Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.
Mammals of the family Phocoenidae comprising four genera found in the North Pacific Ocean and both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean and in various other seas. They differ from DOLPHINS in that porpoises have a blunt snout and a rather stocky body while dolphins have a beak-like snout and a slender, streamlined body. They usually travel in small groups. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp1003-4)
The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-10 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-1 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-12 in the CORNEA and is regarded as a marker for corneal-type epithelial differentiation. Mutations in the gene for keratin-3 have been associated with MEESMANN CORNEAL EPITHELIAL DYSTROPHY.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Diseases of BONES.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Replacement of the knee joint.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Replacement for a knee joint.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
Endoscopes for visualizing the interior of a joint.

Age-related bone loss: relationship between age and regional bone mineral density. (1/407)

We assessed the changes in regional bone mineral density according to age and examined the relationship between various regional bone mineral densities. The study was conducted in 985 Japanese women divided into < 50-years group (n = 435) and > or = 50 years group (n = 550). The total body bone mineral density and that of the head, arm, leg, thoracic (T)-spine, lumbar (L)-spine, ribs, and pelvis were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. There was a significant generalized reduction of bone mineral density in all regions after the age of 50 years. The most marked age-related decrease was observed in the L-spine. Bone mineral densities in all regions significantly correlated to each other in both age groups, but the degree of significance varied among regions. The relationship between bone mineral density of the L-spine and that of T-spine regions was the most significant in both groups. In the < 50-years group, the correlation between bone mineral density of the pelvis and that of L-spine and T-spine was the highest, followed by that between the pelvis and the leg. On the other hand, in the > or = 50-years group, the correlation between bone mineral density of the pelvis and that of the leg was the highest, but not the L-spine or T-spine. Since spine measurements are affected by vertebral deformity and/or aortic calcification, our findings suggest the pelvis may be a useful region for screening measurements of bone mineral density, especially in older women.  (+info)

Management of cancer in pregnancy: a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the pelvis in the third trimester. (2/407)

Ewing's sarcoma of the pelvic bones was diagnosed in a 21-year childbearing woman, raising major medical and ethical problems. The diagnostic and therapeutic approaches during the sixth month of gestation were tailored in order to cure the patient and avoid unnecessary toxicity to the fetus. Ancillary tests included ultrasound and MRI studies of the pelvis. Ifosfamide and adriamycin, premedicated by granisetron, were administered during gestation, and were found to be safe. Cesarean section was the preferred way of delivery since the tumor involved the pelvic bones. The outcome was a disease-free patient and a small healthy baby who is now two years of age.  (+info)

Effect of a lifestyle intervention on bone mineral density in premenopausal women: a randomized trial. (3/407)

BACKGROUND: The positive association between body weight and bone mineral density (BMD) is well documented; in contrast, the effect of changes in body weight on BMD is not well understood, particularly, in normal-weight populations. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of a lifestyle intervention aimed at lowering dietary fat intake and increasing physical activity to produce modest weight loss or prevent weight gain on BMD in a population of 236 healthy, premenopausal women aged 44-50 y. DESIGN: All women were participating in a clinical trial known as The Women's Healthy Lifestyle Project and were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of BMD at the lumbar spine and proximal femur were made before and after 18 mo of participation in the trial. RESULTS: The intervention group (n = 115) experienced a mean (+/-SD) weight loss of 3.2 +/- 4.7 kg over the 18 mo compared with a weight gain of 0.42 +/- 3.6 kg in the control group (n = 121) (P < 0.001). The annualized rate of hip BMD loss was 2-fold higher (P < 0.015) in the intervention group (0.81 +/- 1.3%) than in the control group (0.42 +/- 1.1%); a similar, although nonsignificant pattern was observed for the loss in spine BMD: 0.70 +/- 1.4% and 0.37 +/- 1.5% (P = 0.093) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Large increases in physical activity attenuated spine BMD loss, but had no significant effect on BMD loss at the hip. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention group, who modified their lifestyle to lose weight, had a higher rate of BMD loss at the hip and lumbar spine than did the weight-stable control group. Recommendations for weight loss must be made with consideration that such an endorsement may result in BMD loss.  (+info)

The 'MW' sacropelvic construct: an enhanced fixation of the lumbosacral junction in neuromuscular pelvic obliquity. (4/407)

