A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE consisting of species that profusely produce pectinolytic enzymes in plant pathogenesis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.
A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Diseases of plants.
Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Most strains produce a yellow pigment. This organism is isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, soil, and water, as well as from animals and human wounds, blood, and urine. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The fruit is a large, egg-shaped berry, varying in color from dark purple to red, yellowish, or white. The leaves are large and ovate. The flowers are pendant, violet, and two inches across.
While "Humanities" is a broad academic discipline that includes fields such as literature, philosophy, history, and language studies, it does not have a specific medical definition related to the practice of medicine or healthcare.

Characterization of the exopolygalacturonate lyase PelX of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937. (1/179)

Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes several pectinolytic enzymes, among which eight isoenzymes of pectate lyases with an endo-cleaving mode (PelA, PelB, PelC, PelD, PelE, PelI, PelL, and PelZ) have been identified. Two exo-cleaving enzymes, the exopolygalacturonate lyase, PelX, and an exo-poly-alpha-D-galacturonosidase, PehX, have been previously identified in other E. chrysanthemi strains. Using a genomic bank of a 3937 mutant with the major pel genes deleted, we cloned a pectinase gene identified as pelX, encoding the exopolygalacturonate lyase. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 3937 PelX is very similar to the PelX of another E. chrysanthemi strain, EC16, except in the 43 C-terminal amino acids. PelX also has homology to the endo-pectate lyase PelL of E. chrysanthemi but has a N-terminal extension of 324 residues. The transcription of pelX, analyzed by gene fusions, is dependent on several environmental conditions. It is induced by pectic catabolic products and affected by growth phase, oxygen limitation, nitrogen starvation, and catabolite repression. Regulation of pelX expression is dependent on the KdgR repressor, which controls almost all the steps of pectin catabolism, and on the global activator of sugar catabolism, cyclic AMP receptor protein. In contrast, PecS and PecT, two repressors of the transcription of most pectate lyase genes, are not involved in pelX expression. The pelX mutant displayed reduced pathogenicity on chicory leaves, but its virulence on potato tubers or Saintpaulia ionantha plants did not appear to be affected. The purified PelX protein has no maceration activity on plant tissues. Tetragalacturonate is the best substrate of PelX, but PelX also has good activity on longer oligomers. Therefore, the estimated number of binding subsites for PelX is 4, extending from subsites -2 to +2. PelX and PehX were shown to be localized in the periplasm of E. chrysanthemi 3937. PelX catalyzed the formation of unsaturated digalacturonates by attack from the reducing end of the substrate, while PehX released digalacturonates by attack from the nonreducing end of the substrate. Thus, the two types of exo-degrading enzymes appeared complementary in the degradation of pectic polymers, since they act on both extremities of the polymeric chain.  (+info)

Self-regulation of pir, a regulatory protein responsible for hyperinduction of pectate lyase in Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16. (2/179)

Previously, we have cloned and characterized the pir (plant inducible regulator) gene, which is responsible for hyperinduction of the synthesis of an isozyme of pectate lyase (PLe) in Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16 in the presence of potato extract and sodium polypectate (NaPP). The Pir protein purified from Escherichia coli overexpressing pir is able to bind to the promoter region of pir as a dimer. Self-regulation of pir by its own translational product (Pir) was suggested from the findings that Pir binds at the promoter region of pir and that the hyperinduction of the pirlux construct in response to plant extract was observed only in pir+ but not in pir mutant EC16. Thus, hyperinduction of PLe was thought to be mainly due to overproduction of Pir. On the other hand, KdgR and PecS, which have been reported to be the major regulatory proteins for the synthesis of pectic enzymes, did not bind to the promoter region of pir. Thus, the regulation of Pir synthesis seems to be independent of KdgR and PecS. Also, its expression was insensitive to catabolite repression as predicted from failure of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-CRP (cAMP recognizing protein) to bind at the pir promoter region.  (+info)

Enhancement of expression and apparent secretion of Erwinia chrysanthemi endoglucanase (encoded by celZ) in Escherichia coli B. (3/179)

Escherichia coli B has been engineered as a biocatalyst for the conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. Previous research has demonstrated that derivatives of E. coli B can produce high levels of Erwinia chrysanthemi endoglucanase (encoded by celZ) as a periplasmic product and that this enzyme can function with commercial fungal cellulase to increase ethanol production. In this study, we have demonstrated two methods that improve celZ expression in E. coli B. Initially, with a low-copy-number vector, two E. coli glycolytic gene promoters (gap and eno) were tested and found to be less effective than the original celZ promoter. By screening 18,000 random fragments of Zymomonas mobilis DNA, a surrogate promoter was identified which increased celZ expression up to sixfold. With this promoter, large polar inclusion bodies were clearly evident in the periplasmic space. Sequencing revealed that the most active surrogate promoter is derived from five Sau3A1 fragments, one of which was previously sequenced in Z. mobilis. Visual inspection indicated that this DNA fragment contains at least five putative promoter regions, two of which were confirmed by primer extension analysis. Addition of the out genes from E. chrysanthemi EC16 caused a further increase in the production of active enzyme and facilitated secretion or release of over half of the activity into the extracellular environment. With the most active construct, of a total of 13,000 IU of active enzyme per liter of culture, 7,800 IU was in the supernatant. The total active endoglucanase was estimated to represent 4 to 6% of cellular protein.  (+info)

