Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Prostatitis: Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the parenchyma of PROSTATE. The subtypes are classified by their varied laboratory analysis, clinical presentation and response to treatment.Endometriosis: A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Cystitis, Interstitial: A condition with recurring discomfort or pain in the URINARY BLADDER and the surrounding pelvic region without an identifiable disease. Severity of pain in interstitial cystitis varies greatly and often is accompanied by increased urination frequency and urgency.Dyspareunia: Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Myofascial Pain Syndromes: Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Sacrococcygeal Region: The body region between (and flanking) the SACRUM and COCCYX.Cystoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.Pudendal Neuralgia: Pain associated with a damaged PUDENDAL NERVE. Clinical features may include positional pain with sitting in the perineal and genital areas, sexual dysfunction and FECAL INCONTINENCE and URINARY INCONTINENCE.Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Peritoneal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERITONEUM.Acute Pain: Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Female Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Ovarian Diseases: Pathological processes of the OVARY.Catastrophization: Cognitive and emotional processes encompassing magnification of pain-related stimuli, feelings of helplessness, and a generally pessimistic orientation.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Genital Diseases, Female: Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Ureterocele: A cystic dilatation of the end of a URETER as it enters into the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by the ballooning of the ureteral orifice into the lumen of the bladder and may obstruct urine flow.Mepartricin: Polyene macrolide antibiotic with unknown composition. It is obtained from Streptomyces aureofaciens. It is used as an antifungal agent, an antiprotozoal agent, and in the treatment of BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY.Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Acupuncture: The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.Acupuncture Points: Designated locations along nerves or organ meridians for inserting acupuncture needles.Acupuncture Analgesia: Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Acupuncture, Ear: Acupuncture therapy by inserting needles in the ear. It is used to control pain and for treating various ailments.Vaginal Discharge: A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.Leukorrhea: A clear or white discharge from the VAGINA, consisting mainly of MUCUS.

Primary gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy for suspected endometriosis: a nonsurgical approach to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pelvic pain. (1/351)

Chronic pelvic pain is a condition that affects one in seven women of reproductive age in the United States. Direct and indirect medical costs associated with this condition are estimated to be more than $3 billion annually before factoring in the costs of diagnostic testing. At many medical centers, endometriosis is the most common single cause of chronic pelvic pain; other causes include intra-abdominal adhesions, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, ovarian cysts, and adenomyosis. The current approach to diagnosis and treatment of chronic pelvic pain is a two-step approach, with medical history, physical examination, laboratory testing, and empiric therapy (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral contraceptives, and/or antibiotics) comprising Step 1 and surgical diagnosis with laparoscopy as Step 2. At many centers, the most common diagnosis at the time of laparoscopy for chronic pelvic pain is endometriosis, typically minimal to mild disease that can be effectively treated with hormonal therapy. Therefore, a rational alternative approach is a 3-month empiric course of therapy with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist before laparoscopy. The advantages of this approach are the high rate of pain relief in women, the possibility of avoiding an invasive procedure (laparoscopy), the ability to extend therapy, if pain is relieved, to the full 6-month therapeutic course of endometriosis, and a potentially lower cost relative to laparoscopy.  (+info)

Hypothesis on the role of sub-clinical bacteria of the endometrium (bacteria endometrialis) in gynaecological and obstetric enigmas. (2/351)

Unexplained infertility, recurrent abortion, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, premenstrual syndrome, premature labour, placental insufficiency and pre-eclampsia are examples of common obstetric and gynaecological problems that frequently defy adequate explanation. Bacterial vaginosis, a non-inflammatory condition, is associated with premature labour, but antibiotics administered topically provide less effective prophylaxis than those administered orally. This would indicate that bacterial vaginosis might be a marker for significant genital tract bacteria, but some pathology is dependent on micro-organisms ascending out of reach of topical antibiotics. The author was led to consider the hypothesis that micro-organisms, possibly those associated with bacterial vaginosis, surreptitiously inhabit the uterine cavity (bacteria endometrialis) where they are culprits of some common gynaecological and obstetric enigmas. The objective of this review is to provide an initial theoretical examination of this hypothesis. Bacteria in the endometrium have been associated with infertility. Antiphospholipids have been linked to recurrent miscarriage and pre-eclampsia and with infections including Mycoplasma. Pre-eclampsia might be explained by an exaggerated host response to intrauterine micro-organisms or bacterial toxins. The hypothesis that one common factor, bacteria endometrialis, could provide a plausible explanation for a variety of obstetric and gynaecological mysteries is particularly intriguing. There is sufficient evidence to justify further investigation.  (+info)