Fixation to the lumbosacral spine to correct pelvic obliquity in neuromuscular scoliosis has always remained a surgical challenge. The strongest fixation of the lumbosacral junction has been achieved with either a Galveston technique with rods or screws or with iliosacral screws. We have devised a new fixation system, in which iliosacral screws are combined with iliac screws. This is made possible by using the AO Universal Spine System with side opening hooks above and below the iliosacral screws and iliac screws below it. The whole sacropelvis is thus encompassed by a maximum width (MW) fixation, which gives an 'M' appearance on the pelvic radiographs and a 'W' appearance in the axial plane. We report on our surgical technique and the early results where such a technique was used. We feel that this new means of fixation (by combining the strongest fixation systems) is extremely solid and should be included in the wide armamentarium of sacropelvic fixation.  (+info)

Failure of reduction with an external fixator in the management of injuries of the pelvic ring. Long-term evaluation of 110 patients. (5/407)

We reviewed 110 patients with an unstable fracture of the pelvic ring who had been treated with a trapezoidal external fixator after a mean follow-up of 4.1 years. There were eight open-book (type B1, B3-1) injuries, 62 lateral compression (type B2, B3-2) and 40 rotationally and vertically unstable (type C1-C3) injuries. The rate of complications was high with loss of reduction in 57%, malunion in 58%, nonunion in 5%, infection at the pin site in 24%, loosening of the pins in 2%, injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in 2%, and pressure sores in 3%. The external fixator failed to give and maintain a proper reduction in six of the eight open-book injuries, in 20 of the 62 lateral compression injuries, and in 38 of the 40 type-C injuries. Poor functional results were usually associated with failure of reduction and an unsatisfactory radiological appearance. In type-C injuries more than 10 mm of residual vertical displacement of the injury to the posterior pelvic ring was significantly related to poor outcome. In 14 patients in this unsatisfactory group poor functional results were also affected by associated nerve injuries. In lateral compression injuries the degree of displacement of fractures of the pubic rami caused by internal rotation of the hemipelvis was an important prognostic factor. External fixation may be useful in the acute phase of resuscitation but it is of limited value in the definitive treatment of an unstable type-C injury and in type-B open-book injuries. It is usually unnecessary in minimally displaced lateral compression injuries.  (+info)

Fracture risk is increased in Crohn's disease, but not in ulcerative colitis. (6/407)

AIMS: To study fracture rates and risk factors for fractures in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. METHODS: 998 self administered questionnaires were issued to members of the Danish Colitis/Crohn Association, and 1000 questionnaires were issued to randomly selected control subjects. 845 patients (84.5%) and 645 controls (65.4%) returned the questionnaire (p<0.01). 817 patients and 635 controls could be analysed. RESULTS: Analysis was performed on 383 patients with Crohn's disease (median age 39, range 8-82 years; median age at diagnosis 26, range 1-75 years), 434 patients with ulcerative colitis (median age 39, range 11-86 years; median age at diagnosis 29, range 10-78 years), and 635 controls (median age 43, range 19-93 years, p<0.01). The fracture risk was increased in female patients with Crohn's disease (relative risk (RR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-3.6), but not in male patients with Crohn's disease (RR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.3) or in patients with ulcerative colitis (RR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.6). An increased proportion of low energy fractures was observed in patients with Crohn's disease (15.7% versus 1.4 % in controls, 2p<0. 01), but not in patients with ulcerative colitis (5.4%, 2p=0.30). The increased fracture frequency in Crohn's disease was present for fractures of the spine, feet, and toes and fractures of the ribs and pelvis. Fracture risk increased with increasing duration of systemic corticosteroid use in Crohn's disease (2p=0.028), but not in ulcerative colitis (2p=0.50). CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk of low energy fractures was observed in female patients with Crohn's disease, but not in male patients with Crohn's disease or in patients with ulcerative colitis.  (+info)