Modes of action of five different endopectate lyases from Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937. (4/179)

Five endopectate lyases from the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi, PelA, PelB, PelD, PelI, and PelL, were analyzed with respect to their modes of action on polymeric and oligomeric substrates (degree of polymerization, 2 to 8). On polygalacturonate, PelB showed higher reaction rates than PelD, PelI, and PelA, whereas the reaction rates for PelL were extremely low. The product progression during polygalacturonate cleavage showed a typical depolymerization profile for each enzyme and demonstrated their endolytic character. PelA, PelI, and PelL released oligogalacturonates of different sizes, whereas PelD and PelB released mostly unsaturated dimer and unsaturated trimer, respectively. Upon prolonged incubation, all enzymes degraded the primary products further, to unsaturated dimer and trimer, except for PelL, which degraded the primary products to unsaturated tetramer and pentamer in addition to unsaturated dimer and trimer. The bond cleavage frequencies on oligogalacturonates revealed differences in the modes of action of these enzymes that were commensurate with the product progression profiles. The preferential products formed from the oligogalacturonates were unsaturated dimer for PelD, unsaturated trimer for PelB, and unsaturated tetramer for PelI and PelL. For PelA, preferential products were dependent on the sizes of the oligogalacturonates. Whereas PelB and PelD displayed their highest activities on hexagalacturonate and tetragalacturonate, respectively, PelA, PelI, and PelL were most active on the octamer, the largest substrate used. The bond cleavage frequencies and reaction rates were used to estimate the number of subsites of each enzyme.  (+info)

Structure of a plant cell wall fragment complexed to pectate lyase C. (5/179)

The three-dimensional structure of a complex between the pectate lyase C (PelC) R218K mutant and a plant cell wall fragment has been determined by x-ray diffraction techniques to a resolution of 2.2 A and refined to a crystallographic R factor of 18.6%. The oligosaccharide substrate, alpha-D-GalpA-([1-->4]-alpha-D-GalpA)3-(1-->4)-D-GalpA , is composed of five galacturonopyranose units (D-GalpA) linked by alpha-(1-->4) glycosidic bonds. PelC is secreted by the plant pathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi and degrades the pectate component of plant cell walls in soft rot diseases. The substrate has been trapped in crystals by using the inactive R218K mutant. Four of the five saccharide units of the substrate are well ordered and represent an atomic view of the pectate component in plant cell walls. The conformation of the pectate fragment is a mix of 21 and 31 right-handed helices. The substrate binds in a cleft, interacting primarily with positively charged groups: either lysine or arginine amino acids on PelC or the four Ca2+ ions found in the complex. The observed protein-oligosaccharide interactions provide a functional explanation for many of the invariant and conserved amino acids in the pectate lyase family of proteins. Because the R218K PelC-galacturonopentaose complex represents an intermediate in the reaction pathway, the structure also reveals important details regarding the enzymatic mechanism. Notably, the results suggest that an arginine, which is invariant in the pectate lyase superfamily, is the amino acid that initiates proton abstraction during the beta elimination cleavage of polygalacturonic acid.  (+info)

The exopolygalacturonate lyase PelW and the oligogalacturonate lyase Ogl, two cytoplasmic enzymes of pectin catabolism in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937. (6/179)

Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes into the external medium several pectinolytic enzymes, among which are eight isoenzymes of the endo-cleaving pectate lyases: PelA, PelB, PelC, PelD, and PelE (family 1); PelI (family 4); PelL (family 3); and PelZ (family 5). In addition, one exo-cleaving pectate lyase, PelX (family 3), has been found in the periplasm of E. chrysanthemi. The E. chrysanthemi 3937 gene kdgC has been shown to exhibit a high degree of similarity to the genes pelY of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and pelB of Erwinia carotovora, which encode family 2 pectate lyases. However, no pectinolytic activity has been assigned to the KdgC protein. After verification of the corresponding nucleotide sequence, we cloned a longer DNA fragment and showed that this gene encodes a 553-amino-acid protein exhibiting an exo-cleaving pectate lyase activity. Thus, the kdgC gene was renamed pelW. PelW catalyzes the formation of unsaturated digalacturonates from polygalacturonate or short oligogalacturonates. PelW is located in the bacterial cytoplasm. In this compartment, PelW action could complete the degradation of pectic oligomers that was initiated by the extracellular or periplasmic pectinases and precede the action of the cytoplasmic oligogalacturonate lyase, Ogl. Both cytoplasmic pectinases, PelW and Ogl, seem to act in sequence during oligogalacturonate depolymerization, since oligomers longer than dimers are very poor substrates for Ogl but are good substrates for PelW. The estimated number of binding subsites for PelW is three, extending from subsite -2 to +1, while it is probably two for Ogl, extending from subsite -1 to +1. The activities of the two cytoplasmic lyases, PelW and Ogl, are dependent on the presence of divalent cations, since both enzymes are inhibited by EDTA. In contrast to the extracellular pectate lyases, Ca2+ is unable to restore the activity of PelW or Ogl, while several other cations, including Co2+, Mn2+, and Ni2+, can activate both cytoplasmic lyases.  (+info)

