The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.
The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.
Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.
One of three bones that make up the coxal bone of the pelvic girdle. In tetrapods, it is the part of the pelvis that projects backward on the ventral side, and in primates, it bears the weight of the sitting animal.
Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.
The part of the pelvis, inferior to the pelvic brim, that comprises both the pelvic cavity and the part of the PERINEUM lying inferior to the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM.
Measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis. It includes cephalopelvimetry (measurement of fetal head size in relation to maternal pelvic capacity), a prognostic guide to the management of LABOR, OBSTETRIC associated with disproportion.
Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.
A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.
Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.
Recesses of the kidney pelvis which divides into two wide, cup-shaped major renal calices, with each major calix subdivided into 7 to 14 minor calices. Urine empties into a minor calix from collecting tubules, then passes through the major calix, renal pelvis, and ureter to enter the urinary bladder. (From Moore, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 3d ed, p211)
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
Amputation of a lower limb through the sacroiliac joint.
The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).
The anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side. The term usually refers to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back, saddle back, swayback). It does not include lordosis as normal mating posture in certain animals ( = POSTURE + SEX BEHAVIOR, ANIMAL).
Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The spinal or vertebral column.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
A slightly movable cartilaginous joint which occurs between the pubic bones.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).
The position or attitude of the body.
An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
Abdominal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors occurring within the abdominal cavity, which can be benign or malignant, and affect various organs such as the pancreas, liver, kidneys, or intestines.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Breaks in bones.
The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.
The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.
A game whose object is to sink a ball into each of 9 or 18 successive holes on a golf course using as few strokes as possible.
The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.
The triad of benign FIBROMA or other ovarian tumors with ASCITES, and HYDROTHORAX due to large PLEURAL EFFUSIONS.
The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.
Manner or style of walking.
A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Retrograde flow of urine from the URINARY BLADDER into the URETER. This is often due to incompetence of the vesicoureteral valve leading to ascending bacterial infection into the KIDNEY.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Discomfort associated with the bones that make up the pelvic girdle. It occurs frequently during pregnancy.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.
A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.
A sac or recess formed by a fold of the peritoneum.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Excision of kidney.
The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.
Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
Conjoined twins are a rare type of monozygotic twinning where genetically identical individuals form a single organism with varying degrees of physical connection and shared anatomy due to incomplete division during embryonic development.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.

Using vascular structure for CT-SPECT registration in the pelvis. (1/1001)

The authors outline a method for three-dimensional registration of pelvic CT and 111In-labeled monoclonal antibody capromab pendetide (111In MoAb 7E11.C5) images using 99mTc-labeled red blood cell SPECT data. METHODS: This method of CT-SPECT registration relies on the identification of major blood vessels in the CT and 99mTc SPECT images. The vessels are segmented from the image datasets by outlining them on transverse planar slices using a mouse-based drawing tool. Stacking the transverse outlines provides a three-dimensional representation of the vascular structures. Registration is performed by matching the surfaces of the segmented volumes. Dual isotope acquisition of 111In and 99mTc activities provides precise SPECT-SPECT registration so that registration in three dimensions of the 111In MoAb and CT images is achieved by applying the same transformation obtained from the 99mTc SPECT-CT registration. RESULTS: This method provided accurate registration of pelvic structures and significantly improved interpretation of 111In MoAb 7E11.C5 exams. Furthermore, sites of involvement by prostate cancer suggested by the 111In MoAb examination could be interpreted with the bony and soft tissue (nodal) anatomy seen on CT. CONCLUSION: This method is a general clinical tool for the registration of pelvic CT and SPECT imaging data. There are immediate applications in conformal radiation therapy treatment planning for certain prostate cancer patients.  (+info)

Relief of obstructive pelvic venous symptoms with endoluminal stenting. (2/1001)

PURPOSE: To select patients for percutaneous transluminal stenting of chronic postthrombotic pelvic venous obstructions (CPPVO), we evaluated the clinical symptoms in a cohort of candidates and in a series of successfully treated patients. METHODS: The symptoms of 42 patients (39 women) with CPPVO (38 left iliac; average history, 18 years) were recorded, and the venous anatomy was studied by means of duplex scanning, subtraction venography, and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Successfully stented patients were controlled by means of duplex scanning and assessment of symptoms. RESULTS: The typical symptoms of CPPVO were reported spontaneously by 24% of patients and uncovered by means of a targeted interview in an additional 47%. Of 42 patients, 15 had venous claudication, four had neurogenic claudication (caused by dilated veins in the spinal canal that arise from the collateral circulation), and 11 had both symptoms. Twelve patients had no specific symptoms. Placement of a stent was found to be technically feasible in 25 patients (60%), was attempted in 14 patients, and was primarily successful in 12 patients. One stent occluded within the first week. All other stents were fully patent after a mean of 15 months (range, 1 to 43 months). Satisfaction was high in the patients who had the typical symptoms, but low in those who lacked them. CONCLUSION: Venous claudication and neurogenic claudication caused by venous collaterals in the spinal canal are typical clinical features of CPPVO. We recommend searching for these symptoms, because recanalization by means of stenting is often feasible and rewarding.  (+info)

Signal-enhanced color Doppler sonography of deep venous thrombosis in the lower limbs and pelvis. (3/1001)

Detection of Doppler signal tends to be more difficult in peripheral veins owing to low flow velocity. This can be caused by nonoccluding thrombosis, post-thrombotic wall changes, or a deep anatomic location of pelvic veins. The last-mentioned frequently is accompanied by interference by bowel gas. In addition, inappropriate insonation angles adversely affect the outcome of color-coded Doppler interrogation. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of signal-enhanced color Doppler sonography on peripheral veins in 31 patients clinically suspected of having deep vein thrombosis. As a result of diagnostic uncertainty, additional enhanced studies were performed on 43 venous segments. The enhancement led to a decrease in false-positive results (from four patients to one patient) and false-negative results (from four patients to two patients) compared to unenhanced studies. Evaluation of the deeply located pelvic veins profited the most through signal enhanced Doppler sonography.  (+info)

Acute systematic and variable postural adaptations induced by an orthopaedic shoe lift in control subjects. (4/1001)

A small leg length inequality, either true or functional, can be implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous spinal disorders. The correction of a leg length inequality with the goal of treating a spinal pathology is often achieved with the use of a shoe lift. Little research has focused on the impact of this correction on the three-dimensional (3D) postural organisation. The goal of this study is to quantify in control subjects the 3D postural changes to the pelvis, trunk, scapular belt and head, induced by a shoe lift. The postural geometry of 20 female subjects (X = 22, sigma = 1.2) was evaluated using a motion analysis system for three randomised conditions: control, and right and left shoe lift. Acute postural adaptations were noted for all subjects, principally manifested through the tilt of the pelvis, asymmetric version of the left and right iliac bones, and a lateral shift of the pelvis and scapular belt. The difference in the version of the right and left iliac bones was positively associated with the pelvic tilt. Postural adaptations were noted to vary between subjects for rotation and postero-anterior shift of the pelvis and scapular belt. No notable differences between conditions were noted in the estimation of kyphosis and lordosis. The observed systematic and variable postural adaptations noted in the presence of a shoe lift reflects the unique constraints of the musculoskeletal system. This suggests that the global impact of a shoe lift on a patient's posture should also be considered during treatment. This study provides a basis for comparison of future research involving pathological populations.  (+info)

Pelvic radiation with concurrent chemotherapy compared with pelvic and para-aortic radiation for high-risk cervical cancer. (5/1001)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We compared the effect of radiotherapy to a pelvic and para-aortic field with that of pelvic radiation and concurrent chemotherapy with fluorouracil and cisplatin in women with advanced cervical cancer. Between 1990 and 1997, 403 women with advanced cervical cancer confined to the pelvis (stages IIB through IVA or stage IB or IIa with a tumor diameter of at least 5 cm or involvement of pelvic lymph nodes) were randomly assigned to receive either 45 Gy of radiation to the pelvis and para-aortic lymph nodes or 45 Gy of radiation to the pelvis alone plus two cycles of fluorouracil and cisplatin (days 1 through 5 and days 22 through 26 of radiation). Patients were then to receive one or two applications of low-dose-rate intracavitary radiation, with a third cycle of chemotherapy planned for the second intracavitary procedure in the combined-therapy group. RESULTS: Of the 403 eligible patients, 193 in each group could be evaluated. The median duration of follow-up was 43 months. Estimated cumulative rates of survival at five years were 73 percent among patients treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy and 58 percent among patients treated with radiotherapy alone (P=0.004). Cumulative rates of disease-free survival at five years were 67 percent among patients in the combined-therapy group and 40 percent among patients in the radiotherapy group (P<0.001). The rates of both distant metastases (P<0.001) and locoregional recurrences (P<0.001) were significantly higher among patients treated with radiotherapy alone. The seriousness of side effects was similar in the two groups, with a higher rate of reversible hematologic effects in the combined-therapy group. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of chemotherapy with fluorouracil and cisplatin to treatment with external-beam and intracavitary radiation significantly improved survival among women with locally advanced cervical cancer.  (+info)

Permanent implantation of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene is safe for pelvic surgery. United States Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene Reproductive Surgery Study Group. (6/1001)

Clinical trials have shown the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane to be a highly effective adhesion barrier in gynaecological reconstructive surgery, but the material has not gained wide acceptance because of uncertainty about long-term safety. We conducted a prospective, observational multicentre study to determine if permanent implantation of the ePTFE membrane in the pelvis caused any adverse effects. The subjects were 146 women in whom the membrane was implanted permanently during peritoneal reconstruction in 1991-1996. Postoperatively, patients were examined at regular intervals. The mean postoperative observation time was 3.5 years. No long-term complications occurred. There were 10 births by Caesarean section and 12 by vaginal delivery. All of the pregnancies before these 22 births were uneventful, including 10 in which the women had uterine implantation sites. There were two ectopic pregnancies and three spontaneous abortions. Since the primary purpose of the study was to evaluate the long-term safety of ePTFE, early second-look laparoscopy was not performed routinely. Nevertheless, 24 women had a subsequent operation. Adhesions were present at 8/21 of the membrane sites in these women, a significant decrease compared with adhesions at 17/21 sites during the initial procedure (P = 0.005). This large, multicentre study confirmed the long-term safety of the ePTFE membrane in pelvic reconstruction. Removal of the barrier is not necessary.  (+info)

Anatomical changes in the pelvis after modified Chiari pelvic osteotomy. (7/1001)

Although plain X-ray analysis is able to reveal anatomical changes in the frontal plane of the pelvis after Chiari pelvic osteotomy involving medial displacement (medialization) in the distal fragment and lateral displacement (lateralization) in the proximal fragment, changes in the horizontal or sagittal plane can not be discerned. Here, I have investigated three dimensional changes in the pelvis using CT in 22 patients before and after Chiari pelvic osteotomy. The various changes were investigated. Medialization in the distal fragment (average 0.4 cm) occurred in the 14 cases and to a slight extent in the other 8 cases. Also anterior or posterior displacement, and anterior rotation occurred in the distal fragment. Lateralization in the proximal fragment (average 0.8 cm) occurred in 19 cases and to a slight extent in the other 3 cases. Furthermore, the acetabular coverage over the femoral head, assessed by superimposing the acetabular region over the femoral head, improved by about 30% of the anterior half of femoral head and by about 20% of the posterior half of femoral head. It is suggested that the acetabular coverage over the femoral head is most affected by lateralization in the proximal fragment.  (+info)