Stepping before standing: hip muscle function in stepping and standing balance after stroke. (7/407)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the pattern of pelvic girdle muscle activation in normal subjects and hemiparetic patients while stepping and maintaining standing balance. DESIGN: Group comparison. METHOD: Seventeen patients who had regained the ability to walk after a single hemiparetic stroke were studied together with 16 normal controls. Median interval between stroke and testing was 17 months. Amplitude and onset latency of surface EMG activity in hip abductors and adductors were recorded in response to sideways pushes in either direction while standing. Similar recordings were made in the same subjects during gait initiation and a single stride. RESULTS: In the standing balance task, normal subjects resisted a sideways push to the left with the left gluteus medius (74 ms) and with the right adductor (111 ms), and vice versa. In hemiparetic patients, the amplitude of activity was reduced in the hemiparetic muscles, the onset latencies of which were delayed (gluteus medius 96 ms, adductor 144 ms). Contralateral, non-paretic, adductor activity was increased after a push towards the hemiparetic side of patients with stroke and the latency was normal (110 ms). During self initiated sideways weight shifts at gait initiation, hemiplegic muscle activation was impaired. By contrast, the pattern and peak amplitude of hip muscle activation in stepping was normal in both hemiparetic and non-hemiparetic muscles of the subjects with stroke. CONCLUSIONS: In ambulant patients with stroke, a normal pattern of activation of hemiparetic muscles is seen in stepping whereas the response of these muscles to a perturbation while standing remains grossly impaired and is compensated by increased activity of the contralateral muscles. This suggests that hemiparetic patients should be able to step before regaining standing balance.  (+info)

Surgical treatment of old pelvic fractures. (8/407)

We report on 4 patients, aged 24-51 years, with untreated pelvic ring fractures. The chief complaints were gait disturbances and pain in the buttocks and lower limb. The period between the initial injury and the surgical treatment ranged from 2.5 months to 3 years. Palsy was not improved, but pain and gait ability was improved in all patients.  (+info)

The pelvic bones, also known as the hip bones, are a set of three irregularly shaped bones that connect to form the pelvic girdle in the lower part of the human body. They play a crucial role in supporting the spine and protecting the abdominal and pelvic organs.

The pelvic bones consist of three bones:

1. The ilium: This is the largest and uppermost bone, forming the majority of the hip bone and the broad, flaring part of the pelvis known as the wing of the ilium or the iliac crest, which can be felt on the side of the body.
2. The ischium: This is the lower and back portion of the pelvic bone that forms part of the sitting surface or the "sit bones."
3. The pubis: This is the front part of the pelvic bone, which connects to the other side at the pubic symphysis in the midline of the body.

The pelvic bones are joined together at the acetabulum, a cup-shaped socket that forms the hip joint and articulates with the head of the femur (thigh bone). The pelvic bones also have several openings for the passage of blood vessels, nerves, and reproductive and excretory organs.

The shape and size of the pelvic bones differ between males and females due to their different roles in childbirth and locomotion. Females typically have a wider and shallower pelvis than males to accommodate childbirth, while males usually have a narrower and deeper pelvis that is better suited for weight-bearing and movement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "porpoises" are not a medical term. They refer to a group of marine mammals that are closely related to dolphins. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you!

Comparative anatomy is a branch of biology and medicine that deals with the study and comparison of the structures and functions of different species, including humans. It involves the examination of similarities and differences in the anatomy of various organisms to understand their evolutionary relationships and adaptations. This field helps scientists to understand the development and function of body structures, as well as the evolutionary history of different species. By comparing and contrasting the anatomy of different organisms, researchers can gain insights into the functions and workings of various bodily systems and how they have evolved over time.

Keratin-1 is a type of keratin protein that is primarily expressed in the differentiated cells of epithelial tissues, such as the hair follicles and the outermost layer of the skin (epidermis). It is a structural protein that provides strength and rigidity to these cells. In the hair follicle, keratin-1 is found in the cortex of the hair shaft where it contributes to the hair's overall structure and stability. It is also a key component of the outermost layer of the skin (stratum corneum) where it helps to form a protective barrier against external stressors such as chemicals, microorganisms, and physical damage.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Keratin-3" is not a widely recognized or established medical term in the field of dermatology or pathology. There is a protein called Keratin 3 or KRT3 (also known as Cytokeratin 12), which is primarily expressed in simple epithelia, such as those found in the cornea and conjunctiva of the eye. However, it's not typically associated with skin disorders or diseases.

If you have any more specific context or details related to this term, I would be happy to help further!

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Bone remodeling is the normal and continuous process by which bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called formation). This ongoing cycle allows bones to repair microdamage, adjust their size and shape in response to mechanical stress, and maintain mineral homeostasis. The cells responsible for bone resorption are osteoclasts, while the cells responsible for bone formation are osteoblasts. These two cell types work together to maintain the structural integrity and health of bones throughout an individual's life.