Functional analysis of the carbohydrate-binding domains of Erwinia chrysanthemi Cel5 (Endoglucanase Z) and an Escherichia coli putative chitinase. (7/179)

The Cel5 cellulase (formerly known as endoglucanase Z) from Erwinia chrysanthemi is a multidomain enzyme consisting of a catalytic domain, a linker region, and a cellulose binding domain (CBD). A three-dimensional structure of the CBD(Cel5) has previously been obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance. In order to define the role of individual residues in cellulose binding, site-directed mutagenesis was performed. The role of three aromatic residues (Trp18, Trp43, and Tyr44) in cellulose binding was demonstrated. The exposed potential hydrogen bond donors, residues Gln22 and Glu27, appeared not to play a role in cellulose binding, whereas residue Asp17 was found to be important for the stability of Cel5. A deletion mutant lacking the residues Asp17 to Pro23 bound only weakly to cellulose. The sequence of CBD(Cel5) exhibits homology to a series of five repeating domains of a putative large protein, referred to as Yheb, from Escherichia coli. One of the repeating domains (Yheb1), consisting of 67 amino acids, was cloned from the E. coli chromosome and purified by metal chelating chromatography. While CBD(Cel5) bound to both cellulose and chitin, Yheb1 bound well to chitin, but only very poorly to cellulose. The Yheb protein contains a region that exhibits sequence homology with the catalytic domain of a chitinase, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the Yheb protein is a chitinase.  (+info)

Regulation of pelD and pelE, encoding major alkaline pectate lyases in Erwinia chrysanthemi: involvement of the main transcriptional factors. (8/179)

The main virulence factors of the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi are pectinases which attack pectin, the major constituent of the plant cell wall. Of these enzymes, the alkaline isoenzyme named PelD in strain 3937 and PelE in strain EC16 has been described as being particularly important, based on virulence studies of plants. Expression of the pelD and pelE genes is tightly modulated by various regulators, including the KdgR repressor and the cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) activator complex. The use of a lacZ reporter gene allowed us to quantify the repression of E. chrysanthemi 3937 pelD expression exerted by PecS, another repressor of pectinase synthesis. In vitro DNA-protein interaction experiments, centered on the pelD and pelE wild-type or pelE mutated promoter regions, allowed us to define precisely the sequences involved in the binding of these three regulators and of RNA polymerase (RNAP). These studies revealed an unusual binding of the KdgR repressor and suggested the presence of a UP (upstream) element in the pelD and pelE genes. Investigation of the simultaneous binding of CRP, KdgR, PecS, and the RNAP to the regulatory region of the pelD and pelE genes showed that (i) CRP and RNAP bind cooperatively, (ii) PecS partially inhibits binding of the CRP activator and of the CRP-RNAP complex, and (iii) KdgR stabilizes the binding of PecS and prevents transcriptional initiation by RNAP. Taken together, our data suggest that PecS attenuates pelD and pelE expression rather than acting as a true repressor like KdgR. Overall, control of the pelD and pelE genes of E. chrysanthemi appears to be both complex and novel.  (+info)

Pectobacterium is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow with or without oxygen. These bacteria are known to cause soft rot diseases in a wide range of plants, including important crops such as potatoes and vegetables. They produce pectinases, enzymes that break down pectin, a major component of plant cell walls, leading to maceration and decay of plant tissues.

Some notable species of Pectobacterium include:

* Pectobacterium carotovorum (formerly Erwinia carotovora), which is known to cause soft rot in many vegetables, fruits, and ornamental plants.
* Pectobacterium atrosepticum (formerly Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica), which primarily causes blackleg and soft rot diseases in potatoes.
* Pectobacterium wasabiae (formerly Erwinia wasabiae), which is associated with wasabi root rot.

Pectobacterium spp. are typically motile, having a single polar flagellum or multiple lateral flagella. They can survive in soil, water, and plant debris, and can be disseminated through infected seeds, contaminated tools, and irrigation water. Infections caused by Pectobacterium can lead to significant economic losses in agriculture due to reduced crop yield and quality.

"Pectobacterium chrysanthemi" is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a plant pathogen that causes soft rot disease in a wide range of plants, including ornamental and vegetable crops. The bacterium produces pectolytic enzymes that break down pectin, a major component of plant cell walls, leading to maceration and rotting of the plant tissue. It is primarily transmitted through contaminated seeds, soil, and water, and can cause significant economic losses in agriculture. In humans, it is not considered a pathogen and does not cause disease.

Pectobacterium carotovorum is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. These bacteria are known to cause soft rot diseases in a wide range of plants, including potatoes, carrots, and other vegetables. They produce pectinases, which are enzymes that break down pectin, a component of plant cell walls, leading to maceration and decay of the plant tissue.

The bacteria can enter the plant through wounds or natural openings, such as stomata, and spread systemically throughout the plant. They can survive in soil, water, and plant debris, and can be disseminated through contaminated seeds, tools, and equipment. The diseases caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum can result in significant economic losses for farmers and the produce industry.

