the most common type of peptic ulcer, occur in the first few inches of the duodenum. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Stress ulcers, like those that form in acute stress gastritis, can occur as a result of the stress of severe illness, skin burns, or injury. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Stress ulcers occur in the stomach and the duodenum. (merckmanuals.com)
  • A single ulcer is most common, but two and occasionally more (duodenal, gastric, or both) do occur. (rawfoodexplained.com)
  • Most peptic ulcers occur in the lining of the stomach or duodenum. (mheducation.com)
  • These ulcers occur in both men and women, and affect about 4.6 million people every year. (healthhearty.com)
  • Peptic ulcers are defects in the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa that extend through the muscularis mucosae into deeper layers of the intestinal wall. (medscape.com)
  • Barium swallow, GI X-ray or Upper gastrointestinal series - to visualize the upper gastrointestinal system by means of asking a patient to swallow a barium liquid that will coat the digestive tract, making the peptic ulcers easier to visualize. (nursestudy.net)
  • A peptic ulcer is a sore or erosion that develops in the gastrointestinal tract, and may or may not cause painful symptoms. (healthhearty.com)
  • To avoid irritating an ulcer a person can try eliminating certain substances from their diet such as caffeine, alcohol, aspirin, and avoid smoking. (mountsinai.org)
  • Lansoprazole for the prevention of recurrences of ulcer complications from long-term low-dose aspirin use. (medscape.com)
  • Most of the remaining peptic ulcers are caused by long-term usage of certain anti-inflammatory medications like aspirin. (mheducation.com)
  • Examples of medications that can cause ulcers include aspirin, ibuprofen, Motrin, Advil and Aleve. (idahogastro.com)
  • No further treatment is required if the ulcer is caused by aspirin or arthritis medications. (thegidocs.com)
  • Nguyen TNM, Sha S, Chen LJ, Holleczek B, Brenner H, Schöttker B. Strongly increased risk of gastric and duodenal ulcers among new users of low-dose aspirin: results from two large cohorts with new-user design. (janusinfo.se)
  • It has been known to prevent the growth of the H. pylori bacterium, which can cause Peptic Ulcers. (dherbs.com)
  • H. pylori can live in the mucus layer and often causes no problems, but sometimes the bacterium can cause inflammation in the stomach lining and slowly produce an ulcer. (digestivespecialists.com)
  • It also provides relief from the back pain and pain in the lower abdomen caused due to the peptic ulcers. (yogawiz.com)
  • Ulcers may cause a burning pain in the middle portion of the upper abdomen. (idahogastro.com)
  • Your health care provider will recommend medicines to heal your ulcer and prevent a relapse. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A Danish study showed that psychological stress could increase the incidence of peptic ulcer. (saranyaayurveda.com)
  • Signs and symptoms of a peptic ulcer can include one or more of the following:[citation needed] abdominal pain, classically epigastric, strongly correlated with mealtimes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inner bark has anti-inflammatory properties that can calm abdominal pain or irritation from Peptic Ulcers. (dherbs.com)
  • However, ignoring peptic ulcer symptoms, if any, or not getting treated in time, may cause inflammation in the abdominal cavity. (healthhearty.com)