Low-dose danazol after combined surgical and medical therapy reduces the incidence of pelvic pain in women with moderate and severe endometriosis. (3/351)

The most effective therapy for endometriosis is a matter for debate. The aim of the present randomized study was to evaluate the efficacy of low doses of danazol on recurrence of pelvic pain in patients with moderate or severe endometriosis, who had undergone laparoscopic surgery and 6 months of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) therapy. After surgery, 28 patients with moderate or severe endometriosis underwent therapy for 6 months with GnRHa i. m. every 4 weeks. They were then randomized into two groups: group A (14 subjects) was treated with 100 mg/day danazol for 6 months; group B (14 subjects, control) did not receive any type of therapy. After 12 months of treatment, group A had a significantly (P < 0.01) lower pain score than group B. There was no significant difference between the groups in oestrogen concentrations, bone mineral density or side-effects. The results suggest that low-dose danazol therapy reduces recurrence of pelvic pain in patients with moderate or severe endometriosis, treated surgically, and has few or no metabolic side-effects.  (+info)

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome associated with multiple spinal meningeal cysts--case report. (4/351)

A 40-year-old female with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was admitted because of a large pelvic mass. Radiological examination revealed multiple spinal meningeal cysts. The first operation through a laminectomy revealed that the cysts originated from dilated dural sleeves containing nerve roots. Packing of dilated sleeves was inadequate. Finally the cysts were oversewed through a laparotomy. The cysts were reduced, but the postoperative course was complicated by poor wound healing and diffuse muscle atrophy. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome associated with spinal cysts may be best treated by endoscopic surgery.  (+info)

Modeling of medical and surgical treatment costs of chronic pelvic pain: new paradigms for making clinical decisions. (5/351)

Additional complexity has been added to the healthcare decision-making process by the socioeconomic constraints of the industry and a population that is increasingly educated about healthcare. As a result, decisions balanced on the basis of outcomes and economic realities are needed. This modeling of surgical versus medical treatment costs for chronic pelvic pain and endometriosis factors in the large number of women with chronic pelvic pain, direct and indirect costs of the condition, and clinical benefits, projected costs, and savings of the therapies. This process of calculation becomes an aid for decision making in the current healthcare system.  (+info)

Evaluation of Lovelace Health Systems chronic pelvic pain protocol. (6/351)

Although laparoscopy has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of endometriosis, it often fails to detect the disease and provide lasting pain relief. Motivated by concerns for patient well-being, treatment efficacy, and cost containment, Lovelace Health Systems of Albuquerque, New Mexico, turned to the Lovelace Chronic Pelvic Pain Protocol, based on a chronic pelvic pain algorithm used to identify potential candidates for therapy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist). Since the protocol's introduction in January 1997, empiric therapy with GnRH agonist has proved beneficial to patients, physicians, and healthcare system budgets.  (+info)

The active straight leg raising test and mobility of the pelvic joints. (7/351)