In humans, Pectobacterium carotovorum is not considered a pathogen and does not cause disease. However, there have been rare cases of infection associated with contaminated food or water, which can lead to gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. These infections are typically self-limiting and do not require antibiotic treatment.

Erwinia is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are primarily plant pathogens. They are part of the Enterobacteriaceae family and can be found in soil, water, and plant surfaces. Some species of Erwinia cause diseases in plants such as fireblight in apples and pears, soft rot in a wide range of vegetables, and bacterial leaf spot in ornamental plants. They can infect plants through wounds or natural openings and produce enzymes that break down plant tissues, causing decay and wilting.

It's worth noting that Erwinia species are not typically associated with human or animal diseases, except for a few cases where they have been reported to cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals.

"Solanum tuberosum" is the scientific name for a plant species that is commonly known as the potato. According to medical and botanical definitions, Solanum tuberosum refers to the starchy, edible tubers that grow underground from this plant. Potatoes are native to the Andes region of South America and are now grown worldwide. They are an important food source for many people and are used in a variety of culinary applications.

Potatoes contain several essential nutrients, including carbohydrates, fiber, protein, vitamin C, and some B vitamins. However, they can also be high in calories, especially when prepared with added fats like butter or oil. Additionally, potatoes are often consumed in forms that are less healthy, such as French fries and potato chips, which can contribute to weight gain and other health problems if consumed excessively.

In a medical context, potatoes may also be discussed in relation to food allergies or intolerances. While uncommon, some people may have adverse reactions to potatoes, including skin rashes, digestive symptoms, or difficulty breathing. These reactions are typically caused by an immune response to proteins found in the potato plant, rather than the tubers themselves.

Polysaccharide-lyases are a class of enzymes that cleave polysaccharides through a β-elimination mechanism, leading to the formation of unsaturated sugars. These enzymes are also known as depolymerizing enzymes and play an essential role in the breakdown and modification of complex carbohydrates found in nature. They have important applications in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, and biofuels.

Polysaccharide-lyases specifically target polysaccharides containing uronic acid residues, such as pectins, alginates, and heparin sulfate. The enzymes cleave the glycosidic bond between two sugar residues by breaking the alpha configuration at carbon 4 of the uronic acid residue, resulting in a double bond between carbons 4 and 5 of the non-reducing end of the polysaccharide chain.

Polysaccharide-lyases are classified into several subclasses based on their substrate specificity and reaction mechanism. These enzymes have potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of bacterial infections, cancer, and other diseases associated with abnormal glycosylation.

A plant tuber is not a medical term per se, but rather a term from botany. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Tubers are specialized underground stems or roots that serve as storage organs for many types of plants. They consist of enlarged structures filled with nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, and other organic compounds. Tubers can be classified into two main categories: true tubers and false tubers.

True tubers are swollen underground stems, such as those found in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). They have nodes and internodes like aboveground stems, but they lack leaves or buds. Instead, they have small bumps called "eyes" that contain dormant buds, which can sprout to produce new plants when conditions are favorable.

False tubers, on the other hand, are enlarged roots, such as those found in cassava (Manihot esculenta). They do not have nodes and internodes like true tubers but instead store nutrients in their fleshy tissues.

While plant tubers may not have a direct medical definition, they are essential to human health and nutrition. Many tuber crops provide important sources of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients in diets around the world.

Chicory is a plant species with the scientific name Cichorium intybus. It is a perennial herb that is native to Europe and parts of Asia, but has been naturalized in many other regions of the world, including North America. Chicory is known for its blue or lavender flowers and its long, tapering leaves.

In addition to being used as an ornamental plant, chicory has a number of medicinal uses. The roots and leaves of the plant contain various compounds that have been found to have potential health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and diuretic properties. Chicory is also sometimes used as a coffee substitute or additive, due to the fact that it contains certain compounds that can mimic the taste of coffee.

It's important to note that while chicory has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, more research is needed to fully understand its potential health benefits and risks. As with any herbal remedy or supplement, it's always a good idea to talk to your doctor before using chicory, especially if you have any underlying medical conditions or are taking any medications.

A plant disease is a disorder that affects the normal growth and development of plants, caused by pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or nematodes, as well as environmental factors like nutrient deficiencies, extreme temperatures, or physical damage. These diseases can cause various symptoms, including discoloration, wilting, stunted growth, necrosis, and reduced yield or productivity, which can have significant economic and ecological impacts.

Acyl-butyrolactones are a type of chemical compound that consists of a butyrolactone ring (a five-membered ring containing an oxygen atom and a carbonyl group) that has an acyl group (a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to another functional group) attached to it.

Butyrolactones are lactones, which are cyclic esters derived from carboxylic acids. The addition of an acyl group to the butyrolactone ring results in the formation of acyl-butyrolactones. These compounds have a variety of uses in organic synthesis and may also be found in some natural sources.

It's worth noting that "acyl-butyrolactones" is a general term that can refer to any compound with this basic structure, and there may be many specific compounds that fall under this category. Therefore, it's important to consult a detailed chemical reference or speak with a chemist for more information on a specific acyl-butyrolactone compound.

"Pantoea" is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in various environments such as soil, water, and plant surfaces. Some species of Pantoea can cause infections in humans, usually associated with healthcare settings or following trauma. These infections may include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and urinary tract infections. However, human infections caused by Pantoea are relatively rare compared to other bacterial pathogens.