External beam radiotherapy for pelvic node recurrence after curative resection of colon cancer: report of a case. (8/1001)

The role of radiotherapy in locally advanced or recurrent colon cancer has not yet been determined. A 59-year-old man undergoing curative resection for advanced descending colon cancer had pelvic lymph node metastasis detected by computed tomography 5 months postoperatively. Intravenous chemotherapy using 5-fluorouracil and CDDP was repeated bimonthly for 7 months; however, his condition deteriorated progressively. External beam radiotherapy (50 Gy) was started thereafter. His serum carcinoembryonic antigen level decreased promptly and abdominal computed tomography showed apparent shrinkage of the metastatic pelvic node with calcification. The patient maintained a partial response for at least 12 months. Radiotherapy has a more crucial role in the treatment of a subgroup of recurrent colorectal tumors.  (+info)

The pelvis is the lower part of the trunk, located between the abdomen and the lower limbs. It is formed by the fusion of several bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis (which together form the hip bone on each side), and the sacrum and coccyx in the back. The pelvis has several functions including supporting the weight of the upper body when sitting, protecting the lower abdominal organs, and providing attachment for muscles that enable movement of the lower limbs. In addition, it serves as a bony canal through which the reproductive and digestive tracts pass. The pelvic cavity contains several vital organs such as the bladder, parts of the large intestine, and in females, the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

The kidney pelvis, also known as the renal pelvis, is the funnel-shaped part of the upper end of the ureter in the kidney. It receives urine from the minor and major calyces, which are extensions of the renal collecting tubules, and then drains it into the ureter, which carries it to the bladder for storage and eventual elimination from the body. The kidney pelvis is lined with transitional epithelium, which is designed to stretch and accommodate changes in urine volume.

Pelvic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors located in the pelvic region. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They can originate from various tissues within the pelvis, including the reproductive organs (such as ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina, and vulva in women; and prostate, testicles, and penis in men), the urinary system (kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra), the gastrointestinal tract (colon, rectum, and anus), as well as the muscles, nerves, blood vessels, and other connective tissues.

Malignant pelvic neoplasms can invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant parts of the body (metastasize). The symptoms of pelvic neoplasms may vary depending on their location, size, and type but often include abdominal or pelvic pain, bloating, changes in bowel or bladder habits, unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge, and unintentional weight loss. Early detection and prompt treatment are crucial for improving the prognosis of malignant pelvic neoplasms.

The ischium is a part of the pelvic bone, specifically the lower and posterior portion. It is one of the three bones that fuse together to form each half of the pelvis, along with the ilium (the upper and largest portion) and the pubis (anteriorly).

The ischium has a thick, robust structure because it supports our body weight when we sit. Its main parts include:

1. The ischial tuberosity (sitting bone): This is the roughened, weight-bearing portion where you typically feel discomfort after sitting for long periods.
2. The ischial spine: A thin bony projection that serves as an attachment point for various muscles and ligaments.
3. The ramus of the ischium: The slender, curved part that extends downwards and joins with the pubis to form the inferior (lower) portion of the pelvic ring called the obturator foramen.

Together with the other components of the pelvis, the ischium plays a crucial role in providing stability, supporting the lower limbs, and protecting internal organs.

Hydronephrosis is a medical condition characterized by the swelling of one or both kidneys due to the accumulation of urine. This occurs when the flow of urine from the kidney to the bladder is obstructed, causing urine to back up into the kidney. The obstruction can be caused by various factors such as kidney stones, tumors, or congenital abnormalities. If left untreated, hydronephrosis can lead to serious complications including kidney damage and infection. It is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI.

A ureter is a thin, muscular tube that transports urine from the kidney to the bladder. In humans, there are two ureters, one for each kidney, and they are typically about 10-12 inches long. The ureters are lined with a special type of cells called transitional epithelium that can stretch and expand as urine passes through them. They are located in the retroperitoneal space, which is the area behind the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity. The ureters play a critical role in the urinary system by ensuring that urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder for storage and eventual elimination from the body.

The lesser pelvis, also known as the small or false pelvis, is the upper and more superior portion of the pelvic cavity. It is located above the linea terminalis and is formed by the ilium, ischium, and pubis bones of the hip bones (coxal bones) and the sacrum and coccyx of the vertebral column. The lesser pelvis provides attachment for various muscles and ligaments and contains the reproductive and excretory organs in females, such as the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and bladder. In males, it contains the prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and urinary bladder. The lesser pelvis is smaller than the greater pelvis and has a more funnel-shaped cavity.

Pelvimetry is a medical measurement and evaluation of the size and shape of the pelvis, which can be performed in several ways:

1. Clinical pelvimetry: This involves physical examination to assess the dimensions of the pelvis by palpation and measurement of the distance between bony landmarks.
2. Radiological pelvimetry: This uses X-ray or CT imaging to obtain more accurate measurements of the pelvic diameters, including the anteroposterior, transverse, and oblique dimensions.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pelvimetry: This method is considered the most accurate for assessing the size and shape of the pelvis, as it provides detailed images without radiation exposure.

Pelvimetry is often used in obstetrics to evaluate whether a woman's pelvis can accommodate a fetus during childbirth (known as "obstetric pelvimetry"). It helps healthcare providers determine if a vaginal delivery is possible or if a cesarean section may be necessary. However, the use of pelvimetry in modern obstetrics has become less common due to its limited predictive value and the increasing focus on individualized birth management.

Ureteral neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the ureters, which are the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign ureteral neoplasms are rare and usually do not pose a significant health risk, although they may need to be removed if they cause obstructions or other complications.

Malignant ureteral neoplasms, on the other hand, are more serious and can spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant ureteral neoplasm is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), which arises from the cells that line the inside of the ureters. Other types of malignant ureteral neoplasms include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and sarcoma.

Symptoms of ureteral neoplasms may include hematuria (blood in the urine), flank pain, weight loss, and fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as CT scans or MRIs, as well as urine cytology and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The pubic bone, also known as the pubis or pubic symphysis, is a part of the pelvis - the complex ring-like structure that forms the lower part of the trunk and supports the weight of the upper body. The pubic bone is the anterior (front) portion of the pelvic girdle, located at the bottom of the abdomen, and it connects to the other side at the pubic symphysis, a cartilaginous joint.

The pubic bone plays an essential role in supporting the lower limbs and providing attachment for various muscles involved in movements like walking, running, and jumping. It also protects some abdominal organs and contributes to the structure of the pelvic outlet, which is crucial during childbirth.

The sacrum is a triangular-shaped bone in the lower portion of the human vertebral column, located between the lumbar spine and the coccyx (tailbone). It forms through the fusion of several vertebrae during fetal development. The sacrum's base articulates with the fifth lumbar vertebra, while its apex connects with the coccyx.

The sacrum plays an essential role in supporting the spine and transmitting weight from the upper body to the pelvis and lower limbs. It also serves as an attachment site for various muscles and ligaments. The sacral region is often a focus in medical and chiropractic treatments due to its importance in spinal stability, posture, and overall health.

A kidney calculus, also known as a kidney stone or nephrolith, is a solid concretion or crystal aggregation that forms in the kidney from minerals in urine. These calculi can vary in size and location within the urinary tract. They can cause pain, bleeding, infection, or blockage of the urinary system if they become too large to pass through the urinary tract.

Calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate are the most common types of kidney calculi. Other less common types include uric acid stones, struvite stones, and cystine stones. The formation of kidney calculi can be influenced by various factors such as diet, dehydration, family history, medical conditions (e.g., gout, hyperparathyroidism), and certain medications.

The ilium is the largest and broadest of the three parts that make up the hip bone or coxal bone. It is the uppermost portion of the pelvis and forms the side of the waist. The ilium has a curved, fan-like shape and articulates with the sacrum at the back to form the sacroiliac joint. The large, concave surface on the top of the ilium is called the iliac crest, which can be felt as a prominent ridge extending from the front of the hip to the lower back. This region is significant in orthopedics and physical examinations for its use in assessing various medical conditions and performing certain maneuvers during the physical examination.

Hemipelvectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the entire half of the pelvis, including the lower limb. This type of surgery is usually performed to remove cancerous tumors that have invaded the pelvic bones or surrounding soft tissues and cannot be controlled with radiation therapy or chemotherapy alone. Hemipelvectomy can be either radical (removal of the whole leg) or hindquarter amputation (removal of the lower leg). This is a major surgery with significant morbidity, but it may be necessary to prevent the spread of cancer and improve the patient's quality of life.

The acetabulum is the cup-shaped cavity in the pelvic bone (specifically, the os coxa) where the head of the femur bone articulates to form the hip joint. It provides a stable and flexible connection between the lower limb and the trunk, allowing for a wide range of movements such as flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, and circumduction. The acetabulum is lined with articular cartilage, which facilitates smooth and frictionless movement of the hip joint. Its stability is further enhanced by various ligaments, muscles, and the labrum, a fibrocartilaginous rim that deepens the socket and increases its contact area with the femoral head.

Lordosis is a term used in the medical field to describe an excessive inward curvature of the spine. It most commonly occurs in the cervical (neck) and lumbar (lower back) regions. When it happens in the lower back, it's often referred to as swayback. While some degree of lordosis is normal and necessary for proper spinal alignment and movement, excessive curvature can lead to pain, discomfort, and difficulty with mobility. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including poor posture, obesity, pregnancy, and certain medical conditions such as kyphosis or spondylolisthesis.

Abdominal radiography, also known as a KUB (kidneys, ureters, bladder) X-ray, is a medical imaging technique used to examine the abdominal cavity. It involves using ionizing radiation to produce images of the internal structures of the abdomen, including the bones, organs, and soft tissues.

The procedure typically involves the patient lying down on a table while a specialized X-ray machine captures images of the abdomen from different angles. The images produced can help doctors diagnose and monitor a variety of conditions, such as kidney stones, intestinal obstructions, and abnormalities in the spine or other bones.

Abdominal radiography is a quick, painless, and non-invasive procedure that requires little preparation on the part of the patient. However, it does involve exposure to radiation, so it is typically only used when necessary and when other imaging techniques are not appropriate.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

The spine, also known as the vertebral column, is a complex structure in the human body that is part of the axial skeleton. It is composed of 33 individual vertebrae (except in some people where there are fewer due to fusion of certain vertebrae), intervertebral discs, facet joints, ligaments, muscles, and nerves.

The spine has several important functions:

1. Protection: The spine protects the spinal cord, which is a major component of the nervous system, by enclosing it within a bony canal.
2. Support: The spine supports the head and upper body, allowing us to maintain an upright posture and facilitating movement of the trunk and head.
3. Movement: The spine enables various movements such as flexion (bending forward), extension (bending backward), lateral flexion (bending sideways), and rotation (twisting).
4. Weight-bearing: The spine helps distribute weight and pressure evenly across the body, reducing stress on individual vertebrae and other structures.
5. Blood vessel and nerve protection: The spine protects vital blood vessels and nerves that pass through it, including the aorta, vena cava, and spinal nerves.