During bone remodeling, the process can be divided into several stages:

1. Activation: The initiation of bone remodeling is triggered by various factors such as microdamage, hormonal changes, or mechanical stress. This leads to the recruitment and activation of osteoclast precursor cells.
2. Resorption: Osteoclasts attach to the bone surface and create a sealed compartment called a resorption lacuna. They then secrete acid and enzymes that dissolve and digest the mineralized matrix, creating pits or cavities on the bone surface. This process helps remove old or damaged bone tissue and releases calcium and phosphate ions into the bloodstream.
3. Reversal: After resorption is complete, the osteoclasts undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), and mononuclear cells called reversal cells appear on the resorbed surface. These cells prepare the bone surface for the next stage by cleaning up debris and releasing signals that attract osteoblast precursors.
4. Formation: Osteoblasts, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, migrate to the resorbed surface and begin producing a new organic matrix called osteoid. As the osteoid mineralizes, it forms a hard, calcified structure that gradually replaces the resorbed bone tissue. The osteoblasts may become embedded within this newly formed bone as they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells responsible for maintaining bone homeostasis and responding to mechanical stress.
5. Mineralization: Over time, the newly formed bone continues to mineralize, becoming stronger and more dense. This process helps maintain the structural integrity of the skeleton and ensures adequate calcium storage.

Throughout this continuous cycle of bone remodeling, hormones, growth factors, and mechanical stress play crucial roles in regulating the balance between resorption and formation. Disruptions to this delicate equilibrium can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, where excessive resorption results in weakened bones and increased fracture risk.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

Bone resorption is the process by which bone tissue is broken down and absorbed into the body. It is a normal part of bone remodeling, in which old or damaged bone tissue is removed and new tissue is formed. However, excessive bone resorption can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis, in which bones become weak and fragile due to a loss of density. This process is carried out by cells called osteoclasts, which break down the bone tissue and release minerals such as calcium into the bloodstream.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

Bone development, also known as ossification, is the process by which bone tissue is formed and grows. This complex process involves several different types of cells, including osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which break down and resorb existing bone tissue.

There are two main types of bone development: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Intramembranous ossification occurs when bone tissue forms directly from connective tissue, while endochondral ossification involves the formation of a cartilage model that is later replaced by bone.

During fetal development, most bones develop through endochondral ossification, starting as a cartilage template that is gradually replaced by bone tissue. However, some bones, such as those in the skull and clavicles, develop through intramembranous ossification.

Bone development continues after birth, with new bone tissue being laid down and existing tissue being remodeled throughout life. This ongoing process helps to maintain the strength and integrity of the skeleton, allowing it to adapt to changing mechanical forces and repair any damage that may occur.

Bone marrow cells are the types of cells found within the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside certain bones in the body. The main function of bone marrow is to produce blood cells. There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red bone marrow is where most blood cell production takes place, while yellow bone marrow serves as a fat storage site.

The three main types of bone marrow cells are:

1. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): These are immature cells that can differentiate into any type of blood cell, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They have the ability to self-renew, meaning they can divide and create more hematopoietic stem cells.
2. Red blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into mature red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
3. Myeloid and lymphoid white blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into various types of white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the body's immune system by fighting infections and diseases. Myeloid progenitors give rise to granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes (which eventually become platelets). Lymphoid progenitors differentiate into B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

Bone marrow cells are essential for maintaining a healthy blood cell count and immune system function. Abnormalities in bone marrow cells can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis, depending on the specific type of blood cell affected. Additionally, bone marrow cells are often used in transplantation procedures to treat patients with certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, or other hematologic disorders.

Bone diseases is a broad term that refers to various medical conditions that affect the bones. These conditions can be categorized into several groups, including:

1. Developmental and congenital bone diseases: These are conditions that affect bone growth and development before or at birth. Examples include osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysostosis.
2. Metabolic bone diseases: These are conditions that affect the body's ability to maintain healthy bones. They are often caused by hormonal imbalances, vitamin deficiencies, or problems with mineral metabolism. Examples include osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and Paget's disease of bone.
3. Inflammatory bone diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation in the bones. They can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other medical conditions. Examples include osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
4. Degenerative bone diseases: These are conditions that cause the bones to break down over time. They can be caused by aging, injury, or disease. Examples include osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
5. Tumors and cancers of the bone: These are conditions that involve abnormal growths in the bones. They can be benign or malignant. Examples include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma.
6. Fractures and injuries: While not strictly a "disease," fractures and injuries are common conditions that affect the bones. They can result from trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. Examples include stress fractures, compound fractures, and dislocations.