Pectins are complex polysaccharides that are commonly found in the cell walls of plants. In the context of food and nutrition, pectins are often referred to as dietary fiber. They have a variety of important functions within the body, including promoting digestive health by adding bulk to stools and helping to regulate bowel movements.

Pectins are also used in the medical field as a demulcent, which is a substance that forms a soothing film over mucous membranes. This can be helpful in treating conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

In addition to their use in medicine, pectins are widely used in the food industry as a gelling agent, thickener, and stabilizer. They are commonly found in jams, jellies, and other preserved fruits, as well as in baked goods and confectionery products.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Polygalacturonase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glycosidic linkages in polygalacturonic acid, which is a major component of pectin in plant cell walls. This enzyme is involved in various processes such as fruit ripening, plant defense response, and pathogenesis by breaking down the pectin, leading to softening and breakdown of plant tissues. It is also used in industrial applications for fruit juice extraction, tea fermentation, and textile processing.

Quorum sensing is a type of cell-cell communication that allows bacteria to detect and respond to changes in population density by producing, releasing, and responding to signaling molecules called autoinducers. This process enables the coordinated expression of certain genes related to various group behaviors such as biofilm formation, virulence factor production, and bioluminescence. The term "quorum sensing" was coined in 1994 by Bonnie L. Bassler and Susan Goldberg to describe this population-dependent gene regulation mechanism in bacteria.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

4-Butyrolactone, also known as gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) or 1,4-butanolide, is a chemical compound with the formula C4H6O2. It is a colorless oily liquid that is used in various industrial and commercial applications, including as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals, as a solvent, and as a flavoring agent.

In the medical field, 4-butyrolactone has been studied for its potential use as a sleep aid and muscle relaxant. However, it is not currently approved by regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for these uses. It is also known to have abuse potential and can cause intoxication, sedation, and other central nervous system effects when ingested or inhaled.

It's important to note that 4-butyrolactone is not a medication and should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional for approved medical purposes.

Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria as a defense mechanism against other competing bacterial strains. They primarily target and inhibit the growth of closely related bacterial species, although some have a broader spectrum of activity. Bacteriocins can be classified into different types based on their structural features, molecular masses, and mechanisms of action.

These antimicrobial peptides often interact with the cell membrane of target bacteria, causing pore formation, depolarization, or disrupting cell wall biosynthesis, ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. Bacteriocins have gained interest in recent years as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics due to their narrow spectrum of activity and reduced likelihood of inducing resistance. They are being explored for use in food preservation, agricultural applications, and as therapeutic agents in the medical field.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

A plant stem is not typically defined in a medical context, but rather in the field of botany. However, I can certainly provide a general biological definition for you.

In plants, stems are organs that serve primarily as support structures, holding leaves, flowers, and fruits aloft where they can receive sunlight and exchange gases. They also act as conduits, transporting water, nutrients, and sugars made during photosynthesis between the roots and shoots of a plant.

The stem is usually composed of three main tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground. The dermal tissue system forms the outermost layer(s) of the stem, providing protection and sometimes participating in gas exchange. The vascular tissue system contains the xylem (which transports water and nutrients upward) and phloem (which transports sugars and other organic compounds downward). The ground tissue system, located between the dermal and vascular tissues, is responsible for food storage and support.

While not a direct medical definition, understanding the structure and function of plant stems can be relevant in fields such as nutrition, agriculture, and environmental science, which have implications for human health.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

"Natural science disciplines" is a broad term that refers to various branches of scientific study focused on understanding, describing, and explaining natural phenomena. These disciplines use systematic observation, experimentation, and evidence-based approaches to investigate the properties and behaviors of natural entities and systems. Some prominent natural science disciplines include:

1. Physics: The study of matter, energy, and their interactions, including mechanics, electricity, magnetism, thermodynamics, and quantum physics.
2. Chemistry: The investigation of the composition, structure, properties, and transformation of matter, encompassing areas such as organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, and biochemistry.
3. Biology: The examination of living organisms, their structures, functions, processes, interactions, and evolution, covering topics like genetics, cellular biology, molecular biology, physiology, ecology, and evolution.
4. Geology: The study of Earth's materials, processes, and history, including mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry, stratigraphy, structural geology, and paleontology.
5. Astronomy: The scientific exploration of celestial objects, phenomena, and the universe beyond Earth, incorporating areas such as astrophysics, planetary science, and cosmology.

These disciplines often overlap and inform one another, contributing to a more comprehensive understanding of the natural world.

'Zea mays' is the biological name for corn or maize, which is not typically considered a medical term. However, corn or maize can have medical relevance in certain contexts. For example, cornstarch is sometimes used as a diluent for medications and is also a component of some skin products. Corn oil may be found in topical ointments and creams. In addition, some people may have allergic reactions to corn or corn-derived products. But generally speaking, 'Zea mays' itself does not have a specific medical definition.

'Solanum melongena' is the scientific name for a plant species more commonly known as eggplant or aubergine. It belongs to the Solanaceae family, which also includes tomatoes, bell peppers, and potatoes. The eggplant fruit is widely consumed and used in various cuisines around the world.