The spine is divided into five regions: cervical (7 vertebrae), thoracic (12 vertebrae), lumbar (5 vertebrae), sacrum (5 fused vertebrae), and coccyx (4 fused vertebrae, also known as the tailbone). Each region has unique characteristics that allow for specific functions and adaptations to the body's needs.

Kidney neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the kidney tissues that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various types of kidney cells, including the renal tubules, glomeruli, and the renal pelvis.

Malignant kidney neoplasms are also known as kidney cancers, with renal cell carcinoma being the most common type. Benign kidney neoplasms include renal adenomas, oncocytomas, and angiomyolipomas. While benign neoplasms are generally not life-threatening, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to compromise kidney function or if they undergo malignant transformation.

Early detection and appropriate management of kidney neoplasms are crucial for improving patient outcomes and overall prognosis. Regular medical check-ups, imaging studies, and urinalysis can help in the early identification of these growths, allowing for timely intervention and treatment.

The pubic symphysis is the joint in the front of the pelvis that connects the two halves of the pelvic girdle, specifically the pubic bones. It's located at the lower part of the anterior (front) pelvic region. Unlike most joints, which are movable and contain synovial fluid, the pubic symphysis is a cartilaginous joint, also known as an amphiarthrosis.

The joint consists of fibrocartilaginous discs, ligaments, and the articular surfaces of the adjacent pubic bones. The fibrocartilaginous disc helps to absorb shock and reduce friction between the two bones. The main function of the pubic symphysis is to provide stability for the pelvis and transfer weight and forces from the upper body to the lower limbs during activities like walking, running, or jumping.

The pubic symphysis has a limited range of motion, allowing only slight movement in response to pressure or tension. During pregnancy and childbirth, the hormone relaxin is released, which increases the laxity of the pelvic joints, including the pubic symphysis, to accommodate the growing fetus and facilitate delivery. This increased mobility can sometimes lead to discomfort or pain in the area, known as symphysis pubis dysfunction (SPD) or pelvic girdle pain.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

The hip joint, also known as the coxal joint, is a ball-and-socket type synovial joint that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the pelvis. The "ball" is the head of the femur, while the "socket" is the acetabulum, a concave surface on the pelvic bone.

The hip joint is surrounded by a strong fibrous capsule and is reinforced by several ligaments, including the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments. The joint allows for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, and circumduction movements, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body.

The hip joint is also supported by various muscles, including the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, iliopsoas, and other hip flexors and extensors. These muscles provide stability and strength to the joint, allowing for weight-bearing activities such as walking, running, and jumping.

The sacroiliac (SI) joint is the joint that connects the iliac bone (part of the pelvis) and the sacrum (the triangular bone at the base of the spine). There are two sacroiliac joints, one on each side of the spine. The primary function of these joints is to absorb shock between the upper body and lower body and distribute the weight of the upper body to the lower body. They also provide a small amount of movement to allow for flexibility when walking or running. The SI joints are supported and stabilized by strong ligaments, muscles, and bones.

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a type of cancer that develops in the transitional epithelium, which is the tissue that lines the inner surface of the urinary tract. This includes the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer and can also occur in other parts of the urinary system.

Transitional cells are specialized epithelial cells that can stretch and change shape as the organs they line expand or contract. These cells normally have a flat, squamous appearance when at rest but become more cuboidal and columnar when the organ is full. Transitional cell carcinomas typically start in the urothelium, which is the innermost lining of the urinary tract.

Transitional cell carcinoma can be classified as non-invasive (also called papillary or superficial), invasive, or both. Non-invasive TCCs are confined to the urothelium and have not grown into the underlying connective tissue. Invasive TCCs have grown through the urothelium and invaded the lamina propria (a layer of connective tissue beneath the urothelium) or the muscle wall of the bladder.

Transitional cell carcinoma can also be categorized as low-grade or high-grade, depending on how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope and how likely they are to grow and spread. Low-grade TCCs tend to have a better prognosis than high-grade TCCs.

Treatment for transitional cell carcinoma depends on the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy.

The torso refers to the central part of the human body, which is composed of the spine, ribcage, and the abdomen. It does not include the head, neck, arms, or legs. In anatomical terms, it is often used to describe the area between the neck and the pelvis.

Spinal curvatures refer to the normal or abnormal curvature patterns of the spine as viewed from the side. The human spine has four distinct curves that form an "S" shape when viewed from the side: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral. These natural curves provide strength, flexibility, and balance to the spine, allowing us to stand upright, maintain proper posture, and absorb shock during movement.

Abnormal spinal curvatures are often referred to as spinal deformities and can be classified into two main categories: hyperkyphosis (increased kyphosis) and hyperlordosis (increased lordosis). Examples of such conditions include:

1. Kyphosis: An excessive curvature in the thoracic or sacral regions, leading to a hunchback or rounded appearance. Mild kyphosis is common and usually not problematic, but severe cases can cause pain, breathing difficulties, and neurological issues.
2. Lordosis: An abnormal increase in the curvature of the lumbar or cervical spine, resulting in an exaggerated swayback posture. This can lead to lower back pain, muscle strain, and difficulty maintaining proper balance.
3. Scoliosis: A lateral (side-to-side) spinal curvature that causes the spine to twist and rotate, forming a C or S shape when viewed from behind. Most scoliosis cases are idiopathic (of unknown cause), but they can also be congenital (present at birth) or secondary to other medical conditions.

These abnormal spinal curvatures may require medical intervention, such as physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, depending on the severity and progression of the condition.

Posture is the position or alignment of body parts supported by the muscles, especially the spine and head in relation to the vertebral column. It can be described as static (related to a stationary position) or dynamic (related to movement). Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit, and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities. Poor posture can lead to various health issues such as back pain, neck pain, headaches, and respiratory problems.

Scoliosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, which most often occurs in the thoracic or lumbar regions. The curvature can be "C" or "S" shaped and may also include rotation of the vertebrae. Mild scoliosis doesn't typically cause problems, but severe cases can interfere with breathing and other bodily functions.

The exact cause of most scoliosis is unknown, but it may be related to genetic factors. It often develops in the pre-teen or teenage years, particularly in girls, and is more commonly found in individuals with certain neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy.

Treatment for scoliosis depends on the severity of the curve, its location, and the age and expected growth of the individual. Mild cases may only require regular monitoring to ensure the curve doesn't worsen. More severe cases may require bracing or surgery to correct the curvature and prevent it from getting worse.

The urinary tract is a system in the body responsible for producing, storing, and eliminating urine. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The kidneys filter waste and excess fluids from the blood to produce urine, which then travels down the ureters into the bladder. When the bladder is full, urine is released through the urethra during urination. Any part of this system can become infected or inflamed, leading to conditions such as urinary tract infections (UTIs) or kidney stones.

Abdominal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the abdomen that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can occur in any of the organs within the abdominal cavity, including the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, spleen, and kidneys.

Abdominal neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Some common symptoms include abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, changes in bowel habits, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, and fever. In some cases, abdominal neoplasms may not cause any symptoms until they have grown quite large or spread to other parts of the body.

The diagnosis of abdominal neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical exam, medical history, imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs, and sometimes biopsy to confirm the type of tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The urinary bladder is a muscular, hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine before it is released from the body. It expands as it fills with urine and contracts when emptying. The typical adult bladder can hold between 400 to 600 milliliters of urine for about 2-5 hours before the urge to urinate occurs. The wall of the bladder contains several layers, including a mucous membrane, a layer of smooth muscle (detrusor muscle), and an outer fibrous adventitia. The muscles of the bladder neck and urethra remain contracted to prevent leakage of urine during filling, and they relax during voiding to allow the urine to flow out through the urethra.

Kyphosis is a medical term used to describe an excessive curvature of the spine in the sagittal plane, leading to a rounded or humped back appearance. This condition often affects the thoracic region of the spine and can result from various factors such as age-related degenerative changes, congenital disorders, Scheuermann's disease, osteoporosis, or traumatic injuries. Mild kyphosis may not cause any significant symptoms; however, severe cases can lead to pain, respiratory difficulties, and decreased quality of life. Treatment options typically include physical therapy, bracing, and, in some cases, surgical intervention.

Postural balance is the ability to maintain, achieve, or restore a state of equilibrium during any posture or activity. It involves the integration of sensory information (visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive) to control and adjust body position in space, thereby maintaining the center of gravity within the base of support. This is crucial for performing daily activities and preventing falls, especially in older adults and individuals with neurological or orthopedic conditions.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Urogenital abnormalities refer to structural or functional anomalies that affect the urinary and genital systems. These two systems are closely linked during embryonic development, and sometimes they may not develop properly, leading to various types of congenital defects. Urogenital abnormalities can range from minor issues like a bifid scrotum (a condition where the scrotum is split into two parts) to more severe problems such as bladder exstrophy (where the bladder develops outside the body).

These conditions may affect urination, reproduction, and sexual function. They can also increase the risk of infections and other complications. Urogenital abnormalities can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests, or genetic testing. Treatment options depend on the specific condition but may include surgery, medication, or lifestyle changes.

Kidney calculi, also known as kidney stones, are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. They can range in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. When they're small enough, they can be passed through your urine without causing too much discomfort. However, larger stones may block the flow of urine, causing severe pain and potentially leading to serious complications such as urinary tract infections or kidney damage if left untreated.

The formation of kidney calculi is often associated with factors like dehydration, high levels of certain minerals in your urine, family history, obesity, and certain medical conditions such as gout or inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms of kidney stones typically include severe pain in the back, side, lower abdomen, or groin; nausea and vomiting; fever and chills if an infection is present; and blood in the urine. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the stone but may include medications to help pass the stone, shock wave lithotripsy to break up the stone, or surgical removal of the stone in severe cases.

Urography is a medical imaging technique used to examine the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. It involves the use of a contrast material that is injected into a vein or given orally, which then travels through the bloodstream to the kidneys and gets excreted in the urine. This allows the radiologist to visualize the structures and any abnormalities such as tumors, stones, or blockages. There are different types of urography, including intravenous urography (IVU), CT urography, and retrograde urography.

Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that involves the renal pelvis and the kidney parenchyma. It's typically caused by bacterial invasion, often via the ascending route from the lower urinary tract. The most common causative agent is Escherichia coli (E. coli), but other bacteria such as Klebsiella, Proteus, and Pseudomonas can also be responsible.

Acute pyelonephritis can lead to symptoms like fever, chills, flank pain, nausea, vomiting, and frequent or painful urination. If left untreated, it can potentially cause permanent kidney damage, sepsis, or other complications. Chronic pyelonephritis, on the other hand, is usually associated with underlying structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract.

Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, urinalysis, and imaging studies, while treatment often consists of antibiotics tailored to the identified pathogen and the patient's overall health status.

The thorax is the central part of the human body, located between the neck and the abdomen. In medical terms, it refers to the portion of the body that contains the heart, lungs, and associated structures within a protective cage made up of the sternum (breastbone), ribs, and thoracic vertebrae. The thorax is enclosed by muscles and protected by the ribcage, which helps to maintain its structural integrity and protect the vital organs contained within it.