Overall, bone diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pain, stiffness, deformity, and decreased mobility. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Bone regeneration is the biological process of new bone formation that occurs after an injury or removal of a portion of bone. This complex process involves several stages, including inflammation, migration and proliferation of cells, matrix deposition, and mineralization, leading to the restoration of the bone's structure and function.

The main cells involved in bone regeneration are osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which resorb damaged or old bone tissue. The process is tightly regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and signaling molecules that promote the recruitment, differentiation, and activity of these cells.

Bone regeneration can occur naturally in response to injury or surgical intervention, such as fracture repair or dental implant placement. However, in some cases, bone regeneration may be impaired due to factors such as age, disease, or trauma, leading to delayed healing or non-union of the bone. In these situations, various strategies and techniques, including the use of bone grafts, scaffolds, and growth factors, can be employed to enhance and support the bone regeneration process.

Arthroplasty, replacement, knee is a surgical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surface of the knee is removed and replaced with an artificial joint or prosthesis. The procedure involves resurfacing the worn-out ends of the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone) with metal components, and the back of the kneecap with a plastic button. This surgery is usually performed to relieve pain and restore function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries that have damaged the joint beyond repair. The goal of knee replacement surgery is to improve mobility, reduce pain, and enhance the quality of life for the patient.

The knee joint, also known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a synovial joint that connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The patella (kneecap), which is a sesamoid bone, is located in front of the knee joint and helps in the extension of the leg.

The knee joint is made up of three articulations: the femorotibial joint between the femur and tibia, the femoropatellar joint between the femur and patella, and the tibiofibular joint between the tibia and fibula. These articulations are surrounded by a fibrous capsule that encloses the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments, including the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, which provide stability to the sides of the joint, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, which prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The menisci, which are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, also help to stabilize the joint by absorbing shock and distributing weight evenly across the articular surfaces.

The knee joint allows for flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation, making it essential for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and sitting.

A knee prosthesis, also known as a knee replacement or artificial knee joint, is a medical device used to replace the damaged or diseased weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint. It typically consists of three components: the femoral component (made of metal) that fits over the end of the thighbone (femur), the tibial component (often made of metal and plastic) that fits into the top of the shinbone (tibia), and a patellar component (usually made of plastic) that replaces the damaged surface of the kneecap.

The primary goal of knee prosthesis is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve quality of life for individuals with advanced knee joint damage due to conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries. The procedure to implant a knee prosthesis is called knee replacement surgery or total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a degenerative joint disease that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the knee joint. It is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of the smooth, cushioning cartilage that covers the ends of bones and allows for easy movement within joints. As the cartilage wears away, the bones rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Osteoarthritis of the knee can also lead to the formation of bone spurs (osteophytes) and cysts in the joint. This condition is most commonly found in older adults, but it can also occur in younger people as a result of injury or overuse. Risk factors include obesity, family history, previous joint injuries, and repetitive stress on the knee joint. Treatment options typically include pain management, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where an orthopedic surgeon uses an arthroscope (a thin tube with a light and camera on the end) to diagnose and treat problems inside a joint. The surgeon makes a small incision, inserts the arthroscope into the joint, and then uses the attached camera to view the inside of the joint on a monitor. They can then insert other small instruments through additional incisions to repair or remove damaged tissue.

Arthroscopy is most commonly used for joints such as the knee, shoulder, hip, ankle, and wrist. It offers several advantages over traditional open surgery, including smaller incisions, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and reduced risk of infection. The procedure can be used to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions, including torn ligaments or cartilage, inflamed synovial tissue, loose bone or cartilage fragments, and joint damage caused by arthritis.

In medical terms, the knee is referred to as the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a hinge joint that connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bones (tibia and fibula), enabling movements like flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation. The knee also contains several other components such as menisci, ligaments, tendons, and bursae, which provide stability, cushioning, and protection during movement.

An arthroscope is a medical device that is used during minimally invasive surgical procedures. It is a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera on the end, which allows surgeons to visualize the inside of a joint without making a large incision. This enables them to diagnose and treat various joint conditions, such as torn cartilage or ligaments, inflamed synovial tissue, and bone spurs. The images captured by the arthroscope are displayed on a monitor in the operating room, helping the surgeon guide their instruments and perform the procedure with great precision. Arthroscopy is commonly used for joints such as the knee, shoulder, hip, ankle, and wrist.

No FAQ available that match "pelvic bones"

No images available that match "pelvic bones"