While 'Solanum melongena' is a horticultural term related to the plant species, it does not have a direct medical definition. However, eggplants do have some nutritional and potential medicinal properties. They are low in calories and contain vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. Some studies suggest that eggplants may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties due to their phenolic compounds. Nonetheless, it is essential to consult medical professionals or healthcare providers for advice on medicinal applications rather than relying on information about the plant's scientific name alone.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "humanities" is not typically used in a medical context as it relates to fields such as literature, philosophy, arts, and languages. The humanities are academic disciplines that study human culture, including language, history, philosophy, and the creation of art. They provide valuable insights into human nature, behavior, and experience, which can certainly have applications in various fields, including healthcare. However, a specific medical definition of "humanities" would not be applicable.

... is the result of the reclassification of 75 strains of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi, as well as Brenneria paradisiaca ... "Transfer of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Brenner et al. 1973 and Brenneria paradisiaca to the genus ... as Dickeya chrysanthemi comb. nov. and Dickeya paradisiaca comb. nov. and delineation of four novel species, Dickeya dadantii ... Species now placed here include:[verification needed][citation needed] Dickeya aquatica Dickeya chrysanthemi Dickeya dadantii ( ...
The strains considered at the time to belong to P. chrysanthemi or B. paradisiaca. Or Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. Both are ... The new genus Dickeya was named after him in 2005 for his research on the "Erwinia chrysanthemi complex". Erwinia chrysanthemi ... "Transfer of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Brenner et al. 1973 and Brenneria paradisiaca to the genus ... as Dickeya chrysanthemi comb. nov. and Dickeya paradisiaca comb. nov. and delineation of four novel species, Dickeya dadantii ...
"Transfer of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Brenner et al. 1973 and Brenneria paradisiaca to the genus ... As Dickeya chrysanthemi comb. nov. and Dickeya paradisiaca comb. nov. and delineation of four novel species, Dickeya dadantii ... Erwinia chrysanthemi) in Poland". Plant Pathology. 58 (4): 794. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02028.x. Komatsu, Tsutomu; Horita ... It was formerly known as Erwinia chrysanthemi but was reassigned as Dickeya dadantii in 2005. Members of this family are ...
Pectobacterium carotovorum MeSH B03.440.450.425.585.150 - Pectobacterium chrysanthemi MeSH B03.440.450.425.590 - Photorhabdus ... Pectobacterium carotovorum MeSH B03.660.250.150.542.150 - Pectobacterium chrysanthemi MeSH B03.660.250.150.545 - Photorhabdus ...
... and Pectobacterium. Erwinia aphidocola and E. persicina species were both observed to be present within the floral nectar ... Erwinia typographi Erwinia uredovora Erwinia uzenensis Dickeya dadantii was formerly classified as Erwinia chrysanthemi. Toth, ...
Erwinia chrysanthemi) taking over? The ecology of a blackleg pathogen" (PDF). Retrieved 7 November 2012. Forbes GA. " ... Other potato diseases include Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia, Pectobacterium carotovorum (black leg), powdery mildew, powdery scab ...
Dickeya is the result of the reclassification of 75 strains of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi, as well as Brenneria paradisiaca ... "Transfer of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Brenner et al. 1973 and Brenneria paradisiaca to the genus ... as Dickeya chrysanthemi comb. nov. and Dickeya paradisiaca comb. nov. and delineation of four novel species, Dickeya dadantii ... Species now placed here include:[verification needed][citation needed] Dickeya aquatica Dickeya chrysanthemi Dickeya dadantii ( ...
The strains considered at the time to belong to P. chrysanthemi or B. paradisiaca. Or Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. Both are ... The new genus Dickeya was named after him in 2005 for his research on the "Erwinia chrysanthemi complex". Erwinia chrysanthemi ... "Transfer of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Brenner et al. 1973 and Brenneria paradisiaca to the genus ... as Dickeya chrysanthemi comb. nov. and Dickeya paradisiaca comb. nov. and delineation of four novel species, Dickeya dadantii ...
In this study, we undertook extensive genome-wide comparative analyses of twelve species that conform the Pectobacterium genus ... Our investigation provides novel genetic insights that will assist in understanding the pathogenic lifestyle of Pectobacterium ... The Pectobacterium genus comprises pectolytic enterobacteria defined as the causal agents of soft rot, blackleg, and aerial ... the essential role that horizontal gene transfer has imparted in the dynamic evolution and speciation of Pectobacterium species ...
Pectobacterium carotovorum. Erwinia chrysanthemi. Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. Green Sulfur Bacteria. Chlorobi. Rhodomicrobium ...
Pectobacterium carotovorum. Erwinia chrysanthemi. Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. Green Sulfur Bacteria. Chlorobi. Rhodomicrobium ...