The thorax plays a crucial role in respiration, as it allows for the expansion and contraction of the lungs during breathing. This movement is facilitated by the flexible nature of the ribcage, which expands and contracts with each breath, allowing air to enter and exit the lungs. Additionally, the thorax serves as a conduit for major blood vessels, such as the aorta and vena cava, which carry blood to and from the heart and the rest of the body.

Understanding the anatomy and function of the thorax is essential for medical professionals, as many conditions and diseases can affect this region of the body. These may include respiratory disorders such as pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular conditions like heart attacks or aortic aneurysms, and musculoskeletal issues involving the ribs, spine, or surrounding muscles.

A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of a bone due to external or internal forces. Fractures can occur in any bone in the body and can vary in severity from a small crack to a shattered bone. The symptoms of a bone fracture typically include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for a bone fracture may involve immobilization with a cast or splint, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or medication to manage pain and prevent infection. The specific treatment approach will depend on the location, type, and severity of the fracture.

'Leg bones' is a general term that refers to the bones in the leg portion of the lower extremity. In humans, this would specifically include:

1. Femur: This is the thigh bone, the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee.

2. Patella: This is the kneecap, a small triangular bone located at the front of the knee joint.

3. Tibia and Fibula: These are the bones of the lower leg. The tibia, or shin bone, is the larger of the two and bears most of the body's weight. It connects the knee to the ankle. The fibula, a slender bone, runs parallel to the tibia on its outside.

Please note that in medical terminology, 'leg bones' doesn't include the bones of the foot (tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges), which are often collectively referred to as the 'foot bones'.

Whole Body Imaging (WBI) is a diagnostic technique that involves obtaining images of the entire body or significant portions of it, typically for the purpose of detecting abnormalities such as tumors, fractures, infections, or other diseases. This can be achieved through various imaging modalities including:

1. Whole Body Computed Tomography (WBCT): This is a series of CT scans taken from head to toe to create detailed cross-sectional images of the body. It's often used in trauma situations to identify internal injuries.

2. Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WBMRI): This uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the body's internal structures. It's particularly useful for detecting soft tissue abnormalities.

3. Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET-CT): This combines PET and CT scans to create detailed, 3D images of the body's functional processes, such as metabolism or blood flow. It's often used in cancer diagnosis and staging.

4. Whole Body Bone Scan: This uses a small amount of radioactive material to highlight areas of increased bone turnover, which can indicate conditions like fractures, tumors, or infections.

5. Whole Body PET: Similar to WBMRI, this uses positron emission tomography to create detailed images of the body's metabolic processes, but it doesn't provide the same level of anatomical detail as PET-CT.

It's important to note that while WBI can be a powerful diagnostic tool, it also involves higher doses of radiation (in the case of WBCT and Whole Body Bone Scan) and greater costs compared to single or limited area imaging studies. Therefore, its use is typically reserved for specific clinical scenarios where the benefits outweigh the risks and costs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Golf" is not a medical term. It is a sport that involves hitting a small ball with various clubs into a series of holes on a course, typically in as few strokes as possible. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

The bones that make up the upper extremity, also known as the upper limb, include those found in the arm, shoulder, and wrist. Here is a medical definition of each bone in the upper extremity:

1. Clavicle (Collarbone): A long, S-shaped bone located in the anterior part of the shoulder region that connects the trunk to the arm. It acts as a strut between the scapula and the sternum, providing support and protection for the underlying structures such as blood vessels and nerves.
2. Scapula (Shoulder Blade): A flat, triangular bone located on the posterior aspect of the shoulder region. The scapula has several important functions, including anchoring muscles that move the arm and serving as a site of attachment for the clavicle.
3. Humerus: The longest bone in the upper extremity, located in the arm between the shoulder and elbow. It has a proximal end (head) that articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula to form the shoulder joint, and a distal end (epicondyles) that articulates with the radius and ulna bones to form the elbow joint.
4. Radius: One of two bones in the forearm located laterally (on the thumb side). It has a proximal end that articulates with the humerus at the elbow joint, and a distal end that articulates with the carpals of the wrist. The radius also has a unique feature called the radial head, which is a rounded articular surface that allows for rotation of the forearm.
5. Ulna: One of two bones in the forearm located medially (on the pinky side). It has a proximal end that articulates with the humerus at the elbow joint, and a distal end that articulates with the carpals of the wrist. The ulna also has a prominent process called the olecranon, which forms the bony prominence on the back of the elbow (olecranon process).
6. Carpals: Eight small bones located in the wrist region that form the proximal row of the carpus. They include the scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, and pisiform bones. The carpals articulate with the radius and ulna proximally, and the metacarpals distally.
7. Metacarpals: Five long bones located in the hand region that form the middle part of the hand. They articulate with the carpals proximally and the phalanges distally. The metacarpals are numbered 1-5, with the thumb being metacarpal 1 and the little finger being metacarpal 5.
8. Phalanges: Fifteen small bones located in the fingers and thumb region that form the distal part of the hand. Each digit has three phalanges (proximal, middle, and distal), except for the thumb, which only has two (proximal and distal). The phalanges articulate with the metacarpals proximally and each other distally.

Understanding the anatomy of the upper limb is essential for healthcare professionals to accurately diagnose and treat conditions affecting this region. Familiarity with the bones, joints, muscles, and nerves that make up the upper limb can help clinicians identify areas of injury or dysfunction, develop appropriate treatment plans, and monitor patient progress over time.

Meigs syndrome is a rare medical condition characterized by the combination of ovarian tumor (most commonly fibroma or thecoma), ascites (abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity), and pleural effusion (fluid accumulation around the lungs). The hallmark feature of this syndrome is that all these symptoms resolve after the removal of the ovarian tumor.

It's important to note that not all women with ovarian tumors will develop Meigs syndrome, and its exact cause remains unclear. It primarily affects middle-aged women and is typically diagnosed through imaging tests (such as ultrasound or CT scan) and the exclusion of other possible causes of ascites and pleural effusion.

After surgical removal of the ovarian tumor, the ascites and pleural effusion usually resolve on their own within a few months. Meigs syndrome is not considered a malignant condition, but regular follow-ups are necessary to monitor for any potential recurrence of the ovarian tumor or development of other health issues.

Urothelium is the specialized type of epithelial tissue that lines the urinary tract, including the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It is a type of transitional epithelium that can change its shape and size depending on the degree of distension or stretching of the organs it lines.

The main function of urothelium is to provide a barrier against urine, which contains various waste products and potential irritants, while also allowing the exchange of ions and water. The urothelial cells are joined together by tight junctions that prevent the passage of substances through the paracellular space, and they also have the ability to transport ions and water through their cell membranes.

In addition to its barrier function, urothelium is also involved in sensory and immune functions. It contains specialized nerve endings that can detect mechanical and chemical stimuli, such as stretch or irritation, and it expresses various antimicrobial peptides and other defense mechanisms that help protect the urinary tract from infection.

Overall, urothelium plays a critical role in maintaining the health and function of the urinary tract, and its dysfunction has been implicated in various urinary tract disorders, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and bladder cancer.

Gait is a medical term used to describe the pattern of movement of the limbs during walking or running. It includes the manner or style of walking, including factors such as rhythm, speed, and step length. A person's gait can provide important clues about their physical health and neurological function, and abnormalities in gait may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, orthopedic problems, or injuries.

A typical human gait cycle involves two main phases: the stance phase, during which the foot is in contact with the ground, and the swing phase, during which the foot is lifted and moved forward in preparation for the next step. The gait cycle can be further broken down into several sub-phases, including heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, and toe off.

Gait analysis is a specialized field of study that involves observing and measuring a person's gait pattern using various techniques, such as video recordings, force plates, and motion capture systems. This information can be used to diagnose and treat gait abnormalities, improve mobility and function, and prevent injuries.

Chondrosarcoma is a type of cancer that develops in the cartilaginous tissue, which is the flexible and smooth connective tissue found in various parts of the body such as the bones, ribs, and nose. It is characterized by the production of malignant cartilage cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis).

Chondrosarcomas are typically slow-growing tumors but can be aggressive in some cases. They usually occur in adults over the age of 40, and men are more commonly affected than women. The most common sites for chondrosarcoma development include the bones of the pelvis, legs, and arms.

Treatment for chondrosarcoma typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with radiation therapy or chemotherapy in some cases. The prognosis for chondrosarcoma depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the grade of malignancy, and whether it has spread to other parts of the body.

Vesico-Ureteral Reflux (VUR) is a medical condition that affects the urinary system, specifically the junction where the ureters (tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder) connect with the bladder. In normal physiology, once the bladder fills up with urine and contracts during micturition (urination), the pressure within the bladder should prevent the backflow of urine into the ureters.

However, in VUR, the valve-like mechanism that prevents this backflow does not function properly, allowing urine to flow backward from the bladder into the ureters and potentially even into the kidneys. This reflux can lead to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), kidney damage, and other complications if left untreated. VUR is more commonly diagnosed in children but can also occur in adults.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Ureteral obstruction is a medical condition characterized by the partial or complete blockage of the ureter, which is the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder. This blockage can be caused by various factors such as kidney stones, tumors, blood clots, or scar tissue, leading to a backup of urine in the kidney (hydronephrosis). Ureteral obstruction can cause pain, infection, and potential kidney damage if not treated promptly.

The abdomen refers to the portion of the body that lies between the thorax (chest) and the pelvis. It is a musculo-fascial cavity containing the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs. The abdominal cavity is divided into several regions and quadrants for medical description and examination purposes. These include the upper and lower abdomen, as well as nine quadrants formed by the intersection of the midline and a horizontal line drawn at the level of the umbilicus (navel).

The major organs located within the abdominal cavity include:

1. Stomach - muscular organ responsible for initial digestion of food
2. Small intestine - long, coiled tube where most nutrient absorption occurs
3. Large intestine - consists of the colon and rectum; absorbs water and stores waste products
4. Liver - largest internal organ, involved in protein synthesis, detoxification, and metabolism
5. Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes and hormones such as insulin
6. Spleen - filters blood and removes old red blood cells
7. Kidneys - pair of organs responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine
8. Adrenal glands - sit atop each kidney, produce hormones that regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response

The abdomen is an essential part of the human body, playing a crucial role in digestion, absorption, and elimination of food and waste materials, as well as various metabolic processes.

Congenital hip dislocation, also known as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), is a condition where the hip joint fails to develop normally in utero or during early infancy. In a healthy hip, the head of the femur (thigh bone) fits snugly into the acetabulum (hip socket). However, in congenital hip dislocation, the femoral head is not held firmly in place within the acetabulum due to abnormal development or laxity of the ligaments that support the joint.

There are two types of congenital hip dislocations:

1. Teratologic dislocation: This type is present at birth and occurs due to abnormalities in the development of the hip joint during fetal growth. The femoral head may be completely outside the acetabulum or partially dislocated.

2. Developmental dysplasia: This type develops after birth, often within the first few months of life, as a result of ligamentous laxity and shallow acetabulum. In some cases, it can progress to a complete hip dislocation if left untreated.