Objective signs to assess impairment in patients who are disabled by peripartum pelvic girdle pain hardly exist. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinical test to quantify and qualify disability in these patients. The study examined the relationship between impaired active straight leg raising (ASLR) and mobility of pelvic joints in patients with peripartum pelvic girdle pain, focusing on (1) the reduction of impairment of ASLR when the patient was wearing a pelvic belt, and (2) motions between the pubic bones measured by X-ray examination when the patient was standing on one leg, alternating left and right. Twenty-one non-pregnant patients with peripartum pelvic girdle pain in whom pain and impairment of ASLR were mainly located on one side were selected. ASLR was performed in the supine position, first without a pelvic belt and then with a belt. The influence of the belt on the ability to actively raise the leg was assessed by the patient. Mobility of the pelvic joints was radiographically visualized by means of the Chamberlain method. Assessment was blinded. Ability to perform ASLR was improved by a pelvic belt in 20 of the 21 patients (binomial two-tailed P = 0.0000). When the patient was standing on one leg, alternating the symptomatic side and the reference side, a significant difference between the two sides was observed with respect to the size of the radiographically visualized steps between the pubic bones (binomial two-tailed P = 0.01). The step at the symptomatic side was on average larger when the leg at that side was hanging down than when the patient was standing on the leg at that side. Impairment of ASLR correlates strongly with mobility of the pelvic joints in patients with peripartum pelvic girdle pain. The ASLR test could be a suitable instrument to quantify and qualify disability in diseases related to mobility of the pelvic joints. Further studies are needed to assess the relationship with clinical parameters, sensitivity, specificity and responsiveness in various categories of patients. In contrast with the opinion of Chamberlain, that a radiographically visualized step between the pubic bones is caused by cranial shift of the pubic bone at the side of the standing leg, it is concluded that the step is caused by caudal shift of the pubic bone at the side of the leg hanging down. The caudal shift is caused by an anterior rotation of the hip bone about a horizontal axis near the sacroiliac joint.  (+info)

A systematic history for the patient with chronic pelvic pain. (8/351)

Chronic pelvic pain is a source of frustration to both the physician and the patient. Physicians have been ill equipped by their training to confront the multifaceted nature of the complaints of patients with chronic pelvic pain. Patients have experienced a repetitive dismissal of their complaints by physicians too busy in their practices to address their problems comprehensively. The approach to the patient with chronic pelvic pain must take into account six major sources of the origin of this pain: 1) gynecological, 2) psychological, 3) myofascial, 4) musculoskeletal, 5) urological, and 6) gastrointestinal. Only by addressing and evaluating each of these components by a very careful history and physical examination and by approaching the patient in a comprehensive manner can the source of the pain be determined and appropriate therapy be administered. This article was developed to provide the clinician with a set of tools and a methodology by which the patient with this complaint can be approached.  (+info)

  • 8,9 However, comparisons of findings in patients with chronic pain to patients with infertility and no complaints of pain have generally shown no statistical difference between the nature or distribution of adhesions or other pathology found. (
  • In these patients, surgical management of adhesions found may not cause permanent relief: The pain can be re-established through the "open gate" pathways after about 6 months 17 For example, hysterectomy for pain with documented pathology was found to result in recurrent pain in 23% of patients. (
  • Adhesions are bands of fibrotic tissue (scar tissue) that form between adjacent organs and structures, such as between the ovaries and pelvic sidewall and between the uterus and bowel. (
  • If adhesions stretch or constrict a vital structure such as the bowel this can result in pain and other symptoms, such as bowel obstruction and nausea. (
  • The pelvic organs and structures communicate through nerve connections or reflexes either directly or via convergent pathways. (
  • This can occur if a long-term infection, often sexually transmitted, causes scarring that involves your pelvic organs. (
  • In other cases (for both women and men), the pain can be linked to the pelvic bones that lie next to these organs, or from nearby muscles, nerves, blood vessels or joints. (
  • How long would it take…minutes, hours, days or years for the pressure to build to the point where it was affecting vital organs and resulting in chronic pelvic pain? (
  • However, this pain is an indication that there may be a problem with one of the reproductive organs in the pelvic area (uterus, ovaries, Fallopian tubes, cervix, or vagina). (
  • If the pain results from a problem with one of the pelvic organs, the treatment may include medicines, surgery, physical therapies or other pain management procedures. (
  • Because a woman's reproductive organs are within the pelvic region, pelvic pain is more common among women and it's often caused by a gynecologic condition. (
  • No matter how you experience pelvic pain, you want it to end. (
  • Most women, at some time in their lives, experience pelvic pain. (
  • Some doctors believe enlarged, varicose-type veins around your uterus and ovaries may result in pelvic pain. (
  • The nature of the pain varies between individuals, but it can be sharp, gnawing, dull or excruciating. (
  • The pelvic pain may be sharp or cramp-like (such as menstrual pain) and may come and go, or be sudden and transfixing, dull and constant, or a mixture of both. (
  • Or it can be a dull or mild pain that's spread out or even radiates to the thighs and legs. (