Pectobacterium carotovorum. Erwinia chrysanthemi. Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. Green Sulfur Bacteria. Chlorobi. Rhodomicrobium ...
Pectobacterium carotovorum. Erwinia chrysanthemi. Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. Green Sulfur Bacteria. Chlorobi. Rhodomicrobium ...
Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. Dickeya chrysanthemi. C - Diseases. Changed descriptors. Replaced-by. C08 - Respiratory Tract ...
Pectobacterium carotovorum. Erwinia chrysanthemi. Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. Green Sulfur Bacteria. Chlorobi. Rhodomicrobium ...
Pectobacterium carotovorum. Erwinia chrysanthemi. Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. Green Sulfur Bacteria. Chlorobi. Rhodomicrobium ...
Pectobacterium carotovorum. Erwinia chrysanthemi. Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. Green Sulfur Bacteria. Chlorobi. Rhodomicrobium ...
Pectobacterium carotovorum. Erwinia chrysanthemi. Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. Green Sulfur Bacteria. Chlorobi. Rhodomicrobium ...
Pectobacterium carotovorum. Erwinia chrysanthemi. Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. Green Sulfur Bacteria. Chlorobi. Rhodomicrobium ...
Pectobacterium carotovorum. Erwinia chrysanthemi. Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. Green Sulfur Bacteria. Chlorobi. Rhodomicrobium ...
Pectobacterium carotovorum. Erwinia chrysanthemi. Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. Green Sulfur Bacteria. Chlorobi. Rhodomicrobium ...
Skerrett, I. M., Aronowitz, J., Shin, J. H., Cymes, G., Kasperek, E., Cao, F. L. & Nicholson, B. J., Oct 28 2002, In: Journal of Cell Biology. 159, 2, p. 349-359 11 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
7. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones) Waldee emend. Hauben i wsp. i Dickeya chrysanthemi Samson i wsp. 8. ... 7. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones) Waldee emend. Hauben et al. and Dickeya chrysanthemi Samson et al. 8. ... alliicola, Burkholderia cepacia, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Dickeya chrysanthemi, Serratia plymuthica, ...
Here we report structural and biochemical studies of AcsD from Pectobacterium (formerly Erwinia) chrysanthemi, an NIS ...
Where does bacterial soft rot come from? Soft rots are caused by several bacteria, most commonly species of Pectobacterium [ ... previously called Erwinia chrysanthemi)], and certain species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Clostridium. These bacteria can ... particularly Pectobacterium carotovorum (previously called Erwinia carotovora)], Dickeya species [particularly Dickeya dadantii ...
Transfer of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al 1953) Brenner et al 1973 and Brenneria paradisiaca to the genus ... chrysanthemi. J. Phytopathol. 81: 177-83.. Ali, H.F., Junaid, M., Ahmad, M., Bibi, A., Ali, A., Hussain, S., Alam, S. and Shah ... as Dickeya chrysanthemi comb. nov. and Dickeya paradisiaca comb. nov. and delineation of four novel species, Dickeya dadantii ... Goto, M. (1979). Bacterial foot rot of rice caused by a strain of Erwinia chrysanthemi. Phytopathology 69:213-16.. Henz, G.P., ...
... currently Pectobacterium atrosepticum), Erwinia carotovora (curretly Pectobacterium carotovorum) and Erwinia chrysanthemi ( ... atroseptica / Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum" prepared by Wojciech Śledź (2002) and "Application of molecular ... against pectinolytic bacteria of the genera Pectobacterium and Dickeya" was the basis for Robert Czajkowskis habilitatation. ... PelZ in the pathogenesis of Erwinia chrysanthemi species and evaluation of the potential of primers based on the pelL gene ...
李永安,「以β-半乳糖苷酶的活性測試快速鑑別及診斷Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (Dickeya spp.)軟腐病原細菌及其罹病植物組織」,中華民國植物病理學會102年年會,台中,台灣,,2014-04-25 ... 李永安,「Studies on the production and application of pigments of plant bacterial soft rot pathogen, Erwinia chrysanthemi」,第十三屆細菌學研 ... Lee, Yung-An、Chen, Kuan-Pei、Hsu, Ya-Wen,「Characterization of Erwinia chrysanthemi, the soft-rot pathogen of
Dickeya and Pectobacterium spp. both cause blackleg and soft rot of potato, which can be a yield-reducing factor to potato ... chrysanthemi, D. dianthicola, D. dadantii, P. atrosepticum, P. brasiliense, P. carotovorum, P. parmentieri, P. polaris, P. ... Species of Dickeya and Pectobacterium Isolated during an Outbreak of Blackleg and Soft Rot of Potato in Northeastern and North ... Multiple species of Pectobacterium and Dickeya are causal agents, resulting in losses to commercial and seed potato production ...
... chrysanthemi and from P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis. The strains were identified as belonging to the genus Pectobacterium ... Compreende vários gêneros como Erwinia, Brenneria, Pectobacterium, Dickeya e Pantoea. Pectobacterium e Dickeya causam doenças ... It comprises several genera, including Erwinia, Brenneria, Pectobacterium, Dickeya, and Pantoea. Pectobacterium and Dickeya ... Diversity of pectobacterium strains by biochemical, physiological, and molecular characterization / Diversidade de cepas de ...
OGTE from Pectobacterium carotovorum ICPB EC153 (previously Erwinia carotovora) [2].. First catalytic base identification. ... OGL (Dda3937_03686) from Dickeya Dadantii 3937 (previously Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937) [5].. First 3-D structure. VPA0088 from ... Reverchon S, Huang Y, Bourson C, and Robert-Baudouy J. (1989). Nucleotide sequences of the Erwinia chrysanthemi ogl and pelE ... 2007). Global effect of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis on multiple virulence factors of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937. Appl ...
Characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi Gan locus, involved in galactan catabolism.. Delangle A, Prouvost AF, Cogez V, ... Structural and biochemical analysis of the asc operon encoding 6-phospho-beta-glucosidase in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. ...
Pectobacterium carnegieana * Pectobacterium carnegieanum corrig. * Pectobacterium carotovorum * Pectobacterium chrysanthemi * " ... and Pectobacterium actinidiae sp. nov., emended description of Pectobacterium carotovorum and description of Pectobacterium ... and Pectobacterium actinidiae sp. nov., emended description of Pectobacterium carotovorum and description of Pectobacterium ... odoriferum to species level as Pectobacterium odoriferum sp. nov., proposal of Pectobacterium brasiliense sp. nov. ...
Pectobacterium atrosepticum (ERWIAT). *Pectobacterium carotovorum (ERWICA). *Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi (PSDMSA). * ... Erwinia chrysanthemi (ERWICH). *Grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasma (PHYP64). *Lethal yellowing type syndromes (PHYP56) ...
A New Approach Using the SYBR Green-Based Real-Time PCR Method for Detection of Soft Rot Pectobacterium odoriferum Associated ... Occurrence of Blossom Blight of Chrysanthemum boreale Caused by Didymella chrysanthemi Dong Kil Kim, Chang Ki Shim, Dong Won ...
Boccara M, Aymeric J, Camus C: Role of endoglucanases in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 virulence on Saintpaulia ionantha. J ... as well as plant pathogens such as Pseudomonas syringae and Pectobacterium atrosepticum [58, 59]. The T6SS serves as ... Quroum sensing coordinates brute force and stealth modes of infection in the plant pathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum. PLoS ...
  • Erwinia chrysanthemi is one of the species reassigned to the new genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we report structural and biochemical studies of AcsD from Pectobacterium (formerly Erwinia) chrysanthemi, an NIS synthetase involved in achromobactin biosynthesis. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The first doctoral dissertation conducted under the supervision of professor Ewa Łojkowska was entitled "The role of secondary pectate lyases PelI, PelL, PelZ in the pathogenesis of Erwinia chrysanthemi species and evaluation of the potential of primers based on the pelL gene sequence for the diagnosis of this species" and was prepared by Sylwia Jafra in 1999. (edu.pl)
  • Erwinia atroseptica (currently Pectobacterium atrosepticum ), Erwinia carotovora (curretly Pectobacterium carotovorum ) and Erwinia chrysanthemi (currently from the genus Dickeya ), which have been isolated from potato seed plantations. (edu.pl)
  • Lee,Yung-An,、Chen Kuan-Pei、Chang Ya-Chun,,「First Report of Bacterial Soft Rot of White Flowered Calla Lily Caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi in Taiwan. (fju.edu.tw)
  • OGTE from Pectobacterium carotovorum ICPB EC153 (previously Erwinia carotovora ) [ 2 ]. (cazypedia.org)
  • OGL (Dda3937_03686) from Dickeya Dadantii 3937 (previously Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937) [ 5 ]. (cazypedia.org)
  • Dickeya is the result of the reclassification of 75 strains of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi, as well as Brenneria paradisiaca CFBP 4178, into a new genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1973 and Brenneria paradisiaca to the genus Dickeya gen. nov. as Dickeya chrysanthemi comb. (wikipedia.org)
  • i Dickeya chrysanthemi Samson i wsp. (am-online.org)
  • and Dickeya chrysanthemi Samson et al. (am-online.org)
  • Bacterial stalk rot of maize caused by Dickeya zeae previously known as E. chrysanthemi pv. (ansfoundation.org)
  • A phylogenetic maximum-likelihood tree of the concatenated genes with the length of 2551 bp was constructed to visualize the relationship among different species of Dickeya and Pectobacterium. (bvsalud.org)
  • 7. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. (am-online.org)
  • alliicola , Burkholderia cepacia , Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. (am-online.org)
  • atroseptica / Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. (edu.pl)
  • Elevation of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. (dsmz.de)
  • The strains considered at the time to belong to P. chrysanthemi or B. paradisiaca. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, 21PA01 was in a single monophyletic cluster with other Pectobacterium brasiliense reference strains (Fig. S2 C). To confirm the pathogen, Koch's postulates were performed. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, we undertook extensive genome-wide comparative analyses of twelve species that conform the Pectobacterium genus. (mdpi.com)
  • odoriferum to species level as Pectobacterium odoriferum sp. (dsmz.de)
  • Thus, 21PA01 was identified as Pectobacterium brasiliense. (bvsalud.org)
  • nov., proposal of Pectobacterium brasiliense sp. (dsmz.de)
  • The Pectobacterium genus comprises pectolytic enterobacteria defined as the causal agents of soft rot, blackleg, and aerial stem rot diseases of potato and economically important crops. (mdpi.com)
  • Survey and detection of Pectobacterium atrosepticum in major potato-growing areas in Central Java Province, Indonesia. (usm.my)
  • The strains considered at the time to belong to P. chrysanthemi or B. paradisiaca. (wikipedia.org)