Risk factors for congenital hip dislocation include family history, breech presentation during delivery, and female gender. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term complications such as pain, limited mobility, and osteoarthritis. Treatment options may include bracing, closed reduction, or surgical intervention, depending on the severity and age of the child at diagnosis.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a condition characterized by pain in the pelvic joints, muscles, and ligaments during pregnancy or after childbirth. It can also affect people who have had trauma to the pelvis or have certain medical conditions that affect the joints. The pain may be localized to one side of the body or spread across both sides of the pelvis.

PGP is caused by increased laxity in the pelvic joints, which can result from hormonal changes during pregnancy or from trauma to the area. This increased laxity can cause the joints to move unevenly, leading to pain and inflammation. In some cases, the pain may be accompanied by stiffness, clicking or grinding sounds in the pelvic area, and difficulty walking or standing for long periods of time.

PGP is typically diagnosed based on a physical examination and medical history. Treatment may include physical therapy, pain management techniques such as heat or cold therapy, and in some cases, bracing or surgery. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience pelvic pain, as early intervention can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.

The lumbar vertebrae are the five largest and strongest vertebrae in the human spine, located in the lower back region. They are responsible for bearing most of the body's weight and providing stability during movement. The lumbar vertebrae have a characteristic shape, with a large body in the front, which serves as the main weight-bearing structure, and a bony ring in the back, formed by the pedicles, laminae, and processes. This ring encloses and protects the spinal cord and nerves. The lumbar vertebrae are numbered L1 to L5, starting from the uppermost one. They allow for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation movements of the trunk.

Pelvic pain is defined as discomfort or unpleasant sensation in the lower abdominal region, below the belly button, and between the hips. It can be acute (sudden and lasting for a short time) or chronic (persisting for months or even years), and it may be steady or intermittent, mild or severe. The pain can have various causes, including musculoskeletal issues, nerve irritation, infection, inflammation, or organic diseases in the reproductive, urinary, or gastrointestinal systems. Accurate diagnosis often requires a thorough medical evaluation to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Urinary Bladder Neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the urinary bladder, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant neoplasms can be further classified into various types of bladder cancer, such as urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. These malignant tumors often invade surrounding tissues and organs, potentially spreading to other parts of the body (metastasis), which can lead to serious health consequences if not detected and treated promptly and effectively.

Abdominal injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in the abdomen, an area of the body that is located between the chest and the pelvis. This region contains several vital organs such as the stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, kidneys, and reproductive organs. Abdominal injuries can range from minor bruises and cuts to severe internal bleeding and organ damage, depending on the cause and severity of the trauma.

Common causes of abdominal injuries include:

* Blunt force trauma, such as that caused by car accidents, falls, or physical assaults
* Penetrating trauma, such as that caused by gunshot wounds or stabbing
* Deceleration injuries, which occur when the body is moving at a high speed and suddenly stops, causing internal organs to continue moving and collide with each other or the abdominal wall

Symptoms of abdominal injuries may include:

* Pain or tenderness in the abdomen
* Swelling or bruising in the abdomen
* Nausea or vomiting
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Blood in the urine or stool
* Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
* Rapid heartbeat or low blood pressure

Abdominal injuries can be life-threatening if left untreated, and immediate medical attention is necessary to prevent complications such as infection, internal bleeding, organ failure, or even death. Treatment may include surgery, medication, or other interventions depending on the severity and location of the injury.

Endometriosis is a medical condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus (endometrium) grows outside the uterine cavity, most commonly on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the pelvic peritoneum. This misplaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it would inside the uterus, thickening, breaking down, and bleeding with each menstrual cycle. However, because it is outside the uterus, this blood and tissue have no way to exit the body and can lead to inflammation, scarring, and the formation of adhesions (tissue bands that bind organs together).

The symptoms of endometriosis may include pelvic pain, heavy menstrual periods, painful intercourse, and infertility. The exact cause of endometriosis is not known, but several theories have been proposed, including retrograde menstruation (the backflow of menstrual blood through the fallopian tubes into the pelvic cavity), genetic factors, and immune system dysfunction.

Endometriosis can be diagnosed through a combination of methods, such as medical history, physical examination, imaging tests like ultrasound or MRI, and laparoscopic surgery with tissue biopsy. Treatment options for endometriosis include pain management, hormonal therapies, and surgical intervention to remove the misplaced endometrial tissue. In severe cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be recommended, but this is typically considered a last resort due to its impact on fertility and quality of life.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

Cystoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end (cystoscope) into the bladder through the urethra. This procedure allows healthcare professionals to examine the lining of the bladder and urethra for any abnormalities such as inflammation, tumors, or stones. Cystoscopy can be used for diagnostic purposes, as well as for therapeutic interventions like removing small bladder tumors or performing biopsies. It is typically performed under local or general anesthesia to minimize discomfort and pain.

The Douglas pouch, also known as the recto-uterine pouch or cul-de-sac of Douglas, is a potential space within the female pelvic cavity. It is located between the posterior wall of the uterus and the anterior wall of the rectum. This space can be examined during a gynecological examination, such as a transvaginal ultrasound or during surgery, to assess for any abnormalities or pathologies that may be present in this area.

Urologic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate, and urethra. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common types of urologic neoplasms include renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, and testicular cancer. It is important to note that early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for patients with urologic neoplasms.

Rectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the rectum, which can be benign or malignant. They are characterized by uncontrolled cell division and can invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). The most common type of rectal neoplasm is rectal cancer, which often begins as a small polyp or growth in the lining of the rectum. Other types of rectal neoplasms include adenomas, carcinoids, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Regular screenings are recommended for early detection and treatment of rectal neoplasms.

Radiography is a diagnostic technique that uses X-rays, gamma rays, or similar types of radiation to produce images of the internal structures of the body. It is a non-invasive procedure that can help healthcare professionals diagnose and monitor a wide range of medical conditions, including bone fractures, tumors, infections, and foreign objects lodged in the body.

During a radiography exam, a patient is positioned between an X-ray machine and a special film or digital detector. The machine emits a beam of radiation that passes through the body and strikes the film or detector, creating a shadow image of the internal structures. Denser tissues, such as bones, block more of the radiation and appear white on the image, while less dense tissues, such as muscles and organs, allow more of the radiation to pass through and appear darker.

Radiography is a valuable tool in modern medicine, but it does involve exposure to ionizing radiation, which can carry some risks. Healthcare professionals take steps to minimize these risks by using the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to produce a diagnostic image, and by shielding sensitive areas of the body with lead aprons or other protective devices.

In medical terms, "fossils" do not have a specific or direct relevance to the field. However, in a broader scientific context, fossils are the remains or impressions of prehistoric organisms preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock. They offer valuable evidence about the Earth's history and the life forms that existed on it millions of years ago.

Paleopathology is a subfield of paleontology that deals with the study of diseases in fossils, which can provide insights into the evolution of diseases and human health over time.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

Dinosaurs are a group of reptiles that were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period until the end of the Cretaceous period. They first appeared approximately 230 million years ago and went extinct around 65 million years ago.

Dinosaurs are characterized by their upright stance, with legs positioned directly under their bodies, and a wide range of body sizes and shapes. Some dinosaurs were enormous, such as the long-necked sauropods that could reach lengths of over 100 feet, while others were small and agile.

Dinosaurs are classified into two main groups: the saurischians (lizard-hipped) and the ornithischians (bird-hipped). The saurischians include both the large carnivorous theropods, such as Tyrannosaurus rex, and the long-necked sauropods. The ornithischians were primarily herbivores and included a diverse array of species, such as the armored ankylosaurs and the horned ceratopsians.

Despite their extinction, dinosaurs have left a lasting impact on our planet and continue to be a source of fascination for people of all ages. The study of dinosaurs, known as paleontology, has shed light on many aspects of Earth's history and the evolution of life on our planet.

Nephrectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of a kidney is removed. It may be performed due to various reasons such as severe kidney damage, kidney cancer, or living donor transplantation. The type of nephrectomy depends on the reason for the surgery - a simple nephrectomy involves removing only the affected portion of the kidney, while a radical nephrectomy includes removal of the whole kidney along with its surrounding tissues like the adrenal gland and lymph nodes.

The lumbosacral plexus is a complex network of nerves that arises from the lower part of the spinal cord, specifically the lumbar (L1-L5) and sacral (S1-S4) roots. This plexus is responsible for providing innervation to the lower extremities, including the legs, feet, and some parts of the abdomen and pelvis.

The lumbosacral plexus can be divided into several major branches:

1. The femoral nerve: It arises from the L2-L4 roots and supplies motor innervation to the muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, as well as sensation to the anterior and medial aspects of the leg and thigh.
2. The obturator nerve: It originates from the L2-L4 roots and provides motor innervation to the adductor muscles of the thigh and sensation to the inner aspect of the thigh.
3. The sciatic nerve: This is the largest nerve in the body, formed by the union of the tibial and common fibular (peroneal) nerves. It arises from the L4-S3 roots and supplies motor innervation to the muscles of the lower leg and foot, as well as sensation to the posterior aspect of the leg and foot.
4. The pudendal nerve: It originates from the S2-S4 roots and is responsible for providing motor innervation to the pelvic floor muscles and sensory innervation to the genital region.
5. Other smaller nerves, such as the ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, and genitofemoral nerves, also arise from the lumbosacral plexus and supply sensation to various regions in the lower abdomen and pelvis.

Damage or injury to the lumbosacral plexus can result in significant neurological deficits, including muscle weakness, numbness, and pain in the lower extremities.

In the context of medicine, particularly in anatomy and physiology, "rotation" refers to the movement of a body part around its own axis or the long axis of another structure. This type of motion is three-dimensional and can occur in various planes. A common example of rotation is the movement of the forearm bones (radius and ulna) around each other during pronation and supination, which allows the hand to be turned palm up or down. Another example is the rotation of the head during mastication (chewing), where the mandible moves in a circular motion around the temporomandibular joint.

Prenatal ultrasonography, also known as obstetric ultrasound, is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the developing fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid inside the uterus. It is a non-invasive and painless test that is widely used during pregnancy to monitor the growth and development of the fetus, detect any potential abnormalities or complications, and determine the due date.

During the procedure, a transducer (a small handheld device) is placed on the mother's abdomen and moved around to capture images from different angles. The sound waves travel through the mother's body and bounce back off the fetus, producing echoes that are then converted into electrical signals and displayed as images on a screen.

Prenatal ultrasonography can be performed at various stages of pregnancy, including early pregnancy to confirm the pregnancy and detect the number of fetuses, mid-pregnancy to assess the growth and development of the fetus, and late pregnancy to evaluate the position of the fetus and determine if it is head down or breech. It can also be used to guide invasive procedures such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

Overall, prenatal ultrasonography is a valuable tool in modern obstetrics that helps ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

The femoral head is the rounded, ball-like top portion of the femur (thigh bone) that fits into the hip socket (acetabulum) to form the hip joint. It has a smooth, articular cartilage surface that allows for smooth and stable articulation with the pelvis. The femoral head is connected to the femoral neck, which is a narrower section of bone that angles downward and leads into the shaft of the femur. Together, the femoral head and neck provide stability and range of motion to the hip joint.

Urinary bladder diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the urinary bladder, a muscular sac located in the pelvis that stores urine before it is excreted from the body. These diseases can impair the bladder's ability to store or empty urine properly, leading to various symptoms and complications. Here are some common urinary bladder diseases with their medical definitions:

1. Cystitis: This is an inflammation of the bladder, often caused by bacterial infections (known as UTI - Urinary Tract Infection). However, it can also be triggered by irritants, radiation therapy, or chemical exposure.
2. Overactive Bladder (OAB): A group of symptoms that include urgency, frequency, and, in some cases, urge incontinence. The bladder muscle contracts excessively, causing a strong, sudden desire to urinate.
3. Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS): A chronic bladder condition characterized by pain, pressure, or discomfort in the bladder and pelvic region, often accompanied by urinary frequency and urgency. Unlike cystitis, IC/BPS is not caused by infection, but its exact cause remains unknown.
4. Bladder Cancer: The abnormal growth of cancerous cells within the bladder lining or muscle. It can present as non-muscle-invasive (superficial) or muscle-invasive, depending on whether the tumor has grown into the bladder muscle.
5. Bladder Diverticula: Small sac-like pouches that form in the bladder lining and protrude outward through its wall. These may result from increased bladder pressure due to conditions like OAB or an enlarged prostate.
6. Neurogenic Bladder: A condition where nerve damage or dysfunction affects the bladder's ability to store or empty urine properly. This can lead to symptoms such as incontinence, urgency, and retention.
7. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Although not a bladder disease itself, BPH is a common condition in older men where the prostate gland enlarges, putting pressure on the bladder and urethra, leading to urinary symptoms like frequency, urgency, and hesitancy.

Understanding these various bladder conditions can help individuals identify potential issues early on and seek appropriate medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Urologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries that are performed on the urinary system and male reproductive system. These surgeries can be invasive (requiring an incision) or minimally invasive (using small incisions or scopes). They may be performed to treat a range of conditions, including but not limited to:

1. Kidney stones: Procedures such as shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are used to remove or break up kidney stones.
2. Urinary tract obstructions: Surgeries like pyeloplasty and urethral dilation can be done to correct blockages in the urinary tract.
3. Prostate gland issues: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), simple prostatectomy, and robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy are some procedures used for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer.
4. Bladder problems: Procedures such as cystectomy (removal of the bladder), bladder augmentation, and implantation of an artificial urinary sphincter can be done for conditions like bladder cancer or incontinence.
5. Kidney diseases: Nephrectomy (removal of a kidney) may be necessary for severe kidney damage or cancer.
6. Testicular issues: Orchiectomy (removal of one or both testicles) can be performed for testicular cancer.
7. Pelvic organ prolapse: Surgeries like sacrocolpopexy and vaginal vault suspension can help correct this condition in women.

These are just a few examples; there are many other urologic surgical procedures available to treat various conditions affecting the urinary and reproductive systems.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is a degenerative joint disease that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone of the hip joint. It is characterized by the progressive loss of cartilage, remodeling of bone, osteophyte formation (bone spurs), cysts, and mild to moderate inflammation. The degenerative process can lead to pain, stiffness, limited range of motion, and crepitus (grating or crackling sound) during movement.

In the hip joint, OA typically affects the femoral head and acetabulum. As the articular cartilage wears away, the underlying bone becomes exposed and can lead to bone-on-bone contact, which is painful. The body responds by attempting to repair the damage through remodeling of the subchondral bone and formation of osteophytes. However, these changes can further limit joint mobility and exacerbate symptoms.

Risk factors for OA of the hip include age, obesity, genetics, previous joint injury or surgery, and repetitive stress on the joint. Treatment options may include pain management (such as NSAIDs, physical therapy, and injections), lifestyle modifications (such as weight loss and exercise), and, in severe cases, surgical intervention (such as hip replacement).

In medical terms, the hip is a ball-and-socket joint where the rounded head of the femur (thigh bone) fits into the cup-shaped socket, also known as the acetabulum, of the pelvis. This joint allows for a wide range of movement in the lower extremities and supports the weight of the upper body during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The hip joint is surrounded by strong ligaments, muscles, and tendons that provide stability and enable proper functioning.

Conjoined twins, also known as Siamese twins, are a rare type of monozygotic (identical) twins who are born physically connected to each other. They develop from a single fertilized egg that fails to fully separate, resulting in various degrees of fusion between their bodies. The point of connection and the extent of sharing body parts can vary greatly between sets of conjoined twins. Some may be connected at the chest, abdomen, or hips, while others may share vital organs such as the heart or brain. Treatment options depend on the type of conjunction and whether separation is possible without causing harm to either twin. Conjoined twins occur in about 1 in every 200,000 live births.

The abdominal muscles, also known as the abdominals or abs, are a group of muscles in the anterior (front) wall of the abdominopelvic cavity. They play a crucial role in maintaining posture, supporting the trunk, and facilitating movement of the torso. The main abdominal muscles include:

1. Rectus Abdominis: These are the pair of long, flat muscles that run vertically along the middle of the anterior abdominal wall. They are often referred to as the "six-pack" muscles due to their visible, segmented appearance in well-trained individuals. The primary function of the rectus abdominis is to flex the spine, allowing for actions such as sitting up from a lying down position or performing a crunch exercise.

2. External Obliques: These are the largest and most superficial of the oblique muscles, located on the lateral (side) aspects of the abdominal wall. They run diagonally downward and forward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest (the upper part of the pelvis) and the pubic tubercle (a bony prominence at the front of the pelvis). The external obliques help rotate and flex the trunk, as well as assist in side-bending and exhalation.

3. Internal Obliques: These muscles lie deep to the external obliques and run diagonally downward and backward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest, pubic tubercle, and linea alba (the strong band of connective tissue that runs vertically along the midline of the abdomen). The internal obliques help rotate and flex the trunk, as well as assist in forced exhalation and increasing intra-abdominal pressure during actions such as coughing or lifting heavy objects.

4. Transversus Abdominis: This is the deepest of the abdominal muscles, located inner to both the internal obliques and the rectus sheath (a strong, fibrous covering that surrounds the rectus abdominis). The transversus abdominis runs horizontally around the abdomen, attaching to the lower six ribs, the thoracolumbar fascia (a broad sheet of connective tissue spanning from the lower back to the pelvis), and the pubic crest (the front part of the pelvic bone). The transversus abdominis helps maintain core stability by compressing the abdominal contents and increasing intra-abdominal pressure.

Together, these muscles form the muscular "corset" of the abdomen, providing support, stability, and flexibility to the trunk. They also play a crucial role in respiration, posture, and various movements such as bending, twisting, and lifting.

Ultrasonography, also known as sonography, is a diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to produce dynamic images of organs, tissues, or blood flow inside the body. These images are captured in real-time and can be used to assess the size, shape, and structure of various internal structures, as well as detect any abnormalities such as tumors, cysts, or inflammation.

During an ultrasonography procedure, a small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the patient's skin, which emits and receives sound waves. The transducer sends high-frequency sound waves into the body, and these waves bounce back off internal structures and are recorded by the transducer. The recorded data is then processed and transformed into visual images that can be interpreted by a medical professional.

Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, painless, and safe procedure that does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as CT scans or X-rays. It is commonly used to diagnose and monitor conditions in various parts of the body, including the abdomen, pelvis, heart, blood vessels, and musculoskeletal system.

The term "back" is a common word used to describe the large posterior part of the body of a human or an animal, which extends from the neck to the pelvis and contains the spine, spinal cord, ribs, muscles, and other various tissues. In medical terms, the back is also known as the dorsal region. It provides support, protection, and mobility for the body, allowing us to stand upright, bend, twist, and perform various physical activities. The back is susceptible to various injuries, disorders, and conditions, such as back pain, strains, sprains, herniated discs, scoliosis, and arthritis, among others.

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Like the bony pelvis, the renal pelvis (/ˈriːnəl ˈpɛlvɪs/) gets its English name via Neo-Latin from the older Latin word pelvis ... The renal pelvis or pelvis of the kidney is the funnel-like dilated part of the ureter in the kidney. It is formed by the ... The renal pelvis is situated within the renal sinus alongside the other structures of the renal sinus. The renal pelvis is the ... kidney stone may block all or part of the renal pelvis. The size of the renal pelvis plays a major role in the grading of ...
... is a congenital condition characterized by perineal hemangioma, external genitalia malformations, ... SACRAL syndrome List of cutaneous conditions Girard C.; Bigorre M.; Guillot B.; Bessis D. (2006). "PELVIS Syndrome". Archives ...
... (plural giant pelves) is an ancient medical term often referred to as a justo major pelvis. Early medical authors ... It is a rare symmetrical type enlargement of the female pelvis. Originally the 2.0 or more above average pelvis size (using the ... As the condition requires a symmetrical pelvis, different pelvis measures divided by well known averages for those measures are ... which is a Pelvic Index of 150 for the minimum pelvis size enlargement to be giant pelvis. v t e (Articles lacking sources from ...
... may be discovered during pelvic surgery. Sometimes, the results of a CT scan suggest frozen pelvis. Frozen pelvis ... Frozen pelvis is often caused by endometriosis. It can also be caused by cancer, such as late-stage ovarian cancers and rectal ... With a frozen pelvis, the rate of reported surgical complications is 2% overall, and as high as 24% if the adhesions extend to ... Frozen pelvis can cause chronic pelvic pain. Because these internal organs are attached to each other, they cannot move ...
... (also called "giant pelvis") is a rare condition of the adult female pelvis where the pelvis flares above ... The incidence of pelvis justo major pelvis is not found to be a strictly standard deviation type variation, as it follows a ... With a wider justo major pelvis, there is no pelvic bone "molding" of the fetal head as is typical for a normally sized pelvis ... It is 1.5 or more times larger than an average pelvis in every direction and is typically at least 42cm (16.5 inches) in ...
... is a 2000 album released by the Red Elvises. Everybody Disco (Igor) Beat of a Drum (Zhenya) Girl from Malibu ...
... may refer to: Pelvic inlet, or superior aperture of the pelvis Pelvic outlet, or inferior aperture of the ... pelvis This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Aperture of pelvis. If an internal link led you here, ...
Disambiguation: pelves is also a plural alternative to pelvises. Pelves (French pronunciation: [pɛlv]) is a commune in the Pas- ... Pelves is situated 6 miles (10 km) east of Arras, at the junction of the D33E and C4 roads, in the valley of the river Scarpe ... INSEE commune file Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pelves. The CWGC graves ...
... is an application of computed tomography (CT) and is a sensitive method for ... For example, in the abdomen and pelvis, there are several indications for non-contrast imaging. These include: evaluation of ... The most common technique is to perform portal venous phase imaging in the abdomen and pelvis (approximately 60-90 seconds ...
"Pelvis". Archived from the original on 2007-10-21. Retrieved 2007-12-09. "The Digestive System". Retrieved 2009-01-14. synd/ ...
... separated by the ischial spine Articulations of pelvis. Anterior view. Pelvis. Anterior view. This article incorporates text in ... The ischial spine is part of the posterior border of the body of the ischium bone of the pelvis. It is a thin and pointed ...
Evaluating the position of the triradiate cartilage on an AP radiograph of the pelvis with both Perkin's line and ...
Hip Pelvis. 2018 Mar;30(1):29-36. doi: 10.5371/hp.2018.30.1.29. Epub 2018 Mar 5. PMID: 29564295; PMCID: PMC5861023. Wormald JCR ...
... pelvis tripartite; ilium with anterior spine-like process; pubis slender and curved; ischium broad and subrectangular; hindfin ...
"Should a Urinary Tract Infection Be Treated before a Total Joint Arthroplasty?". Journal of Hip and Pelvis. Javad Parvizi, ... Pelvis. 31 (1): 1-3. doi:10.5371/hp.2019.31.1.1. ISSN 2287-3260. PMC 6414408. PMID 30899708. Parvizi, Javad; Gehrke, Thorsten; ...
The Pelvis; X. Fevers; XI. Biogen; XII. Smallpox; XIII. Obesity; XIV. Ear-Wax and Its Uses; XV. Convulsions; XVI. Obstetrics. ...
Garrigues, Henry Jacques (1902). "Spondylolisthesic pelvis". A textbook of the science and art of obstetrics. pp. 490-93. OCLC ...
"Achondroplasia Pelvis". Archived from the original on 22 October 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2007. Savarirayan, Ravi; et al. ( ... characteristic pelvis with short and square ilia, narrow sacro-sciatic notches and narrowing interpedicular distances in the ...
Pelvic inlet Articulations of pelvis. Anterior view. Articulations of pelvis. Posterior view. Low-dose CT scan of sagittal ... When the ligaments are in situ, the inferior aperture of the pelvis is lozenge-shaped, bounded as follows: in front, by the ... The lower circumference of the lesser pelvis is very irregular; the space enclosed by it is named the inferior aperture or ... ISBN 978-0-443-10281-3.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley ...
This can help detect narrowing in the major vessels of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, and legs. CT scans of the heart with ... When this happens near the pelvis, it is called pelvic congestion syndrome, which can lead to chronic pain beneath the level of ... "Pelvis Congestion Syndrome". SIRWeb. The Society of Interventional Radiology. Archived from the original on 28 July 2018. " ... Superior hypogastric plexus block/neurolysis: A procedure performed to manage refractory abdominal/pelvis pain by modulating ...
... and the pelvis. The specimens MPEF-PV 1719, 1786, 1718, 3810, 3811, isolated posterior teeth, from the same locality and ...
A major shortcoming was that it failed to produce a posture wherein the skull would be in proper alignment with the pelvis, and ... Some of the lumbar vertebrae in Pan are "captured", meaning that they are held fast between the ilium bones of the pelvis. ... Part 1. Spine and pelvis". Gait & Posture. 21 (1): 95-112. doi:10.1016/s0966-6362(04)00014-1. PMID 15536039. Harcourt-Smith WE ...
Vagina Hysterectomy Drake, Richard; Vogl, A. Wayne; Mitchell, Adam; Gray, Henry (2010). "Pelvis and Perineum". Gray's Anatomy ...
Articulations of pelvis. Posterior view. Gray's Anatomy 1918 Platzer (2004), p 188 Thompson et al. (1999) Vasavada et al. (2004 ... The main body of the inferior gluteal artery leaves the pelvis posteriorly to the upper border of the sacrospinous ligament, to ... The sacrospinous ligament (small or anterior sacrosciatic ligament) is a thin, triangular ligament in the human pelvis. The ... a bony protuberance on the human pelvis. Its fibres are intermingled with the sacrotuberous ligament. The sacrotuberous ...
Among the remains were vertebrae from the neck, back, and tail; a shoulder blade; a humerus; a partial pelvis; a femur; a tibia ...
"Jones Pelvis Broken". Daily Racing Form at University of Kentucky Archives. 1937-04-27. Retrieved 2020-08-23. TIME magazine ...
"The Ornithosaurian pelvis". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Series 6, 7: 237 Plieninger, F., 1907, "Die Pterosaurier ...
Injuries suffered by other passengers included: facial abrasions to Bush's son; an injured pelvis; head injuries and skin ...
... known as a giant pelvis or pelvis justo major, or it can be much smaller, known as a reduced pelvis or pelvis justo minor. ... The pelvis (PL: pelves or pelvises) is the lower part of the trunk, between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called ... Less than 3 per cent of women have this pelvis type. The android pelvis is a female pelvis with masculine features, including a ... Coccyx (tailbone) - Bone of the pelvis Pelvimetry - Measurement of the female pelvis Pelvis justo major - Congenitally large ...
The pelvis connects the legs to the body. ... A pelvis x-ray is a picture of the bones in and around both ... A pelvis x-ray is a picture of the bones in and around both hips. The pelvis connects the legs to the body. ...
... www.cedars-sinai.edu/Patients/Programs-and-Services/Imaging-Center/For-Patients/Exams-by-Procedure/MRI/Abdomen-and-or-Pelvis- ... MRI Abdomen and/or Pelvis. (n.d.).. http:// ...
The pelvis also houses the reproductive organs, which have their own muscles. ...
A woman claims she broke her pelvis falling off a stripper pole mounted on a bus during a bachelorette party, and she says the ... Stripper Pole Lawsuit: I Broke My Pelvis on Your Bus Pole. Stripper Pole Lawsuit I Broke My Pelvis On Your Bus Pole * EXCLUSIVE ... A woman claims she broke her pelvis falling off a stripper pole mounted on a bus during a bachelorette party, and she says the ...
Using the MRI and CT scans, Hugate made a 3D virtual model of the pelvis. Virtually, he was able to map out the surgery and ... Surgeon Replaces Mans Cancerous Pelvis With 3D Printed Implant. January 28, 2019 / 7:19 PM. / CBS Colorado ... In January, an orthopedic surgeon in Highlands Ranch replaced part of a mans pelvis with a customized 3D printed implant. He ... An MRI showed chondrosarcoma, a rare form of bone cancer in Scotts right pelvis. Scott was told, with this tumor, chemotherapy ...
Tumors of the renal pelvis account for approximately 10% of all renal tumors and only 5% of all urothelial tumors of the ... Urothelial tumors of the renal pelvis and ureters (upper urinary tract) are relatively rare. ... encoded search term (Urothelial Tumors of the Renal Pelvis and Ureters) and Urothelial Tumors of the Renal Pelvis and Ureters ... Urothelial tumors of the renal pelvis and ureters (upper urinary tract) are relatively rare. Tumors of the renal pelvis account ...
in pts w/ severe flexion contractures of hip, AP view frequently appears similar to pelvic inlet view, because pelvis is tilted ... in such cases, better AP radiograph is produced if the hips are slightly flexed to place the pelvis in a more neutral position ...
Diffusion - Pelvis MR clinical application Find similar products Single-shot EPI diffusion imaging (DWI) can be used for non- ...
Heres a look at some common pelvis problems in horses, how veterinarians diagnose them, and what treatment options are ... Heres a look at some common pelvis problems in horses, how veterinarians diagnose them, and what treatment options are ... Top Four Horse Pelvis Problems. While no pelvic disorder is precisely commonplace, when they do occur, they are likely to fall ... If your horse develops sudden hindlimb lameness or pain over the back, hip, or croup, he might have a pelvis problem that ...
... Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2016 Feb; ...
This Hatha flow class focuses on minimizing loading onto wrists while exploring the hips and pelvis. Contraindications: High ...
Buy Pelvis: Dance Freak (DJ Haus, Mall Grab) Vinyl 12 at TurntableLab.com, a Better Music Store Experience since 1999. ... Pelvis: Dance Freak (DJ Haus, Mall Grab) Vinyl 12" Tracklist ... Pelvis Dance Freak (DJ Haus, Mall Grab) Vinyl 12". Pelvis ... Where da freaks at? Bangin debut 12" from Pelvis on his own eponymous label. The Sydney-based producer got that ish to make ...
... can be manipulated to demonstrate how the pelvis moves to accommodate delivery. ... Shown in accurate detail, this pelvis model can be manipulated to demonstrate how the pelvis moves to accommodate delivery. ... Shown in accurate detail, Deluxe Flexible Pelvis Model can be manipulated to demonstrate how the pelvis moves to accommodate ... Fetal Doll Brown with Placenta, Deluxe Flexible Pelvis Model $407.00. $363.00. * Preparing for Birth Mothers 48 Pack $1,197.60 ...
Elizabeth Forster demonstrates to how to conduct an assessment of the newborns pelvis, hips and limbs. ... and that actually stops those testicles moving back into the pelvis. The next part of your examination of the pelvis is to ... Pelvis, hips and limbs In these videos, Dr. Elizabeth Forster demonstrates to how to conduct an assessment of the newborns ... So now were going to move on to assessment or examination of the neonatal pelvis. So well remove the nappy, but keep it there ...
... can be manipulated to demonstrate how the pelvis moves to accommodate delivery. ... Shown in accurate detail, this pelvis model can be manipulated to demonstrate how the pelvis moves to accommodate delivery. ... Shown in accurate detail, Deluxe Flexible Pelvis Model can be manipulated to demonstrate how the pelvis moves to accommodate ... Be the first to review "Deluxe Flexible Pelvis Model" Cancel reply. Your rating *. Rate…. Perfect. Good. Average. Not that bad ...
... showing the pelvis, bladder, ureters, and kidneys. The kidney on the right is in the normal position, several inches above the ... Pelvic ectopic kidney labeled, showing the pelvis, bladder, ureters, and kidneys. View full-sized image Download Media Please ... Drawing of a pelvic ectopic kidney labeled, showing the pelvis, bladder, ureters, and kidneys. The kidney on the right is in ... Drawing of a pelvic ectopic kidney labeled, showing the pelvis, bladder, ureters, and kidneys. The kidney on the right is in ...
We use our pelvis for sitting. Osteopathically the pelvis has a key role in the aetiology of low back pain, the issue that is ... Reconnecting with the Pelvis. Advice from the Ancestors. by Jonathan Lawrence(more info) ...
This video provides the doctor of chiropractic with the latest AMCT protocol for the assessment of flexion, extension, and lateral spinal subluxations. Specific focus is given to more advanced spinal and pelvic listings and advanced adjusting procedures.
We went through several techniques for creating more room in the pelvis by manipulating the bones of the pelvis themselves. I ... We went through several techniques for creating more room in the pelvis by manipulating the bones of the pelvis themselves. I ... The Bony Pelvis - Movement section is another that Ill revisit several times before the birth. In addition to the techniques I ... By doing it on the same side as the babys head is pressing (your baby comes into your pelvis at a slightly diagonal angle) you ...
Stock Image of 3d Rendering Medical Illustration Of The Pelvis Bone (Image ID 100536704). Royalty free stock image for instant ... anatomy, articular, bone, cartilage, density, femur, health, hip, human, joint, leg, medical, pelvis, skeletal, spinal, uterus ... 3d Rendering Medical Illustration Of The Pelvis Bone Stock Photo. Photo by Somkiat Fakmee. Published on 02 May 2017. Stock ... HomeHealth and beautyHuman body3d Rendering Medical Illustration Of The Pelvis Bone ...
This anatomically detailed model is a great way to teach and learn the anatomy of the human male pelvis. ... These anatomically detailed models are a great way to teach and learn the anatomy of the human male pelvis. Life-size models ... This anatomically detailed model is a great way to teach and learn the anatomy of the human male pelvis. ... are natural casts of a male pelvis that shows all anatomical structures in detail, including both hip bones, pubic symphisis, ...
All videos are online streaming videos Easing the Neck, Opening the Breath, Balancing the Pelvis - 10+ hours of quality ... 5 reviews for The Pelvis, Neck and Breath Bundle * Rated 5 out of 5 ... Easing the Neck, Opening the Breath, Balancing the Pelvis - 10+ hours of quality instruction from Tom Myers, author of Anatomy ... Home / Anatomy Trains Store / On Demand Learning / The Pelvis, Neck and Breath Bundle ...
Decrease Quantity of Male Pelvis Anatomy Model (2 Parts) Increase Quantity of Male Pelvis Anatomy Model (2 Parts) ... Axis Scientific Life-Size Male Pelvis Skeleton Model and Detailed Study Guide The Axis Scientific Male Pelvis Skeleton Model is ... Part Median Section Male Pelvis Anatomy Model with Removable Parts and Study Guide The Axis Scientific 4-Part Human Male Pelvis ... This fabulous male pelvis model Made by Axis Scientific and backed by a 3 year warranty features removable parts to show all ...
Embroidered Pre Shaped Baseball Cap From Pelvis SS23• 100% Cotton (Green) 70% Cotton 30% Polyester (Purple Camo)• Neon Red ... PELVIS RASSVET (PACCBET) RAYON VERT SNOW PEAK STRAY RATS WTAPS WORLDWIND WORLDWIDE ... Embroidered Pre Shaped Baseball Cap From Pelvis SS23. • 100% Cotton (Green) 70% Cotton 30% Polyester (Purple Camo) ...
... code range for Excision Procedures on the Pelvis and Hip Joint 27040-27080 is a medical code set maintained b ... The Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code range for Surgical Procedures on the Pelvis and Hip Joint 27040-27080 is a ... Excision Procedures on the Pelvis and Hip Joint CPT® Code range 27040- 27080. ...
Pelvis, for "Passage to Etna" Classification Drawings Work Type drawing Date 1955 Culture American Persistent Link https://hvrd ... "Pelvis, for Passage to Etna (Peter Blume) , 1960.700," Harvard Art Museums collections online, Dec 05, 2023, https://hvrd.art ...
  • Urothelial tumors of the renal pelvis and ureters (upper urinary tract) are relatively rare. (medscape.com)
  • Tumors of the renal pelvis account for approximately 10% of all renal tumors and only 5% of all urothelial tumors of the urinary tract. (medscape.com)
  • Ureteral tumors occur about one half as often as tumors located in the renal pelvis. (medscape.com)
  • Cancer can occur in the cells lining the central collecting area of the kidney (the renal pelvis-usually a type called urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis) and in the slender tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the bladder (ureters). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter are much less common than cancers of the rest of the kidney or bladder. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, if the cancer has spread into the wall of the renal pelvis or ureter or to distant sites, cure is unlikely. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If the cancer has not spread beyond the area of the renal pelvis and ureter, the usual treatment is surgical removal of the entire kidney and ureter (nephroureterectomy) along with a small part of the bladder. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Some cancers in the renal pelvis and ureter (for example, some low-grade and low-risk cancers) are treated with a laser to destroy the cancer cells or with surgery that removes only the cancer itself while leaving the kidney, the noncancerous portion of the ureter, and the bladder in place. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Note the diffuse hemorrhage that is present throughout the renal pelvis. (cdc.gov)
  • The pelvis (PL: pelves or pelvises) is the lower part of the trunk, between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region), together with its embedded skeleton (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton). (wikipedia.org)
  • The gap enclosed by the bony pelvis, called the pelvic cavity, is the section of the body underneath the abdomen and mainly consists of the reproductive organs (sex organs) and the rectum, while the pelvic floor at the base of the cavity assists in supporting the organs of the abdomen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on evidence with other cancers of the pelvis and abdomen that are proximate to organs at risk, it is expected that OS with IMRT would be at least as good as 3D-CRT, with a decrease in toxicity. (bcbsnd.com)
  • The ICD-10 code range for Injuries to the abdomen, lower back, lumbar spine, pelvis and external genitals S30-S39 is medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO). (aapc.com)
  • I had a CT scan of my abdomen and pelvis. (dmca.com)
  • I had a CT scan of my abdomen and pelvis this afternoon. (dmca.com)
  • To determine how extensive cancers are and how far they have spread, CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis and chest x-ray or CT of the chest are done. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This anatomically detailed model is a great way to teach and learn the anatomy of the human male pelvis. (flinnsci.com)
  • Life-size models are natural casts of a male pelvis that shows all anatomical structures in detail, including both hip bones, pubic symphisis, sacrum and coccyx as well as the fifth lumbar vertebra with intervertebral disc. (flinnsci.com)
  • Produced by American 3B Scientific in Germany, this male pelvis anatomy model is shown in median section. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • One half of male genital organs with bladder is shown at the normal position in the male pelvis. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • Axis Scientific 4-Part Median Section Male Pelvis Anatomy Model with Removable Parts and Study Guide The Axis Scientific 4-Part Human Male Pelvis Model is an anatomically accurate representation. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • Axis Scientific Life-Size Male Pelvis Skeleton Model and Detailed Study Guide The Axis Scientific Male Pelvis Skeleton Model is an anatomically accurate representation of the male skeletal pelvis. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • About the Axis Scientific Male Pelvis with Lumbar Section and Femur Heads: Did you know that the male pelvis is often taller and more narrow than a female pelvis? (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • If you are looking for the perfect male pelvis to help you get more familiar with the male. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • The median section of the male pelvis also shows all structures in fascinating detail. (cpr-savers.com)
  • This is art and anatomy at it's finest, a realistic replica of the male pelvis. (cpr-savers.com)
  • You can really tell that the female pelvis is meant to birth, and that the birth hormones are making the cartilage in my pelvis more flexible, because trying to do the Hip Lift on Scott was really hard! (naturalbirthandbabycare.com)
  • The spine contains the following features: Full pelvis and occipital plate, Fully flexible mounting, L3-L4 disc prolapsed, Spinal nerve exits, Cervical vertebral artery, female pelvis. (sargentwelch.com)
  • Introducing the Axis Scientific Female Pelvis Set with a fixed and an articulating pelvis offers two views of the pelvis that prove child bearers are one of a kind. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • The female pelvis is unique because the bones in this region are lighter and thinner. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • This life-size female pelvis is hand painted to show the external and internal genital elements of the pelvis with Sacroiliac Ligaments, muscles of pelvic floor as well as the network of sacral nerves and vessels. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • She has started the opdivo but I have not found much info on how it works on the spine and pelvis lesions. (cancer.org)
  • Easing the Neck, Opening the Breath, Balancing the Pelvis - 10+ hours of quality instruction from Tom Myers, author of Anatomy Trains and bodyworker of 40 years' experience. (anatomytrains.com)
  • Overview This fabulous pelvis model collection features both the female and male pelvises with removable parts to show all parts of the reproductive system, urinary system and muscular anatomy. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • OverviewThis Axis Scientific Hip/Pelvis Joint Section Anatomy Model is a life size cross section of a human right hip detailing how the joint moves by studying the muscles and ligaments. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • The pelvic region of the trunk includes the bony pelvis, the pelvic cavity (the space enclosed by the bony pelvis), the pelvic floor, below the pelvic cavity, and the perineum, below the pelvic floor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, the bony pelvis has a gap in the middle, significantly larger in females than in males. (wikipedia.org)
  • It includes several structures: the bony pelvis, the pelvic cavity, the pelvic floor, and the perineum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bony pelvis (pelvic skeleton) is the part of the skeleton embedded in the pelvic region of the trunk. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bony Pelvis - Movement section is another that I'll revisit several times before the birth. (naturalbirthandbabycare.com)
  • A pelvis x-ray is a picture of the bones in and around both hips. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This Hatha flow class focuses on minimizing loading onto wrists while exploring the hips and pelvis. (gaia.com)
  • In these videos, Dr. Elizabeth Forster demonstrates to how to conduct an assessment of the newborn's pelvis, hips and limbs. (futurelearn.com)
  • The next part of your examination of the pelvis is to check the baby's hips. (futurelearn.com)
  • The pelvic cavity is a body cavity that is bounded by the bones of the pelvis and which primarily contains reproductive organs and the rectum. (wikipedia.org)
  • We went through several techniques for creating more room in the pelvis by manipulating the bones of the pelvis themselves. (naturalbirthandbabycare.com)
  • An ectopic kidney may remain in the pelvis, near the bladder. (nih.gov)
  • OverviewThis collection of models presents the natural features and structures of both the male and female skeletal pelvises. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • The pelvis also houses the reproductive organs, which have their own muscles. (healthline.com)
  • Under the impression of PELVIS syndrome , consequential spinal sonography was conducted and revealed an intrasacral meningocele without clinical neurologic deficit . (bvsalud.org)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scanning may be required to assess complex regions such as the spine, pelvis, chest, and facial skeleton. (medscape.com)
  • By doing it on the same side as the baby's head is pressing (your baby comes into your pelvis at a slightly diagonal angle) you create more room for the baby to move through. (naturalbirthandbabycare.com)
  • Shown in accurate detail, this pelvis model can be manipulated to demonstrate how the pelvis moves to accommodate delivery. (birthinternational.com)
  • A distinction is made between the lesser or true pelvis inferior to the terminal line, and the greater or false pelvis above it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Robot-assisted exploration of somatic nerves in the pelvis and transection of the sacrospinous ligament for Alcock canal syndrome. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Therefore, the objective of this video is to describe the anatomic and technical highlights of robotic exploration of the somatic nerves in the pelvis and transection of the sacrospinous ligament (nerve decompression) for ACS. (iasp-pain.org)
  • If your horse develops sudden hindlimb lameness or pain over the back, hip, or croup, he might have a pelvis problem that warrants an examination from your veterinarian. (thehorse.com)
  • So now we're going to move on to assessment or examination of the neonatal pelvis. (futurelearn.com)
  • The Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code range for Surgical Procedures on the Pelvis and Hip Joint 27040-27080 is a medical code set maintained by the American Medical Association. (aapc.com)
  • VANCOUVER, Canada - Patients who undergo either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy are at an increased risk of fracture, compared with patients with obesity who do not undergo surgery, according to a new analysis of a predominantly male group of US veterans. (medscape.com)
  • Or was the pelvis misaligned which made it more difficult for the baby to descend, rotate and fit through the pelvis? (prenatalyogacenter.com)
  • Had 12 bouts of radiation and then she fractured her pelvis (no fall) where the mass had been. (cancer.org)
  • In general, she adds, "Hock problems are still more prevalent, and you need to rule out problems lower down the horse's limbs before jumping on the bandwagon of pelvis trouble. (thehorse.com)
  • A Case of Perineal Hemangioma, External Genitalia Malformations, Lipomyelomeningocele, Vesicorenal Abnormalities, Imperforate Anus, and Skin Tag (PELVIS) Syndrome with Extensive Perineal Infantile Hemangioma. (bvsalud.org)